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are PhD programs in biblical studies ethical? a final thought from SBL. A few days ago I posted on my recent trip to phd thesis instructions, the annual biblical scholars#8217; academic meeting, the Society of Biblical Literature, held this year in and taylor essays on marriage and divorce Baltimore#8217;s #8220;Inner Harbor.#8221; (If you prefer outer harbors, you#8217;ll have to go to instructions, Buffalo or Australia.) One thing I didn#8217;t mention there is something that weighs heavily on me (see here with links to other posts), and I am reminded of essay on air it each year at SBL: talented and promising scholarswho have much to phd thesis, offer, could potentially wind up being significant voices in the field, and have PhDs in handcan#8217;t get jobs. Which makes me wonder, yet again, about the ethics of institutions accepting students to train them for jobs that don#8217;t exist . Highschool Memories? Schools have all sorts of reasonsoverlapping and complexfor offering degrees in Biblical Studies (which normally includes related areas like ancient Near Eastern studies, early Judaism, early Christianity, and things like that). The institution has a long tradition of granting such degrees. Discontinuing PhD programs in Biblical Studies would put a lot of people out of work, and that#8217;s an especially tricky business when endowed chairs are in instructions the mix. Studies? Biblical Studies is a valued field for that school#8217;s mission and purpose. Granting PhDs lends prestige to the school. PhDs trained in a school#8217;s ideology can further that school#8217;s ideology. PhD programs are potential sources of revenue.
These reasons are, in the abstract, neither right nor wrong. Phd Thesis Instructions? They just are what they are. But regardless, if jobs do not exist for a vast majority of on air in sanskrit those trained to phd thesis, fill them, something is broken and it needs to be fixed. I had several conversations this year at SBL with freshly minted, soon-to-be minted, and have-been-minted-for-quite-some-time-now-thank-you-very-much PhDs all highly competent and all elbowing for the same few, precious, underpaying jobs with heavy workloads. One recent opening received over 200 applicants. Schools with confessional commitments are more self-selecting in writing essays their applicant poolsone I know of got over 100. Perhaps PhD programs should look at their track records over, say, the last ten years to see how many of their graduates found work either as they were completing their degrees or within 2 years of completing them. And by #8220;work#8221; I mean full time, gainful employment in the field of their choiceyou know, a joband not #8220;settling#8221; for teaching Bible at a private Christian high school, pastoring, or any other plan B. If the average is, say, 2 per instructions, year, rather than admit the essay on air, number of students needed to sustain the program (which I know from phd thesis experience happens), admit 2 to 4 students and see how that goes for a few years. And be absolutely clear with the writing in theology, applicants , letting them know what the school#8217;s track record is for graduates finding conventional work in the field. (Students who enter with non-conventional career aspirationse.g., missionary work, pastoring, secondary school educationare not affected by these same market realities and comprise another category of applicant entirely.) But the bottom line is phd thesis, let the applicants know what they are getting themselves into essay on air language, , what career paths are likely open to phd thesis instructions, them. Applicants should do their homework before entering a PhD program, but they don#8217;t.
And often their college or seminary professors don#8217;t think to sit their students down and and taylor essays, give them the 4-1-1. I am glad I no longer teach doctoral students for careers in phd thesis Biblical Studies. I would feel dirty. I#8217;m not sure, practically speaking, what can be done about it. Perhaps if students simply stopped applying for doctoral programs for a few years, the institutional problem would take care of itself. Patient Studies? If it#8217;s any consolation, law schools are in the same dilemma: too many degrees for too few jobs, but there#8217;s too much institutional ego to do something different. Maybe there is a way to increase the instructions, supply side. IMHO Students are woefully under-educated in the Bible, which, a couple hundred years ago was a mainstay of a public university curriculum. Mill And Divorce? (The same is true of the Classics, History, etc.) Just turn on the TV and phd thesis instructions, watch the on air pollution, most educational expose out there: that is phd thesis instructions, go Jaywalking with Jay Leno, before it is too late. Maybe there is a way to shoehorn Biblical Studies back into the required courses to graduate as an undergrad or matriculate to any course of higher study. That is get Biblical Studies into the GRE, LSAT, etc., also. On these Admissions Tests to grad or professional schools, you start adding questions about the Bible, students will sign up for many, multiple sections and they will have to hire, many more professors.
Current faculty could lobby test makers for this: more colleagues equals more collegiality. And more broad students, thinking about more topics than how to get their Ipad to sync their 18,000 song music library thru their car sound system, well that could not be bad. Mill And Taylor Essays And Divorce? Or anything to get them in a bricks and mortar library. How about phd thesis some like: Jeremiah would not go into essay on air pollution, the temple, but sent Baruch instead, because: A. He may have been ceremonially unclean. B. Baruch was really just a symbol for blessings. C. Jeremiah had insulted the King with his prophesy.
Now shouldn#8217;t all Wharton School of instructions Business candidates have to take a stab at something like that? Who are we sending to Wall St.anyway! Thank you for putting this together. Termpaper Com? I was recently accepted to 2 doctoral programs for NT studies, I wanted to get your opinion on phd thesis something. I was accepted to essay on air pollution in sanskrit language, Regent University in Virginia Beach. It is a PhD in New Testament studies but it has Pentecostal bent to it (renewal studies). How do you think this will affect my academic potential when I finish the program? How do you think Regent stacks up against other programs? Also can you provide some links to PhD theses and phd thesis instructions, outlines for examples?
Thank you again for all you advice and help. Sigh#8230; I was just accepted into essay, a pretty high ranked doctoral program at instructions the University of Edinburgh. Even if one can#8217;t find a teaching or research position at a university, there is the termpaper com, further problem of employers thinking a PhD is #8220;overqualifed#8221; for phd thesis instructions, a job. I even ran into that recently while applying to places and I only have my Masters of termpaper com Arts. Maybe McDonalds will take me; the turnover there is already high, so if I flake out phd thesis, it won#8217;t distract their day to day operations. Termpaper Com? It#8217;s the same problem across the board with degrees in the US: just too many. Phd Thesis Instructions? If formal schooling actually produced absolute educational value, we#8217;d all be better off. But most schooling has little or no educational value (a bold claim, but I think demonstrable by rather damning studies that test students before and writing essays in theology, after college), at a high price (in addition to the price tag on phd thesis instructions higher ed, don#8217;t forget about the opportunity cost of years lost in the workforce learning real-life skills). It#8217;s mostly a costly signal. So, when everyone has a bachelor#8217;s, I need a master#8217;s to stand out. When everyone has a master#8217;s (which was good enough to teach college a generation ago), I need a PhD.
When everyone has a PhD#8230;well, a friend said to mill, me this weekend at SBL, #8220;The postdoc is the new PhD.#8221; What#8217;s after postdoc? The only answer is to cut funding for the whole system. Get public funding out of higher ed completely, including subsidized loans. Force private funding sources to instructions, be more selective in essay their endowments. Phd Thesis? Ask yourself: how much academic research in the humanities does a society really need?
Let#8217;s funnel those smart folks into termpaper com, more productive/important jobs in industry or in phd thesis high-school education. Most of them will end up working in industry anyway, and those that get jobs at community colleges are just teaching 19-year-olds what they should have learned in high school. (And, mind you: I#8217;m saying this as one of the soon-to-be-minted biblical studies PhDs without a job. I have the most to termpaper com, lose if this happens.) The answer to phd thesis instructions, #8220;there are not enough jobs#8221; is not #8220;destroy ALL the jobs.#8221; The answer to termpaper com, #8220;there are not enough jobs#8221; is exactly what the phd thesis instructions, author suggests: Be honest with students about their prospects. If there is, in fact, a beast that needs to be starved, that beast is not our heritage of studying the humanities, its the market which requires all people bow to highschool essay, its (supply and) demand. Something I wonder is how ubiquitous the problem is. Phd Thesis? I expect it in the US and the UK, but what about in Asian countries? Some countries like South Korea actually have quite a few seminaries and religious institutions. Is this all-pervasive, or can some of us brave new territory and perhaps find a burgeoning market in another part of the world?
There was an interesting article in and taylor essays on marriage and divorce the Journal of the Evangelical Theological Society a few months back that addressed this from a confessional point of view. The author#8217;s point was that confessional evangelical scholars need to spend less time competing over the shrinking number of positions in North America and start seriously considering taking their expertise to underserved parts of the globe. Not sure if the link will work#8230;but here goes. Thanks for that. As an phd thesis instructions example I see very large numbers of highschool memories essay highly trained and very brilliant orchestral musicians emerging from conservatoires every year, with little hope of phd thesis any work that uses their expertise. There#8217;s a limit on the number of new orchestras and writing, chamber ensembles that can survive commercially. Phd Thesis Instructions? I don#8217;t know the answer. Termpaper Com? Many of instructions our traditional institutions are in complete freefall. Memories? I agree!
When my parish closed back in 2010 I took it as an phd thesis opportunity to de-stress from pastoral life and get that doctorate. I#8217;ve been applying for university and seminary positions without luck for critical essay, months. Most of the regrets letters/emails reference the phd thesis, extremely large number of applicants (sometimes in the hundreds) and it#8217;s simply a buyers market out there. Writing Essays In Theology? On the other hand, I#8217;ve interviewed with private industry for positions with equally poor results. One manager in the oil gas industry told me they simply don#8217;t know how to handle someone who has theological trainingit#8217;s a big risk in their eyes that the person could turn out to be a religious wingnut who terrorized the workplace and is an instructions HR nightmare. This has been THE conversation at my PhD program for the last half decade. People are finding all kinds of reasons/rationales to get a PhD.
No one has any illusions. How have completed PhDs faired in the job markets for that past half decade? And do any have luck being creative with their degrees? I teach undergrads, but about one a year will talk to me about PhD programs and the job market in religious studies, especially biblical studies. I try to highschool memories, be a blunt as I can about job prospects. Phd Thesis Instructions? Which job market? It varies wildly.
Academia? Not-for-profit sector? Ministry? At orientation two years ago they brought in successful grads who were doing everything from serving a congregation to teaching or running an NPO. One grad was teaching journalism and termpaper com, social justice. Interdisciplinarity is everything whether one is at GTU or at Cal Berkeley. This same conversation is happening in the Music Department at Cal, too. In general, the phd thesis instructions, #8220;placement rate#8221; from termpaper com GTU isn#8217;t terrible given the general freefall for the humanities industries in general.
The tech (STEM) sector has effectively #8220;won#8221; the industrialization war. That said, if your dissertation and related work is about the rape narratives in the OT, you may find your passion for violence against women leads you to working in instructions an agency that supports victims and advocates for legal reform. Psychiatric Patient Studies? Your PhD is evidence of a decade or more of phd thesis instructions serious thought and reflection from a faith perspective and gives one tools (critical thinking, research, project management) that cross-over well in termpaper com most industries. All of phd thesis instructions that to say, it may be wise to ask your students #8220;Are you looking for a job that looks a lot like what we do in class or are you looking for something else?#8221; They need to be able to answer that question. Given the forthcoming #8220;education bubble,#8221; theological education may actually be on the cutting edge of responding to memories essay, what is instructions, clearly a larger issue. Memories Essay? I#8217;m in my third year of a PhD program in liturgics and instructions, ethnomusicology. I have no illusions about the job market.
None of critical us at phd thesis the school hold any illusion. So, we#8217;re finding ways to get creative with our degrees. The problem of using adjunct faculty instead of hiring full-time, tenure track positions is widespread. If you#8217;re an adjunct and you#8217;re so inclined, you can take part in this survey about working conditions. Pete, are you sure you#8217;re assigning responsibility to the proper recipient? Isn#8217;t it much more likely that the message our culture is broadcasting (#8220;follow your dreams/do what you love#8221;) is the real problem? My common sense was absent when my son announced he wanted to change his major to critical, Art. We paid the tuition. Phd Thesis Instructions? I think this was a foolish move on our part. People have a right to pursue a field they love; their ability to do so should not be hampered by closing programs (should my son#8217;s college stop offering degrees in Art?) However, they also have a responsibility to themselves to choose wisely.
I believe this has, for and divorce, the most part, gone missing. How many college grads do you know who now work at instructions Panera or Starbucks? No. I#8217;ve said this before and I#8217;ll say it again: the job market for case studies, people with STEM degrees is not much fucking better, especially for the S and M slots. My BS in geology is just as valuable job-prospects-wise as my BA in instructions religious studies, that is to say, neither is worth the paper they were printed on. 1) Are you assuming he was in a STEM program? 2) No, what? (And I don#8217;t mean, No, Ma#8217;am.) 3) Are you angry with me? Am I supposed to know what you said?
4) Do you have some kind of impulse control disorder? I worded myself unclearly, I apologize. I find the termpaper com, very common argument that people who don#8217;t have jobs and also have supposedly #8220;usesless#8221; degrees (such as art) don#8217;t have jobs because their degree was useless and if they#8217;d only instructions been smart enough to get a job in a good (by which is usually meant STEM) field they#8217;d be fine. Which is BS. The problem isn#8217;t useless degrees, the problem is an economy that has been systematically restructured to ensure as high an unemployment rate as possible. apology appreciated. I am very concerned about our economy, too. It#8217;s a scary scenario being played out before us. What to do? The bureau of labor statistics puts out top 10 job field projections.
My son chose to return to school (this time on his dime, but the tuition was reasonable) for the top spot: nursing. He has is highschool, degree now and a good job. Phd Thesis Instructions? It#8217;s very sad that so few graduates are getting jobs in their fields. It wasn#8217;t like this for us. of termpaper com course, legitimate concern over instutional disregard for instructions, students aside, this argument only works if both our ethics and our view of education are utilitarian#8230;which mine aren#8217;t. i still have great empathy for folks w/ phd#8217;s no academic jobs, tho (particularly as i#8217;m one of essay on air in sanskrit language them), and wonder on other grounds about Christian institutions treating education as a commodity. Phd Thesis Instructions? I am very grateful that you and others write about this topic. It helped prevent me from making a probably disastrous decision (fortunately I studied a discipline with decent job prospects as an undergrad). While I may not be pursuing my first love, I am providing for my family and patient studies, don#8217;t hate my job. And at phd thesis least I can still study on the side.
My husband is currently completing his PhD in Systematic Theology, and one thing we#8217;ve thought a lot about is whether he should serve as a pastor when he#8217;s done. I think this is a much overlooked but much needed use of the bartleby essay, PhD (and historically, was much more common). The local church could really use pastors with doctoral level training, so I see this as a potential benefit for the theology of local churches, if we would just encourage more doctoral candidates to consider that route. I think this is a viable option, Sharon, though one potential problem (there#8217;s always a potential problem) is that the phd thesis, PhD pastor may run too far ahead of the congregation theologically, thus causing some tensions, or he/she may get frustrated for not being able to bring certain conversations to the church. In Theology? Sometimes these pastors can become scholar/pastors who write a lot of phd thesis books, but then the challenge is to remain connected to the people. I completely agree. Of course, this brings up a whole other conversation about the disconnect between seminaries and the local church. On Air In Sanskrit Language? When I was at Duke Div, a number of my profs had served as pastors, and their experience shaped their teaching in some important ways.
While not all Bible scholars have the instructions, call or gifts to serve in both the church and the academy, seminaries (and seminarians) would certainly benefit from mill and taylor hiring faculty with experience in and a love for the local church. But anyway, I#8217;m not going to hijack this thread. Just some thoughts from where we#8217;re sitting right now. Phd Thesis? Sharon, I like your thinking. Psychiatric Patient? I#8217;m Presbyterian, so we don#8217;t have an appointment system like the UMC, but I would love to see our local governing bodies (districts, presbyteries, etc.) appoint/call Ph.D ministers, who would serve a congregation and also be a renumerated educational resource for that governing body. Sharon, thanks for posting this. I have a Ph.D in NT, and I serve as the phd thesis instructions, lead pastor in my congregation.
I#8217;m in an evangelically minded, Lutheran congregation, and my academic training is a real asset in my ability to teach and pollution, lead here. I#8217;m sure it would be possible to #8220;run too far ahead#8221; as Pete says so well, but that#8217;s far from phd thesis inevitable. Bartleby? In my view, it would be great to have more people with advanced education leading in congregational settings, and maybe even mentoring the phd thesis, next generation of psychiatric patient studies leaders who can combine thoughtful reflection with pastoral practice. If your husband would like a conversation partner with whom to phd thesis instructions, consider this kind of option, I#8217;d be glad to writing, share my experience. Phd Thesis? If your husband wants to be a pastor and is ambitious he should get his PHD.
In my denomination (Cooperative Baptist) a PHD is required (though no one would ever say this) to be hired at and taylor on marriage and divorce pastor at many of the larger churches. The problem isn#8217;t that there aren#8217;t enough jobs. There are plenty of jobs. However, those jobs are going to adjuncts or administrators instead of full time faculty lines. In any metropolitan area, a Phd can easily cobble together 4 5 courses a semester; there are plenty of phd thesis instructions courses that need teaching. There is actually an easy solution to the adjunctification problem: every accrediting body has a standard for an #8220;adequate number of full time faculty.#8221; If CHEA would define #8220;adequate#8221; as, say, 70% (it#8217;s about 30% right now), then schools would be forced to re-tool, which might include eliminating administrative positions, rethinking the case, relationship between research and teaching, rethinking how tenure is conceived and rewarded, etc. Instructions? But doing so would make classroom instruction better, improve retention, and eliminate the rather embarrassing situation in which a university can have an adjunct who teaches the equivalent of a full time load while qualifying for writing in theology, food stamps. There are plenty of jobs overseas. PhD students just are not interested.
Some are. My point here is that these opportunities should be presented to students at the outset as a much more viable career path than joining the overcrowded tenure track pool in the west. Darren, can you give an example or two of these jobs that are #8216;overseas#8217;? What are the financial and social conditions of their employment, and the long-term sustainability of those conditions? Must support be raised and sustained? Will an instructions equally trained citizen of the country be bumped to employ a citizen from mill essays and divorce elsewhere? Are these employers working with the same curriucular and pedagocial models that have proven inadequate in the West? There are so many differences here that to compare one job in the West to instructions, another job overseas is misleading. Let#8217;s not send our PhD#8217;s elsewhere, and if we are going to do that, let#8217;s solve our pedagogical and curricular problems first.
The West in general, and the church in particular, has a long history of exporting its problems #8216;overseas#8217;. Let#8217;s do everyone a favor and not start booking flights right away. Yeah, thankfully I#8217;ve had this discussion with my pastor (who has his D.Min) and a few seminary professors. I know my pastor struggles because he#8217;s educated himself beyond the congregation and often longs for termpaper com, more academic and thoughtful discussion. These have been my struggles for considering further education beyond my M.Div. I know you sort of educate yourself into a corner. Educated himself beyond his congregation#8230;I so wish our pastor would offer an opportunity for instructions, deeper thought and discussion.
I#8217;m a middle aged female who reads blogs and stacks of books and goes to writing essays in theology, church and listens to shallow sermons by a D.Min pastor. Come on academics, Maybe there are outlets for phd thesis instructions, your education you#8217;re overlooking. I think it#8217;s just the nature of our congregation. He has brought some deeper thought and patient case, discussion in his sermons and bible studies, but he still wished for the more regular discussion that a seminary class or cohort provided. I think the tough part is a lot of people in the pews aren#8217;t coming for an academic education but for some spiritual enlightenment once a week or twice a week at best. It#8217;s tough balance to be sure, especially when those who are of a like-minded focus are in instructions the minority (at least at critical my church). the question is, after reading all the blogs and books, are you #8220;doing the ministry#8221;. Remember, Jesus said that his food was to do the will of the phd thesis, Father. Maybe we focus so much on wanting to be #8220;fed#8221; with deeper truths that we are missing out on the fact that real maturity, and real feeding is doing God#8217;s will, not sitting around with other intellectuals trying to figure out whether Adam is essay, real or not.
At least that is the instructions, argument I hear from my pastor. With a world going to hell, are we spending too much time in bartleby critical our Christian bubbles, rather than with the sinners and publicans that are around us? So all schools should stop teaching students simply because there are no jobs? What about the student#8217;s growth? Desire to learn?
I guess for you to be honest, public schools should stop teaching students because of the high unemployment rate or the bad economy. your type of thinking is not right. Phd Thesis Instructions? You seem to be all over the place here. This is discussing, specifically, the field of Biblical Studies. Therefore, the psychiatric patient case, public school analogy does not work at all. There is a very high demand for science and math teachers but that is a non sequitur here. When someone has racked up over a hundred grand in loan debt, no amount of #8220;desire to learn#8221; will satisfy the rigorous process of paying back that debt#8230;without a job.
If one is only interested in acquiring more advanced knowledge in a rather esoteric subject, then there should be programs for adult education that leads to no degree. But obtaining a doctorate entitles you to be called #8220;Doctor,#8221; so there#8217;s obviously some desire for a level of phd thesis prestige. And what does a doctorate in essay on air pollution biblical studies qualify you for? There is a lady writer in Florida who calls herself #8220;Dr.#8221; but she only has a doctorate in biblical literature or so she claims. What is biblical literature? Just the phd thesis instructions, canon of the essay, Old and New Testaments? Anything taught in these fields is strictly speculation, since even the authors of most books in the Bible are unknown, as well as the phd thesis instructions, dates they were written. Why strive to get a Phd. in a field that#8217;s almost entirely speculative? This assumes that the purpose for higher education is mill essays on marriage and divorce, preparation for a job. Perhaps it is simply to phd thesis instructions, further one as a person.
That is a decision for students to make. Enns teaches at memories a school that grants many, many degrees that don#8217;t lead into a plethora of job openings is it ethical for him to teach there? As i said in my post, I don#8217;t teach PhD students, which is phd thesis instructions, what this discussion is about. I#8217;m suggesting that whatever justification you find helpful for teaching students at case studies an expensive private school where most recruited students are told about the great return on investment of private college should also, graciously, be extended to those who teach Ph.D. students under the same pretense. The discussions are closely related it is not seemly to phd thesis, throw stones at essay those who are doing what you used to do while you continue to do something that is very, very similar. If anything, Ph.D. programs are more justified since their students should have the critical thinking and phd thesis, research skills necessary to make an bartleby critical essay informed decision. To be clear, I think there is great value in phd thesis higher education, even in fields where gainful employment is questionable. I#8217;m working on my MTS thesis at on air language Palmer fulling knowing that it is not likely to increase my earning potential. I love the phd thesis, study, I like the focus of Eastern, and I enjoy the opportunities it affords to critical essay, be in conversation with others. I will reiterate, that it is phd thesis, hypocritical at best to termpaper com, question the ethics of those who teach Ph.D. studies in Bible while working at an institution that recruits students less able to think critically into programs funded by high debt. A guy named Jesus tells a story about beams and specks that might be helpful.
Education was not invented so that people could get jobs. Education in phd thesis instructions industrialized societies are occupied by those in #8220;jobs#8221;. What is specific to this post is the in sanskrit language, lack of availability of jobs, again, specifically for instructions, Biblical Studies PhDs who hope to find a job on the other side. It is nonsensical to train someone for a position in highschool essay underwater basket weaving if no such job exists on the other side of the educational chasm. It is almost as nonsensical to train someone in Biblical Studies. This post is phd thesis, generating an highschool memories honest and very much needed question. I see a difference between training someone #8220;for a position in#8221; underwater basket weaving and training someone to weave baskets underwater. Phd Thesis Instructions? I see a further difference between teaching a technique (e.g., to weave baskets underwater) and increasing understanding of highschool a subject. I admit, the name #8220;philosophiae DOCTOR#8221; implies PhD programs in phd thesis instructions biblical studies are/were supposed to train for a TEACHING position.
But also note the #8220;philosophiae.#8221; Education is more about pursuing ideas than training for techniques. Ken, I think you are not hearing what Bryan is essay, saying. Your last sentence esp. seems to be off base. We are not talking about #8220;education.#8221; You can stay home and read books for that or attend seminars in local venues. We are talking about instructions entering years of doctoral workoften with family in towto earn a degree that prepares you for some paying vocation, normally teaching, which then allows you do do some research and writing.
It#8217;s not about pursuing #8220;training for techniques.#8221; Am I correct in assuming you do not have an writing in theology earned doctorate and are not looking for work? I earned a Ph.D. in Religious Studies (Biblical field), and instructions, am tenured. Let me see if I understand what is being said. Pete, what I hear you saying is: 1. For the purpose of this discussion “work” is defined as a tenure-track job in biblical studies. 2. The vast majority of (including many talented) biblical studies PhDs can’t get “work”.
3. Highschool Essay? The recent rise in the use of instructions adjuncts reduces the amount of “work” available. 4. The main reasons for bartleby critical essay, degree programs in biblical studies are to benefit the institution, not the student. 5. Institutions that accept vastly more students into biblical PhD programs than there is “work” available are taking advantage of their students’ ignorance of “work” availability. 6. It is phd thesis instructions, wrong to bartleby critical, take advantage of instructions students for the benefit of the mill and taylor and divorce, institution. 7. It is instructions, wrong to teach in a biblical studies PhD program. 8. The solution is to essays in theology, correct students’ ignorance of “work” availability. Although I am not comfortable with your definition of “work,” I can see that it is instructions, expedient for mill and taylor and divorce, this discussion. Although I think your list of reasons for degrees in phd thesis biblical studies is selective and uncharitable toward. universities and those of us who work in them, and I don’t think it’s wrong to offer the essay on air language, PhD, I agree with you that it is wrong is to mislead the students into thinking there is phd thesis, more “work” than there actually is. Bryan, what I hear you saying is: It makes little sense to teach a biblical studies PhD student if there is little “work” available. Have I heard you both?
If so, I agree with most of what you’re saying, Pete. The part with which I disagree is. something I am inferring from termpaper com both of you, and that is expressed explicitly in your reply, Pete, namely that the only (main?) reason for a doctoral degree is to get “work.” I would rather say that if you’re considering a PhD, in David Miller’s words, “Go for it, if you love it because you love it” I was thinking more or less the same thing. Perhaps the phd thesis instructions, problem is highschool memories, that low-level teaching or pastoring is settling for a plan B. Instructions? Why don#8217;t schools encourage more entrants with #8220;non-conventional career aspirations#8221;? Maybe so. But if that#8217;s the operative thought in the mind of many educators, then it#8217;s their responsibility to proclaim that, boldly and publicly, to anyone even *prospectively* interested in getting an education from them.
It also might behoove them to price their product accordingly. At least, if that doesn#8217;t happen all on its own once they start letting would-be students know about their refusal to claim any responsibility for helping their graduates get employed. Thanks for this Dr. Critical Essay? Enns. Would you say more jobs within and without evangelicalism exist in phd thesis instructions the global south? By jobs, I mean undergraduate/graduate teaching posts at seminaries or universities. Also, are you speaking about bartleby essay denominational and interdenominationals undergraduate/graduate posts in the US or just the universities?
As you know, Pete, I earned my Th.D. in Hebrew Bible from an elite university. I had been told by a religion professor at my undergraduate university that I had the potential to be among the top scholars. Years later, when I tried to cash in that endorsement, the now-elderly professor emeritus didn#8217;t even remember me. As several have suggested in the comments, when the job search turned up zeroes, I went into phd thesis instructions, the pastorate. I was unsuited for the pastorate, and knew it, which is patient studies, a major reason I pursued graduate work. It did not end well. Then I spent a year in the adjunct grind. I finally decided I was not going to work for nothing, and I walked away from academia. Looking back, I kick my self for my naivete. Phd Thesis Instructions? I believed the highschool essay, professors who were my authority figures, who assured me that many retirements were coming soon, and phd thesis, that an elite degree would be the ticket to termpaper com, the job. The reality was that as a middle-aged white male I didn#8217;t fit any affirmative action categories and didn#8217;t match any search committee#8217;s ideals of perfection.
I should have researched the academic job market before I invested a decade of my life in a dead end. I sympathize with your plight, but this brought me up short: #8220;The reality was that as a middle-aged white male I didn#8217;t fit any. affirmative action categories and didn#8217;t match any search committee#8217;s. ideals of perfection.#8221; Yeah, furrowed my brow too. But be careful of confusing group experience with individual experience. a) the majority of applicants are from phd thesis one demographic, b) the majority of posts are currently filled by members of on air in sanskrit that demographic, c) the phd thesis instructions, appointing committee rightly want better representation of diversity among their colleagues, then the individual members of that dominant demographic will find it harder than those outside the demographic to get a job. Even though, at the same time, most jobs will go to members of that demographic. A situation I#8217;m more familiar with: it is *much* easier to essay pollution, get a job as a early years teacher around here if you#8217;re male. Because most schools have no male teachers. As a consequence male graduate teachers have no problem finding a job, but many female teachers are individually suffering from the lack of opportunity.
Even though, at the same time, the vast majority of jobs go to female teachers. Phd Thesis Instructions? I think Hopaulius speaks to a #8220;Real Reality#8221; that qualified white men are at a disadvantage because seminaries and divinity schools are predisposed to hire women and folks from ethnic minorities. #8220;The reality was that as a middle-aged white male I didn#8217;t fit any affirmative action categories and didn#8217;t match any search committee#8217;s ideals of perfection.#8221; Yeah. We non middle aged, minorities are hogging up all the writing, PhD spots. Thank goodness affirmative action guarantees me tenure at that ivy league university I#8217;m eye balling. If not, I#8217;m sure any search committee will just trip over phd thesis instructions, themselves to hire me. Thanks for perpetuating that cultural myth. Because we non middle aged, minorities love to hear #8220;you guys#8221; talk like that. There#8217;s one flaw here. It#8217;s the assumption that education is in sanskrit language, only for the purpose of phd thesis instructions obtaining employment. For some of us, knowledge has value that surpasses the benefits of gainful employment.
While we may earn our daily bread in one field, we still find joy and enrichment from the education we have acquired in other fields. One of the problems in society today is that education, people and writing in theology, objects are seen to have only the value of the monetary gains they bring. That is the result of confusing vocational training with education. To move along the path toward wisdom, we need both. There#8217;s no flaw here.
Pete is #8220;specifically#8221; discussing 1) the ability to instructions, attain a teaching position 2) in Biblical Studies after 3) one has completed doctoral training. It is very rough in academia and perhaps rougher in the church. Nobody wants to take out over a hundred grand in loan debt for no other purpose than to get an writing essays in theology #8220;education#8221;. People who pursue a PhD have a passion for a particular field and after their education is complete, want to serve in a job that is rewarding for both them and their students. If #8220;education#8221; was the only subject under discussion here then one could simply refer to Will Hunting#8217;s apt quote, #8220;You dropped a hundred grand on an education you could#8217;ve got for a dollar fifty in late charges at the public library.#8221; Apparently, I#8217;ve written a blog post where I disagree with what you said here. Not sure what post people read since your post only instructions spurred me to writing essays, reflect on phd thesis instructions my PhD experience, and memories essay, I concluded that practical concerns like my program not costing much and having a plan B for work helped me finish.
I rather think that me suggesting students think about instructions practical concerns meshes well with what you#8217;ve said, but such is the silliness that is the essay, internet. At any rate, if any of those pingbacks have come on your radar, please ignore. If not, all the better. Perhaps there would be more jobs if more people thought that there is a lot to discover in biblical studies. The overall sentiment I get from theologians—thankfully you are an exception—is that just about everything about God that will be discovered has been discovered. Kind of like those pesky physicists who, immediately prior to phd thesis instructions, the quantum revolution, told students to not study physics because it had pretty much all been figured out. I get that your message is more one of #8220;Tell prospective students how likely this degree is to essay on air in sanskrit, land them increased pay over not having the PhD#8221;, but the thing that jumped out at me was that biblical studies is so undervalued that this is instructions, a problem. It reminds me of and taylor essays on marriage and divorce Scandal of the instructions, Evangelical Mind , which you blogged about in January 2013. I came across this phenomenon in college, when students would happily (well, willingly ) spend nine hours on a problem set, but spending that much time studying the Bible in a week (with as much concentration, and talking about it with friends and in theology, consulting resources) was out of the instructions, question. Termpaper Com? Until this changes, I doubt that Christians will sufficiently value biblical studies. To change this, I think the Bible must be made to come alive to people much more than it is now.
I know it#8217;s possible, for it was done for me. Higher education was not constructed to gain employment. Then restructure the way degrees are funded so that we don#8217;t have to get high-paying jobs after graduation in order to instructions, justify the massive loans most of us have to take to get higher education. Why is pastoring a secondary choice? Surely bridging the chasm between the essay, classroom and instructions, the pew is a worthy pursuit. Bartleby? My tutor was honest with me saying that I will most likely not get an academic career after finishing the PhD programme#8230; I#8217;m cool with that, as I don#8217;t see academia as a profession that promotes a healthy attitude towards the work-life balance. #8230;. similar in that respect to being a stand-up comic. It#8217;s certainly not a secondary choice, but it does require a different skillset.
If you have a heart to bridge that chasm, that#8217;s wonderful and phd thesis, the church certainly needs more people with that call. My suspicion is, however, that most people in and taylor essays on marriage ph.d. programs want to make careers in the academy and many may not have the instructions, necessary people-skills and compassion to bartleby critical, successfully serve in the day-to-day grind of pastoral ministry. Props for bringing this issue up Peter- I am ABD from a top. tier institution in Theology, and due to instructions, the countless frustrating issues. Psychiatric Patient Case Studies? experienced by myself and my classmates, I have long ago given up the dream of. teaching in a higher ed environment. Thankfully, I saw this coming, and keep up. my I.T. Phd Thesis? skills, and was able to return to that field. However, I quickly. learned that my Ph.D. candidacy was a liability on my resume, as was my M.A. Pollution In Sanskrit? I was considered “overqualified” for many open positions. This made. accounting for my years in school somewhat tricky, but I was eventually able. overcome to overcome the obstacles of my education. I will finish my degree, but I have little expectation that this will lead to any employment in higher. education- it MAY eventually be of some assistance in my professional career- but only as “proof” of critical thinking skills and ability to process new. Here’s a hint: if your graduate education is in instructions a non-STEM. Writing? or non-business field, the real world couldn’t care less.
It’s not just Biblical. Phd Thesis? or theological fields- really all the humanities are in the same boat. I’ve. learned to termpaper com, keep my M.A. and Ph.D. candidacy off my linkedIn profile and nobody. at my current job knows I have a graduate education in the humanities. So my advice: if you have family wealth, a highly paid spouse, are bored, and. don’t really “need” a job, a graduate education in the humanities is probably. an o.k. Phd Thesis Instructions? choice. On the other hand, if you hope to be employed in the field, ask. lots of questions, look long and hard at the conversations going on about the. plight of humanities adjuncts. Essay? Furthermore, pay attention to the whole landscape- 1+ trillion dollars in. student loan debt is unsustainable. We are beginning to see previously stable, financially. Instructions? solid institutions forced to cut tenured positions to make their budgets- due. to declining enrollment in non-STEM fields- so the next blow will be the waves. of experienced, published, previously tenured assistant professors competing. for any open tenure-track positions available. Good luck competing with those. folks for the few tenured positions opening up.
We are only bartleby essay seeing the beginning tremors of the higher. education financial tsunami…it’s going to phd thesis, be a difficult time for many. -thankful for my provision. Essay? It#8217;s odd that there are so many people interested in phd thesis instructions higher education in Biblical studies (and related fields too I suppose) and that there is so little real-world application for the degrees. What is the problem really? If there are that many people interested in education, why are there so few educator positions? I#8217;m one of the people who never attempted to critical essay, get a PhD, even though I have a very high interest in doing so, precisely because I understood that getting a job would be very difficult. Not that getting two masters degrees in Biblical Studies helped anything. Phd Thesis Instructions? But at least I#8217;m in less debt.
Still, I think that teaching at a seminary or university is not the ONLY legitimate application for a Biblical Studies PhD. What others would you suggest? I can think of vocational ministry and essays in theology, that#8217;s about it. Would love to know if there are other unturned stones. Instructions? I think that what is also unethical is to continue to teach at highschool memories a school where you no longer believe what that school believes. Salient post however, Biblical Studies PhD programs should be compared to PhD programs in general as a control.
There are plenty of instructions doctoral studies that don#8217;t make for bartleby, a particularly directed career path.
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Resume Genius' Original Templates - Expert's Choice. By Resume Genius. This page features eight famous resume templates that you could normally only phd thesis access via Resume Genius’ Resume Builder. We’ve decided to provide them to you for free. Do you want a resume that’s simple, sleek, and to the point? Then you’ve come to the right place. Below, we feature our Classic resume template. And Taylor On Marriage. Feel free to download it into a Microsoft Word document for personalized editing. We have two reasons for calling it Classic.
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Any of the above are suitable for your industry, but if we had to highschool memories choose we’d suggest the ‘Chicago’ or the instructions, ‘Modern.’ Good luck on the job hunt! Great thanks for your help … We would recommend the ‘Milano’ template. Good luck! I am trying to decide what to essays use as a professional massage therapist. Thanks. Check out our ‘Elegant’ templates.
Good luck on the job hunt! Hi, which template is phd thesis, good for the pharmaceutical industry or biology? Thanks! The ‘Harvard’ should be suitable. Good luck! Thanks! I appreciate it. What if I already started using one of the advanced templates – dark blue contemporary? Should I switch to Harvard? I recently graduated, about a year and a half ago and I am looking to case studies break into instructions, the pharmaceutical industry with a biology and pharmacy background. Let me know what you think! #128578;
Contemporary should work just fine. Which one would be good for a television producer? Or someone in the media industry? Thanks! The ‘Milano’ sounds like the right way to language go. Best of luck! which template would be good for phd thesis instructions a high school student? which template would be great for executive. Which template is good for fresher seeking job in IT industry. I’m BCA graduate. Try the pollution, ‘Chicago’ on phd thesis, for size.
Good luck on the job hunt! which template suitable for internship? which template is suitable for a project manager. Which template is suitable for a job at a bank? which Template is better for a job of termpaper com medical field? You might want to check out our internship and engineering resume samples: Good luck on the job hunt! What resume is most suitable for phd thesis a Professional Sales Manager that is hoping to change careers to an Executive Asst.
HI, what resume is bartleby critical essay, suitable for a management consultant? or an auditor? The ‘Milano’ would suit either of those professions. Good luck! The decision is really a matter of preference. We suggest you try a few and see which one you like best. Good luck! Thank you very much for sharing!!
Very helpful!! Hi what would you recommend for instructions a recent master graduate wanting to get into the Conflict resolution/ humanitarian field? Try out the ‘Elegant’ Template. Good luck on and taylor essays, the job hunt! Hi what would you recommend for a school district instructional assistant? Or a childcare provider (lead teacher)? Recommendation for something in the legal profession? Specifically pretrial services assessor? Didn’t see anything for paralegals, either… The resumes above are templates, but it sounds like you are looking for samples. Check out our paralegal resume sample, here: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/paralegal-resume-example.
Good luck on the job hunt, Hi what would be a good resume for instructions someone with multiple skills.(Retail Management, Computer Repair and Maintenance , Low Voltage Tech, Lab Courier) We suggest trying the termpaper com, ‘Park’ template. It offers plenty of phd thesis instructions space for you to include all of your skills. what if you have no experience making a job application whatsoever and you don’t know which template to use for pollution in sanskrit language a beginner. For a beginner, our ‘Classic’ is always a solid choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Any of the resumes above could be used for someone with a criminal history, but if we had to phd thesis choose we’d suggest the bartleby essay, ‘Chicago.’ Also, you should check out our tips on how to address criminal history in instructions, a cover letter: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions#Red-flag-8:-Criminal-history. Try using the ‘Park’ template. Good luck with finding an internship! We suggest the mill essays on marriage and divorce, ‘Milano.’ Don’t forget to instructions check out and taylor on marriage, our Pharmacist resume: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/pharmacist-resume-example Good luck on the internship.
What resume would you recommend for a Human Resource Manager with 5 years of experience. What kind of resume would you recommend for someone changing careers from phd thesis, a lower tier job to a more career building one? The ‘Park’ template would be an appropriate choice. Good luck with the on marriage and divorce, career change. which template wouldb good for instructions construction,HVAC? We’d suggest going with the case studies, ‘Modern’ template.
Best of luck finding an HVAC job. which template would i use? I was recently fired and phd thesis instructions need a job asap, i worked in customer service for in theology a department store and then moved into phd thesis instructions, a supervisor position but for only 7months. My previuos jobs were a ups helper and a busser at a resturaunt. Go with the ‘Milano’ template. Patient Studies. Good luck! What template would you suggest to use?
I am changing careers from a major University as a Farm Attendant Lead to CDL Truck Driver either over the road or Local? Try going with the ‘Milano’ template. Good Luck! What template do you recommend for a middle aged person with plenty of related experience including being a small business owner, applying for a flight attendant position? You should visit our nurse resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/nursing-resume-example. You can download the phd thesis instructions, example and fill in your own information.
Hi, what kind of resume template you recommend for highschool memories a engineer with 4 years of phd thesis experience?. which resume would you recommend for college student applying for jobs with no experience. Hi, what kind of resume will you recommend for a college student, applying for in theology a job. which resume would you recommend for a fashion merchandiser/executive assistant stay at home mom returning to phd thesis work? Good luck on the job hunt! which resume do you recommend for an budding flight attendant career? Thanks for this! I’ll use the highschool, Harvard Resume Template. #128578; Hey there Rayhan, The key to writing a resume fresh out of phd thesis instructions college without work experience is to: 2. Make your education section strong, and patient include key relevant projects/leadership experiences from phd thesis instructions, college that pertain to the position to which you’re applying.
Good luck with your job search! Hey there Aditya, I’d recommend the Classic B W template for critical your resume. Phd Thesis Instructions. It’s a nice standard look — nothing too fancy, but it gets the job done. Good luck! With all of that experience, you have some flexibility!
When in doubt, the reverse-chronological is essay on air in sanskrit language, a good choice. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/chronological-samples-writing-guide. Enjoy the fresh start, and best of phd thesis luck with the job application! Which resume would your recommend for applying for psychiatric patient studies a position in a company that you currently work in that is merging? All staff must re-apply. All of these resume templates are perfect for phd thesis someone in your situation – it just depends on your preference. Since your goal is to prove the value you bring to termpaper com the table to your new employers, you want your resume to phd thesis stand out for its content even more than its format.
Things that are quantifiable (think numbers, dollar signs, etc.) give your resume weight – check out the following link for some ideas to make the content of your resume stand out: https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/accomplishments-on-resume-quantify-achievements. Good luck, and please feel free to comment again if you have further questions! I would suggest that you first decide which type of resume best suits your situation, then choose a matching template. Check out this link and see if one jumps out at you: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/ Good luck with your career! I’d first recommend checking out this page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. What you want to do is essays, highlight your education over professional experience since most likely that’s a stronger area for instructions you, then proceed from there. Good luck landing your internship! Share Resume Genius’ Original Templates – Expert’s Choice
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The Importance of KSA’s (Knowledge, Skills and Abilities) in the Federal Application Process. KSAs. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities. a list of special qualifications and personal attributes that you need to have for phd thesis instructions a particular job. These are the unique requirements that the hiring agency wants to find in the person selected to fill a particular job. A primary purpose of KSAs is to measure those qualities that will set one candidate apart from the others.
In federal personnel guidance, KSAs are defined as the factors that identify the better candidates from a group of persons basically qualified for a position. How well an applicant can show that he or she matches the position’s defined KSAs determines whether that person will be seriously considered for termpaper com the job. Knowledge statements refer to an organized body of information usually of a factual or procedural nature which, if applied, makes adequate performance on the job possible. A body of information applied directly to the performance of a function. Skill statements refer to the proficient manual, verbal or mental manipulation of data or things. Skills can be readily measured by a performance test where quantity and quality of performance are tested, usually within an established time limit. Examples of phd thesis proficient manipulation of case studies things are skill in typing or skill in operating a vehicle. Examples of proficient manipulation of data are skill in computation using decimals; skill in editing for transposed numbers, etc. Ability statements refer to instructions the power to perform an observable activity at the present time. This means that abilities have been evidenced through activities or behaviors that are similar to essays in theology those required on the job, e.g., ability to plan and phd thesis organize work.
Abilities are different from aptitudes. Aptitudes are only the bartleby essay, potential for performing the activity. KSAs. Why You Can’t Ignore Them. Some job applicants, especially those looking for their first federal position, are not sure whether the KSA requirements apply to instructions them or where a response is optional.
There’s an easy way to decide when to pay attention to KSAs. In a word, ALWAYS. Agencies may emphasize the bartleby critical, most important aspects of a job by assigning relative weights to each KSA. Others will designate particular KSAs as being Mandatory (M) or Desirable (D) . Obviously the job applicant will want to focus the phd thesis, most effort on responding to the more heavily weighted KSAs or the mandatory ones, but it is important to remember that you need to address every one on the list. If a vacancy announcement makes no distinction among the position’s KSA, the applicant should assume that all KSAs are equally important. A key point to remember about all KSAs is bartleby critical essay that they must be job-related. Instructions! An agency cannot ask for anything in a KSA that is termpaper com not in phd thesis instructions the job’s position description. Do not assume that reviewers will pull the information out of your application package and pick up the salient points. They will not.
Even if there were time for such insight, reviewers/ evaluators are not allowed to infer anything. Hints to follow when developing your KSAs: , Read the vacancy announcement carefully. , Gather the information needed to memories essay begin writing. , Get to instructions the point.
, Use lots of examples. , State specifically what you have done. , Do not use acronyms. , Present yourself in “clear and plain” language. , Do not borrow language from the position description. HOW TO WRITE RESPONSES TO. KNOWLEDGE, SKILLS AND ABILITIES (KSAs) If you apply for a position announced in the KSA format you should respond to the KSAs. You have to describe your experience and and taylor essays and divorce how it relates to each of the KSAs. How do you do this? Where do you start?
What do you need to phd thesis instructions think about? To help you do this, we have divided the bartleby essay, process of writing KSA responses into 4 steps. Step 1. Read the phd thesis, KSAs very closely. You need to make sure you understand what the KSAs are and what they mean. This step is critical.
If you do not understand each KSA, you will not be able to write good responses. A KSA by itself tends to be general in nature. The vacancy announcement usually contains a brief summary description of the duties of the position. Read this summary description very carefully. Step 2. Review very thoroughly all the experiences you have had and look for essay things that relate to the individual KSAs. This step is really a brainstorming session.
You need to review your experiences and find things that relate to the KSAs. Let us say the KSA that you are writing about instructions is the ability to communicate orally. You need to think about all of the times when you use oral communication skills. Examples: While you were a File Clerk you instructed other clerks on patient studies, new filing procedures; as a Management Analyst you had to phd thesis instructions present recommendations on workflow procedures to members of on marriage top staff. Also, consider relevant education, training and self-development activities, and any awards received. Examples: A training program in effective briefing techniques that you completed or an award you received that relates to your ability to communicate orally. Do not forget experiences you have had in non-work related areas (volunteer activities) or in school related activities. Examples: While you were a Cub Scout Leader you acted as the Chairperson for a fund raising activity; while a student you were a student council representative. These experiences are just as valid as work-related examples as long as they are relevant to the KSA about which you are writing.
Try reviewing your experience in order from the earliest experience to the most recent experience so as not to miss any job or experience that is relevant to the KSA. Instructions! You should review your total experience both paid and volunteer, and training for patient each KSA and look for phd thesis situations that apply to mill essays and divorce the particular KSA. This is because experience that you have in phd thesis one job or one area may apply to more than one KSA. Example: The KSA Ability to meet and essay pollution language deal with members of the general public and the KSA Ability to coordinate the activities of a subordinate staff- both involve skill in phd thesis oral communications. Do not worry about being repetitious in writing KSA responses. Each KSA is rated separately by the subject matter expert (SME)/promotion panel and as long as the information you give is relevant, it does not matter if you have used it already in another KSA. To help you with this step we have attached a chart showing one method you can use to organize your thinking when you begin to review your experience. Step 3. Termpaper Com! Analyze the experiences you have identified. This is where you scrutinize the experiences you identified in step 2 and zero in on the things that really matter in what you do or have done. Phd Thesis Instructions! It is termpaper com where you identify how you use the instructions, knowledge, skill, or ability in your job or experiences. This kind of information is at termpaper com the core of the KSA process. (This process is sometimes called Task Analysis.) You need to ask specific questions about the instructions, experience you have identified.
The answers that you come up with will be used to complete the actual writing of the case, KSA (Step 4). Examples of the kinds of questions you need to ask about your experiences follow: What kind of knowledge or skills do I use in my job? What are the steps, procedures, practices, rules, policies, theories, principles or concepts that I use in my job? How do I apply the instructions, knowledge, principles or concepts that I use in my job? How do I apply the knowledge that I have to accomplish my work?
What kind of supervision do I receive? How is highschool my work assigned? What is my responsibility to accomplish work? How independent are my actions? How is phd thesis my work reviewed? What guidelines do I use to memories essay accomplish my work? Are the phd thesis, instructions that I use to perform my work in essay written or oral form or both? Do I use procedural manuals?
What other written procedures do I use? What kind of oral instructions do I use to instructions perform my work? How much judgement do I have to use to apply the guidelines for my job? Are the guidelines I use very easily applied or do they require interpretation? How difficult are they to interpret? How complex is my job? What is the bartleby essay, nature of the work that I do? For example: Tasks are clear-cut and directly related to each other; or the work involves different and unrelated processes and methods; or the work consists of phd thesis broad functions and processes of an administrative or professional nature? How difficult is it to identify what needs to be done? For example: Little or no choice in deciding what needs to be done; or it depends on an analysis of the situation as there are many alternatives; or extensive analysis is required to even define the nature of the problem.
How difficult or original is the work I do? How does my work affect other processes or individuals? Who do I have contact with on termpaper com, a daily basis? Why do I have contact with these individuals? What is my role in these discussions or meetings? For example: To provide information; to receive information; to influence or advise someone; to convince someone of phd thesis instructions something. If you have done a thorough job on in theology, steps 1, 2 and 3 in this process, you now have a good understanding of the instructions, KSAs and lots of facts about your experiences.
You also have a better understanding of these experiences. Patient Studies! You are now ready for the last step. Step 4. Show how the facts you have gathered about your experience relate to the individual KSAs. You need to tell about the experiences you have had in a way that clearly shows how they are related to the knowledge, skill, or ability. In other words, you need to show a link between your own experience and the KSA.
Do not assume that the link is obvious to someone else even though it may be obvious to you. The SME/promotion panel member(s) who(m) rate your application can only credit what you tell them in your KSA response. They will not be able to give you proper credit for your experiences unless you give them specific examples showing how and instructions why your experience is related to a particular KSA. In telling this to the SME/promotion panel, remember a few important facts: *It is the content of your responses that is rated and not the patient case studies, writing style that you use. It is acceptable to use brief sentences or phrases as long as the SME/promotion panel knows what you mean. *Very long responses do not guarantee a high rating. Give the SME/promotion panel direct and to instructions -the-point responses. *Do not use abbreviations, acronyms, or jargon. Chances are the termpaper com, SME/promotion panel will not know what you are talking about if you write this way.
They will be able to give proper credit for your experience if they do not understand what you have done. HYPOTHETICAL KSA #1. KSA Title : Ability to write non-technical correspondence. I type letters every day. Sometimes I have to type them from a draft that the phd thesis, manager gives me. I also use form letters or the manager tells me that he wants me to write. Psychiatric Case! I write memos requesting supplies or advising employees of phd thesis instructions training classes. I have been a secretary in my unit for 3 years and always finish my work quickly and bartleby essay correctly. I am the secretary in my unit. I handle the writing of instructions responses for most non-technical correspondence received in the unit and for all administrative matters within the unit. I respond using various form letters that we have.
Sometimes I have to in theology draft a letter from phd thesis, start to finish depending on what the inquiry is about. For example, an employee may need a statement regarding leave balances, which I would write or I might have to write a memo to the warehouse regarding supply shortages. When the manager writes memos he will give them to highschool memories me in draft form and I will rewrite them to phd thesis ensure proper grammar and to put them into the right format. Which response is better? The writer of the first response seems to memories be confusing typing with writing. It is not until the third sentence that we get some specific information regarding a writing activity. And then, in the last sentence, the instructions, writer gives us some new information (how long the essay, writer has been a secretary and how well the writer does the work of the position) that has nothing to do with the KSA as defined for the job. Phd Thesis! Remember that the SME/promotion panel rates your responses as they relate to the Crediting Plan. If what you have written is not relevant to the KSA, it will not relate to the Crediting Plan either and you will not receive any credit for it.
The second response gives more relevant and useful information. The writer has provided specific information related to the KSA and has given examples to show the critical essay, kind of writing that is phd thesis instructions being done. This response has given the termpaper com, SME/promotion panel enough information to properly credit the phd thesis instructions, writer's experience. HYPOTHETICAL KSA #2. Management Analyst, GS-12.
KSA Title: Ability to communicate in writing. One of the mill essays and divorce, most important things I do in my position is prepare reports and studies of the various components in our organization. They always have to be written in a clear and concise manner and phd thesis instructions often involve very complex issues like organizational structures, work methods and procedures, manpower utilization, delegations of in sanskrit language authority and other issues. Instructions! I usually have to essay pull together a lot of different information and phd thesis from difference sources. Highschool Memories! I usually have to work within very short time frames to produce a really needed study or report. Below are some examples of the material I have written. Staffing Reports/Workload Reports -in particular I am involved in the WMS/FTE weekly reports -this includes components in Fiscal Control and also DTB PLUS studies. These studies are done on an as needed basis and involve many operational and instructions technical issues. They only are required when management sees a need for them and specifically requests an analysis. We set up a team and review the targeted work.
These reports require a lot of data gathering activity. Director's reports-These also involve a lot of bartleby critical data analysis from the HAL reports and are sent to phd thesis the Director's Staff Advisor. I write technical and administrative memos and study reports, which identify actual and bartleby potential problem areas in interrelated work processes, the underlying source of operating difficulties, trends, significant management accomplishments, merit/deficiency situations and areas of imbalance. These papers always include recommendations for instructions improvement in bartleby critical the studied areas. Example of the kinds of phd thesis instructions studies or reports I produce are as follows:
I write memos, which represent the Regional Office (RO) position on proposed procedures or work processes. This involves evaluating the affect of alternative actions on the work processes under consideration and how best to use manpower and resources and the identification of other alternatives worthy of consideration. This almost always involves the consolidation of information and comments from bartleby, multiple components into one memo representing the phd thesis instructions, Regional Office position on a given issue. Writing Essays In Theology! An example of this type of product is the formulation of office comments on the design of the new national fishery control system user's comments, a committee reviewed the release to evaluate if all pertinent work processes were included and to identify possibly more efficient design alternatives. Phd Thesis Instructions! In most cases I consolidated the comments of the committee and formulated the final office comment memo. I have been involved in periodic reports on national TS/incubation workloads since 1978.
These reports were researched and written by a team of psychiatric patient studies analysis. The final product was usually consolidated from phd thesis instructions, other area reports and consolidated report issued to the Secretary. I also wrote position papers detailing the Regional Office position on essays and divorce, administrative, workload processing, or work measurement issues. Phd Thesis! An example of this type of product is a memo prepared for Central Office in July 1989 stating the RO's position on the issue of termpaper com productivity measurement in the field stations. This memo presents our views on the Secretary's Productivity Analysis Project and pointed out what was considered flaws in their basis assumptions. It then listed the major problems with areas, which should be addressed in order to phd thesis provide valid productivity measures for all the field stations. The RO's concerns and highschool essay ideas concerning the elements necessary for phd thesis an acceptable productivity measure were presented.
In addition, I have also completed 6 semester hours of writing courses in college. I am presently the in theology, corresponding Secretary for instructions Tri Sigma National Sorority. Which response is better? The writer of the mill essays, first response has borrowed some of the language from the duties described in the vacancy announcement in order to tell the SME/promotion panel what he/she does in the job. Unfortunately, this does not give the panel any more specific information about his/her experience than they would get by reading the phd thesis, announcement. The examples given by the writer sound like they could be relevant to the KSA, but the writer does not provide any specific information to explain how these activities relate to termpaper com the KSA. The writer also uses a lot of acronyms.
These are sure to confuse a SME/promotion panel and should not be used without explanation. Finally, the phd thesis instructions, writer does not tell us what his/her specific role is in any of these activities (i.e., what is the meaning of I am involved in. , what is the writer's role when he says We set up a team. ?). The second response gives more relevant and specific information. The writer gave a general introductory statement, which acts as a background to the examples that follow. The first and last examples are very specific and give enough information so the SME/promotion panel will understand what the in theology, writer does and how it relates to the crediting plan. The second example of this response falls short of the other two examples. The writer uses some jargon (TS incubation workload) which may mean little or nothing to the SME/promotion panel. It is also not clear what the writer's involvement was in the activity described in the second example (i.e., what is the meaning of I have been involved in periodic reports -should the SME/promotion panel assume that this means involvement as a writer or just as a team member?). Regardless of this problem, the second response is the better of the two responses.
In each of the instructions, hypothetical responses you have just read, the second response, although the better of the two, is not the best response possible. With practice you could write an on air pollution in sanskrit, even better KSA response.
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essay structure ncea How to write your best essay ever! English biz has separate guides for each of the phd thesis, types of patient studies, writing you'll meet on your course but this particular guide is probably the most important of them all. It will show you how to phd thesis, construct an effective, well-structured argument-based essay. How do you feel when you're given an essay to write? Do you fill with f-f-fear?
W-w-wobble with worry? P-p-pour with perspiration? Well, here's a way that make the whole process more satisfying and mill essays on marriage and divorce, enjoyable! Okay, he's off his rocker (but we won't worry as he's not real!). He's yet to discover that writing an essay is never going to be an instructions, easy task, even for the best writers.
But you're about to find out how it can be made much more straightforward , interesting and effective . Oh, and likely to gain you a significantly higher grade, too! So that's something to feel, well. just a little bit excited about! It's important to understand one thing before we start: unlike a maths or science question, an English essay question has no single 'correct' answer. You can breathe easy on that one. It's just not like that.
In an English essay there is no one 'answer' and nothing to 'prove'. That isn't to say there aren't wrong answers - there are. These are those based on 'mis-readings' of your texts. But what your teacher or examiner wants is termpaper com a reasonable, informed, explained and instructions, well-supported view . In a nutshell, that's it. An essay requires this from you: a succinct opening in which you give an overview of your response to the essay question.
This is a kind of 'super-condensed' response that sums up your whole response in a line or two. you can add to the opening sentences, a very brief explanation of wh at aspects of the text brought you to this view . If you can give, say, four - six aspects, then you are setting out the coming structure of your essay . There is no better way to begin an essay than like this. From this point on you will never be left scratching your head wondering what to write next. the remainder of the essay is merely a series of PEE paragraphs that, point by essay point, argue the phd thesis instructions, case for what you have just stated. Each point (P) needs its own paragraph and to have support (E) from the psychiatric studies, text (either a quotation, or an explanation of phd thesis, some aspect of form or structure ) along with with an explanation (E) of termpaper com, how the text brought you to such a view, the effects it created, the methods the author used to create the phd thesis, effects and, finally, its relevance to the text, that is, the author's purposes . That's it. Done and dusted! More detail below if needed. The secret of a good essay? Make it an argument ! An effective essay is a piece of writing that makes a strong and well-supported case for a stated viewpoint . Mill Essays And Divorce! The view it makes the case for is your response to the essay title or question . You'll have arrived at after a couple of readings of the text, more if a poem, and one of which will be a so-called 'close-reading' when you annotate the text carefully in line with whatever the essay question asks, seeking out support as quotations or explanations of useful effects created by form and instructions, structure . So your essay starts with a clear statement of your opinion . It could be something like, as an example: 'Shakespeare's theme of essays in theology, violence in phd thesis, Romeo and Juliet is shown especially effectively through the opening scene, as well as through the characters of Mercutio and Tybalt and an analysis of pollution in sanskrit, these three dramatic aspects will form the phd thesis, basis of this essay.' The opening overview is sometimes called a thesis statement . Psychiatric Patient Studies! The 'thesis' is your response, i.e. the heart of your 'argument'. It's what the essay goes on to explain and support to show that it is a view that is well - considered, based on phd thesis, the text and mill and taylor and divorce, reasonable to hold . Essays are about opinions, not facts.
This point is crucial to take on board. There is phd thesis never a straightforward right answer to an essay q uestion or title. There are wrong answers, of course - caused through, for highschool memories example, misinterpreting the text; but the 'answer' to an essay question will always be a point of view . Phd Thesis! Essays deal in on marriage and divorce, opinions, not facts . This is why your teacher is looking to read your views and why you have come to instructions, think in this particular way. How do you arrive at a 'thesis' or overview? This is the tough part - there's no getting away from that. Not least, this is because it puts to the test your knowledge of the text and your understanding of the essay title or question . The good news is that when it's done and done well, the remainder of the essay becomes much more straightforward and far more interesting to essay, write, perhaps even a little exciting! The Outline Structure for an Effective Essay. As already stated above, this first paragraph needs to phd thesis, open with a clearly stated summary of your whole 'answer' along with an bartleby critical essay, equally brief summary of the aspects of the text you'll be analysing to show your stated view is sound . It is phd thesis these early sentences that provide the major 'signposts' that give your essay and memories essay, its general direction. Importantly, you need to set a confident tone early on in the essay. This can be done by adding in a very few details to instructions, show you've grasped the text's big picture . This should be a brief comment (brevity is everything in the opening paragraph) on the major details of the story (poem or whatever) along with an equally brief statement of bartleby essay, any relevant context , (that is the situation you feel brought the writer to want to phd thesis instructions, write their text, including key aspects of their social , cultural and literary contexts ). Termpaper Com! This will, though, always need to be focused on the needs of the essay question . Notice how you are constantly seeking to avoid waffle and generalised 'bolted on' comments ; instead, you need to keep all you write tightly focused on the needs of the essay title or question. This is the bulk of the essay.
It is a series of paragraphs each introduced with a new clear important and wholly relevant point . Sadly, it's all too easy to open a in a way that inspires little confidence and phd thesis, which drifts from the essay question or argument. Avoid this by opening each and termpaper com, every paragraph in a way that is clearly and directly developing the essay's 'answer' or argument . If you started by instructions stating the four-six aspects you'll be covering in your essay, then you'll have no difficulty knowing what to write in these body paragraphs. This is where you restate, in a different form, your opening argument and bartleby critical essay, give a brief list of the phd thesis, major points you have made along with a comment about the wider implications and relevance of what you have found. It will help to think back to the imaginary classroom situation. What would follow on from the highly condensed 'answer' you gave to your teacher?
Your teacher might say, 'Good, that's a fair view to hold - but why do you think that? Show me from the text itself what made you think that way.' In the written essay, you'll need to be providing a whole lot more 'evidence' mainly in the form of quotations each one itself supported by writing a commentary derived from an analysis of the quotation's literary and phd thesis, linguistic content . However, with a central and highschool, guiding argument starting off and flowing through the entire essay, it now becomes much easier to search the phd thesis, text for aspects and quotations that will provide good quality evidence to support the essay's points. Each point and termpaper com, supporting quotation needs to be followed by an analysis and comment . Some teachers call this the P.E.E. ( point example explanation ) or P.Q.C. ( point quotation comment ) system. This is needed to explain how and why the aspect of the phd thesis instructions, text or the quotation 'works' within the context of the essay question and essays, the originally stated argument. Certain key questions need to be answered concerning each quotation used: What techniques have been used to make the language of the quotation effective? This means discussing the writer's methods , e.g. through the creation of realistic dialogue; the use of an effective metaphor; through vivid description; onomatopoeia; alliteration; effective stage directions, etc. How does the method used affect the reader's understanding of the text and its themes (e.g. 'the effect of this passage is to create a sense of really being there for the reader. Phd Thesis Instructions! ')? Why was this method used (i.e. Mill Essays! what was the writer's purpose )? E.g. 'At this point on phd thesis instructions, the story the author wants to gain the reader's attention in order to begin exploring the essay, overall theme of injustice. ' MARK GRABBING TIP No. Instructions! 1!
Begin all of language, your paragraphs in such a way that it is absolutely clear you are focused on the essay question and its requirements, thus building up your overall argument. This will keep the essay on track and avoid the plague of poor essays: wandering, digression and waffle! What if your essay title isn't in the form of a question? When considered as a question, you will often find it is easier to generate that all-important single main point of view to it - the main idea upon which you will then base the remainder of your essay . Here is an example of a main idea succinctly stated (i.e. Phd Thesis Instructions! thesis statement ) that could be used to create an argument essay from the above question: The remainder of this - or any other - essay must then be no more than a linked series of points with each point explained , developed and essay, supported in a paragraph of its own . These points must all be directly related to phd thesis instructions, the main idea you have already explained in psychiatric, the opening paragraph, which itself is your response to the essay title or question. Remember that each point - each paragraph - must set out to explain , develop and support some aspect of your over-riding main idea and nothing more . In this example, the paragraph that follows the opening paragraph - the instructions, first of highschool, what is called the body paragraphs of your essay - could be based on the point that the theme of ambition is shown through what Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are given by Shakespeare to say and do in Act One of the play.
The third paragraph of your essay - its second body paragraph - might then explore, develop and support how the instructions, theme of termpaper com, ambition is shown through these two characters in some part of Act 2, and instructions, so on. Below you'll find lots more detail and ideas for termpaper com writing an phd thesis instructions, effective essay but with luck, the above will have given you the highschool essay, basic idea. Aim to 'integrate' words or phrases from the text you are studying directly into your own sentences (still using quotation marks, of course). Don't overdo this effective technique, but used sparingly, this use of phd thesis instructions, 'embedded' quotations can help create a very impressive style, one that suggests you have a good grasp of the text and the essay question. Here are some examples of highschool essay, how to use embedded quotations. The first is from the opening of John Steinbeck's novel, 'Of Mice and Men': 'Small and instructions, quick' George is and divorce presented by Steinbeck as a character in complete contrast to his friend, the lumbering and 'shapeless' Lennie.
Here is a similarly embedded quotation from J B Priestley's 'An Inspector Calls': As the Inspector says, 'We don't live alone' and this is an important message Priestley gives his audience. Finally, see how this can be done using John Agard's poem, 'Half-Caste': Perhaps Agard also wants his reader to 'come back tomorrow' with a different attitude towards those they might feel are in any way different from themselves. MORE TIPS AND MORE DETAIL! Essays take a great deal of effort and time and so deserve careful preparation. T he most common failing examiners find is a lack of understanding of the text on instructions, which the essay is based. This is to mill and taylor essays on marriage and divorce, take the road signpos ted 'Failure'. But you're heading elsewhere. So. get to know your text well. You won't succeed if you don't!
I f you struggle with the text, read it through again with a study guide to instructions, hand. Also, talk the text over with friends or your teacher. Bartleby Critical! There is more help with specific texts here . Many essay writers fail to create an initial main viewpoint or drift from this single focus. Phd Thesis Instructions! This loses marks as it leads to waffle , vagueness and bartleby critical, generalisation . As you've read above, another common pitfall is to focus too much on phd thesis instructions, the surface features of the text you are writing about. This happens when you write at essays on marriage and divorce length about the meaning of the text, i.e. by telling what happens in it. In effect, all you are doing when you do this is to phd thesis instructions, retell the story of the essay in sanskrit language, text. You need to be discussing how and why the author has created an instructions, effective text through careful, interesting and effective choices of style and language as well as structure . M ore marks are lost if you forget the need to case studies, support the points you make in each paragraph. A good idea is to try to use at least one quotation - or reference to the text - per paragraph.
Remember, too, that this is an phd thesis, English essay and this means you need to reflect how authors use language and critical, literary techniques in effective ways in their writing . Aim only to choose quotations that contain important elements in them that will allow you to discuss in depth aspects of, for example, their literary style , language or structure. Consider discussing, for phd thesis example, how the quotation acts to build tension , mood , character , a sense of place or how it helps explore one of the text's themes . Discuss, too, how the quotation works both at the point it occurs and critical, as a contribution to the whole , i.e. the way it helps the writer achieve his or her purpose . This means you need to instructions, discuss aspects of the quotation such as its effectiveness - which means discussing aspects of bartleby critical, language , structure and instructions, style . 1. DEVELOP A STRONG INITIAL FOCUS FOR YOUR ESSAY. The word 'essay' comes from highschool memories essay a French word meaning 'attempt': your essay is phd thesis instructions your attempt to argue for your point of view , a view that when succinctly expressed is called a thesis statement . This 'thesis statement' needs to be an studies, idea you developed based on an interpretation of whatever aspect of the text is asked in the essay question. Interpretation means considering how a text operates at different levels ; it is your interpretation of the text that will be at the heart of the essay: an interpretation that must supports the overall thesis statement. 2. FIND SOLID SUPPORT FOR YOUR VIEWPOINT. You will need to search through the text and note down a series of phd thesis instructions, aspects and quotations that can be used to support the overall view you have developed. Use 'post-it notes' to help with this or write the aspects/quotations down separately. Choose aspects or quotations that you can analyse successfully for the methods used , effects created and purpose intended . 3. WRITE AN EFFECTIVE OPENING PARAGRAPH.
Use your introductory paragraph to mill, state your point of instructions, view , i.e. And Taylor On Marriage And Divorce! your thesis statement. The purpose of your opening paragraph is to make clear your thesis statement - response to instructions, the essay question: that is, to and taylor on marriage and divorce, explain the focus of your argument - your main idea or point of view. Stated clearly at the opening to your essay, this shows how you intend to answer the phd thesis instructions, essay question and what general direction your essay will take. Following your thesis statement, it's a good idea to and taylor on marriage, add a little more detail that acts to 'preview' each of the major points that you will cover in the body of the essay. This opening paragraph will then act to show - succinctly - where you stand regarding the questions and phd thesis instructions, how you intend to answer it. Importantly, in the opening paragraph of critical essay, your essay you will also need to write an overview of the text, one that gives a succinct summary of the ' big picture ' of the text; importantly, too, of course, this must be focused on the requirements of the essay question. Giving a succinct account of the big picture of the text in the opening paragraph will show that you have engaged with and digested the phd thesis instructions, detail of three key aspects of the essay: the essay question, the text and its author - perhaps also, a brief account of the psychiatric patient, author's context . Giving an overview suggests a confident approach and is a hallmark of the best essays. TIP: It is always impressive to incorporate into your own sentences, using quotation marks of course, a short suitable quotation taken from the phd thesis instructions, text. Some teachers call this using embedded quotations.
Keep all references to the biographical background of the author and any aspects of his or her context entirely relevant to the essay question and - brief! Remember that this is not a history or a sociology essay so very few marks are awarded for this kind of background information (although that does not mean it might not be useful). The majority of termpaper com, marks in an English essay are awarded for the quality of analysis and interpretation you show - that is, an awareness of the phd thesis, author's uses of the English language and writing essays, literary uses of this. If your essay title does concern aspects of context try hard to phd thesis, discuss context by deriving your comments from quotations rather than by merely discussing aspects of context; in other words allow the text to introduce the mill, context. TIP: avoid making simplistic and irrelevant value judgments of the text or its author. Instructions! Saying that Shakespeare is termpaper com 'a wonderful author' or that you think 'Of Mice and Men' is 'really good' will gain no marks whatsoever - this is no more than a kind of waffle that fills space with empty words that add nothing useful to instructions, your essay. 4. USE THE REMAINING PARAGRAPHS EFFECTIVELY. Follow the opening paragraph with a number of mill essays on marriage, paragraphs that form the 'body' of the phd thesis instructions, essay. Each of mill essays on marriage and divorce, these paragraphs are there purely to expand on and support your originally stated overall viewpoint.
Having stated your main idea in your opening paragraph, now you need explore this, develop it and provide support from the text for this. In the essay's body paragraphs your aim is to: follow the analysis system called P.E.E. or P.Q.C. For more on this see here ; work through the text's structure logically and, highlighting via the use of quotations, explain how these led you to develop your point of view; comment on how the language of each of these parts led you to instructions, form your interpretation: why did the author choose this particular type of language to make this point in this way? How does it help a) the audience and b) the writer's purpose or theme ? discuss how this individual part of the text forms a useful structural part of the text by leading the reader towards an overall understanding of the themes, messages or purposes of the text; CRUCIALLY. each paragraph needs to develop a separate and individual point - one that will help to show how different parts and aspects of the text helped you develop your interpretation and viewpoint (this is the POINT part of P.E.E.); A useful tip is to open each paragraph with a topic sentence . This is a sentence that clearly makes a point that is developing your argument - your answer to the essay question - and, because it is, therefore, clearly focused on the essay question, it will keep your writing on track; Always aim to provide support for memories essay each of the points you make by referring directly to the text (this is the EXAMPLE part of P.E.E.). You normally do this by quoting briefly from a relevant part of the text but you might choose to describe an event. It's very important NOT to write a long description of instructions, WHAT happens.
If you do you are merely 'retelling the story' - this loses many marks. In a play you also lose marks if you do not discuss aspects of the staging and essays, stage action. You will need to follow each quotation with an phd thesis instructions, explanation of and a discussion on termpaper com, aspects of the language the author used in the quotation; this means discussing, for instructions example, how aspects of the quotations literary, poetic or dramatic language works, including mentioning the method the writer used, the effect the language creates and the reasons this might have been done (this is the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). You should also aim to show how the quotation helped you develop your overall interpretation of the essay, text (this is also the EXPLAIN part of P.E.E). 5. CREATE A LOGICAL STRUCTURE. Always work in a clear way through the text, from beginning to end. Avoid starting your essay by phd thesis discussing a point that occurs half way through your text: ALWAYS begin at writing the beginning! Many students begin discussing a text half way through or even near the end then go back to phd thesis instructions, an earlier point. This ignores the work the writer puts in to writing in theology, develop an effective structure to their text - and loses marks! 6. CONCLUDE EFFECTIVELY. The conclusion to an essay is important but causes problems for many students.
It should leave your reader with a pleasant and logical sense of 'closure' - a 'wrapping up' of the main ideas behind the essay . 1. Re-state in a different form (using rather different words) your opening argument. 2. Now bring together your main points (again, avoiding simple repetition of the same words): list or summarise the main points from the preceding paragraphs (use the topic sentences from each paragraph to phd thesis instructions, give you an idea). 3. End by identifying some of the wider implications and relevance that arise from what you have found and explored. The conclusion should consist of just a few sentences but these will need to be made to essays, sound convincing and authoritative . It's crucial to keep the conclusion brief and to the point and, above all else, to introduce no new material at phd thesis all. ALWAYS WRITE ANALYTICALLY , NEVER DESCRIPTIVELY. Here is an essays in theology, example of how many students go wrong; don't worry, you won't - but this is a very common mistake: In William Shakespeare's play, 'Romeo and Juliet', these are the first two lines of the phd thesis, 'Prologue' as spoken by 'The Chorus': 'Two households, both alike in dignity, In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. ' What follows is a typical 'retelling': an 'overview' or 'translation' that gains no marks : 'Here, Shakespeare is saying that the play is set in Verona where there are two dignified families.' Compare the above 'description' with this analytical and insightful interpretation : 'The opening lines of the Prologue are important because they paint a picture for psychiatric studies the audience of what could and should be - fairness and dignity. Phd Thesis Instructions! These words set up a powerful contrast to what is: the violence, hatred and bloodshed shown in essay, the coming scene. It will be against phd thesis instructions, this violent backdrop that the pure love of Romeo and Juliet will have to struggle.'
Which approach and style would gain the higher mark? STUCK FOR WHAT TO WRITE ABOUT? THERE ARE FOUR KEY ASPECTS THAT APPLY TO ALL TEXTS AND WHICH SHOULD FORM THE BASIS OF ANY LITERATURE ESSAY. FORM, CONTENT, STRUCTURE AND STYLE. This is so very often ignored despite the fact that it provides the basis for bartleby the very best essays because it provides a subtle response. And subtlety always receives the phd thesis, highest marks ! When you write about a text at the level of its form , you analyse how aspects of it other than the meaning of its language have been used by the writer in important and effective ways. To give you an idea of the importance of form to a text, you yourself make use of the form of language when you speak loudly or softly , or when you chat or text a friend and use CAPS LOCK. Also, when you create short or long sentences or paragraphs you are affecting the look - the mill and taylor and divorce, form - of your writing. Instructions! This, albeit subtly, affects the way the writing is received and interpreted. A novelist makes use of form by writing in sentences and paragraphs of varying lengths (you can imagine the effect a very short sentence, or a one-line paragraph, for memories essay example). The use of dialogue (spoken words shown inside speech marks) is also an effective use of form, as is the use of underlining , bold or italics - or, in non-fiction texts, the inclusion of bullet points or sections.
Poets are acutely aware of and very creative with the use of form. A poet makes use of form, for example, by consciously splitting up sentences into the lines of poetry . This allows the poet to exaggerate a particular word by placing it at instructions the end of a line, or by rhyming it with a similar sounding word. A non-fiction writer makes use of form by using layout and appearance and by in theology adding illustrations and photographs , and so on. All writers use form by using patterns of phd thesis, sound , such as by using alliteration , rhyme , rhythm , onomatopoeia , assonance and so on. A playwright, of course, uses form very differently. Case Studies! When your essay concerns a play, therefore, you'll definitely be losing marks if you ignore aspects of form. Phd Thesis Instructions! In a play, much of the 'meaning' is created not from language but from what you see happening on in theology, the stage - the staging and instructions, stage action. Highschool Essay! This includes not just what the actors do but what they wear , where they stand and so on - all potentially important formal aspects of the play that should find their way onto your essay. Form is always worthy of comment when (but only when ) if it adds usefully to the meaning, i.e. the phd thesis, content of a text. Every word and phrase has a literal meaning . Writing Essays! This is phd thesis instructions its basic dictionary meaning. It's sometimes called a word's denotation . E.g. 'In this story, the author's detailed description of darkness denotes the critical, coming on of a storm'.
This is phd thesis a way of 'playing' around with a word's meaning that makes writing more vivid , emotional and interesting . Words and mill and taylor essays, phrases can be used differently from their literal context and phd thesis instructions, given what is bartleby essay called a connotation . Using connotation or figurative language , a writer can introduce layers of meaning - especially emotional meaning (don't forget that many words can create both meaning and feeling ). Instructions! The most common way this is done is to use a word not for its literal meaning but for its metaphorical or figurative meaning. Another way is to use a word that acts as symbolically and represents something very different from its literal meaning. E.g. 'As well as suggesting the on air, coming of a storm, the darkness also acts to instructions, suggest a metaphorical darkness is taking over the character's mind. In this way the darkness seems to case, be symbolising a kind of evil'. Using a pun - a witty play on phd thesis instructions, words - is another way that meaning can be played with in an interesting way. Punning works because some words, in a certain context, can have an ambiguous meaning - two possible meanings - one of which might be humorous.
Irony is a key way that writers use to create layers of meaning. Sarcasm is bartleby critical essay irony, but this is a spoken form of irony that is intended to hurt someone's feelings by ridiculing some aspect of phd thesis instructions, them. It's a crude, easy kind of irony not really subtle enough for writing. Irony is usually subtle , sophisticated , edgy and witty ; an altogether more intelligent use of language. But irony can also be difficult to recognise - yet it is probably true to say that irony is one of the writing in theology, most common means by which a sophisticated writer creates layers of meaning in a text . Irony works because when it is recognised, it engages the reader very much more closely with the phd thesis instructions, text. This is because, rather like solving a puzzle, there is a real enjoyment and satisfaction in unpicking the various levels of essay, meaning created by the irony. Creating an 'ironic tone of voice' in writing is much harder than in speech because the original sound of phd thesis instructions, voice and facial expression or body language of the speaker are absent. To create an psychiatric case, ironic tone (or any tone, for phd thesis that matter), words have to be chosen with great care. It is a key reading skill to be able to detect this as it tells you what attitude the writer is taking towards their subject matter. An example of critical essay, irony occurs in an old story by O. Henry called 'The Gift of the Magi'. This story of poor young lovers ends with the boyfriend selling the one thing he owns of phd thesis instructions, value, his pocket watch, in order to buy his girlfriend an expensive hair comb; equally secretly, she has all of her long hair cut off to sell to a wig maker so she can afford to buy him. a chain for his watch.
Structure is the way a writer consciously 'shapes' a piece of writing in an attempt to make it as effective as possible for their audience and their purpose. It is essay on air language important to comment on phd thesis instructions, the structure of mill and taylor essays and divorce, a text, e.g. 'The way the author slowly builds up the tension throughout this chapter helps create a feeling of real excitement and mystery'. Style is the way a writer or speaker consciously chooses language and language features to suit a particular audience to achieve a specific purpose . When you aim to phd thesis, convince your mum that Friday's party cannot be missed, you will consciously adapt your style to patient, one that is more emotional and persuasive! Some famous writers have a particular style of their own that is quickly recognisable. John Steinbeck, Charles Dickens and William Wordsworth are three such writers - here, a writer's individual style is sometimes referred to as the writer's 'voice'. Your primary job when analysing and discussing a text is to comment on its style - on what are called the stylistic or language choices its writer has made, especially those that seem to you to have been chosen to create a particular effect to achieve a certain purpose. So. if you are commenting on the form and content of instructions, a writer's language, you are commenting on the writer's style . COMPARING TWO OR MORE TEXTS. Even though it's a central part of the mark scheme, and always made clear in the essay question or title, each year many students still manage to write their comparison exam answer or coursework essay and forget to compare and contrast the texts . Aside from not knowing the texts sufficiently well, failing to compare and contrast is the number one reason marks are lost in this kind of essay.
When writing about essay, more than one text, your opening paragraph should be used to give the briefest details of each text (i.e. your writing needs to be succinct !). This will mean being even more careful and phd thesis instructions, sparing when you write an and divorce, overview of each text, in which you give the big picture . There are two methods you can consider using when comparing texts: 1) Write about the phd thesis, first text fully before moving on to the second - still using the essay in sanskrit, techniques outlined above; but when you go on phd thesis, to write about the second text, you must compare and contrast it with the essays on marriage, first. 2) Alternatively, and this makes the most sense when thinking about the argument essay, you write about both texts as you proceed . Phd Thesis! This allows you still, as shown above, to create a central argument , one in which examples to support the points are taken from highschool essay one or both texts as relevant to the point. This second method is the more complex and sophisticated of the two.