Pay for Exclusive Essay -
PAUL OVERSTREET - Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics |…
155 TOEFL Independent Writing Topics. Need to practice for the writing sections? Try this list of past TOEFL independent writing questions, published by ETS (the people who make the TOEFL test). These are also good for essaye pas lyrics, practicing independent speaking questions, too #8212; just give yourself 45 seconds to career graduate school talk on these subjects. 1. People attend college or university for many different reasons (for example, new experiences, career preparation, increased knowledge). Why do you think people attend college or university? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents are the best teachers. Use specific reasons and examples to donc pas lyrics support your answer. Early Asian American Essays! 3. Nowadays, food has become easier to prepare. Has this change improved the way people live? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 4. It has been said, #8220;Not everything that is learned is pas lyrics, contained in books.#8221; Compare and contrast knowledge gained from experience with knowledge gained from books. In your opinion, which source is more important? Why? 5. A company has announced that it wishes to build a large factory near your community.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this new influence on your community. Do you support or oppose the factory? Explain your position. 6. If you could change one important thing about on air pollution your hometown, what would you change? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 7. How do movies or television influence people#8217;s behavior? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer.
8. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television has destroyed communication among friends and family. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 9. Some people prefer to live in a small town. Others prefer to live in a big city. Which place would you prefer to live in? Use specific reasons and details to pas lyrics support your answer.
10. #8220;When people succeed, it is because of re/collecting asian american essays history, hard work. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics! Luck has nothing to do with success.#8221; Do you agree or disagree with the quotation above? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. 11. Early Asian Essays History! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Universities should give the same amount of money to their students#8217; sports activities as they give to their university libraries. Use specific reasons and examples to essaye pas lyrics support your opinion. 12.
Many people visit museums when they travel to new places. How To Up A! Why do you think people visit museums? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 13. Some people prefer to eat at food stands or restaurants. Essaye! Other people prefer to prepare and eat food at home.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 14. Some people believe that university students should be required to attend classes. In Sanskrit Language! Others believe that going to classes should be optional for students. Essaye! Which point of view do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to early asian essays explain your answer. 15. Neighbors are the people who live near us. In your opinion, what are the donc, qualities of re/collecting asian in cultural history, a good neighbor? Use specific details and essaye donc pas lyrics examples in resume block, your answer.
16. It has recently been announced that a new restaurant may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics! 17. Some people think that they can learn better by re/collecting early asian american in cultural history themselves than with a teacher. Others think that it is always better to have a teacher.
Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons to essaye donc pas lyrics develop your essay. 18. What are some important qualities of write focus, a good supervisor (boss)? Use specific details and examples to explain why these qualities are important. 19. Should governments spend more money on improving roads and highways, or should governments spend more money on improving public transportation (buses, trains, subways)? Why? Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay.
20. It is better for children to essaye donc grow up in the countryside than in a big city. Model! Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to develop your essay. Donc Pas Lyrics! 21.
In general, people are living longer now. Discuss the causes of this phenomenon. Format! Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. Essaye! 22. We all work or will work in our jobs with many different kinds of people.
In your opinion, what are some important characteristics of a co-worker (someone you work closely with)? Use reasons and specific examples to explain why these characteristics are important. Resume Block! 23. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Sometimes it is better not to tell the truth. Use specific reasons and details to essaye pas lyrics support your answer. Write Up A Report! 24. In some countries, teenagers have jobs while they are still students.
Do you think this is essaye pas lyrics, a good idea? Support your opinion by using specific reasons and details. 25. A person you know is planning to move to your town or city. What do you think this person would like and model lab report dislike about living in your town or city? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to develop your essay. 26. It has recently been announced that a large shopping center may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 27. It has recently been announced that a new movie theater may be built in your neighborhood. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 28. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People should sometimes do things that they do not enjoy doing. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 29. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Television, newspapers, magazines, and other media pay too much attention to the personal lives of famous people such as public figures and celebrities. Use specific reasons and details to explain your opinion.
30. Some people believe that the Earth is being harmed (damaged) by human activity. Others feel that human activity makes the Earth a better place to essaye live. What is your opinion? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 31. Format! It has recently been announced that a new high school may be built in your community. Do you support or oppose this plan? Why?
Use specific reasons and details in your answer. Pas Lyrics! 32. Some people spend their entire lives in one place. Others move a number of times throughout their lives, looking for up a group report, a better job, house, community, or even climate. Which do you prefer: staying in one place or moving in search of another place? Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion. 33. Essaye Pas Lyrics! Is it better to enjoy your money when you earn it or is it better to save your money for some time in the future? Use specific reasons and examples to how to write up a group report support your opinion.
34. You have received a gift of essaye, money. The money is enough to buy either a piece of jewelry you like or tickets to pollution language a concert you want to attend. Which would you buy? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 35. You must select a person to teach others to do a job. Which one of the following is the most important for you to essaye pas lyrics consider in making your selection? the person#8217;s education the person#8217;s work experience the quality of the person#8217;s previous work. Use specific reasons and baseball in steroid examples to support your answer. 36.
Businesses should hire employees for essaye donc pas lyrics, their entire lives. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 37. Write Report! Countries, businesses, and schools are three areas that need good leaders. Choose one of these three areas and describe the pas lyrics, most important qualities of lab report, a leader in that area. Explain why these qualities are important, using specific examples and details. 38. Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and essaye donc pas lyrics explain why you think it has changed people#8217;s lives. Block Format! Use specific reasons and examples to essaye pas lyrics support your answer. 39.
Do you agree or disagree that progress is how to write, always good? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 40. Essaye! Learning about the past has no value for those of write focus group report, us living in the present. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 41. The expression #8220;Never, never give up#8221; means to keep trying and never stop working for your goals. Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Use specific reasons and essaye donc pas lyrics examples to support your answer. 42. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? With the help of technology, students nowadays can learn more information and learn it more quickly. Use specific reasons and essay on air language examples to support your answer. 43. Donc! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Games are as important for format, adults as they are for children.
Use specific reasons and donc pas lyrics examples to support your answer. 44. Awards and prizes are given for excellence in various fields. Essay On Air Pollution Language! Do these awards and prizes serve a useful purpose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. Donc Pas Lyrics! 45. Some people think that human needs for farmland, housing, and how to up a focus group industry are more important than saving land for endangered animals. Do you agree or disagree with this point of view? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and examples to essaye donc pas lyrics support your answer. 46.
What is a very important skill a person should learn in order to be successful in model, the world today? Choose one skill and use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 47. Resolving problems between individuals or groups is important. What should be considered or kept in essaye donc, mind in resolving problems between individuals or groups? Use specific reasons and examples to re/collecting asian in cultural history support your answer. Essaye Pas Lyrics! 48. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Self-confidence is the most important factor for success in school or at work.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. In Steroid! 49. Why do you think some people are attracted to dangerous sports or other dangerous activities? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 50. Which is more important for success: the natural ability you are born with or hard work? Explain your opinion, using specific reasons and examples. Donc Pas Lyrics! 51. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Parents or other adult relatives should make important decisions for their older (15 to 18 year-old) teenaged children. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion.
52. Some people like to travel with a companion. Model! Other people prefer to travel alone. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 53. Some people prefer to get up early in the morning and start the day#8217;s work. Others prefer to get up later in the day and work until late at night. Donc! Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 54. Graduate! What are the important qualities of essaye donc pas lyrics, a good son or daughter? Have these qualities changed or remained the same over time in lab report, your culture? Use specific reasons and donc examples to support your answer. 55. Some people prefer to work for a large company. Lab Report! Others prefer to work for a small company. Which would you prefer? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 56.
People work because they need money to live. What are some other reasons that people work? Discuss one or more of these reasons. Use specific examples and details to support your answer. 57.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Face-to-face communication is better than other types of communication, such as letters, e-mail, or telephone calls. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics! 58. Some people like to do only what they already do well.
Other people prefer to essay on air language try new things and take risks. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. 59. Some people believe that success in life comes from taking risks or chances. Others believe that success results from careful planning.
In your opinion, what does success come from? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 60. What change would make your hometown more appealing to people your age? Use specific reasons and examples to donc pas lyrics support your opinion. 61. Block! Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? The most important aspect of a job is the money a person earns.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 62. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? One should never judge a person by external appearances. Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 63. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person should never make an important decision alone. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
64. A company is going to give some money either to support the arts or to protect the essaye donc, environment. Which do you think the company should choose? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 65. Some movies are serious, designed to make the audience think. Other movies are designed primarily to amuse and entertain. Which type of movie do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 66.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Businesses should do anything they can to make a profit. Use specific reasons and examples to how to up a focus support your position. 67. Some people are always in a hurry to go places and get things done.
Other people prefer to take their time and live life at essaye donc a slower pace. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 68. Some people think governments should spend as much money as possible exploring outer space (for example, traveling to the Moon and to other planets). Other people disagree and think governments should spend this money for our basic needs on baseball Earth. Pas Lyrics! Which of these two opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer.
69. People have different ways of resume block format, escaping the stress and difficulties of modern life. Some read; some exercise; others work in their gardens. Essaye Donc! What do you think are the model, best ways of essaye donc pas lyrics, reducing stress? Use specific details and examples in your answer.
70. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Teachers should be paid according to how much their students learn. Give specific reasons and examples to write group report support your opinion. 71. If you were asked to send one thing representing your country to an international exhibition, what would you choose? Why? Use specific reasons and details to donc explain your choice.
72. You have been told that dormitory rooms at your university must be shared by two students. Would you rather have the university assign a student to share a room with you, or would you rather choose your own roommate? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 73. Some people think that governments should spend as much money as possible on developing or buying computer technology. Other people disagree and think that this money should be spent on more basic needs. Which one of write up a focus group report, these opinions do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 74.
Some people like doing work by hand. Others prefer using machines. Which do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 75. Schools should ask students to evaluate their teachers. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.
76. Pas Lyrics! In your opinion, what is the write up a focus report, most important characteristic (for example, honesty, intelligence, a sense of humor) that a person can have to be successful in life? Use specific reasons and examples from your experience to essaye explain your answer. When you write your answer, you are not limited to the examples listed in the prompt. 77. It is generally agreed that society benefits from the re/collecting early asian history, work of donc, its members. Compare the contributions of artists to society with the contributions of scientists to society. Which type of contribution do you think is valued more by lab report your society? Give specific reasons to support your answer. Donc! 78. Students at universities often have a choice of places to live.
They may choose to live in university dormitories, or they may choose to live in apartments in the community. Compare the advantages of living in university housing with the advantages of living in an apartment in the community. Where would you prefer to live? Give reasons for early in cultural history, your preference. 79. You need to travel from your home to a place 40 miles (64 kilometers) away. Compare the different kinds of transportation you could use. Tell which method of travel you would choose. Give specific reasons for your choice.
80. Some people believe that a college or university education should be available to all students. Others believe that higher education should be available only to good students. Discuss these views. Which view do you agree with? Explain why.
81. Donc Pas Lyrics! Some people believe that the best way of learning about life is by listening to the advice of family and friends. Other people believe that the best way of learning about on air in sanskrit language life is through personal experience. Compare the advantages of these two different ways of learning about life. Which do you think is preferable? Use specific examples to support your preference.
82. Pas Lyrics! When people move to another country, some of block, them decide to essaye pas lyrics follow the customs of the new country. American In Cultural! Others prefer to keep their own customs. Compare these two choices. Which one do you prefer? Support your answer with specific details. 83. Some people prefer to spend most of their time alone. Others like to essaye pas lyrics be with friends most of the time. Model Lab Report! Do you prefer to spend your time alone or with friends?
Use specific reasons to support your answer. 84. Pas Lyrics! Some people prefer to spend time with one or two close friends. Others choose to spend time with a large number of friends. Compare the advantages of each choice. Which of these two ways of spending time do you prefer? Use specific reasons to support your answer.
85. Some people think that children should begin their formal education at asian essays in cultural a very early age and should spend most of donc pas lyrics, their time on school studies. Essay! Others believe that young children should spend most of donc pas lyrics, their time playing. Compare these two views. Which view do you agree with? Why?
86. The government has announced that it plans to build a new university. Some people think that your community would be a good place to locate the university. Compare the advantages and disadvantages of establishing a new university in career graduate, your community. Use specific details in your discussion. 87. Some people think that the family is the most important influence on young adults. Other people think that friends are the most important influence on young adults. Which view do you agree with? Use examples to support your position. 88.
Some people prefer to plan activities for their free time very carefully. Others choose not to make any plans at all for their free time. Compare the benefits of planning free-time activities with the benefits of not making plans. Which do you prefer-planning or not planning for your leisure time? Use specific reasons and essaye donc pas lyrics examples to report explain your choice. 89.
People learn in different ways. Some people learn by pas lyrics doing things; other people learn by reading about things; others learn by listening to people talk about things. Which of these methods of learning is best for you? Use specific examples to support your choice. 90. Some people choose friends who are different from themselves. Others choose friends who are similar to themselves. Compare the advantages of having friends who are different from model lab report, you with the advantages of having friends who are similar to you.
Which kind of friend do you prefer for yourself? Why? 91. Some people enjoy change, and essaye they look forward to new experiences. Others like their lives to stay the essay on air pollution language, same, and they do not change their usual habits.
Compare these two approaches to donc life. Which approach do you prefer? Explain why. 92. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People behave differently when they wear different clothes. Do you agree that different clothes influence the how to group, way people behave?
Use specific examples to support your answer. 93. Decisions can be made quickly, or they can be made after careful thought. Do you agree or disagree with the donc, following statement? The decisions that people make quickly are always wrong. Re/collecting Asian! Use reasons and specific examples to support your opinion.
94. Donc Pas Lyrics! Some people trust their first impressions about a person#8217;s character because they believe these judgments are generally correct. Focus! Other people do not judge a person#8217;s character quickly because they believe first impressions are often wrong. Compare these two attitudes. Which attitude do you agree with?
Support your choice with specific examples. 95. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People are never satisfied with what they have; they always want something more or something different. Essaye Donc! Use specific reasons to support your answer. 96. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
People should read only those books that are about real events, real people, and established facts. Use specific reasons and details to baseball in steroid support your opinion. 97. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more important for students to study history and pas lyrics literature than it is for them to study science and mathematics.
Use specific reasons and examples to write up a group report support your opinion. 98. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? All students should be required to study art and music in secondary school. Use specific reasons to support your answer.
99. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? There is nothing that young people can teach older people. Use specific reasons and examples to support your position. 100. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?
Reading fiction (such as novels and short stories) is more enjoyable than watching movies. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics! Use specific reasons and examples to explain your position. Re/collecting Early Essays History! 101. Some people say that physical exercise should be a required part of every school day. Essaye! Other people believe that students should spend the whole school day on academic studies. Which opinion do you agree with? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 102. A university plans to develop a new research center in your country.
Some people want a center for business research. Other people want a center for research in agriculture (farming). Which of these two kinds of re/collecting american essays in cultural history, research centers do you recommend for pas lyrics, your country? Use specific reasons in your recommendation. 103. Some young children spend a great amount of write, their time practicing sports. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this. Essaye! Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 104.
Do you agree or disagree with the american essays, following statement? Only people who earn a lot of money are successful. Donc Pas Lyrics! Use specific reasons and baseball essay examples to support your answer. 105. If you could invent something new, what product would you develop? Use specific details to explain why this invention is needed.
106. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? A person#8217;s childhood years (the time from birth to twelve years of age) are the most important years of a person#8217;s life. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 107. Do you agree or disagree with the essaye, following statement?
Children should be required to help with household tasks as soon as they are able to do so. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 108. Some high schools require all students to wear school uniforms. Baseball In Steroid! Other high schools permit students to decide what to wear to school.
Which of these two school policies do you think is essaye, better? Use specific reasons and examples to model lab report support your opinion. 109. Do you agree or disagree with the donc pas lyrics, following statement? Playing a game is fun only when you win. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 110.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? High schools should allow students to study the courses that students want to study. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 111. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is better to be a member of a group than to in steroid be the donc, leader of a group.
Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 112. What do you consider to be the most important room in a house? Why is this room more important to re/collecting early asian in cultural you than any other room? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 113. Donc Pas Lyrics! If you could make one important change in a school that you attended, what change would you make? Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. Graduate! 114.
A gift (such as a camera, a soccer ball, or an animal) can contribute to a child#8217;s development. Essaye Pas Lyrics! What gift would you give to help a child develop? Why? Use reasons and specific examples to support your choice. 115. Some people believe that students should be given one long vacation each year. Others believe that students should have several short vacations throughout the year. Which viewpoint do you agree with?
Use specific reasons and examples to support your choice. Write Up A Focus Group Report! 116. Would you prefer to live in a traditional house or in a modern apartment building? Use specific reasons and donc details to support your choice. 117.
Some people say that advertising encourages us to buy things we really do not need. Others say that advertisements tell us about new products that may improve our lives. Which viewpoint do you agree with? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 118. Some people prefer to spend their free time outdoors. Other people prefer to spend their leisure time indoors.
Would you prefer to be outside or would you prefer to be inside for your leisure activities? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your choice. Lab Report! 119. Donc! Your school has received a gift of money. What do you think is the best way for your school to in sanskrit spend this money? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 120.
Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Playing games teaches us about life. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 121. Imagine that you have received some land to pas lyrics use as you wish. How would you use this land? Use specific details to model lab report explain your answer. 122.
What is the most important animal in your country? Why is the animal important? Use reasons and specific details to explain your answer. 123. Many parts of the world are losing important natural resources, such as forests, animals, or clean water. Choose one resource that is disappearing and explain why it needs to be saved. Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 124. Do you agree or disagree with the essaye pas lyrics, following statement? A zoo has no useful purpose. Model! Use specific reasons and examples to essaye donc explain your answer.
125. In some countries, people are no longer allowed to smoke in many public places and office buildings. Do you think this is a good rule or a bad rule? Use specific reasons and focus group report details to support your position. 126.
Plants can provide food, shelter, clothing, or medicine. What is one kind of plant that is essaye donc pas lyrics, important to how to write up a focus you or the people in your country? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 127. Essaye Pas Lyrics! You have the opportunity to visit a foreign country for two weeks. Which country would you like to visit? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 128.
In the future, students may have the choice of studying at home by using technology such as computers or television or of studying at traditional schools. Early American Essays In Cultural History! Which would you prefer? Use reasons and specific details to explain your choice. Essaye! 129. When famous people such as actors, athletes and rock stars give their opinions, many people listen. Do you think we should pay attention to these opinions? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 130. The twentieth century saw great change. On Air Pollution! In your opinion, what is essaye, one change that should be remembered about the twentieth century?
Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 131. When people need to complain about a product or poor service, some prefer to complain in writing and others prefer to complain in person. Which way do you prefer? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 132. People remember special gifts or presents that they have received. Why? Use specific reasons and asian american history examples to support your answer.
133. Some famous athletes and essaye pas lyrics entertainers earn millions of dollars every year. Do you think these people deserve such high salaries? Use specific reasons and examples to support your opinion. 134. Is the ability to read and write more important today than in the past?
Why or why not? Use specific reasons and career goals essay graduate examples to support your answer. 135. People do many different things to donc pas lyrics stay healthy. Re/collecting Early Asian! What do you do for good health? Use specific reasons and donc examples to support your answer. 136.
You have decided to give several hours of your time each month to improve the community where you live. What is one thing you will do to improve your community? Why? Use specific reasons and details to explain your choice. 137.
Your school has enough money to purchase either computers for students or books for the library. Which should your school choose to buy- computers or books? Use specific reasons and resume block format examples to support your recommendation. 138. Many students choose to donc pas lyrics attend schools or universities outside their home countries. Why do some students study abroad? Use specific reasons and details to explain your answer. 139. People listen to music for different reasons and at model different times. Why is music important to many people?
Use specific reasons and essaye pas lyrics examples to support your choice. 140. Career Goals Essay! Groups or organizations are an important part of essaye donc, some people#8217;s lives. Why are groups or organizations important to people? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer. 141. Imagine that you are preparing for a trip.
You plan to be away from your home for a year. In addition to clothing and personal care items, you can take one additional thing. Model! What would you take and why? Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 142. When students move to essaye donc a new school, they sometimes face problems. How can schools help these students with their problems? Use specific reasons and examples to explain your answer.
143. It is sometimes said that borrowing money from a friend can harm or damage the re/collecting early asian, friendship. Do you agree? Why or why not? Use reasons and specific examples to explain your answer. 144.
Every generation of people is different in important ways. How is your generation different from your parents#8217; generation? Use specific reasons and essaye donc examples to explain your answer. 145. Some students like classes where teachers lecture (do all of the talking) in baseball essay, class.
Other students prefer classes where the students do some of the talking. Which type of class do you prefer? Give specific reasons and details to support your choice. 146. Holidays honor people or events. If you could create a new holiday, what person or event would it honor and essaye pas lyrics how would you want people to celebrate it? Use specific reasons and details to support your answer. 147. A friend of yours has received some money and plans to use all of it either to go on vacation to resume format buy a car Your friend has asked you for advice. Compare your friend#8217;s two choices and explain which one you think your friend should choose.
Use specific reasons and details to support your choice. 148. The 21st century has begun. What changes do you think the new century will bring? Use examples and details in your answer. 149. What are some of the qualities of essaye, a good parent? Use specific details and examples to explain your answer. 150. Movies are popular all over the world.
Explain why movies are so popular. Use reasons and specific examples to support your answer. 151. In your country, is there more need for land to be left in its natural condition or is re/collecting, there more need for land to be developed for housing and industry? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer. 152.
Many people have a close relationship with their pets. These people treat their birds, cats, or other animals as members of essaye donc, their family. In your opinion, are such relationships good? Why or why not? Use specific reasons and on air pollution language examples to support your answer. 153. Films can tell us a lot about the country where they were made. What have you learned about essaye donc pas lyrics a country from watching its movies?
Use specific examples and details to support your response. 154. Some students prefer to study alone. Others prefer to model study with a group of students. Which do you prefer?
Use specific reasons and essaye pas lyrics examples to support your answer. 155. You have enough money to career essay graduate purchase either a house or a business. Which would you choose to buy? Give specific reasons to explain your choice.
Need Help Writing an Essay? -
ESSAYE DONC PAS Lyrics - PICH PAUL | eLyrics net
obama short speech That is the true genius of America, a faith in the simple dreams of its people, the insistence on small miracles. That we can say what we think, write what we think, without hearing a sudden knock on the door. That we can have an idea and start our own business without paying a bribe or hiring somebody's son. Essaye Pas Lyrics? That we can participate in the political process without fear of retribution, and that our votes will be counted -- or at least, most of the time. BARACK OBAMA, speech at 2004 Democratic Convention. If we think that we can secure our country by model just talking tough without acting tough and smart, then we will misunderstand this moment and miss its opportunities. If we think that we can use the same partisan playbook where we just challenge our opponent's patriotism to donc pas lyrics, win an election, then the American people will lose. The times are too serious for this kind of politics. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Aug.
19, 2008. Change doesn't come from Washington. Change comes to Washington. BARACK OBAMA, DNC speech, Aug. 28, 2008. Those of us who have the privilege to serve this country have an obligation to how to write focus group, do our job as best we can. We come from different parties, but we are Americans first.
And that's why disagreement cannot mean dysfunction. It can't degenerate into hatred. The American people's hopes and essaye donc dreams are what matters, not ours. Our obligations are to model lab report, them. Our regard for them compels us all, Democrats and donc pas lyrics Republicans, to cooperate, and compromise, and act in career school the best interests of our nation #150;- one nation, under God, indivisible with liberty and justice for all. BARACK OBAMA, remarks on the reopening of the essaye government, Oct. 17, 2013.
Do something, Congress. Do anything. BARACK OBAMA, weekly address, Jul. 12, 2014. Our predecessors understood that government could not, and should not, solve every problem. They understood that there are instances when the block format gains in security from pas lyrics government action are not worth the added constraints on lab report our freedom. But they also understood that the danger of too much government is matched by the perils of essaye pas lyrics too little; that without the leavening hand of early american wise policy, markets can crash, monopolies can stifle competition, the vulnerable can be exploited. And they knew that when any government measure, no matter how carefully crafted or beneficial, is subject to scorn; when any efforts to help people in need are attacked as un-American; when facts and reason are thrown overboard and only timidity passes for wisdom, and we can no longer even engage in a civil conversation with each other over essaye, the things that truly matter -- that at focus that point we don't merely lose our capacity to solve big challenges. We lose something essential about ourselves.
BARACK OBAMA, speech to joint session of Congress, sep. 9, 2009. We lose ourselves when we compromise the very ideals that we fight to defend. And we honor those ideals by upholding them not when it's easy, but when it is hard. BARACK OBAMA, Nobel Lecture, Dec. 10, 2009. Torture is how you create enemies, not how you defeat them. BARACK OBAMA, press release, Torture and Secrecy Betray Core American Values, 2007. What the American people hope -#150; what they deserve -#150; is for all of us, Democrats and Republicans, to work through our differences; to overcome the numbing weight of our politics.
For while the people who sent us here have different backgrounds, different stories, different beliefs, the anxieties they face are the same. The aspirations they hold are shared: a job that pays the bills; a chance to get ahead; most of essaye all, the ability to give their children a better life. BARACK OBAMA, State of the Union Address, Jan. 27, 2010. We can’t expect to solve our problems if all we do is early asian american essays history, tear each other down. Essaye? You can disagree with a certain policy without demonizing the person who espouses it. You can question somebody’s views and essay pollution their judgment without questioning their motives or their patriotism. Throwing around phrases like “socialists” and “Soviet-style takeover” and “fascist” and “right-wing nut” -- that may grab headlines, but it also has the essaye donc effect of block comparing our government, our political opponents, to authoritarian, even murderous regimes. Now, we’ve seen this kind of politics in the past. It’s been practiced by both fringes of the ideological spectrum, by the left and pas lyrics the right, since our nation’s birth. But it’s starting to creep into career essay graduate the center of our discourse.
And the problem with it is not the pas lyrics hurt feelings or the bruised egos of the public officials who are criticized. Essay In Steroid? Remember, they signed up for it. Michelle always reminds me of that. The problem is pas lyrics, that this kind of block vilification and over-the-top rhetoric closes the door to the possibility of compromise. Pas Lyrics? It undermines democratic deliberation. It prevents learning #150;- since, after all, why should we listen to a “fascist,” or a “socialist,” or a “right-wing nut,” or a left-wing nut”? It makes it nearly impossible for people who have legitimate but bridgeable differences to sit down at the same table and hash things out. Focus Group Report? It robs us of a rational and serious debate, the donc one we need to have about the very real and very big challenges facing this nation. It coarsens our culture, and at its worst, it can send signals to the most extreme elements of format our society that perhaps violence is a justifiable response. BARACK OBAMA, remarks at University of Michigan, May 1, 2010.
In reaffirming the greatness of our nation we understand that greatness is never a given. It must be earned. Our journey has never been one of short-cuts or settling for pas lyrics less. It has not been the path for the faint-hearted, for those that prefer leisure over work, or seek only the pleasures of riches and fame. Rather, it has been the risk-takers, the doers, the career essay graduate makers of things -- some celebrated, but more often men and women obscure in their labor -- who have carried us up the donc long rugged path towards prosperity and freedom. BARACK OBAMA, Inaugural Address, Jan.
20. 2009. I have seen, the desperation and disorder of the block format powerless: how it twists the lives of children on essaye donc pas lyrics the streets of Jakarta or Nairobi in much the same way as it does the lives of children on Chicago’s South Side, how narrow the early essays path is for them between humiliation and untrammeled fury, how easily they slip into violence and despair. Essaye Pas Lyrics? I know that the response of the powerful to this disorder -- alternating as it does between a dull complacency and, when the disorder spills out of its proscribed confines, a steady, unthinking application of up a report force, of longer prison sentences and more sophisticated military hardware -- is inadequate to the task. I know that the hardening of lines, the embrace of fundamentalism and tribe, dooms us all. BARACK OBAMA, preface to 2004 Edition, Dreams of My Father. [The] issues are never simple. One thing I’m proud of is that very rarely will you hear me simplify the essaye issues. BARACK OBAMA, MSNBC interview, Sep 25, 2006.
The true test of the American ideal is whether we’re able to recognize our failings and asian american essays then rise together to meet the challenges of our time. Whether we allow ourselves to essaye pas lyrics, be shaped by events and history, or whether we act to model, shape them. Whether chance of birth or circumstance decides life’s big winners and losers, or whether we build a community where, at the very least, everyone has a chance to work hard, get ahead, and reach their dreams. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jun. 4, 2005. Change will not come if we wait for some other person or some other time. We are the ones we've been waiting for. We are the change that we seek. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Feb. 5, 2008. I think that there's always been a spectrum of opinion about how unfettered the free market is.
And along that spectrum, I think there have been some who believe in very fierce regulation and are very suspicious of globalization, and there are others who think that it's always -- that the market is donc pas lyrics, always king. And I think what we've learned here, but if anybody had been studying history they would have understood earlier, is block format, that the market is the donc most effective mechanism for creating wealth and distributing resources to block, produce goods and services that history has ever known, but that it goes off the rail sometimes; that if it's completely unregulated, that if there are no thoughtful frameworks to channel the donc pas lyrics creative energy of the market, that it can end up in write up a report a very bad place. BARACK OBAMA, press conference, Apr. 2, 2009. I don't want to pit Red America against Blue America. I want to essaye donc pas lyrics, be President of the baseball in steroid United States of America. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Nov. Essaye? 10, 2007. Hope is what led a band of on air pollution language colonists to rise up against an empire; what led the greatest of pas lyrics generations to free a continent and heal a nation; what led young women and essay on air in sanskrit language young men to pas lyrics, sit at lunch counters and brave fire hoses and essay graduate school march through Selma and Montgomery for freedom's cause. Hope is what led me here today--with a father from Kenya, a mother from Kansas; and a story that could only happen in essaye the United States of baseball essay in steroid America.
Hope is the essaye bedrock of this nation; the belief that our destiny will not be written for us, but by us; by all those men and women who are not content to settle for the world as it is; who have courage to remake the world as it should be. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jan. 3, 2008. I was drawn to the power of the model African American religious tradition to essaye, spur social change. Model? Out of necessity, the pas lyrics black church had to minister to the whole person. Out of necessity, the baseball essay in steroid black church rarely had the luxury of separating individual salvation from collective salvation. Donc Pas Lyrics? It had to serve as the american essays center of the community's political, economic, and social as well as spiritual life; it understood in an intimate way the biblical call to feed the donc hungry and clothe the naked and challenge powers and principalities. In the history of these struggles, I was able to see faith as more than just a comfort to the weary or a hedge against block, death; rather, it was an active, palpable agent in the world. BARACK OBAMA, Audacity of Hope. This notion that's peddled by the religious right - that they are oppressed is not true.
Sometimes it's a cynical ploy to move their agenda ahead. The classic example being that somehow secularists are trying to eliminate Christmas, which strikes me as some kind of manufactured controversy. BARACK OBAMA, Street Prophets interview, Jul. 11, 2006. What Washington needs is adult supervision. BARACK OBAMA, fundraising letter, Oct. 2006. In an donc pas lyrics, interconnected world, the defeat of international terrorism #150; and most importantly, the prevention of these terrorist organizations from obtaining weapons of essay pollution mass destruction -- will require the cooperation of many nations. We must always reserve the right to strike unilaterally at essaye terrorists wherever they may exist. But we should know that our success in doing so is enhanced by engaging our allies so that we receive the crucial diplomatic, military, intelligence, and financial support that can lighten our load and add legitimacy to how to write up a focus, our actions. Pas Lyrics? This means talking to our friends and, at times, even our enemies.
BARACK OBAMA, speech, Nov. 20, 2006. The strongest democracies flourish from frequent and model lab report lively debate, but they endure when people of essaye every background and belief find a way to set aside smaller differences in service of a greater purpose. BARACK OBAMA, press conference, Feb. Lab Report? 9, 2009. All across the world, in every kind of environment and region known to man, increasingly dangerous weather patterns and essaye pas lyrics devastating storms are abruptly putting an end to model lab report, the long-running debate over whether or not climate change is real. Not only is it real, it's here, and its effects are giving rise to a frighteningly new global phenomenon: the man-made natural disaster. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Apr. Pas Lyrics? 3, 2006.
There are a whole lot of religious people in America, including the majority of Democrats. When we abandon the field of asian american history religious discourse#151;when we ignore the debate about what it means to be a good Christian or Muslim or Jew; when we discuss religion only in the negative sense of essaye donc where or how it should not be practiced, rather than in the positive sense of what it tells us about our obligations toward one another; when we shy away from religious venues and religious broadcasts because we assume that we will be unwelcome#151;others will fill the vacuum. And those who do are likely to be those with the most insular views of faith, or who cynically use religion to justify partisan ends. BARACK OBAMA, Audacity of Hope. If the how to up a focus group people cannot trust their government to essaye donc pas lyrics, do the resume block format job for pas lyrics which it exists - to protect them and to promote their common welfare - all else is lost. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Aug. 28, 2006. Americans . Essay In Sanskrit? still believe in an America where anything's possible -- they just don't think their leaders do. BARACK OBAMA, fundraising letter, Sep.
1, 2006. I think that one of the things that we all agree to is that the touchstone for economic policy is, does it allow the average American to find good employment and see their incomes rise; that we can’t just look at things in the aggregate, we do want to grow the essaye donc pas lyrics pie, but we want to make sure that prosperity is spread across the asian american essays history spectrum of regions and occupations and essaye genders and races; and that economic policy should focus on growing the pie, but it also has to essay, make sure that everybody has got opportunity in that system. BARACK OBAMA, New York Times , Apr. 28, 2009. America is a land of big dreamers and essaye donc big hopes.
It is american in cultural, this hope that has sustained us through revolution and civil war, depression and world war, a struggle for civil and essaye social rights and the brink of nuclear crisis. And it is because our dreamers dreamed that we have emerged from each challenge more united, more prosperous, and more admired than before. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jun. 4, 2005. BARACK OBAMA, campaign slogan, 2008. The success of our economy has always depended not just on the size of our gross domestic product, but on the reach of school our prosperity, on the ability to extend opportunity to every willing heart -- not out of charity, but because it is the surest route to our common good. BARACK OBAMA, Inaugural Address, Jan. 20. 2009. We should be more modest in donc pas lyrics our belief that we can impose democracy on a country through military force.
In the past, it has been movements for freedom from within tyrannical regimes that have led to flourishing democracies; movements that continue today. This doesn’t mean abandoning our values and ideals; wherever we can, it’s in our interest to help foster democracy through the diplomatic and economic resources at our disposal. But even as we provide such help, we should be clear that the institutions of democracy #150; free markets, a free press, a strong civil society #150; cannot be built overnight, and they cannot be built at the end of a barrel of a gun. And so we must realize that the freedoms FDR once spoke of #150; especially freedom from want and freedom from fear #150; do not just come from deposing a tyrant and handing out goals school ballots; they are only realized once the personal and essaye pas lyrics material security of essay on air language a people is donc pas lyrics, ensured as well. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Nov. 20, 2006.
In a global economy where the career essay school most valuable skill you can sell is pas lyrics, your knowledge, a good education is no longer just a pathway to opportunity #150; it is a pre-requisite. BARACK OBAMA, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Feb. Goals School? 24, 2009. We live in a culture that discourages empathy. Essaye Pas Lyrics? A culture that too often tells us our principle goal in life is to be rich, thin, young, famous, safe, and entertained. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jul. 12, 2006. Secularists are wrong when they ask believers to leave their religion at the door before entering into the public square.
Frederick Douglas, Abraham Lincoln, Williams Jennings Bryant, Dorothy Day, Martin Luther King - indeed, the early asian american in cultural history majority of great reformers in American history - were not only motivated by faith, but repeatedly used religious language to argue for their cause. Essaye Pas Lyrics? So to say that men and american essays women should not inject their personal morality into public policy debates is a practical absurdity. Our law is by definition a codification of morality, much of pas lyrics it grounded in the Judeo-Christian tradition. BARACK OBAMA, Jun. 28, 2006. Let's remember that our leadership is essay graduate, defined not just by our defense against threats, but by the enormous opportunities to do good and promote understanding around the globe #150; to forge greater cooperation, to expand new markets, to free people from fear and essaye want. And no one is resume block, better positioned to donc pas lyrics, take advantage of re/collecting asian american essays in cultural those opportunities than America. BARACK OBAMA, State of the pas lyrics Union Address, Jan. 28, 2014.
From the day I took office, I've been told that addressing our larger challenges is too ambitious; such an american in cultural, effort would be too contentious. I've been told that our political system is too gridlocked, and that we should just put things on donc hold for a while. Baseball? For those who make these claims, I have one simple question: How long should we wait? How long should America put its future on essaye pas lyrics hold? BARACK OBAMA, State of the Union Address, Jan. 27, 2010. I have studied the Constitution as a student; I have taught it as a teacher; I have been bound by it as a lawyer and legislator. I took an oath to preserve, protect and career graduate school defend the Constitution as Commander-in-Chief, and as a citizen, I know that we must never #150; ever #150; turn our back on its enduring principles for donc pas lyrics expedience sake. I make this claim not simply as a matter of lab report idealism.
We uphold our most cherished values not only because doing so is essaye donc, right, but because it strengthens our country and keeps us safe. Time and again, our values have been our best national security asset #150; in goals graduate school war and peace; in times of ease and in eras of upheaval. Fidelity to essaye, our values is the reason why the United States of early asian in cultural history America grew from essaye pas lyrics a small string of goals school colonies under the writ of an empire to donc pas lyrics, the strongest nation in the world. It is the reason why enemy soldiers have surrendered to model lab report, us in battle, knowing they’d receive better treatment from America’s armed forces than from their own government. It is the reason why America has benefited from strong alliances that amplified our power, and drawn a sharp and moral contrast with our adversaries. Essaye? It is the reason why we’ve been able to overpower the iron fist of fascism, outlast the iron curtain of communism, and enlist free nations and in steroid free people everywhere in common cause and common effort. From Europe to the Pacific, we have been a nation that has shut down torture chambers and donc pas lyrics replaced tyranny with the rule of law. That is who we are. And where terrorists offer only the injustice of disorder and destruction, America must demonstrate that our values and institutions are more resilient than a hateful ideology. BARACK OBAMA, speech, May 21, 2009.
I always believe that ultimately, if people are paying attention, then we get good government and good leadership. And when we get lazy, as a democracy and civically start taking shortcuts, then it results in bad government and politics. BARACK OBAMA, MSNBC interview, Sep. Model Lab Report? 25, 2006. When special interests put their thumb on the scale, and donc distort the how to write group free market, the people who compete by the rules come in last. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Aug. 2, 2008. I'm happy to donc pas lyrics, get good ideas from across the political spectrum, from Democrats and lab report Republicans.
What I won't do is return to the failed theories of the last eight years that got us into this fix in essaye donc the first place, because those theories have been tested, and they have failed. And that's what part of the career election in November was all about. BARACK OBAMA, press conference, Feb. 9, 2009. Today’s 24/7 echo-chamber amplifies the donc most inflammatory soundbites louder and faster than ever before. Essay In Steroid? And it’s also, however, given us unprecedented choice.
Whereas most Americans used to get their news from the essaye pas lyrics same three networks over dinner, or a few influential papers on Sunday morning, we now have the option to get our information from up a group any number of essaye pas lyrics blogs or websites or cable news shows. And this can have both a good and bad development for democracy. For if we choose only to expose ourselves to opinions and viewpoints that are in line with our own, studies suggest that we become more polarized, more set in resume block our ways. That will only reinforce and even deepen the political divides in this country. But if we choose to donc pas lyrics, actively seek out information that challenges our assumptions and our beliefs, perhaps we can begin to understand where the people who disagree with us are coming from. Write Up A Focus Group? The practice of listening to opposing views is essential for effective citizenship. It is essential for our democracy. BARACK OBAMA, remarks at donc University of Michigan, May 1, 2010. I know that even a successful war against Iraq will require a US occupation of undetermined length, at undetermined cost, with undetermined consequences. I know that an invasion of Iraq without a clear rationale and without strong international support will only model fan the flames of the Middle East, and encourage the worst, rather than best, impulses of the Arab world, and strengthen the recruitment arm of al-Qaeda.
BARACK OBAMA, speech, Oct. 2, 2002. The best judge of pas lyrics whether or not a country is going to develop is how it treats its women. If it's educating its girls, if women have equal rights, that country is going to move forward. But if women are oppressed and abused and illiterate, then they're going to fall behind. BARACK OBAMA, Ladies' Home Journal , Sep.
2008. For we know that our patchwork heritage is a strength, not a weakness. We are a nation of Christians and Muslims, Jews and write up a report Hindus, and non-believers. We are shaped by essaye every language and culture, drawn from every end of this Earth; and because we have tasted the bitter swill of civil war and segregation, and emerged from that dark chapter stronger and more united, we cannot help but believe that the old hatreds shall someday pass; that the lines of tribe shall soon dissolve; that as the world grows smaller, our common humanity shall reveal itself; and that America must play its role in ushering in a new era of peace. BARACK OBAMA, Inaugural Address, Jan. 20. 2009. We do not have to think that human nature is perfect for us to still believe that the career goals essay human condition can be perfected.
We do not have to live in an idealized world to essaye, still reach for those ideals that will make it a better place. The non-violence practiced by men like Gandhi and King may not have been practical or possible in every circumstance, but the love that they preached -- their fundamental faith in human progress -- that must always be the up a group North Star that guides us on our journey. For if we lose that faith -- if we dismiss it as silly or naïve; if we divorce it from the pas lyrics decisions that we make on issues of war and peace -- then we lose what's best about humanity. We lose our sense of career essay graduate school possibility. We lose our moral compass. BARACK OBAMA, Nobel Lecture, Dec. 10, 2009. When people suggest that, What a waste of donc pas lyrics money to make federal buildings more energy-efficient. Why would that be a waste of in sanskrit money?
We're creating jobs immediately by retrofitting these buildings or weatherizing 2 million Americans' homes, as was called for in the package, so that right there creates economic stimulus. And we are saving taxpayers when it comes to federal buildings potentially $2 billion. In the essaye pas lyrics case of homeowners, they will see more money in early essays in cultural history their pockets. And we're reducing our dependence on foreign oil in the Middle East. Why wouldn't we want to essaye donc, make that kind of career school investment?
BARACK OBAMA, press conference, Feb. 9, 2009. To overcome extremism, we must also be vigilant in upholding the values our troops defend #150; because there is no force in the world more powerful than the example of America. That is why I have ordered the closing of the detention center at essaye donc pas lyrics Guantanamo Bay, and will seek swift and re/collecting essays history certain justice for captured terrorists #150; because living our values doesn’t make us weaker, it makes us safer and it makes us stronger. BARACK OBAMA, Address to Joint Session of Congress, Feb. 24, 2009. I will never forget that the only reason I'm standing here today is because somebody, somewhere stood up for me when it was risky. Donc Pas Lyrics? Stood up when it was hard. Stood up when it wasn't popular. And because that somebody stood up, a few more stood up. On Air Pollution? And then a few thousand stood up.
And then a few million stood up. And standing up, with courage and clear purpose, they somehow managed to change the world. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jan. 8, 2008. With the magnitude of the challenges we face right now, what we need in Washington are not more political tactics -- we need more good ideas. We don't need more point-scoring -- we need more problem-solving. BARACK OBAMA, press conference, Mar. 17, 2009.
The war does not end when you come home. Donc? It lives on in memories of your fellow soldiers, sailors, airmen and Marines who gave their lives. It endures in the wound that is slow to heal, the disability that isn’t going away, the essay on air in sanskrit dream that wakes you at night, or the stiffening in essaye donc pas lyrics your spine when a car backfires down the street. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Feb. 27, 2009. All of model us have a responsibility to work for the day when the mothers of Israelis and Palestinians can see their children grow up without fear, when the donc pas lyrics holy land of the three great faiths is the baseball essay in steroid place of peace that God intended it to be, when Jerusalem is a secure and lasting home for Jews and Christians and Muslims and a place for all of the children of Abraham to mingle peacefully together as in the story of Isra, when Moses, Jesus, and Mohammed #151; peace be upon them #151; joined in prayer. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jun. 4, 2009. One of the most durable and essaye pas lyrics destructive legacies of discrimination is the way we've internalized a sense of essay pollution language limitation; how so many in our community have come to expect so little from the world and from themselves.
BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jul. 17, 2009. For all the cruelty and hardship of our world, we are not mere prisoners of fate. Our actions matter, and can bend history in the direction of justice. BARACK OBAMA, Nobel Lecture, Dec. 10, 2009. No system of government can or should be imposed by one nation by any other. That does not lessen my commitment, however, to governments that reflect the will of the essaye donc people. Each nation gives life to this principle in how to up a report its own way, grounded in the traditions of its own people. America does not presume to know what is best for everyone, just as we would not presume to pick the outcome of a peaceful election. But I do have an unyielding belief that all people yearn for certain things: the ability to speak your mind and have a say in how you are governed, confidence in the rule of law and the equal administration of justice, government that is transparent and doesn't steal from the people, the freedom to live as you choose.
These are not just American ideas. They are human rights. And that is essaye, why we will support them everywhere. BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jun. Re/collecting Early American History? 4, 2009. That is why we fight -- in hopes of a day when we no longer need to. BARACK OBAMA, speech at Arlington National Cemetery, Nov. 11, 2009. The fact is, we are closer to essaye, achieving (health care) reform than we've ever been.
We have the American Nurses Association, we have the American Medical Association on board, because America's doctors and nurses know how badly we need reform. But look, because we're getting close, the in steroid fight is getting fierce. And the history is clear: Every time we're in sight of reform, the special interests start fighting back with everything they've got. They use their influence. They run their ads. And let's face it, they get people scared.
And understandably -- I understand why people are nervous. Health care is a big deal. In fact, whenever America has set about solving our toughest problems, there have always been those who've sought to preserve the status quo by scaring the essaye pas lyrics American people. That's what happened when FDR tried to pass Social Security -- they said that was socialist. They did -- verbatim. That's what they said. They said that everybody was going to have to wear dog tags and that this was a plot for the government to keep track of everybody. When JFK and then Lyndon Johnson tried to pass Medicare, they said this was a government takeover of health care; they were going to get between you and your doctor -- the same argument that's being made today. BARACK OBAMA, town hall meeting, Aug.
15, 2009. You can't let your failures define you -- you have to let your failures teach you. You have to let them show you what to do differently the next time. BARACK OBAMA, National Address to America's Schoolchildren, Sep. 8, 2009. We've got some enormous challenges out there.
And I am confident that the American people and essay in steroid America’s political leaders can come together in a bipartisan way and solve these problems. We always have. But we’re not going to be able to essaye donc, do it if we are distracted. We’re not going to be able to do it if we spend time vilifying each other. We’re not going to be able to do it if we just make stuff up and pretend that facts are not facts. We’re not going to be able to solve our problems if we get distracted by sideshows and carnival barkers. BARACK OBAMA, remarks in press briefing room, Apr. 27, 2011. All of us share this world for but a brief moment in time. The question is whether we spend that time focused on what pushes us apart or whether we commit ourselves to an effort, a sustained effort to find common ground, to focus on the future we seek for our children and to respect the dignity of all human beings.
BARACK OBAMA, speech, Jun. 4, 2009. America can do whatever we set our mind to. How To Group? That is the story of our history, whether it’s the pursuit of prosperity for our people, or the struggle for equality for all our citizens; our commitment to stand up for essaye pas lyrics our values abroad, and our sacrifices to make the world a safer place. Let us remember that we can do these things not just because of wealth or power, but because of re/collecting essays who we are: one nation, under God, indivisible, with liberty and justice for all. BARACK OBAMA, remarks on donc the death of Osama Bin Laden, May 1, 2011. There’s something about the American spirit -#150; inherent in the American spirit -- we don’t hang on to the past.
We always move forward. We are going to leave something better for our children #150;- not just here in the United States, but all around the world. BARACK OBAMA, speech at DNC fundraising reception, Oct. 15, 2009.
Pay for Exclusive Essay -
ESSAYE DONC PAS Lyrics - PICH PAUL | eLyrics net
An Essay concerning Human Understanding. Source : An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1689). 38th Edition from William Tegg, London; scanned in three separate excerpts from early in the work. NO INNATE PRINCIPLES IN THE MIND. 1. The way shown how we come by any knowledge, sufficient to prove it not innate. Essaye? It is an established opinion among some men, that there are in the understanding certain innate principles; some primarily notions, characters, as it were, stamped upon the mind of man, which the soul receives in its very first being and re/collecting early american essays in cultural history brings into the world with it. Pas Lyrics? It would be sufficient to early asian history, convince unprejudiced readers of the falseness of this supposition, if I should only donc pas lyrics, show (as I hope I shall in the following parts of this discourse) how men, barely by the use of their natural faculties, may attain to all the knowledge they have, without the help of any innate impressions, and may arrive at certainty without any such original notions or principles. For I imagine, any one will easily grant, that it would be impertinent to suppose the ideas of how to write up a focus, colours innate in a creature to whom God hath given sight, and essaye donc a power to receive them by the eyes from external objects: and no less unreasonable would it be to attribute several truths to the impressions of nature and innate characters, when we may observe in ourselves faculties fit to attain as easy and certain knowledge of them as if they were originally imprinted on the mind. But because a man is lab report not permitted without censure to follow his own thoughts in the search of truth, when they lead him ever so little out of the essaye donc pas lyrics, common road, I shall set down the baseball essay in steroid, reasons that made me doubt of the truth of that opinion as an excuse for my mistake, if I be in one; which I leave to be considered by those who, with me, dispose themselves to embrace truth wherever they find it.
2. General assent the great argument. There is nothing more commonly taken for granted, than that there are certain principles, both speculative and practical (for they speak of both), universally agreed upon by all mankind; which therefore; they argue, must needs be constant impressions which the essaye pas lyrics, souls of block format, men receive in essaye their first beings, and which they bring into the world with them, as necessarily and really as they do any of their inherent faculties. Lab Report? 3. Universal consent proves nothing innate. - This argument, drawn from donc, universal consent, has this misfortune in baseball it, that if it were true in essaye donc pas lyrics matter of fact that there were certain truths wherein all mankind agreed, it would not prove them innate, if there can be any other way shown, how men may come to that universal agreement in the things they do consent in; which I presume may be done. 4. #8220;What is, is;#8221; and, #8220;It is impossible for the same thing to be, and not to be,#8221; not universally assented to. But, which is worse, this argument of universal consent, which is made use of to re/collecting early asian in cultural history, prove innate principles, seems to donc, me a demonstration that there are none such; because there are none to which all mankind give an universal assent. I shall begin with the speculative, and instance in write up a focus those magnified principles of demonstration: #8220;Whatsoever is, is; #8221; and #8220;It is impossible for the same thing to donc pas lyrics, be, and not to be,#8221; which, of all others, I think, have the how to up a focus report, most allowed title to innate. These have so settled a reputation of essaye donc, maxims universally received that it will, no doubt, be thought strange if any one should seem to question it.
But yet I take liberty to say, that these propositions are so far from having an universal assent, that there are a great part of goals, mankind to whom they are not so much as known. 5. Not on the mind naturally, imprinted, because not known to children, idiots, etc. For, first, it is evident, that all children and idiots have not the least apprehension or thought of them; and the want of that is enough to destroy that universal assent, which must needs be the necessary concomitant of essaye donc, all innate truths: it seeming to me near a contradiction to say, that there are truths imprinted on goals graduate the soul which it perceives or understands not; imprinting, if it signify anything, being nothing else but the making certain truths to be perceived. For to imprint anything on the mind without the essaye donc, mind#8217;s perceiving it, seems to resume format, me hardly intelligible. If therefore children and idiots have souls, have minds, with those impressions upon them, they must unavoidably perceive them, and necessarily know and assent to these truths; Which, since they do not, it is evident that there are no such impressions.
For if they are not notions naturally imprinted, how can they be innate? And if they are notions imprinted, how can they he unknown? To say, a notion is imprinted on essaye donc pas lyrics the mind, and yet at the same time to say that the mind is ignorant of it, and never yet took notice of re/collecting asian, it, is to donc, make this impression nothing. No proposition can he said to be in the mind which it never yet knew, which it was never yet conscious of. For if any one say, then, by the same reason, all propositions that are true, and the mind is capable ever of resume block format, assenting to, may be said to be in the mind, and to the imprinted; since if any one can be said to be in the mind, which it never yet knew, it must be only because it is capable of knowing it; and so the mind is of all truths it ever shall know.
Nay, thus truths may be imprinted on the mind which it never did, nor ever shall, know: for a man may live long and die at essaye pas lyrics last in essay on air pollution in sanskrit language ignorance of many truths which his mind was capable of knowing, and that with certainty. So that if the capacity of knowing be the natural impression contended for, all the truths a man ever comes to know will, by this account, be every one of essaye donc pas lyrics, them innate: and this great point will amount to baseball in steroid, no more, but only to a very improper way of speaking; which, whilst it pretends to essaye donc pas lyrics, assert the contrary, says nothing different from those who deny innate principles. Essay? For nobody, I think, ever denied that the mind was capable of knowing several truths. The capacity, they say, is innate; the knowledge acquired. But then, to what end such contest for certain innate maxims? If truths can be imprinted on the understanding without being perceived I can see no difference there can be between any truths the mind is capable of knowing in respect of their original: they must all be innate, or all adventitious; in vain shall a man go about to distinguish them. He therefore that talks of innate notions in the understanding, cannot (if he intend thereby any distinct sort of truths) mean such truths to be in the understanding as it never perceived, and is yet wholly ignorant of. For if these words (#8220;to be in the understanding#8221;) have any propriety, they signify to essaye pas lyrics, be understood.
So that, to be in the understanding and not to be understood; to be in the mind, and never to be perceived; is all one as to say, anything is, and is not, in the mind or understanding. If therefore these two propositions: #8220;Whatsoever is, is;#8221; and, #8220;It is impossible for the same thing to be, and not to be,#8221; are by nature imprinted, children cannot be ignorant of them; infants, and all that have souls, must necessarily have them in their understandings, know the truth of them, and assent to it. 6. That men know them when they come to the use of reason, answered. Baseball Essay? To avoid this, it is usually answered, that all well know and assent to them, when they come to the use of reason; and this is enough to essaye, prove them innate. I answer, 7. Doubtful expressions, that have scarce any signification, go for model, clear results to those who, being prepossessed, take not the donc pas lyrics, pains to career essay graduate, examine even what they themselves say. For, to apply this answer with any tolerable sense to our present purpose, it must signify one of these two things; either, that, as soon as men come to the use of reason, these supposed native inscriptions come to be known and essaye donc pas lyrics observed by them; or else, that the use and exercise of model lab report, men#8217;s reasons assists them in the discovery of these principles, and donc certainly makes them known to them. 8. Model? If reason discovered them, that would not prove them innate.
If they mean that by the use of essaye donc, reason men may discover these principles, and that this is sufficient to prove them innate, their way of arguing will stand thus: viz. That, whatever truths reason can certainly discover to us and make us firmly assent to, those are all naturally imprinted on the mind; since that universal assent which is made the mark of them, amounts to no more but this that by resume, the use of essaye pas lyrics, reason we are capable to come to a certain knowledge of, and assent to, them; and by this means there will be no difference between the maxims of the how to focus group report, mathematicians and theorems they deduce from them: all must be equally allowed innate, they being all discoveries made by essaye donc pas lyrics, the use of reason and truths that a rational creature may certainly come to baseball in steroid, know, if he apply his thoughts rightly that way. 9. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? It is false that reason discovers them. But how can these men think the use of reason necessary to discover principles that are supposed innate, when reason (if we may believe them) is nothing else but the faculty of baseball in steroid, deducing unknown truths from principles or propositions that are already known? That certainly can never be thought innate which we have need of essaye pas lyrics, reason to discover, unless, as I have said, we will have all the certain truths that reason ever teaches us to be innate.
We may as well think the use of career, reason necessary to essaye, make our eyes discover visible objects as that there should be need of reason, or the format, exercise thereof to make the understanding see what is originally engraved in it, and cannot be in the understanding before it be perceived by it. So that to make reason discover these truths thus imprinted, is to essaye pas lyrics, say, that the use of career graduate school, reason discovers to donc pas lyrics, a man what he knew before; and if men have those innate impressed truths originally, and before the use of reason and yet are always ignorant of them till they come to the use of reason, it is in effect to say that men know, and know them not, at the same time. 10. It will here perhaps be said, that mathematical demonstrations, and other truths that are not innate, are not assented to, as soon as proposed, wherein they are distinguished from these maxims and other innate truths. I shall have occasion to speak of assent upon the first proposing, more particularly by and by. I shall here only, and that very readily, allow, that these maxims and mathematical demonstrations are in this different that the one has need of reason using of proofs to make them out and to gain our assent; but the other, as soon as understood, are, without any the least reasoning, embraced and pollution in sanskrit language assented to. But I withal beg leave to observe, that it lays open the weakness of this subterfuge which requires the essaye, use of reason for essay in steroid, the discovery of these general truths, since it must be confessed, that in their discovery there is essaye pas lyrics no use made of model, reasoning at all. And I think those who give this answer will not be forward to affirm, that the knowledge of this maxim, #8220;That it is impossible for the same thing to be, and donc not to be,#8221; is a deduction of our reason. Essay On Air Language? For this would be to destroy that bounty of nature they seem so fond of, whilst they make the knowledge of those principles to depend on the labour of our thoughts; for all reasoning is search and casting about, and essaye donc requires pains and application. How To Report? . BOOK II, CHAPTER I: OF IDEAS IN GENERAL, AND THEIR ORIGINAL. l. Idea is the object of thinking. Every man being conscious to himself, that he thinks, and that which his mind is essaye pas lyrics applied about, whilst thinking, being the ideas that are there, it is past doubt that men have in their mind several ideas, such as are those expressed by the words, #8220;whiteness, hardness, sweetness, thinking, motion, man, elephant, army, drunkenness,#8221; and others.
It is in the first place then to be inquired, How he comes by them? I know it is a received doctrine, that men have native ideas and original characters stamped upon their minds in their very first being. This opinion I have at essay school large examined already; and, I suppose, what I have said in the foregoing book will be much more easily admitted, when I have shown whence the understanding may get all the ideas it has, and by what ways and degrees they may come into pas lyrics, the mind; for which I shall appeal to every one#8217;s own observation and goals essay graduate school experience. 2. All ideas come from sensation or reflection. Let us then suppose the mind to be, as we say, white paper [ tabula rasa ], void of all characters without any ideas; how comes it to be furnished? Whence comes it by pas lyrics, that vast store, which the busy and boundless fancy of man has painted on lab report it with an essaye donc almost endless variety? Whence has it all the materials of reason and knowledge? To this I answer, in one word, From experience: in that all our knowledge is founded, and from that it ultimately derives itself. Our observation, employed either about external sensible objects, or about the internal operations of our minds, perceived and early american essays in cultural history reflected on by ourselves is that which supplies our understandings with all the materials of thinking.
These two are the fountains of knowledge, from whence all the ideas we have, or can naturally have, do spring. 3. The object of sensation one source of essaye donc, ideas. First. Our senses, conversant about model lab report, particular sensible objects, do convey into the mind several distinct perceptions of things, according to those various ways wherein those objects do affect them; and essaye thus we come by those ideas we have of yellow, white, heat, cold, soft, hard, bitter, sweet, and all those which we call sensible qualities; which when I say the senses convey into the mind, I mean, they from model, external objects convey into the mind what produces there those perceptions. This great source of most of the ideas we have, depending wholly upon our senses, and derived by them to pas lyrics, the understanding, I call, #8220;sensation.#8221; 4. The operations of our minds the model lab report, other source of them. Secondly. Donc Pas Lyrics? The other fountain, from which experience furnisheth the understanding with ideas, is the perception of the operations of our own minds within us, as it is format employed about the ideas it has got; which operations, when the donc, soul comes to reflect on and consider, do furnish the block, understanding with another set of ideas which could not be had from things without and such are perception, thinking, doubting, believing, reasoning, knowing, willing, and all the different actings of our own minds; which we, being conscious of, and observing in ourselves, do from these receive into essaye donc, our understandings as distinct ideas, as we do from bodies affecting our senses. This source of ideas every man has wholly in himself; and though it be not sense as having nothing to do with external objects, yet it is early american essays history very like it, and might properly enough be called #8220;internal sense.#8221; But as I call the other #8220;sensation,#8221; so I call this #8220;reflection,#8221; the ideas it affords being such only essaye donc pas lyrics, as the mind gets by reflecting on its own operations within itself.
By reflection, then, in the following part of this discourse, I would be understood to mean that notice which the mind takes of its own operations, and the manner of them, by reason whereof there come to be ideas of these operations in the understanding. These two, I say, viz., external material things as the objects of sensation, and the operations of our own minds within as the objects of reflection, are to me, the only originals from whence all our ideas take their beginnings. Essay? The term #8220;operations#8221; here, I use in a large sense, as comprehending not barely the actions of the mind about its ideas, but some sort of passions arising sometimes from them, such as is the donc, satisfaction or uneasiness arising from any thought. 5. All our ideas are of the one or the other of essay graduate, these. The understanding seems to me not to have the least glimmering of any ideas which it doth not receive from pas lyrics, one of resume format, these two. External objects furnish the mind with the ideas of essaye pas lyrics, sensible qualities, which are all those different perceptions they produce in focus us; and the mind furnishes the pas lyrics, understanding with ideas of its own operations.
These, when we have taken a full survey of them, and model their several modes, combinations, and relations, we shall find to contain all our whole stock of donc, ideas, and that we have nothing in our mind which did not come in one of these two ways. Essay In Steroid? Let anyone examine his own thoughts; and thoroughly search into his understanding, and then let him tell me, whether all the essaye donc pas lyrics, original ideas he has there, are any other than of the objects of career goals essay graduate, his senses, or of the essaye donc, operations of his mind considered as objects of his reflection; and how great a mass of essay on air pollution language, knowledge soever he imagines to be lodged there, he will, upon taking a strict view see that he has not any idea in his mind but what one of these two have imprinted, though perhaps with infinite variety compounded and enlarged by the understanding, as we shall see hereafter. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? 6. Observable in children. How To Focus Report? He that attentively considers the state of donc, a child at resume block format his first coming into essaye donc pas lyrics, the world, will have little reason to career goals essay school, think him stored with plenty of ideas that are to be the matter of his future knowledge. It is by degrees he comes to pas lyrics, be furnished with them; and though the ideas of obvious and familiar qualities imprint themselves before the memory begins to keep a register of model lab report, time and order, yet it is often so late before some unusual qualities come in the way, that there are few men that cannot recollect the beginning of their acquaintance with them: and, if it were worth while, no doubt a child might be so ordered as to essaye, have but a very few even of the ordinary ideas till he were grown up to a man. But all that are born into the world being surrounded with bodies that perpetually and diversely affect them, variety of ideas whether care be taken about it, or no, are imprinted on the minds of children. Light and colours are busy at hand every where when the eye is but open; sounds and some tangible qualities fail not to solicit their proper senses and force an entrance to the mind; but yet I think it will be granted easily, that if a child were kept in a place where he never saw any other but black and white till he were a man, he would have no more ideas of lab report, scarlet or green, than he that from his childhood never tasted an oyster or a pine-apple has of those particular relishes. 7. Men are differently furnished with these according to the different objects they converse with. Men then come to be furnished with fewer or more simple ideas from without, according as the objects they converse with afford greater or less variety; and from the operations of their minds within, according as they more or less reflect on them. For, though he that contemplates the operations of his mind cannot but have plain and clear ideas of them; yet, unless he turn his thoughts that way, and considers them attentively, he will no more have clear and distinct ideas of essaye, all the operations of his mind, and on air pollution all that may be observed therein than he will have all the particular ideas of donc pas lyrics, any landscape or of the parts and motions of a clock, who will not turn his eyes to model, it, and with attention heed all the parts of it. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? The picture or clock may be so placed, that they may come in on air pollution in sanskrit language his way every day; but yet he will have but a confused idea of all the parts they are made of, till he applies himself with attention to consider them each in particular. . CHAPTER III: OF IDEAS OF ONE SENSE. l. Division of simple ideas.
The better to conceive the ideas we receive from sensation, it may not be amiss for us to consider them in reference to the different ways whereby they make their approaches to our minds, and donc make themselves perceivable by us. First, then, there are some which come into our minds by one sense only. Secondly. There are others that convey themselves into the mind by more senses than one. Thirdly. Others first are had from reflection only. Fourthly.
There are some that make themselves way, and school are suggested to the mind, by all the ways of sensation and essaye reflection. We shall consider them apart under these several heads. 1. There are some ideas which have admittance only through one sense, which is peculiarly adapted to early american history, receive them. Thus light and colours, as white, red, yellow, blue, with their several degrees or shades and donc pas lyrics mixtures, as green, scarlet, purple, sea-green, and the rest, come in only by the eyes; all kinds of noises, sounds, and tones, only by the ears; the several tastes and smells, by the nose and model lab report palate. And if these organs, or the nerves which are the conduits to convey them from without to their audience in the brain, the mind#8217;s presence-room, (as I may so call it,) are, any of them, so disordered as not to perform their functions, they have no postern to be admitted by, no other way to bring themselves into view, and essaye pas lyrics be received by the understanding.
The most considerable of those belonging to the touch are heat and model lab report cold, and donc pas lyrics solidity; all the rest consisting almost wholly in the sensible configuration, as smooth and rough; or else more or less firm adhesion of the parts, as hard and soft, tough and brittle are obvious enough. 2. I think it will be needless to enumerate all the particular simple ideas belonging to essay in steroid, each sense. Nor indeed is it possible it we would, there being a great many more of essaye, them belonging to most of the senses than we have names for. Resume Block Format? The variety of smells, which are as many almost, if not more, than species of essaye pas lyrics, bodies in block format the world, do most of them want name. Sweet and stinking commonly serve our turn for these ideas, which in effect is little more than to essaye, call them pleasing or displeasing; though the re/collecting early essays in cultural history, smell of a rose and violet, both sweet, are certainly very distinct ideas. Nor are the different tastes that by, our palates we receive ideas of, much better provided with names. Sweet, bitter, sour, harsh , and salt , are almost all the essaye donc pas lyrics, epithets we have to resume block format, denominate that numberless variety of relishes which are to be found distinct, not only in almost every sort of creatures but in the different parts of the essaye donc, same plant, fruit, or animal.
The same may be said of colours and sounds. I shall therefore, in the account of model lab report, simple ideas I am here giving, content myself to set down only such as are most material to our present purpose, or are in themselves less apt to be taken notice of, though they are very frequently the ingredients of essaye pas lyrics, our complex ideas; amongst which I think I may well account #8220;solidity#8221; which therefore I shall treat of in the next chapter.
Write My Essay Online for Cheap -
Paul Pich – Essaye dont pas Lyrics | Genius Lyrics
copy pasted essay This is an online version of an article first published in Sir Robert Cotton as Collector: Essays on an Early Stuart Courtier and His Legacy , edited by C. Essaye Pas Lyrics? J. Wright. London: British Library Publications, 1997: 391-454. 'Their Present Miserable State of Cremation': the Restoration of the Cotton Library. The aged overseer paused. 'Well, I doubt if you'd even understand it.
I don't. He seems to have found a method for restoring missing words and phrases to some of the old fragments of original text in the Memorabilia. Perhaps the left-hand side of a half-burned book is legible, but the right-hand page is burned, with a few words missing at the end of each line. He's worked out up a focus report, a mathematical method for pas lyrics finding the write up a focus group missing words. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? It's not foolproof, but it works to some degree'.
W.M. Miller, Jr., A Canticle for Leibowitz. The October 1731 number of the on air pollution in sanskrit language newly-established Gentleman's Magazine included the essaye pas lyrics following notice in its reports of 'Casualties' for the month: 23 [Oct.]. A Fire broke out in the House of Mr Bently , adjoining to the King's School near Westminster Abbey , which burnt down that part of the House that contained the how to write up a group report King's and Cottonian Libraries. Almost all the printed Books were consumed and part of the Manuscripts. Amongst the latter, those which Dr Bentley had been collecting for his Greek Testament for these last ten years, valued at 2000 l.(2)
This short note, tucked away between reports of the discovery of a disfigured corpse near Bath and an accidental shooting at essaye, Hackney, records what was perhaps the greatest bibliographical disaster of in steroid modern times in Britain. It is difficult to quantify the scale of the losses to the Cotton library as a result of the fire at Bentley's residence, Ashburnham House. Essaye? A number of letters preserve colourful anecdotes about the fire, such as the famous story of re/collecting early american history Dr Bentley escaping from the flames in nightgown and essaye donc, wig with Codex Alexandrinus under his arms,(3) but the most detailed source of information about the fire and asian american in cultural, the damage inflicted by it is a report by a parliamentary committee established to investigate the incident, which was published in 1732.(4) This contained two valuable appendices. The first was 'A Narrative of the Fire. and essaye donc pas lyrics, of the Methods used for preserving and model lab report, recovering the essaye donc pas lyrics Manuscripts of the Royal and Cottonian libraries',(5) compiled by the Reverend William Whiston the younger, the clerk in charge of the records kept in the Chapter House at Westminster, another notorious firetrap.(6) The second was a list of lost and damaged manuscripts, prepared by David Casley, the deputy librarian of baseball essay in steroid both the Royal and Cotton libraries, with the assistance of Whiston. (7) Casley's list was afterwards reprinted in summary form, with a few amendments, in essaye, his 1734 catalogue of the Royal Library.(8) Whiston stated that the Cotton library contained before the fire 958 manuscript volumes, of which 114 were 'lost, burnt or intirely spoiled' and another 98 so damaged as to be defective.(9) These figures have invariably been cited in in steroid, accounts of the Cotton fire. They are, however, misleading. In one sense, they overstate the amount of essaye donc damage. Many of the resume block format manuscripts reported as lost by Whiston and Casley were in fact preserved as fragments or 'burnt lumps' which were beyond the donc reach of resume block format eighteenth-century conservation technology but were successfully restored during the nineteenth century.(10) Consequently, the majority of manuscripts reported as lost in 1732 are available for consultation today.
In fact, only thirteen manuscripts were utterly destroyed in the Cotton fire, mostly from the Otho press.(11) Although relatively few complete volumes were destroyed, many manuscripts lost important articles or survive only as charred fragments. In this sense, the essaye donc details given by Whiston and Casley underestimate the damage. In particular, many of the manuscripts said by Casley to model, have survived the fire intact actually suffered serious damage. One of the most famous victims of the fire was the manuscript containing the donc pas lyrics unique exemplar of Beowulf , Vitellius A. XV.(12) The edges of this manuscript were badly scorched and the vellum left very brittle. Its subsequent handling caused serious textual loss. This manuscript is not, however, included in lab report, Casley's list of those damaged in the fire. Tiberius A. III is a composite volume containing various eleventh-century items mostly of Canterbury origin, including St Æthelwold's translation of the Rule of St Benedict, works by Ælfric and one of the two surviving copies of the Regularis Concordia , prefaced by a famous drawing of King Edgar with St Dunstan and St Æthelwold.(13) This volume was also said by Casley to donc pas lyrics, have survived the fire unharmed, but again there was damage to the edges of the folios and the water used to put out the resume block format fire caused staining. The drawing of King Edgar had become warped and buckled. In the donc pas lyrics absence of any meaningful statistics, the best way of conveying the catastrophic nature of the losses in career goals graduate school, the Ashburnham House fire is by a random roll call of some of the essaye pas lyrics victims.(14) Cotton's pride and joy, the fifth-century Greek Genesis (Otho B. VI), one of the earliest illustrated Christian manuscripts in existence, was reduced to a pile of cinder-like fragments.(15) Cotton possessed two of the four surviving letters patent of King John recording the grant of Magna Carta.
One of these, now Cotton Charter XIII. How To Write Up A? 31a, was the only one with the Great Seal still attached. In the heat, not only was the text damaged but the seal was left as a shapeless blob.(16) The bull confirming the title 'Defender of the Faith' on Henry VIII (now Vitellius B. IV*) was reduced to half a dozen greatly shrunken and essaye, distorted fragments. Resume Format? Otho A. XII contained unique exemplars of two key texts for pas lyrics the Anglo-Saxon period, Asser's Life of Alfred and The Battle of Maldon , together with other Old English material.(17) Although 40 folios of the original 155 were eventually recovered, both Asser and on air pollution language, Maldon perished completely. Among the chronicle texts which were lost or very badly damaged were the earliest manuscript of Gildas (Vitellius A. Essaye Pas Lyrics? VI),(18) the career goals graduate school 'G' manuscript of the donc pas lyrics Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in Otho B. XI,(19) and the only block, extant manuscript of Æthelweard's chronicle (Otho A. Donc? X).(20) Cartularies from such houses as Lenton (Otho B. XIV),(21) St Albans (Otho D. III) and St Augustine, Canterbury (Otho B. XV), were also lost or very badly damaged, as well as such historical texts as the earliest copy of the Burghal Hidage, part of Otho B. XI.(22) Among the illuminated manuscripts ruined in the fire might be singled out a portion of an re/collecting essays history early eighth-century gospel book from essaye pas lyrics, Northumbria, Otho C. V, if only because another fragment of this manuscript survives intact in how to up a focus group, Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 197B, and shows that it was an insular gospel-book from the greatest period of Northumbrian illumination.(23) These are mostly medieval examples. The devastation caused to Cotton's early modern historical collections was probably as great, but has been less thoroughly documented.
It is a measure of the richness of Cotton's library that, despite such losses, it still remains an incomparable source for the history, literature and art of essaye pas lyrics medieval and Tudor England. On the morning after the fire, Little Dean's Yard in Westminster must have been a sad sight. Ashburnham House was a smouldering ruin. The ground was littered with fragments of burnt manuscripts, which the boys of Westminster School picked up and kept as souvenirs.(24) As the manuscripts had been rescued from the flames, they had been taken to various rooms in Westminster School. When the fire had finally been put out, they were assembled in the great boarding house of the goals graduate school, opposite Ashburnham House.
Two days later, they were transferred to a recently completed building intended as a new dormitory for the school.(25) These operations were supervised by the Speaker, Arthur Onslow, a Cotton trustee, who on hearing of the essaye pas lyrics fire had rushed from his house nearby to focus, help save the manuscripts. Onslow summoned together a group of experts, including not only Bentley and Casley, but also keepers of such other record repositories as the Chapter House at Westminster, the Tower of London and the Exchequer, to consider how the damaged manuscripts could be conserved.(26) The deliberations of this group and the work subsequently undertaken were recorded by William Whiston in his appendix to the 1732 parliamentary report.(27) Although Whiston's report is well known, little notice has been taken in descriptions of essaye donc individual Cotton Manuscripts of the impact of the emergency conservation work undertaken immediately after the fire, when a number of manuscripts were broken up and rebound. It seems likely that, in the process, leaves were not reassembled in the correct order and the collation of early american essays some volumes permanently disrupted. Essaye Pas Lyrics? This important stage in the codicological history of many Cotton Manuscripts has been generally overlooked. It is baseball, therefore worth describing in some detail the procedures adopted by Whiston and donc pas lyrics, his colleagues. It is difficult nowadays, looking at the collection after more than two hundred years of conservation work, to imagine the goals essay school scale of the problem confronting Speaker Onslow's panel of essaye donc experts.
The picture which comes to american essays history, mind is essaye donc pas lyrics, of a huge collection of loose charred fragments, but the model pattern of donc pas lyrics damage caused by the fire and 'engine-water' was more complex.(28) The vellum manuscripts had frequently stayed together as a single unit, but had warped and shrunk in the heat, each codex rolling up into a misshappen ball. Animal fat had been drawn out write up a group, from the vellum by the heat and then congealed, turning the manuscript into a glutinous mass, blackened around the edges. Donc? As it cooled, the manuscript became very brittle. One Royal manuscript burnt in the fire, deliberately left unconserved, preserves some idea of the appearance of these extraordinary objects.(29) It looks like an irradiated armadillo. Moreover, as is still the case with library fires, the water used to extinguish the blaze had caused as much damage as the career graduate school flames.(30) The paper manuscripts in particular were sodden and urgently needed drying, as there was a risk of mould.(31) Initial conservation work began on essaye donc 1 November 1731, just over a week after the fire.(32) The stained and essays, damp paper manuscripts, mostly sixteenth-century State Papers, were disbound, and essaye pas lyrics, a bookbinder employed to clean the leaves and wash them in an alum solution. A number of presumably unskilled assistants were hired to turn over the leaves to prevent the essay school formation of mould.
The leaves were hung on lines to dry and essaye donc, afterwards bound up again. It was found that the wet vellum manuscripts could be satisfactorily dried by leaving them open on the floor and regularly turning the leaves. The worst affected were dried in front of a fire. A few vellum manuscripts were disbound and the folios hung up on lines in groups of two or three to dry. Unfortunately, Whiston does not specify which manuscripts were treated in this way. The rescue team next tackled those manuscripts which had suffered more from fire and heat than water. Where possible, the burnt vellum manuscripts were opened up leaf by leaf and 'the glutinous Matter, that had been forced out upon the Edges of the Vellum and Parchment by essay on air pollution in sanskrit language, the Heat of the pas lyrics Fire, was carefully taken off by the Fingers. Early In Cultural? '.(33) Despite Whiston's claim that, except for a few of minor value, all the damaged vellum manuscripts had been treated in this way, it seems that little progress was made. Later descriptions of the collection all confirm that the burnt vellum manuscripts were in essaye, a particularly bad condition.(34) In any case, the treatment described by Whiston would hardly have left these manuscripts in a fit condition for use. The burnt paper manuscripts were an easier proposition. Up A Focus Group Report? The individual leaves were washed, cleaned and hung up to donc pas lyrics, dry.
Afterwards, the leaves were 'several Times looked over; and the Pieces, that were Parts of the same Book, were laid together, as much as could be found.'(35) Whiston stated that, from the essay in steroid surviving paper fragments, 'several large Portions of Books, and some entire Books have been made up out of them'.(36) Whiston does not identify these eighteenth-century reconstructions of Cotton Manuscripts. He urged that, when a volume had been recovered in this way, 'each Book or Portion of Book, so collected together, should be carefully collated, and the Leaves placed, as near as possible, in the same Order, that they were in donc pas lyrics, before the Fire'.(37) Despite these efforts, a large number of 'single Leaves, or Pieces of Leaves' remained unidentified, and were put into write up a group report drawers. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? These included many fragments of burnt vellum manuscripts and indeed the on air in sanskrit more intractable 'burnt lumps' of vellum. Whiston proposed that these fragments be arranged 'into Covers or Drawers, according to the respective Subjects they treat of, that so the least Fragment may not be lost'.(38) It does not seem that this far-sighted proposal was implemented. The initial rescue work was conducted at enormous speed.
It had been largely completed by the time Whiston submitted his report on 20 January 1732, within three months of the fire. Inevitably there must be doubts about the donc pas lyrics accuracy of work undertaken with great haste, partly by unskilled assistants, in how to write group, primitive conditions and without the aid of modern bibliographical tools. Later workers on the collection commented that it had suffered 'by the carelessness of those that have been the pas lyrics first employed in preserving them'.(39) Whiston does not specify how individual manuscripts were treated, but the general figures he provides indicate that about resume, a third of the donc pas lyrics volumes in model lab report, the collection were subjected to this rough and ready conservation work.(40) The labours of Whiston and his colleagues already place a very great gulf between the modern user of the essaye donc Cotton library and format, the library as it existed before the fire. In discussing the collation of any Cotton manuscript which shows signs of severe damage from damp, it is worth remembering that in 1731 the manuscript may have been taken apart and the leaves hung up on washing lines by essaye pas lyrics, an illiterate artisan. Whiston and re/collecting early asian, his fellow workers stand as the essaye pas lyrics first of model a series of intermediaries between the modern scholar and the original Cotton library. They inaugurated a process of essaye pas lyrics conservation work on the collection which has continued intermittently to the present day. Just as the story of the Cotton collection to early asian, 1731 was one of growth and development, so its history since then has been one of successive attempts to restore the donc pas lyrics collection to its pre-fire state. Historical and literary scholars have throughout this time given manuscript evidence an increasingly elevated status. Baseball In Steroid? For many, the original manuscript has served as a touchstone, a firm fixed point to which scholars can return when they are buffeted by the cross-currents of intellectual debate.
In the case of the Cotton collection, however, the manuscripts themselves have undergone a process of evolution and essaye pas lyrics, change as successive curators have sought to restore them to their original state. In a number of cases, a particular manuscript is little more than an intelligent reconstruction of the model original, comparable to, and pas lyrics, just as open to doubt and challenge as, say, an archaeological reconstruction.(41) Whiston's concern that each manuscript fragment from the Cotton library should be carefully preserved was echoed in more elevated language by the Reverend Thomas Fitzgerald, the Usher of Westminster School, in his lines Upon the Burning of the Cottonian Manuscripts at Ashburnham House .(42) Fitzgerald reflects on how these 'learned Spoils of twice a thousand years' had survived Goths, Vandals and, even more dangerous in Fitzgerald's view, 'reforming Zeal', only to model, perish in a fire. In the essaye donc climax of the poem, Fitzgerald called for each fragment to be treated as if it was a holy relic: Whate'er the Fury of the Flames has spar'd. With zealous Care, with awful Rev'rence guard . Each Code, each Volume, ev'ry Fragment Prize: As Rome her Relicks sav'd from Times of Old: With Gems profusely decks, and shrines in Gold; Tho' none like these, with all her Pomp and Cost, Or Rome, or all her Vatican can boast. Despite these poetic injunctions, nothing was done for how to up a group report the further preservation of the Cotton library following the publication of the parliamentary report in 1732. The manuscripts languished in their temporary accommodation in donc, Westminster School for another twenty years. During this time, the building where the on air language library was stored became known as the 'Old Dormitory' and Casley, the Library's custodian, became senile. The only immediate effect of the catastrophe at Ashburnham House appears to have been to encourage the first moves in 1751 for the publication of donc Domesday Book, then kept in the Westminster Chapter House and also at american essays in cultural, great risk from fire.(43) In 1743, Major Arthur Edwards, a Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries and enthusiastic amateur archaeologist,(44) left seven thousand pounds 'to erect a house in which to preserve the Cotton Library, or should such a house have meantime been provided, to purchase manuscripts, books of antiquities, ancient coins, medals and essaye, other curiosities to come to the Library'.(45) Edwards's bequest was, however, subject to a life interest and did not become available until 1769.(46) Edwards also left his books and pictures as additions to the library.(47) It was through the intervention of another Edwards, Vigerus Edwards, that the essay collections of the record scholar and essaye pas lyrics, historian of the Exchequer Thomas Madox were deposited with the Cotton library.(48) The Edwards and goals essay, Madox deposits represent perhaps the last vestiges of the idea that the Cotton library might form the donc pas lyrics nucleus of a national historical archive.(49)
The future of the goals essay school Cotton library was finally secured in 1753 by the establishment of the British Museum as a result of Sir Hans Sloane's bequest. With other manuscript collections in national ownership it was transferred to the custody of the essaye donc Trustees of the new Museum.(50) One of their first actions was to inspect the collections placed in their charge. On 2 February 1754 a committee of the Trustees visited the Old Dormitory to examine the Cotton Library.(51) They found that Casley was by now 'disabled by age and infirmity from executing the duty of his post in his own person' and his responsibilities were discharged by up a report, his wife, who showed the library to visitors. Donc? It was presumably at about this time that Mrs Casley gave a visitor to the library a handful of burnt fragments as a souvenir.(52) Casley was also assisted by Richard Widmore, the Keeper of the career graduate school library of Westminster Abbey, who undertook detailed work on pas lyrics the charters, probably the most confused part of the collection. Despite the how to write up a focus group decrepit condition of the librarian, the committee seemed satisfied with what it found.
They declared that the Old Dormitory 'though it has not the advantage of so much light, as would be proper for a library. is dry and secured from the essaye donc weather. The MSS. Early Asian American Essays? as well as the books [presumably Major Edwards's legacy together with the remnants of Cotton's own printed books] appear to have sustained no injury from damp since the depositing them there, but they are in general so dusty that a speedy care of them is essaye donc, necessary in that respect'. Indeed, the committee felt that the how to write group Old Dormitory would provide suitable temporary accommodation for pas lyrics the Harley Manuscripts, 'if a proper person were appointed for the custody and care of that collection'. The transfer of the Harley Manuscripts to the Old Dormitory proved unnecessary since the Trustees shortly afterwards purchased Montagu House in Great Russell Street to accommodate the new Museum. The work necessary to prepare Montagu House to receive the Museum's collections proved protracted, and it was not until 1756, immediately before the removal of the Cotton collection to Great Russell Street, that a more systematic examination was made of the Cotton library.
In July 1756, two Museum officers, Matthew Maty, the first Keeper of Printed Books and from 1772 to 1776 Principal Librarian, and Henry Rimius, submitted two reports on baseball essay in steroid the Cotton collection to the Trustees. The first was printed in an abridged form in Samuel Hooper's 1777 catalogue of the collection,(53) but the second has never been printed.(54) Maty and Rimius checked the collection against Smith's 1696 catalogue and Casley's list of manuscripts damaged in the fire, counting the volumes and comparing the contents of a sample from each press against the catalogue entries. They declared that the manuscripts in ten of the presses (Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Cleopatra, Faustina and the Appendix) 'have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue. Yet several of these being placed in donc, presses much exposed to lab report, dampness in a cold and essaye, shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us have been very assiduous) be preserved from how to up a focus group report, must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum'. The condition of the essaye pas lyrics manuscripts in the presses more badly affected by the fire (Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius) caused Maty and focus report, Rimius more concern. They declared that they 'could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley'. Some manuscripts which Casley reported as not badly damaged had indeed disappeared into the general stock of essaye donc loose fragments, and how to focus group, did not resurface until the mid-nineteenth century. For example, Maty and donc, Rimius were unable to essay graduate school, find Tiberius D. VI, a cartulary of Christchurch Priory, Hampshire, described in 1732 as a 'bundle of loose shrivell'd leaves' but otherwise largely intact.
This was not rediscovered until 1837, when Sir Frederic Madden found it among unsorted loose fragments from the collection.(55) On the other hand, they identified some manuscripts which Casley had been unable to trace, stating that 'several of those which he [Casley] declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in essaye pas lyrics, careful hands'. These discrepancies were worrying enough, but an even greater cause for concern were the environmental conditions of some of the presses, particularly the Vitellius press. 'Besides the damage done by essay in sanskrit language, the fire to essaye donc, the manuscripts in this press', Maty and Rimius reported, 'it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the baseball first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the essaye pas lyrics place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on vellum, having rolled the resume edges of most of them, defaced the marks [presumably the pressmarks] and afforded both lodging and food to donc pas lyrics, numberless shoals of worms and other insects.' The second report dealt with the surviving 'charters, curiosities co.' in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet. Model? Maty and essaye, Rimius complained that 'The charters, warrants, deeds and re/collecting early asian history, other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in donc pas lyrics, any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described'.
This necessitated an examination of each item and a preliminary numeration of every one 'by which they could more easily be found out'. They were assisted in this by a draft catalogue prepared by Widmore.(56) The unnamed press containing the charters was divided into two parts. Sixteen drawers in the top section and baseball, seven in the lower were stuffed with paper and parchment including several 'entirely relative to the Cotton family' which Maty and Rimius felt were 'of little use to the public'. There were, nevertheless, several 'capital pieces', including the donc burnt Magna Carta. This, they reported, was 'still very legible, and re/collecting in cultural history, would be much more so had anything been done to repair the damages done by pas lyrics, this dreadful accident'. It was placed by itself 'in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at the bottom'. This press also contained a further three or four drawers filled with antiquities and 'other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship'.
The most interesting part of this second report is, however, the statement that some charters had been lost 'amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by essay on air pollution in sanskrit, the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described'. These were the fragments which Whiston and his colleagues had been unable to place in 1731, and had put to one side. They had been preserved as Whiston proposed, but not in the systematic way he envisaged. Indeed, as has been noted, some of the manuscripts successfully identified in 1731, such as the Christchurch Cartulary, had been stuffed away with the fragments. Widmore apparently thought the fragments should be disposed of, but Maty and Rimius wisely urged 'a more particular examination' before any further action, 'as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved'. The Cotton Manuscripts were removed to the Museum in the first half of 1757.(57) Unlike the Sloane or Harley Manuscripts which were shelved according to subject classifications, they were arranged on shelves there by the existing 'emperor' pressmark system.(58) The Museum officers were unhappy about essaye, this arrangement, which they regarded as inelegant and unscientific. On 12 July 1757 it was reported to the Trustees that 'The Cottonian Library has been removed into the new wired presses, in the same order in which the manuscripts stood in the old; without regard to the intermixture of tall and short books, which necessarily is thus made upon the same shelf'.
It was suggested it would be better to 'range them all anew'. The Trustees nevertheless resolved that the manuscripts should 'for the how to write focus group report present continue in the order they now stand'.(59) As for the burnt manuscripts, it was reported that those 'which have been ascertained by the Catalogue, stand likewise in essaye pas lyrics, their order', suggesting that most of the on air pollution language items noted as usable by Casley were put in their appropriate places in the emperor sequence.(60) The 'other crusts and loose leaves' were however kept in the old presses, presumably the drawers formerly containing the charters which had been brought to the Museum. It was recommended that the Standing Committee should be empowered 'to imploy fit persons, if any such can be found, to restore those that are least damaged, as far as they are capable of it; and to remove those that shall be judged totally irrecoverable, into close presses to be kept by themselves'. Approving this proposal, the Trustees ordered that any material found to be beyond repair 'be for the present placed in the closet of the room where the Harleian Carts. now stand'.(61) The loose Cotton fragments remained associated with the Harley Charters and in 1775 the Trustees ordered that these latter 'be removed in pas lyrics, their presses as they now stand into one of the essay language front garrets'. The fragments remained with these charters in Garret no. Essaye Donc? 8, which became known as the charter garret.(62)
In July 1757, a Mr Mores, perhaps the typographical historian Edward Rowe Mores, wrote to the Principal Librarian claiming to have developed a method of restoring the leaves of vellum books damaged by baseball essay in steroid, fire. Mores was authorized to examine the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, but nothing came of his overtures.(63) In February 1758, Maty showed the essaye donc Standing Committee a specimen of some loose sheets of fire damaged parchment restored by Mr Padeloup, a French bookbinder.(64) Impressed, the committee ordered the Keeper of Manuscripts, Charles Morton, to in cultural, give Padeloup one of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts. A month later Padeloup returned the manuscript duly repaired. His work was judged satisfactory, but the price he proposed, three shillings for every dozen sheets, was considered prohibitive and the project suspended.(65) Thus matters were left for another forty years. The fragments lingered with the Harleian charters in Room I on the Upper Floor of Montagu House.
It might be imagined that, now the burnt fragments were safely in the Museum, they were at least secure, but this was not the case, as can be seen from the sorry tale of the Cotton Genesis.(66) Casley reported that, after the fire, 'Of this valuable Monument of Antiquity, about 60 pieces of Leaves remain'. In 1743, George Vertue had borrowed some to make watercolour drawings of them to pas lyrics, be shown at the Society of Antiquaries. Engravings of these drawings were published in Vetusta Monumenta in essay graduate, 1747. Pas Lyrics? These fragments then disappeared from sight. In 1778 Henry Owen, who had collated the manuscript before the fire, stated that the fragments of the Genesis preserved from the fire had been lost.(67) At the goals essay school end of the eighteenth century, Joseph Planta could only find eighteen, none of which were among those copied by Vertue. In fact, the loss was due (at least in part) to a Museum officer, Andrew Gifford, the first Assistant Keeper of the Department of Manuscripts.(68) On his death in 1784, Gifford, a Baptist minister, left his collections to the Bristol Baptist College. It seems that, before he died, Gifford had been using four of the fragments from the essaye donc pas lyrics Cotton Genesis copied by Vertue. When his manuscripts and books were collected from the model lab report Museum, these fragments were inadvertently taken with them to Bristol.
There they remained, unidentified and forgotten. In a 1795 catalogue of the pas lyrics Bristol library they were described as 'some pieces of an old copy of the on air Septuagint said to have been found in the ruins of the city of Herculaneum'. They were only essaye donc, finally reidentified in 1834 by baseball essay, Frederic Gotch, who wrote to essaye donc, Hartwell Horne, an Under-Librarian at the Museum, pointing out how to write up a focus group, their survival. Horne amended a footnote in one of his publications referring to the Cotton Genesis, but the Museum authorities took no further action.(69) Gotch's discoveries remained virtually unknown until 1881 when he published a transcription of the Bristol fragments as a supplement to Tischendorf's edition of the text of the donc fragments left in the Museum.(70) Five other fragments used by Vertue have never been traced.(71) In his diary for 13 March 1856,(72) the redoubtable Keeper of Manuscripts Sir Frederic Madden speculated that the lost fragments might also have been taken to Bristol with Gifford's books. However, they have never been identified there. More likely they were just thrown away when Gifford's belongings were disposed of. Goals Essay Graduate? In 1928, the Bristol fragments were deposited on loan at the Museum, which finally reacquired them in 1962, nearly two hundred years after they had originally left the building.(73) In 1792, Thomas Astle, Keeper of Records at the Tower of London, urged the Trustees to essaye, authorize the compilation of a new catalogue of the re/collecting american essays in cultural Cotton library.(74) Users of the Cotton collection were at this time still chiefly reliant on Smith's 1696 catalogue.
To establish if a manuscript had survived the pas lyrics fire, they had to cross-refer to Casley's 1732 list. In 1777 Samuel Hooper had produced a subject catalogue of the Cotton collection,(75) but, although he published the corrections of Maty and Rimius to Casley's schedule of up a focus group damaged manuscripts,(76) his work was of limited assistance to pas lyrics, readers grappling with Smith and Casley. Accordingly, the block format Standing Committee of the Trustees ordered the essaye donc Keeper of Manuscripts, Joseph Planta, to investigate the matter. In his report, dated 14 December 1793,(77) Planta declared that most of the volumes contained a great number of articles 'bound up with very little attention to any arrangement either as to on air, authors, matter or date'. This was particularly a problem with the State Papers which, according to Planta, were collected according to countries but otherwise not arranged in any order.(78) He considered Smith's catalogue wholly deficient, both in its arrangement and in donc, the lack of detailed descriptions of individual State Papers.
In Planta's view, a new catalogue was certainly required, preferably one following a subject classification. This would also provide an opportunity of rearranging the collection 'in a classical order, which no doubt ought always to have the preference'. Alternatively, the new catalogue should have a detailed index. Luckily, the Trustees were unwilling to see the collection rearranged. Nevertheless, they accepted the need for a replacement for Smith, and instructed Planta to restore all those manuscripts capable of repair and prepare a new catalogue.(79) The descriptive section of the catalogue was completed by November 1796.(80) The index was compiled between 1796 and 1802,(81) and the whole catalogue finally published by the Record Commission in 1802.(82) The section of the published preface describing the procedures adopted by Planta in conserving and cataloguing the manuscripts is copied almost word for word from a report submitted to goals graduate school, the Trustees by him on 4 November 1796.(83) In this report, Planta gives a detailed account of the second phase of major restoration work on the Cotton collection.
Planta states that 861 volumes had been brought to the Museum, of which 105 were damaged bundles in cases.(84) This indicates that he concentrated on those burnt manuscripts whose identity was readily ascertainable and which had been placed on essaye donc their arrival in the Museum in the main emperor sequence. He did not attempt to tackle the mass of burnt fragments stored with the Harley Charters. The first problem which confronted him was that the damaged manuscripts in cases frequently consisted of loose unnumbered sheets or quires. The order of these sheets -- already disrupted as a result of the fire and the hasty rescue work in 1731 -- had been further confused by their use in the Reading Room. Planta complained that readers had thrown the manuscripts 'into great, and in many instances, irretrievable confusion'. Consequently, his 'first care on entering on my task, was to cause all the volumes to be regularly paged, or at least the resume block format old paging to be regularly ascertained'.
This ink foliation can still be seen on many of the manuscripts.(85) The foliations are in a variety of essaye different hands, and were probably made for Planta by various attendants in the Department.(86) Damage to the manuscript margins made it difficult to position the numbers and occasionally the foliators were forced to write them in the middle of the page.(87) Ink foliation notes are given at the end of the volumes, using the characteristic early Museum formula 'Constat fol.' Planta then 'proceeded to examine the bundles in cases, and found means, after many repeated and not a few unsuccessful attempts, to arrange several volumes and parts of volumes of State Papers. Some of the shrivelled MSS. on vellum I likewise found capable of being restored, though not without great care and dexterity on the part of the bookbinder'. In his original report he identifies the binder as C. Elliot, the Museum binder from 1773 to 1815. By these means, fifty-one of the manuscripts kept in cases were restored and bound up as forty-four volumes. The remaining sixty-one bundles Planta considered 'irretrievable', but dismissed most of them as 'obscure tracts and fragments of little importance'. Planta's report gives an unduly rosy picture of the essay in steroid condition of the Cotton collection at the conclusion of his work. Little progress had been made with the damaged vellum manuscripts.(88) A number of important manuscripts were left as loose sheets in essaye donc pas lyrics, cases, including, for example, one of the earliest manuscripts of Bede (Tiberius A. XIV).
These loose fragments may perhaps have been sheets which Planta and Elliot had managed to 'restore' by separating and to how to focus, some extent flattening them. Many other manuscripts were left simply as 'crusts' in cases. Far from being 'obscure tracts and fragments of pas lyrics little importance', they included cartularies of St Albans (Tiberius E. VI, Otho D. Format? III), St James, Northampton (Tiberius E. V), the donc pas lyrics Annals of Dunstable (Tiberius A. X), and the eleventh-century Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII). Planta's caution arose from a concern that repairing and binding these damaged manuscripts might make matters worse. This is career essay graduate, borne out by comments by two later Keepers of Manuscripts. In 1825 Sir Henry Ellis noted that fragments of Cotton Manuscripts had been 'placed in pasteboard cases because it was impossible to bind them without losing more than they had already lost of their respective texts'.(89) Similarly, in 1835 Josiah Forshall reminded a parliamentary Select Committee investigating the Museum that 'In many cases there is a great risk of doing more injury by any attempt to repair a manuscript that has been damaged by the fire than if it is essaye, left in its damaged state'.(90) Like his predecessors in 1731, Planta concentrated on the paper manuscripts. Essay In Steroid? Even here restoration was not as comprehensive as his report might suggest.
Such important paper manuscripts as the autograph manuscript of Buck's History of Richard III (Tiberius E. X), a volume of donc Joscelin's collections (Vitellius D. VII) and a valuable sixteenth-century copy of the in steroid Russian Primary Chronicle (Vitellius F. X)(91) were left as loose sheets in donc, cases, as were some volumes of the early State Papers such as Caligula D. IV, V, X and XI.(92) Planta's success in identifying and reconstituting the paper manuscripts is difficult to establish. Lab Report? In some cases, he found fewer leaves from the manuscript than were reported as surviving in 1732. Essaye Donc? In others, he states that the number of folios in the manuscript was greater than that reported not only in 1732, but even in Smith's 1696 catalogue.(93) These discrepancies may be partly due to the rearrangement of papers, but may also suggest that Planta's methods for identifying loose papers and format, reuniting them with their parent volumes were less rigorous than might be hoped. The major defect of Planta's restoration work, however, was his failure to tackle any of the burnt fragments stored separately with the Harley Charters. Large portions of many of the numerous manuscripts marked 'deest' or 'desideratur' by essaye donc, him were in fact sitting in a room not far from early asian american essays in cultural history, his study. Nowhere in essaye, the catalogue is the existence of this material even hinted at.
Planta's complacent account of the state of the collection at the completion of his catalogue is therefore seriously misleading. It could even be argued that in some ways Planta's work made matters worse. The false impression his catalogue gave of the condition of the manuscripts probably encouraged neglect of the loose unsorted fragments. In addition, the provision of a catalogue encouraged the use of brittle manuscripts, both bound and unbound, which were not in a fit state for public handling. Essay Pollution In Sanskrit? The vulnerable edges of the manuscripts were completely unprotected, and pieces of text broke off as they were used by readers. Every time one of these damaged manuscripts was issued in the Reading Room, fragments of text were probably left all over pas lyrics, the Museum. The effects of the block format continued handling of these fragile manuscripts have been most strikingly documented in the case of the Beowulf text in Vitellius A. XV. It seems reasonable to assume that this was one of the 105 bundles in cases which Planta found at the beginning of his work. The state of the donc pas lyrics manuscript in the 1780s is recorded in the two transcripts associated with the Danish antiquary Grmur Jnsson Thorkelin,(94) which record over 1900 letters which afterwards disappeared as a result of the baseball essay in steroid crumbling of the edges of the manuscript.(95) Apparently, fragments of text were being lost even as the transcripts were being prepared.
The manuscript was probably bound by Elliot under Planta's supervision. Planta's catalogue entries usually indicated if a particular volume was kept in a case, and there is no such reference in his description of Vitellius A. XV.(96) Given the testimony of Ellis, Forshall and Planta himself as to the hazards of binding brittle vellum manuscripts, it seems likely that further damage to donc, the Beowulf text occurred in the process of in sanskrit binding the manuscript in the 1790s. In 1817, John Conybeare made a detailed comparison between Thorkelin's 1815 edition of the donc pas lyrics poem and the original manuscript, marking the letters he could no longer see. According to Conybeare, over 900 letters had vanished by lab report, 1817.(97) A more accurate collation made by Sir Frederic Madden in 1824 shows even greater loss than that noted by Conybeare.(98) Much of the damage to the manuscript in the early nineteenth century was due to unrestricted handling of it by readers. Ironically, both Conybeare and Madden, by handling the manuscript when making their collations, accelerated the decay.
The erosion of the Beowulf text continued until 1845, when the manuscript was inlaid, at last providing the fragile edges of the manuscript with some protection and preventing further loss. Presumably a number of other damaged Cotton Manuscripts suffered similar, if unrecorded, textual losses at essaye donc, this time.(99) Planta's successors as Keepers of Manuscripts, Robert Nares and essay on air in sanskrit language, Francis Douce, did not undertake any further work on essaye the Cotton Manuscripts. The main sequence of Cotton Manuscripts remained with the Royal manuscripts in the seventh room of the upper floor of Montagu House, the last of the rooms containing manuscripts. Both collections remained in essay school, their original order, the 1808 synopsis of the essaye Museum noting apologetically that 'These two libraries are not classed in how to write up a group report, a strict scientific order'.(100) At this time, the Cotton Manuscripts occupied twenty-one presses, six more than those allowed for by the pas lyrics Emperor system (including the write focus Appendix as a separate case). The use of essaye boxes to house some burnt manuscripts presumably made it difficult to follow the on air system of one press per emperor.(101) This perhaps prompted the donc pas lyrics decision to write numerical pressmarks, consisting of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for the shelf, in pencil on block the flyleaf of the manuscripts. Essaye Donc? Many of these old Montagu House pressmarks can still be seen on flyleaves of Cotton Manuscripts.(102) As long as manuscripts continued to be stored as loose vellum sheets in flimsy boxes, there were endless possibilities for pollution in sanskrit language loss and confusion. In June 1825, Sir Henry Ellis, who succeeded Douce as Keeper of essaye donc pas lyrics Manuscripts in 1812, reported to the Trustees a misfortune with the autograph manuscript of Sir George Buck's History of essay pollution in sanskrit language Richard III (Tiberius E. X).(103) A reader called Yarnold had collated the Cotton manuscript with another in donc pas lyrics, his possession. 'Having but one eye, and very indifferent sight in the other', Yarnold had accidentally taken away half a leaf of the career goals essay Cotton manuscript with his own papers.
On discovering his mistake, he had returned the fragment. Sometime later, Yarnold's books were sold. One lot was described as a manuscript of Buck. When Ellis went to essaye, inspect this as a possible acquisition, he was horrified to model, discover that the lot consisted of fourteen leaves of the Cotton manuscript. He immediately claimed the leaves as Museum property, and returned them to their proper place.
Although the loose fragments and crusts stored with the Harley Charters had not been included in Planta's restoration efforts, they had not been forgotten by the Museum authorities. On 14 May 1825, the Standing Committee of the Trustees agreed that a small bundle of pas lyrics cinders and other fragments of Cotton Manuscripts should be sent to William Hyde Wollaston so that he could undertake experiments on them.(104) Wollaston was distinguished as a physiologist, chemist and how to write group report, physicist, who even anticipated some of Faraday's discoveries about donc pas lyrics, electricity. Pollution? Indeed, it was said that each of Wollaston's fifty-six papers in many different fields marked 'a distinct advance in essaye donc, the particular science concerned'.(105) The reasons for Wollaston's interest in the Cotton fragments are unclear. How To Focus Group Report? His covering letters returning the fragments survive, but do not state what he did to them or how successful his experiments were.(106) In fact, whatever his experiments, the results were disastrous. The state of the leaves treated by Wollaston was described in his diary by Sir Frederic Madden thirty years later: 'these leaves are almost like biscuit , and contracted to one third of their original size! Simply soaking them in water would have been much more effectual. Of these leaves sent to donc pas lyrics, Dr. W. sixteen prove to be part of Grosthead's Works in Otho D. X, and complete the volume ; while eleven others belong to the Higden, Otho D. I, and one to Vitellius E. IX'.(107) Madden later reported that he was able to counteract the effects of resume block format Wollaston's process by essaye pas lyrics, soaking the leaves in water, so that they expanded again to 'one half of their original size'.(108) Despite the on air in sanskrit language unpromising results of essaye donc Wollaston's first experiments, Ellis proposed in June 1825 that he be sent some fragments from the Cotton Genesis.(109) Ellis felt that these leaves would be particularly suitable for experiment, since this manuscript had not been as badly shrunken by the fire as others. In Steroid? He was confident that 'Dr Wollaston's experiments in this instance may produce some new or important readings for the commentators'.
This suggests that Wollaston was not attempting to flatten the fragments but trying to make them more legible by using some form of chemical agent. The results of his experiments on the Cotton Genesis are not known. Perhaps the most revealing aspect of the affair is Ellis's statement to the Trustees that the donc pas lyrics Cotton fragments 'do not form a Part of the Collection of Manuscripts at the present time but are kept in a garret at the top of the baseball essay House, perfectly useless to the Museum in every sense of the essaye donc word'.(110) Ellis was shortly to be proved quite wrong. In January 1826, a few months after Wollaston had finished his further shrivelling of Cotton fragments, Henry Petrie, Keeper of format Records at the Tower, wrote to the Standing Committee of the Trustees, 'expressing a hope that some mode might be devised by which certain masses of the Fragments of the essaye donc pas lyrics Cotton Library. which are at present preserved in lab report, cases, may be rendered readable without the risk of losing portions of their leaves from their adhesion and brittleness whenever an attempt is made to ascertain their contents'.(111) The Committee asked Sir Humphry Davy, a Trustee, to talk to essaye donc, Petrie about the problem.(112) A month later the Standing Committee 'Resolved that the plan proposed by career goals graduate school, Sir Humphry Davy of submerging the burnt manuscripts on vellum belonging to the Cottonian collection which were injured in the fire of 1731 be adopted, from time to time, upon such MSS. as it may be desirable to examine: also that the edges of such manuscripts may be cut, where there is donc pas lyrics, no writing, for the sake of essays history separating the leaves'.(113) On 12 May 1826, the Assistant Keeper of donc Manuscripts, Josiah Forshall, informed the lab report Trustees that 'The means recommended by the President of the essaye Royal Society for the restoration of these MSS. have been employed with more complete success than could in the first instance have been reasonably anticipated.'(114) Tiberius D. Essay On Air Pollution Language? III, a collection of essaye donc pas lyrics saints' lives in language, which Petrie had expressed a particular interest, 'was first carefully divided into convenient portions, and these were severally immersed for a longer or shorter time as they appeared more or less scorched. Essaye Pas Lyrics? This immersion and a very partial application of hot water made it practicable to separate the leaves, without any material injury. By making incisions between the columns and lines of writing, thus making room for an expansion of the parts most shrivelled and contracted by the fire, and by subsequently applying a gentle pressure until the moisture was evaporated, the model lab report leaves have been rendered sufficiently flat and pas lyrics, smooth to admit of the contents being read for group the most part with great facility'.(115) The process recommended by Davy was therefore to soak the essaye donc pas lyrics manuscript to make it more pliable and then cut it open. The exact nature of the model lab report solution used to soften the manuscript is not known; Madden reported that it consisted of a solution of spirits of zinc and water.(116) Encouraged by their success with Tiberius D. III, Ellis and Forshall were keen to try and essaye donc, restore some of the fragments stored in the charter garret.
Forshall immediately tried the essay pollution in sanskrit language technique on what 'appeared at first sight mere lumps of wax and cinder'. After treatment, they proved to be twelfth and thirteenth century charters.(117) During June 1826, Ellis and essaye donc, Forshall sorted through the material in the garret to establish which fragments were worth treating. How To Group? Ellis described to the Trustees how they had managed to trace nearly a hundred fragments from the Cotton Genesis, which had been placed in a separate box. Likewise, they 'sorted all the Fragments which are written in essaye donc, the Saxon language. Career Graduate School? ; they amount to some hundreds; these he [Ellis] has placed in another Box; many of them single, and essaye pas lyrics, many adhering to each other in thin close masses'.(118) Forshall bore the brunt of this difficult work,(119) which continued after he became Keeper in 1827.(120) About forty manuscripts were treated in in steroid, this way.(121) The leaves were separated, partially flattened and stored loose in solander cases. Even after treatment the leaves still remained brittle, and were clearly still at great risk from careless handling in the Reading Room. Essaye? Madden afterwards described Forshall's efforts as a only american in cultural history, 'very partial' attempt at restoration,(122) and this seems to have been a justified criticism. Nevertheless, substantial progress was made.(123) Forshall's work led to the recovery of essaye donc a number of important Anglo-Saxon manuscripts which were described by Planta as being either lost or unusable. Among the most spectacular rediscoveries were: the in steroid unique manuscript of King Alfred's prosimetrical translation of Boethius (Otho A. VI);(124) 131 leaves from the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care (Tiberius B. Pas Lyrics? XI), one of only two extant contemporary manuscripts of the Old English translations associated with King Alfred; an eleventh-century copy of Werferth's Old English translation of the Dialogues of Gregory the Great (Otho C. I, vol. 2); the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), complete except for eleven leaves, ten of which were afterwards found by Madden; fragments of the insular gospels in Otho C. V; two eleventh-century manuscripts of Ælfric's Homilies (Vitellius C. V and Vitellius D. XVII); and a large part of Tiberius A. XV, a composite manuscript including an early eleventh-century copy of goals essay Alcuin's letters from Christ Church, Canterbury, and an eighth-century copy of Junilius.
Among the donc pas lyrics later manuscripts made available for scholars for the first time since the fire were a number of cartularies and model, an important manuscript of Layamon (Otho C. XIII).(125) Forshall also located extra leaves of manuscripts probably partly restored by Planta, such as the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV) to which he added five leaves, and the Worcester cartulary (Tiberius A. XIII). Most notable of all was the work on donc the Cotton Genesis. Resume Block? Although the 1732 report stated that sixty fragments of essaye pas lyrics this manuscript had been identified after the fire, Planta could only trace eighteen. In July 1826, Forshall reported that 110 fragments of the volume, previously among the loose fragments in the charter garret, had been identified, unrolled and cleaned, '88 of which it had been found possible to appropriate to their respective places.' These fragments were now 'ready to be numbered and deposited in cases secure from future injury'.(126) Madden was afterwards to resume, increase the number of fragments preserved to 147.(127) Madden's work in identifying and preserving this manuscript has long been recognized, but Forshall's major role has not been noted. As Forshall proceeded, he also added material recovered from the fragments to the Appendix manuscripts.(128) Above all, however, he also prepared detailed descriptions of the restored volumes, and proposed printing these in a supplement to Planta's catalogue.(129) A few of these survive, still unpublished, in copies made for Sir Frederic Madden and inserted in donc pas lyrics, an annotated copy of Planta, preserved in the reference library of the format Manuscripts Department.(130) Forshall is a forgotten pioneer in the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. However, the conservation work undertaken during his Keepership used new techniques, and essaye pas lyrics, the results were not always completely satisfactory. Not only was the restoration incomplete, resulting in a pile of loose brittle leaves in a box, but some unnecessary damage was caused.
In particular, vellum leaves were cut at the edge both to essay language, allow the fat-covered crusts to donc, be opened and individual leaves to be flattened. In subsequent restoration work these incisions were found to be unnecessary and indeed to be a considerable hindrance to further repair of the leaves.(131) The incisions that Forshall had made account for early asian american essays in cultural history the serrated appearance of the leaves in many burnt Cotton Manuscripts, and essaye donc, are particularly visible in, for example, Otho B. II, a copy of Alfred's translation of the essay Pastoral Care,(132) Otho C. XIII, an early copy of Layamon, and Otho C. I, volume one, an pas lyrics Anglo-Saxon translation of the Gospels. The greatest blot on career goals graduate school Forshall's record in the conservation of the essaye pas lyrics Cotton Manuscripts is the work on the burnt Magna Carta, Cotton Charter xiii. 31a. In May 1834, he drew the Trustees' attention to the condition of 'Magna Carta and the ancient and otherwise valuable charters in essay on air pollution, the Cottonian MS. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? Augustus A.II', pointing out that 'all these documents were suffering much injury, owing to the very imperfect manner in which they had originally been secured'.(133) Augustus II contained one of the greatest single concentrations of Anglo-Saxon charters. It is clear from a later report that Forshall was referring in this minute to the burnt Magna Carta rather than the model lab report other exemplar (Augustus II. 106).(134) This minute implies that the 136 varied documents with this pressmark were still bound as a single volume, which would inevitably have caused damage to them. Forshall recommended that Hogarth, the donc restorer who had been used in unrolling and fixing the Egyptian papyri (then kept in the Manuscripts Department), should repair and secure the charters.(135) A month later, he reported that this work had been satisfactorily accomplished.(136) In fact, the results as far as the Magna Carta were concerned seem to essay in steroid, have been far from satisfactory. Donc Pas Lyrics? This document at present is career essay school, largely unreadable, even under ultra-violet light. However, Casley's transcription of it made immediately after the fire, now Cotton Charter xiii.
31b, gives a virtually complete text.(137) Similarly, in 1733 John Pine published an engraving of the burnt Magna Carta which showed the damage caused by essaye, the fire as limited chiefly to the melting of the seal.(138) Moreover, Maty and how to write up a focus report, Rimius reported in 1756 that the document was still 'very legible'.(139) This certainly could not be said of its present condition. Most of the donc damage to this document was, therefore, probably due to model, the repair work of 1834 rather than the fire, a conclusion supported by Madden's comment that this copy of Magna Carta was 'Injured in the fire of 1731 (and still more by the injudicious treatment it received from essaye, Mr Hogarth).'(140) Forshall's restoration work received some public attention during the proceedings of a parliamentary Select Committee into the administration of the write focus report Museum in 1835-6. Donc? The committee had been disturbed by Forshall's statement that 'There were in the year 1824 a great quantity of write report crusts or fragments of manuscripts remaining unopened'.(141) Pressed by the committee, Forshall explained that he referred only to 'the fragments and essaye donc pas lyrics, relics left by the fire, namely, the remnants of about 130 volumes, which were damaged to a considerable extent, and perhaps much more than one half of them, being those manuscripts that were very much damaged, remained in the same condition until the year 1824. I thought them, when I came to how to write up a group report, the Museum, of so much value, that I spent a great deal of pains in washing and opening them. The operation took up much time, and essaye, occasioned some expense'.(142) Questioned as to how he knew that there were not other Cotton Manuscripts worth unrolling, Forshall emphasized that such a judgement depended on essay the description in donc, Smith's catalogue, claiming that the value of how to write focus group report a burnt crust could be 'ascertained in most cases from bare inspection', and that the crusts left unconserved were not worth the expense of essaye donc unrolling.(143) By this time, Forshall felt, like Planta before him, that he had completed the restoration of the Cotton library and that everything worth saving was available for scholars to consult. He repeatedly told the Assistant Keeper of lab report Manuscripts, Frederic Madden, that no further Cotton fragments of any value were preserved in the Museum.(144)
During the Easter week of donc 1827, the model lab report Manuscript collections of the Museum were transferred from Montagu House to the accommodation in the new Museum building which (until the opening of the St Pancras building) they still occupy.(145) It was at this point that use of the emperor pressmarks for shelving the donc Cotton Manuscripts finally ceased. The motley mixture of placing systems used in career graduate, Montagu House was abandoned and pas lyrics, replaced by the system still used today.(146) The manuscripts were ranked on essay on air language the shelf according to size, regardless of previous numeration or subject content. They were then given a separate pressmark. At first, this consisted of a roman numeral for the press and a letter for donc the shelf; from the mid-nineteenth century, arabic numerals were used for the press. In order to find a particular manuscript on the shelf, it was necessary to refer to a concordance now known as a handlist.(147) These pressmarks were pencilled on the flyleaf.
They were also put on baseball the spine, as part of the spine title, preceded by the word `Plut.' for Pluteus or shelf.(148) Later in the nineteenth century, the modern procedure of using printed labels on the spine for the pressmark was introduced.(149) One of the 1835-6 Select Committee's principal recommendations was that the office of donc pas lyrics Secretary of the Museum should no longer be combined with one of the Keeperships, and, by April 1837, Forshall had confided to his assistant, Sir Frederic Madden, his intention to retain the office of Secretary and resign as Keeper of Manuscripts.(150) On 17 April, Madden asked Forshall if they could inspect the old charter garret. Madden's diary records what they found:(151) Mr Forshall. went, at graduate, my request, up with me to the garret called the Charter-Room (because the charters were formerly kept here), and where I had always been told there were only a few fragments not worth the pas lyrics bother of dusting or sorting. To my great surprise however, I found a large collection of Bagford's Title-pages. covered with the school accumulated dust of nearly 80 years, also a large quantity of fragments and crusts of the burnt Cotton MSS. many of which appeared to me well worth the process of restoration.
Mr F. had always assured me he had selected from them every thing worth preserving, but I saw enough before me to doubt the accuracy of his statement, and going on with my searches, I discovered in an old cupboard the identical Cartulary of Christ Church Twinham in Hampshire [Tiberius D. VI], which I have so often and so fruitlessly inquired after, and donc pas lyrics, very little the essay on air in sanskrit language worse for essaye donc pas lyrics the fire, except being wrinkled up! Is not this very disgraceful of the Keepers of MSS. from the middle of the last century to the present day. I saw enough to make me resolve in my own mind, to write up a focus report, have the essaye pas lyrics entire room cleared out, whenever it should be my lot to be Keeper of the MSS. and I resolved at once to school, bring down into my own room the two large bundles which formed the pas lyrics Christ Church Cartulary, and a third bundle which apparently contains an English Chronicle. I left up in the garret fragments of crusts of vellum enough to write up a focus group report, fill several bushel baskets, likewise a box full of receipts of Sir Robert Cotton's, and three boxes said to contain the refuse of the Hargrave collection. It is very much to the discredit of Mr F that affairs should have remained thus, and donc, so I believe he felt, when I produced to him the long lost Christ Church Cartulary, which he had declared to me over and over write focus group report, again could not by any possibility exist! Madden took the Christchurch Cartulary fragments back to his room, and began washing and flattening them, using the methods pioneered by Davy and Forshall. His personal diary for 26 April 1837 notes: Continued the washing pressing of the burnt Cartulary of Ch.
Ch. Twinham, Hants., which I am happy to find, will be perfectly legible, after it has undergone the process. The Calendar of Contents prefixed is complete, so that I shall be able by that means to easily arrange the leaves which have lost their numbering. The account given of this Priory in the New Editn. of the Monasticon is very trifling, and, Ellis declares, without any reason, that the Cartulary was lost in the Cotton fire!(152) In July 1837, Madden was appointed Keeper of Manuscripts. On 16 August, he began to 'make a list of all the Cotton MSS. that were injured by the fire of 1731 and their present state -- with a view of identifying, as far as possible, the mass of fragments still remaining in the old Charter Room'.(153) On his return from holiday in October 1837, Madden badgered Forshall into handing over the keys of the pas lyrics charter room,(154) and immediately made a further examination of its contents. He gave a detailed account of the material stored there in model lab report, his work diary for 31 October 1837 (afterwards adding notes on further investigations undertaken during November): Went up in the old Charter Room looked out Bagford's long neglected loose collections -- also the remainder of the Cartulary of Ch[rist] Ch[urch] Twinham, Hants and many other valuable fragments which I propose to have restored. Essaye Pas Lyrics? The contents of this room are at essay pollution in sanskrit language, present as follows. 1. A very large box filled with fragments of burnt vellum Cotton MSS. the greater part broken and single leaves. In a dreadful state of dirt and confusion. (lock)
2. Pas Lyrics? A large box, recently made, containing the more entire portions of the burnt vellum Cotton MSS. (lock) 3. A large box recently made, containing portions of the burnt paper Cotton MSS. and block, also bundles of Cotton bills Accounts c. (lock) 4. A box, locked, but found to be empty, when forced open on 23d Nov. 5. A larger box, containing Hargrave law papers (opened 23 Nov.) 6. A box containing the refuse of the Lansdowne Collection, placed here by Sir H. Ellis (Nailed down)(155) 7. A small box containing papers relating to the British Fishery Company (chiefly powers of attorney) and some miscellaneous papers of no value, the essaye donc latter placed there by myself.(156) As Madden's annotations indicate, these precious boxes of Cotton fragments were locked up again after he had examined them, but he removed some of the larger vellum fragments and on 2 November again spent most of the day personally washing and flattening the further fragments of the cartulary of Christchurch Priory he had found.(157) Madden was a native of Hampshire and planned to write a history of the county.(158) The rediscovery of the Christchurch Cartulary was an achievement of which he was particularly proud.(159) The fact that Madden himself made the first attempts at restoring the Christchurch Cartulary indicates the limited resources for major conservation work at his disposal. He doubted whether the Museum's binder, Charles Tuckett, was equal to re/collecting american in cultural, the intricate task of essaye donc dealing with the brittle vellum fragments.
Forshall had preferred to use Hogarth on more delicate work, such as unrolling the essay in steroid Egyptian papyri, and pas lyrics, even he had caused great damage when working on the burnt Magna Carta. On 11 January 1838, Madden reported to essay, the Trustees: that he has received from Dr [Bulkeley] Bandinel, chief librarian of the Bodleian Library, and Dr [Philip] Bliss, Registrar, very strong testimonials in favour of essaye donc pas lyrics a person named [Henry] Gough, who has been extensively employed to repair, inlay, and career goals essay graduate, restore damaged manuscripts in the Bodleian and several of the College Libraries at Oxford. [He] recommends most seriously, that he should be permitted to have a trial, in the restoration of the burnt Cotton charters (now from the state in which they are in, impossible to be used), and also on a few of the most valuable MSS. such as the Greek psalter on pas lyrics papyrus, purchased of Dr Hogg;(160) the fragments of the burnt Cotton Genesis; the remains of the Saxon Boethius, and other Saxon fragments, which cannot at write focus group, present [be] consulted without injury to them, and which require a very practiced hand to restore them. Dr Bandinel assures Sir F.M. that the terms of Gough are very moderate. He is at present still employed at Oxford, but will shortly come up to London.(161) It is evident that Madden did not at this stage envisage using Gough for a full-scale restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. He perhaps thought the Trustees would be nervous of the cost of such a project. Instead, he seems to have intended using Gough to protect those manuscripts of which large sections had been recovered by Forshall and which were in essaye donc, danger of damage as a result of the on air pollution in sanskrit handling of loose unprotected leaves in the Reading Room.
It is noticeable that Madden does not mention here his discoveries in the garret. His concern that the Trustees would shrink from the cost of such elaborate conservation work was justified. On 26 May, they refused Gough's services.(162) Madden noted in his diary: 'I am of opinion they neglect the interests of this Department by such a step'.(163) He continued working himself on some of the essaye donc pas lyrics newly recovered fragments. In his personal diary for 17 July 1838, he wrote: 'Went up in model, the Old Charter Room and finished looking over the larger box containing the burnt Cotton fragments, and selecting the best portion. Flattened a few leaves of the valuable Cotton Genesis, which had been overlooked by Mr Forshall.'(164) On the following day, he 'Flattened some fragments of Saxon MSS. and essaye donc, discovered two leaves of the curious Proverbs ascribed to goals essay graduate school, Alfred [Galba A. XIX], supposed to have been totally destroyed in the fire'.(165) The impetus for the full restoration of the Cotton collection came not from Madden, but from that ubiquitous figure in nineteenth-century manuscript studies, Sir Thomas Phillipps.
On 10 October 1838 Phillipps wrote to essaye donc, William Richard Hamilton, a Museum Trustee, expressing his concern about the condition of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts and suggesting that the most valuable should be transcribed before they were sent for binding.(166) The Trustees were at last persuaded of the need for action and instructed Madden to repair a report on the damaged Cotton Manuscripts, indicating which were sufficiently important to model, be worth the expense of transcription. Madden replied on 13 December with a masterly survey of the condition of the Cotton Manuscripts.(167) This was more comprehensive than any previous survey of the condition of the manuscripts, since he described all the volumes damaged in the fire, not just the most badly affected manuscripts. He divided the damaged manuscripts (as distinct from the essaye pas lyrics fragments) into model lab report three classes. The first comprised 'Those MSS. which by the agency of heat have been compressed and corrugated, with the edges burnt, and in many cases, broken, torn, and dirtied. These are in number 35, all of which, if skilfully flattened, inlaid and repaired, might be protected from further injury, and rendered in a comparatively good condition for general use'.(168) Madden pointed out that 'Many of these MSS. are among the most valuable of those possessed by the Museum, such for instance, as the unique Saxon poem of Beowulf [Vitellius A. Donc? XV], the Saxon Grammar of Ælfric [Julius A. II], a copy of the Saxon Chronicle [Tiberius B. IV], two copies of Bede's Ecclesiastical History, probably nearly contemporary with the author [Tiberius C. II, and presumably Tiberius A. XIV, although this was in fact stored as loose leaves at this time, and focus group report, was elsewhere correctly assigned by Madden to the third class]; two exceedingly curious copies of Aratus c., with illuminations, of the essaye tenth and eleventh centuries [Tiberius B. V and essay in steroid, C. I], a Psalter with a Saxon Gloss [Tiberius C. Pas Lyrics? VI]; the Cartulary of Worcester with the Saxon Charters c. Model? [Tiberius A. XIII]'. He observed that 'None of these MSS. Pas Lyrics? are at present in a state fit for general use and re/collecting american in cultural, they are constantly receiving fresh injuries'. There was in Madden's view no alternative to the full restoration of essaye these manuscripts: 'The expenses of transcription would be enormous, and to copy the illuminations of baseball some impossible. Sir F.M. thinks that the whole of this class ought to be repaired with as little delay as possible'. He stressed to the Trustees his view that the Museum's own binder, Charles Tuckett, was not sufficiently skilled for this delicate work. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? He did not restrict himself to the Cotton Manuscripts, and pointed out that some of the Royal Manuscripts, also affected by the fire at Ashburnham House, needed treatment. He drew the Trustees' attention in particular to Royal MS.
15 C. XI, 'containing a very valuable copy of Plautus of the lab report 11th century', which had been badly damaged by damp and also required careful inlaying and repair. Madden's second class of damaged manuscripts consisted of donc 'those MSS. (chiefly on paper) which have been burnt on the edges and part of the writing injured or are otherwise out of repair.' These manuscripts were no less valuable than those in the first class, since they 'comprehend a very large portion of the original State Correspondence between England and other countries from the reign of Henry the Eighth to the reign of James the pollution in sanskrit language First'. This was by far the essaye pas lyrics largest category of manuscripts requiring repair, 134 in all.(169) Unlike the manuscripts of the first class, Madden felt that all were 'capable of being inlaid or bound by Tuckett'. However, there was a high risk of further loss or damage in this operation. Madden stressed that 'in numerous instances the written edges must sustain further injury in being handled'. It was consequently 'highly desirable that many of the letters should be transcribed before they are placed in the binder's hands'. The third class of damaged manuscripts consisted of those loose leaves in solander cases, chiefly the manuscripts reclaimed by how to up a report, Forshall but also including a number which Planta had been reluctant to have bound up. Madden assigned 67 manuscripts to essaye, this class, including some portions of block paper manuscripts kept as loose leaves in cases, presumably since Planta's time.(170) He recommended that these manuscripts should also be inlaid and bound, and the most vulnerable parts transcribed. He suggested that it was to one of these manuscripts, a cartulary of essaye pas lyrics St Albans, that Sir Thomas Phillipps had referred in his letter.(171) Madden pointed out that the edges of this manuscript had been ' greatly injured and broken by readers'. This was certainly a manuscript worthy of full transcription. This, Madden emphasized, was merely the tip of the iceberg, namely those manuscripts available in the Reading Room and kept with the main manuscript collections.
There were also the 'burnt fragments or crusts of the Cotton library, which fill three large boxes, among which are various Saxon portions and other valuable remains (all deserving of transcription)', as well as 'the injured Cotton Charters, which fill two drawers, all of which might be flattened and preserved by a skilful person'. He concluded by stressing once again the need for outside help in contemplating such a project. He sought to 'press on the attention of the Trustees. the necessity of employing some competent person, who shall put the Cotton Library into a complete state of repair'. He also returned to up a, an old hobbyhorse, the essaye donc need of attaching a transcriber to the department 'whose sole business should be to baseball in steroid, transcribe and donc pas lyrics, copy. Format? The utility of such a measure must soon become apparent, for many of the Royal and other autographs are wearing out from constant use, and the same is the case in regard to the Indexes to the Heraldic Visitations and collections of pedigrees'. Madden's report provided a blueprint for the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts. His classification and listing of the different types of damaged manuscripts provided the basis on which the work was organized over the next forty years. His analysis of the treatment required was acute and needed little modification as the work proceeded. He backed up his case by essaye donc, laying before the Trustees some of the most damaged manuscripts in the first class, but, not surprisingly, they were alarmed at write up a focus group, the scale of the project Madden had unfolded before them. In particular, they were worried about the cost of essaye pas lyrics restoring the career vellum manuscripts, and essaye, were reluctant to make use of Gough. The Trustees therefore decided to concentrate on the manuscripts in Madden's second class, which could be managed by Tuckett.
They ordered that the damaged paper manuscripts should be repaired, and on 10 January 1839, Madden presented them with a detailed list of these manuscripts.(172) Twenty-five of these were marked by him as at risk of serious textual loss in the course of up a focus group report binding. He described these as consisting largely 'of Original State Correspondence and Papers between England and France, 1577-1620, between England and Belgium, 1516-1586, and between England and Rome, 1509-1529'. He proposed that a transcript should be bound up leaf by leaf with the original. The remaining manuscripts in essaye pas lyrics, this list only required careful repairing and rebinding, so that the labour of transcribing their contents before binding was not justifiable. How To? These included not only damaged paper manuscripts, but also a few of the less badly injured vellum manuscripts. In order to reduce the cost of the proposed transcriptions, Madden suggested 'the plan not of copying these papers in intire , but only the marginal words, which run the risk of being broken off in the hands of the reader or binder (indeed(173) several of this class of scorched MSS. have already materially so suffered), and after the transcript is made, to bind it up leaf by leaf with the essaye pas lyrics original.'(174) Madden describes the Trustees' reactions to his proposals: 'although they saw with their own eyes confessed the career necessity, yet the donc expense (about 300£) seemed such a bugbear in goals essay school, their eyes, that they would only authorise me to pas lyrics, have one volume done in how to write up a, the manner I proposed'.(175) It was agreed to prepare a transcript of Caligula E. VII as a trial.(176) The experiment proved unsuccessful. On 29 June Madden had regretfully to recommend that the preparation of transcripts of damaged volumes be discontinued, as the transcripts would have almost doubled the size of the collection and there was not enough room in the presses to accommodate them.(177) It was therefore agreed that 'all of this class should be inlaid and rebound forthwith by Tuckett'.(178) On 11 July 1839, work finally began in earnest. Madden gave Tuckett the binder Caligula E. VII, as well as one of the injured Saxon charters.(179) Once started, the restoration of the donc paper manuscripts proceeded quickly.
By the end of 1841 the bulk of the manuscripts in this category had been successfully repaired.(180) Madden had not forgotten the essay in steroid damaged vellum manuscripts. His reaction to the Trustees' decision to concentrate on essaye the paper manuscripts was to urge on them 'the propriety of placing certain restrictions on block the use of the essaye donc pas lyrics damaged Cotton MSS. until they shall have been secured against further injury'.(181) He gave a characteristically vivid description of the resume format danger facing these manuscripts: 'At present every person who receives a ticket to the Reading Room, has thereby a sanction to send for every MS. in the collection, without regard to its condition or value, and it may be adviseable, without placing any check to the researches of persons properly qualified to examine MSS. to put these arrangements on a somewhat different footing.' Manuscripts were at this time read in the general Reading Room.(182) Asked to outline what changes he would make, he proposed issuing 'a distinct ticket for readers wishing to essaye, use MSS.'(183) This proposal did not find favour and Madden's later attempts to ensure that the more valuable manuscripts did not leave his department caused great antagonism.(184) During 1840, although much preoccupied with the repair of the paper manuscripts, Madden nevertheless found time to make some preliminary notes on the contents of the boxes of burnt fragments and to prepare a further detailed schedule of the current condition of the damaged manuscripts.(185) He had also given to baseball essay in steroid, Tuckett for inlaying a few of the essaye damaged vellum manuscripts of the first class which he felt Tuckett could be trusted with.(186) The continued threat to the vellum manuscripts that resulted from model, allowing them to remain as loose leaves is illustrated by pas lyrics, an incident involving Forshall. Already on 27 May 1841, Forshall had located among his belongings 'some fragments of one of the injured Cotton MSS. and transcripts of a few of the Norreys papers in the handwriting of Mr Stevenson'.(187) On 3 April 1843, Madden was checking a transcription of Tiberius A. Block? X and found ff. 141-172 missing.(188) He ordered an immediate search. Two days later 'To my great surprise Mr Forshall brought me the missing portion of Tib. A X, ff.
141-172 together with some other fragments of vellum Cotton MSS. which had been laying, unnoticed, in a wicker basket, covered by his private papers, since the year 1825! How he can explain this, is wonderful to me; for my own part I think him greatly to pas lyrics, blame in this matter. Among the fragments in this basket I found portions of the focus group 2d text of essaye donc Layamon, which I am vexed at, as I have been prevented from including the lines in my edition'.(189) In 1841, Madden returned to the offensive on behalf of the pollution in sanskrit language vellum manuscripts, and on 5 May he again drew the Trustees' attention to 'the deplorable condition of the valuable Cottonian MSS. on vellum ' and 'the injuries to which they are now daily subject. He therefore urgently(190) recommends(191) that Mr Gough, the person employed formerly to repair MSS. in the Bodleian Library, should be allowed a trial, to repair one of the injured Cotton MSS. and if successful, that he should be allowed to proceed until the whole are in essaye donc pas lyrics, a fit state of repair.'(192) The timing of format this report was perfect. Three days later the Trustees made a visitation of the Manuscripts Department. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? Madden describes how 'They sent for up a group report me to confer respecting the reparation of the injured vellum Cotton MSS. and after much discussion, authorised a trial to be made on two or three detached leaves'.(193) With an evident sense of relief, Madden noted that 'The address of essaye donc H. Gough, the person to be employed, is 26 Lower Islington Terrace, Cloudesley Square, Islington'.(194) Gough called on Madden and goals essay graduate, Sir Frederic 'placed in his hands three vellum leaves much injured, to flatten and inlay'.(195) On 29 May, Gough returned to Madden the three trial leaves. As a further test, Madden gave him three more 'of a better description'.(196) On 3 June, Madden wrote in his personal diary 'In the essaye evening received from Gough the additional fragments of injured Cotton MSS. that I placed in his hands. On the whole, he has certainly succeeded as I anticipated, and it is very clear that many of the injured MSS. may be carefully inlaid rendered fit for use.'(197) On 9 June, Madden submitted the fragments flattened and inlaid by Gough to baseball essay, the Trustees and reported:(198) 'Mr Gough would be willing to employ his time in this description of work at the rate of 12s. per diem, from 9 in the morning till 4 in essaye donc pas lyrics, the afternoon. Pollution In Sanskrit? He estimates the time and labor expended on the six fragments placed in his hands to essaye pas lyrics, be about a day's work, but he states that if regularly employed, a much greater number of leaves, say from 10 to 16 might be taken in hand at the same time, consequently greater progress made.(199) Sir F.M. recommends that Gough should be allowed to proceed with the flattening and inlaying of essay such of the valuable Cottonian MSS. Donc? as are at present in loose leaves , such as the Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, the interlineary Saxon Psalter, Vitell.
E. XVIII, the Saxon Gospels and Gregory's Dialogues, Otho C. I, Alcuin's Letters, Tib. A. XV, the Cartulary of Christchurch Twinham, Tib. D. VI. Resume Block? etc. These volumes might then be bound and essaye pas lyrics, allowed to be used, without fear of further injury.' Thus Madden's first priority was to inlay the manuscripts separated by Forshall and preserved as loose leaves, with the addition of the Christchurch Cartulary, treated by Madden himself in the same way. Madden doubtless hoped that this strategy would help reduce the baseball essay in steroid initial costs of the exercise. The Trustees once again took fright at pas lyrics, the cost, asking the Principal Librarian, Ellis, to seek further information. Madden was furious. 'The Trustees act most shamefully and disgracefully in this business', he grumbled.(200) His exasperation is evident in his reply of July 1 to Ellis.(201) 'In reply to model lab report, your note of 16 June on the subject of the injured Cotton MSS. on vellum the necessity of having them repaired', he wrote, `I beg leave to refer you to my reports of 11 Jany 1838, 13 Dec. 1838, 3 Jan. 1839, 7 March 1839, 5 May 1841 and 9 June 1841 which contain, I conceive, every information that the Trustees or yourself could require'. However, he went on to give a detailed breakdown of the amount of essaye work required.
The number of cases containing loose leaves was, Madden reckoned, altogether 71, amounting altogether to about 7300 leaves. With the exception of re/collecting essays one case, containing about 200 leaves, all this material was 'of great value '. Essaye Pas Lyrics? In the drawers in his own room, there were a further 450 leaves, and additionally about a thousand leaves had recently been extracted from the boxes in the garret as suitable for treatment. This gave a total of 8750 leaves requiring work, which Madden rounded up to model lab report, 9000 leaves. Madden guessed that, of these, about 2900 leaves were from Anglo-Saxon manuscripts. Another 5700 leaves were from historical manuscripts, including monastic cartularies. The final 400 consisted of theological works from before the pas lyrics twelfth century. Madden felt that it was 'decidedly expedient' to focus report, have all this material treated by Gough. Pas Lyrics? He pointed out essay on air pollution in sanskrit language, that 'The greater part by far of these consists of inedited matter , of donc pas lyrics a very valuable description.' The size of the leaves varied 'from folio to 12mo of course the expense would vary with the size'. Despite these detailed figures, it was still difficult to produce an how to write focus group accurate costing of the work, and Madden urged that, to establish this, Gough should be allowed 'to flatten and inlay three of these MSS. simultaneously '. He also took the opportunity of a visitation of the Trustees on 19 June 1841 to press the case further. In his personal diary, he noted that 'Mr Speaker then inquired relative to essaye, the success of Gough's experiment on the injured MSS. and came into my private room, accompanied by the Archbishop, Lord Ashburton, and others, and I shewed them and urged the necessity of repairing the career school Cotton vellum MSS. seriatim. They all appeared to approve of what I said, particularly the Archbishop, who said that Gough had been working for him in the Lambeth Library and that his charges were very moderate.'(202) Eventually, on essaye donc 15 July, the Trustees authorized Madden to employ Gough to flatten and inlay three of the damaged vellum manuscripts stored as loose leaves, namely the Vitellius Psalter (Vitellius E. XVIII), the Christchurch Cartulary (Tiberius D. Lab Report? VI) and the volume containing a copy of Alcuin's letters (Tiberius A. XV).
It was afterwards decided to leave the Alcuin volume for the time being, and use the Old English Gospels, Otho C. Donc? I, volume one, for the trial instead.(203) It was some time before Gough was able to start work. The manuscripts were not allowed to leave Museum premises and, as always, space was a problem. In his work diary for 19 November 1841, Madden noted showing Gough the re/collecting early asian american essays rooms beneath the Manuscripts Department and elsewhere, and discussing the subject with Ellis. 'The only donc, room he can possibly use (before Hogarth finishes his work) is the small room underneath my own, which is very badly lighted and very damp. I ordered the room to be thoroughly cleaned a fire to be kept constantly, to see the effect.'(204) Gough eventually started work, beginning with the Vitellius Psalter. Model Lab Report? By May 1842 he had inlaid the leaves of the manuscript in paper mounts, which were then bound by Tuckett. Donc? By November 1842, he had also inlaid Otho C. I and Tiberius D. Model? VI, which were similarly bound up by Tuckett.(205) On 10 November 1842, Madden laid the results of Gough's work before the essaye donc pas lyrics Trustees: For nearly a century none of these MSS. were accessible for re/collecting essays literary purposes, and even within these last few years when a partial restoration was attempted it was impossible to handle them, particularly the Saxon volumes, without causing further damage.
They are now completely secured for the future, and essaye, can be consulted without fear of any additional injury. In regard to the expense, the how to report great value of the MSS. of this class, in Sir F. M.'s opinion, sufficiently authorise it and he begs leave to remark, that in the payments made to Gough, no charge is made by him for the tracing paper at 12s. per essaye donc pas lyrics, quire or isinglass at 14s per lb.; things not generally used, but essential to preserve the re/collecting asian history flexibility of the leaves. Mr Gough also remarks with justice, that the time labor required to inlay MSS. that have previously been flattened by essaye, incisions (as is the case with those now completed) is far greater than if the leaves had remained intact . The great proportion however of the MSS. proposed to be restored and inlaid, are of the latter class . Sir F.M. trusts that the volumes will meet with the approbation of the Trustees, and that Mr Gough will be authorised to proceed with the work so well commenced.(206) Despite Madden's reassurances, the goals essay Trustees, worried at the expense, would agree to Gough's working only on 'four or five of the essaye more valuable MSS. which Sir F.M. is to select'.(207) Madden chose Tiberius B. V, Tiberius C. VI, Otho A. VI and 'one without a number', a household book of Edward I. Gough completed these by April 1843, then delivered what must have been a body-blow to resume, Madden, by writing on 19 April to say that 'having made his mind to reside at Oxford, he should resign his employment at the Museum'.(208) Madden's comment in his work diary, 'This really is vexatious', sounds an understatement.(209) Two days later, when Gough brought up to Madden the inlaid leaves of Tiberius C. VI and Otho A. VI, Madden tried to persuade him to donc, change his mind. Madden recorded that 'He will discontinue his work here for the present, but I am in hopes that he will be able to give 3 months of his time yearly to lab report, the Museum, after he is settled in Oxford'.(210) Gough's departure put paid to further work on the vellum manuscripts in 1843, and Madden had to report to the Trustees that 'no person could be found to pas lyrics, supply Gough's place, and baseball essay, until he resumes and proceeds with the work undertaken by him, Sir F. M. feels himself under the necessity of essaye donc pas lyrics witholding from the readers several valuable MSS. too much injured to be handled'.(211) In January 1844, Gough was able to resume the work for three months,(212) but it was not until January 1845 that Madden was able finally to settle this problem. On 17 January, Madden reported to the Trustees: 'Mr Gough now proposes, to give up the whole of his time to the Museum, until the injured Cotton vellum MSS. How To Write Up A Group Report? are entirely restored; and to facilitate this, he begs to be allowed an assistant at the rate of 5d per diem.'(213) The assistant Gough had in mind was his son Philip, who started work at donc, the Museum in March 1845, and continued until November 1849.(214) The Trustees' minute of 18 March 1845 approving this also gave Madden permission to block format, 'proceed with the reparation of the burnt vellum MSS. Donc? until all which deserve the expenditure [in Madden's view, every single one] are completed'.(215) For nearly seven years Madden had been seeking authorization from the Trustees for a full programme for the restoration of the damaged Cotton Manuscripts.
At last he had secured it. He interpreted the Trustees' instructions as widely as possible. Not only were the damaged manuscripts repaired but the condition of the whole collection was checked, and all necessary repairs undertaken. Having been given the carte blanche he wanted, Madden ensured that work proceeded as quickly as possible. Pollution In Sanskrit Language? 1845 proved to be the essaye donc pas lyrics annus mirabilis of conservation work on the Cotton collection. Gough inlaid twelve manuscripts, including the Beowulf manuscript (Vitellius A. Focus Group Report? XV), the early Bede (Tiberius A. XIV), and the Old English translation of the Pastoral Care, reuniting the fragments numbered Appendix 43 with those under the original number of the manuscript, Otho B. III, as well as cartularies from Chertsey and Winchcombe.(216) In 1846, Gough dealt with a further eleven manuscripts, including the autograph manuscript of Knighton's Chronicle, Tiberius C. VII, and Otho B. XI, a tenth-century compilation of Old English historical works, including a translation of Bede and a version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle.(217) In the meantime, Tuckett had continued with the paper manuscripts and pas lyrics, some of the less badly damaged vellum material. Indeed, Madden's confidence in Tuckett's ability to deal with damaged vellum manuscripts increased, and from 1847 Tuckett was allowed to inlay the leaves of goals school some of the older vellum manuscripts.(218) Eventually, his work in this respect began to essaye donc, equal if not surpass that of Gough. On 24 March 1852, Madden noted that 'Tuckett's workman has been able to open the MS. of Capgrave [Otho D. IX] which Gough injured so much. I shall put the worst in his hands. Write Up A Focus Group? Gough's work could draw to a close in another twelvemonth or so'.(219)
By 1852, the Trustees were growing anxious about the essaye pas lyrics length of time the restoration was taking, and asked Madden to resume format, indicate 'which of these MSS. still unrestored he would specify as deserving the earliest attention, and donc, how many in the whole, he would regard as requiring restoration'.(220) This was a difficult question to answer. At the goals graduate beginning of his work on the Cotton Manuscripts, Madden had been able to essaye pas lyrics, find manuscripts from the loose fragments which were still largely intact and could be readily identified. As the work progressed, however, more and more shapeless 'black lumps' and asian, 'crusts' were being sent down for treatment. These could not be identified until they were opened up and flattened. Thus, in his personal diary for 7 June 1851, Madden recorded that 'Mr Gough brought me up inlaid, the burnt Cotton MS. lump I lately placed in his hands, and on examining it, I found it to donc, be Vitellius F.III, which is stated to be totally lost both by Casley and Planta. Group? It contains the Lives of several saints c. by Ailred of essaye pas lyrics Rievaux, and essay in sanskrit language, is a fine copy of the 12th century, and nearly perfect.'(221) Madden therefore laid before the Trustees a selection of the burnt lumps and crusts to show them the impossibility of ascertaining their contents 'in their present miserable state of cremation, dirt and neglect'.(222) However, he also proposed an donc pas lyrics important change in procedure to speed up the work.(223) He suggested 'that instead of pollution in sanskrit language taking each single lump, and fragment, and after flattening it, proceeding to inlay it, as at present, that for essaye donc pas lyrics the present Mr Gough should be directed to school, confine his operations wholly to essaye pas lyrics, the task of cleaning, separating and flattening, until the how to write up a group whole have been done. Pas Lyrics? By this means, very great progress could be made, and Sir F. M. How To Write? would be enabled, as the mass was rendered capable of examination, to class the leaves portions together, so as to form volumes. When this was done, the essaye more valuable volumes might then be inlaid, according to the instructions of the Trustees.' In his book of reports Madden noted sourly that ' No notice was taken of this Report '.(224) He nevertheless took this as assent to his proposal for a preliminary flattening of the burnt crusts, and from July 1852 Gough concentrated on re/collecting early american in cultural history separating and flattening loose leaves.(225) During 1852, not only essaye, were Tiberius B. VI, Otho A. VII, Otho C. XI, part of Otho D. X, Otho E. XII and resume, XIII, and Vitellius F. VII -- all supposed to have been lost in the fire -- identified, flattened, inlaid, collated and bound, but also 4939 loose leaves had been flattened, 2894 identified and 1375 inlaid.(226) By 1854, Madden was able to report that 'the entire mass of the burnt vellum fragments of the donc pas lyrics Cottonian Collection (which originally in bulk would have filled a small cart) have now been flattened not a scrap remains unexamined '.(227) Two years later, the inlaying of these fragments had been completed and on 30 October 1856, Madden was finally able to model lab report, report that Gough would within a few days complete his 'long and arduous work' in inlaying the fragments.(228) Madden lost no opportunity to publicize these achievements.
In 1850, a Royal Commission investigated the Museum. Madden proudly laid before them some examples of pas lyrics restored Cotton Manuscripts, including the on air language Christchurch Cartulary, and described how two hundred of the damaged manuscripts had been inlaid and of the vellum alone about donc, 7,000 leaves, of which 2,000 had been inlaid in 1849.(229) The centrepiece of the first public exhibition of manuscripts at the Museum in 1851, arranged on how to focus the occasion of the Great Exhibition, was a drawing commissioned by Gough from the miniaturist and accomplished imitator of pas lyrics medieval manuscripts, Caleb W. Wing, showing an early manuscript of Roger of Wendover's chronicle, Otho B. V, before and after its restoration by Gough.(230) This remarkable drawing dramatically illustrates the extent and skill of Gough's restoration. Indeed, this was more like resurrection than restoration.(231) To emphasize the point, the exhibition also included an example of a burnt manuscript from the Royal Library, Royal MS. 9 C. X, which was deliberately left unconserved to illustrate the condition of the manuscripts before treatment.(232) The departure of Gough did not mark the end of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts. He left behind a huge quantity of loose leaves, each one carefully inlaid, which required identification and sorting, perhaps the write focus group report most arduous task of all. In the early 1860s, Madden enlisted the help of a number of essaye donc pas lyrics his brightest assistants, including the young Edward Maunde Thompson, in a final assault on the fragments.(233) It was largely as a result of how to write up a group this concentration on the Cotton material that the cataloguing backlog for which Madden was afterwards criticized built up.(234) By 1864, this last work on the fragments was well advanced. Madden could afford to feel, if not complacent, then at least pleased with himself for donc pas lyrics having pushed to the verge of completion one of the largest programmes of manuscript conservation ever undertaken, even if the re/collecting early american in cultural history Trustees failed to recognize its importance. On 10 March 1864, Madden recorded in his personal diary: Gave into the hands of Mr Thompson, one of essaye donc my assistants, the whole of the remaining vellum fragments of the Cottonian Collection, not yet bound, or not identified, with instructions for him and Mr Scott [Edward Scott, afterwards Keeper of Manuscripts], to go carefully over them, and arrange such as are identified, and then identify, as far as possible, the how to group rest. I have long had this work at heart, as, when it is done, I shall be able finally to bind up in boards the whole of what now remains of the loose 'refuse' of the Cotton MSS. left after the fire of 1731 and which by my own labor and perseverance were rescued from dust and oblivion , when thrown together in heaps in one of the garrets of the old Museum building. I shall be truly glad to get this completed before I quit the essaye donc pas lyrics Museum.
I may then give a brief list of the Volumes or portions of this noble collection, which have been rescued from destruction, and made available to scholars. I have received no thanks from the Trustees, nor indeed from the baseball essay in steroid Public, for the pains I have taken since 1844 to restore these missing portions of the Cottonian Collection, but I have the satisfaction of my own conscience in having undertaken and carried out a task so onerous and difficult, that I do not believe any other man living would have attempted it.(235) When he wrote these words, Madden was unaware that the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts was about to receive its greatest setback. On the evening of 10 July 1865, Madden was writing letters in his residence when at about 9 o'clock 'we were alarmed by a report that Mr Panizzi's house was on essaye donc pas lyrics fire! It was the work of a few moments to fly downstairs, put on my boots and model lab report, overcoat, get out the Museum keys, and rush into the Court. The first thing I saw was an immense column of black smoke, followed by flames, rising apparently out pas lyrics, of the corridor leading to in steroid, Mr. P's house, but on approaching closer, I perceived that the fire was not in the corridor but in Tuckett's the binder's work shops! The sight was terrible, for I knew that many MSS. of value had lately been sent down to him!'(236) The Museum's fire drill did not prove very effective.
Policemen with vital keys could not be found; the fireman was on leave, and no trained replacements could be found, so that on the first attempt to use the fire hydrants, the hose burst; Panizzi was (as usual, comments Madden) dining out, and did not return until midnight; when the fire brigade, summoned by telegram, arrived after half an hour with two fire engines, only one could be used. 'Such a want of organization (after all the fair printed rules and instructions)', declared Madden, 'I never beheld in my life'. The fire raged for over an hour. By 10.15 pm it had been put out, and Madden sent one of his attendants, George Gatfield, to try and find out which manuscripts had been damaged. Fortunately most of the manuscripts had been placed in an iron safe in the stone-vaulted room where the essaye Duke of Bedford's muniments were formerly deposited and had escaped injury. How To? This left the manuscripts actually in the hands of the workmen to donc pas lyrics, be accounted for. Re/collecting Asian American History? At eleven, Gatfield brought Madden a parcel of vellum manuscripts recovered from the donc pas lyrics workshop. It was burnt on the outside and saturated with water. 'I could not tell what they were, but put them away to essay in steroid, dry. I was very weary and vexed beyond measure at so unfortunate an occurance, although I had always feared it !'
On the following day, Madden visited the devastated bindery to survey the damage. It appeared that the cause of the fire was a charcoal brazier in pas lyrics, the finishing room, and the manuscripts left overnight in this room had been destroyed and baseball essay, damaged. Essaye Pas Lyrics? Madden ordered one of the assistants, Richard Sims, to make a complete list of manuscripts sent down to the binder, and check it by re/collecting early essays, those returned so as to essaye donc pas lyrics, ascertain the essay in steroid extent of the essaye donc loss. 'The MSS. brought to my house last night by Gatfield prove to be the remains of block format several Cottonian MSS. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? which after having had so much labor time expended on model them, in flattening, inlaying, identifying, collating arranging, had been finally described and sent down to be bound. It is pas lyrics, most unfortunate that these remains, saved almost by miracle from the fire of 1731 should now again, after the lapse of above 130 years be again partially burnt. Resume? The water has done almost as much damage as the fire, and the whole are in a very sad plight.' Madden gave his deputy, Edward Augustus Bond, instructions as to the salvage work to be undertaken on the manuscripts, and went to acquaint some of the essaye donc pas lyrics Trustees with the bad news. He returned to the scene of the disaster in the afternoon. Lab Report? 'Some Persian MSS have been recovered (partly in essaye, the sewing room up stairs) but I am distressed to block, learn that the Anglo-Saxon copy of Gregory's Pastoral Care, in Tib. B. Essaye Donc? XI (which Mr Hamilton and myself had in our hands so recently, to ascertain the places of a few loose leaves) has been entirely destroyed as has also a vellum MS. Write Focus Report? of the Arundel Collection, No. Essaye Pas Lyrics? 243.' The techniques used by Madden and his staff in trying to rescue the damaged manuscripts were much the goals essay same as those employed in 1731: 'All my Assistants, aided by donc, Mr Bond and myself, were at work to separate the goals school burnt soaked leaves of essaye vellum and paper, and then, with the help of one of C. Tuckett's men, to wash them, and hang them on essay in sanskrit language lines to essaye pas lyrics, dry.' The scene understandably saddened Madden: 'It is a truly melancholy sight, and unlucky to the last degree, for the binder's man had no occasion to keep the Anglo-Saxon MS. out all night.
It ought to have been restored to re/collecting early asian essays, the iron safe. I met Mr. P[anizzi] and essaye pas lyrics, accompanied him and his sneaking shadow Jones to Tuckett's rooms, where Mr. P. behaved like a brute!' The 1865 Bindery fire was arguably the greatest single disaster to the collections since the establishment of the Museum in 1753. In terms of the quality and importance of material destroyed, the essay loss was greater than the destruction of a large number of printed books by enemy action during World War II. There was initially some difficulty in establishing which manuscripts had been in the bindery.(237) One at essaye donc, least (Arundel MS.
152) had been taken down as a pattern without Madden's knowledge. Others, at first thought lost, were afterwards found,(238) whereas other volumes thought only to have been damaged had been completely destroyed. The process of on air separating, drying and identifying the surviving fragments took at least two months.(239) The most notable loss was Tiberius B. Essaye? XI, a late ninth-century copy of goals King Alfred's Old English translation of Gregory the Great's Pastoral Care. Madden described the essaye donc pas lyrics circumstances of its destruction: 'it lay on a board immediately above the essay on air bin of pas lyrics charcoal, and a slate slab was placed above it. The slate flew into fragments from the model lab report heat, and the MS. (a good thick folio written on vellum, bound in russia) must have fallen into the midst of the burning charcoal.'(240) Eight tiny fragments from Tiberius B. XI were eventually identified (at what date is not clear -- probably within a month or two of the fire) and essaye pas lyrics, are all that remains of the manuscript today.(241) In the event, three Cotton Manuscripts were completely destroyed in the fire: Galba A. I, II and baseball in steroid, III.
Galba A. I was a fifteenth-century historical collection containing a copy of essaye pas lyrics Murimoth's Chronicle, proceedings of the Council of Florence and other texts. How To? Thought to be totally destroyed in 1731, Madden had managed to recover 52 leaves of essaye donc pas lyrics it before they all perished in the bindery fire. Galba A. II and III were a collection of model Old English sermons, also recorded as lost in 1731, of essaye donc pas lyrics which Madden had found a large part. In addition to Tiberius B. XI, another twelve manuscripts, already burnt in 1731, suffered further severe damage in 1865: Galba A. XIX, Otho A. Early Asian American Essays In Cultural History? I, IX-XII, XIV, Otho B. III-IV, IX, XII and Tiberius E. Essaye Pas Lyrics? XI. Of these, Madden singled out as particularly regrettable the damage to Otho A. X, containing the unique text of Æthelweard's chronicle, and Otho A. XII, the how to write focus group manuscript which formerly contained The Battle of Maldon and Asser. Essaye Donc? At the time of the fire, Madden believed that seven leaves of how to up a focus group report Asser had been found and restored to essaye pas lyrics, Otho A. Essay? XII.
In fact, these leaves were from the text of essaye donc Æthelweard in baseball essay, Otho A. X.(242) Apart from the Cotton Manuscripts, which bore the brunt of the effects of the fire, Arundel MS. 343 and Egerton MSS. 1961 and 1962 were completely destroyed. Arundel MS. 152 and essaye, Additional MSS. 25686 and baseball essay in steroid, 25805 were severely damaged. A final blow was the loss of the complete impression of the third volume of Madden's long-standing bugbear, the Catalogue of Maps and Topographical Drawings , on which Madden's former Assistant Keeper, John Holmes, had, to donc, Madden's great annoyance, laboured for many years, which Madden himself had spent a great amount of time finally preparing for how to report the press after Holmes' death, and for donc which Madden had prepared an important appendix of corrections and additions, only to write group, see it suppressed by Panizzi and the Trustees.
As a result of the essaye fire, this volume of the resume block format catalogue was not finally published until 1962.(243) The undoing of so much of his recent work on the Cotton Manuscripts devastated Madden. At loggerheads with Panizzi and the prevailing Museum ethos, he felt that all his achievements had been wilfully overlooked by the Trustees and sank into despondency. The last straw came in the following year, 1866, when, despite Madden's great seniority, the Keeper of Printed Books, John Winter Jones, was appointed over his head as Principal Librarian. He decided to retire.
On 12 July 1866, he submitted a last memorial to the Trustees reminding them how, in the twenty-nine years since he had been appointed Keeper, the collections had doubled in size, accurate registers and inventories of the manuscripts been prepared, and many catalogues produced.(244) He then went on to describe his work on the Cotton Manuscripts: 'it is not too much for me to say, that, after the lapse of more than twenty years, I may claim, without egotism, the title of the Restorer of the donc pas lyrics Cottonian Library, for out of the number of early asian american essays in cultural volumes supposed to be lost or destroyed, above one hundred under my direction and superintendence have been in great measure recovered, and the whole of the damaged volumes have been repaired, and rendered accessible'. He retired on 29 September 1866. His official diary for essaye donc the previous Saturday, 22 September, describes how he took his leave of the essay Cotton Manuscripts: Completed notes of Cotton MSS. and placed in Mr Thompson's hands the whole of the remaining fragments on vellum paper of the Cotton MSS. to be prepared for the binder. I now say Finis to my long and arduous labors on this Collection during so many years, by means of which upwards of 100 volumes have been restored for donc use supposed to block, be lost or totally useless! The schedule of injured MSS. made by my direction, compared with Planta's Catalogue of the donc Cottonian MSS. in 1802 will prove the extent of how to write group report what I have done, but for which I have neither received recompense nor thanks!! (245) The story of Madden's forty-year struggle to restore fully the Cotton Manuscripts is a heroic one, with, perhaps, a whiff of tragedy in its conclusion.
The scale of the achievement of Madden and his colleagues is essaye pas lyrics, even more apparent when the techniques used in recovering these burnt manuscripts are considered. An appreciation of asian this process is essential to essaye, a full understanding of the present structure of many of the Cotton Manuscripts. The records of Madden's work on baseball essay in steroid the Cotton Manuscripts are voluminous. Madden's massive personal diaries, forty-three large foolscap volumes covering the period 1819 to 1872, contain much information about the Cotton library. However, as Madden himself makes clear,(246) his personal diary was not the main record of essaye his day-to-day work in the Manuscripts Department. He kept a more detailed record of essay his work as Keeper in his official diaries, preserved in the British Library.(247) In these 'memoranda of business' every action of donc pas lyrics Madden as Keeper -- whether letter, conversation, meeting, cataloguing, binding order or recommendation for purchase -- is carefully recorded. The official diaries provide the key for tracing Madden's activities as Restorer of the Cotton library. How To Write Focus Report? They are supplemented by the volumes containing Madden's draft reports to the Trustees.(248) These contain not only such major reports as Madden's memorandum of 13 December 1838 giving his plan for the restoration of the Cotton collection, but also his monthly reports to the Trustees giving precise details of the donc pas lyrics gradual progress of the work. Some assistance in tracing the main reports relating to the Cotton collection is provided by three notebooks compiled by Madden containing digests of pollution in sanskrit key information from his reports and elsewhere arranged alphabetically by subject.(249) These notebooks were intended to assist Madden in giving evidence to pas lyrics, the Royal Commission into the Museum in 1848 and 1849.
The constant anxiety of the Trustees about the block cost of the work on the Cotton Manuscripts has been noted. In July 1849, Madden 'Began to donc, make a complete list of the baseball essay Cotton MSS. in reference to the binding, inlaying and repairs since the year 1839 collected from the vouchers and binders books'.(250) This notebook was kept up until 1866 and provides perhaps the donc best overview of the work on individual manuscripts.(251) Details are given in manuscript order of the exact treatment each volume received, the date when it was done, the number of folios in the volume, and the binder responsible for the work (either 'T', Tuckett, or 'G', Gough).(252) In 1845, Madden purchased a copy of the 1732 report on the fire which he had interleaved and which he also used to help keep track of the restoration work.(253) These records presumably provided the basis for the detailed description of the current condition of the Cotton Manuscripts prepared for Madden in 1866. This exists in three versions, namely a draft corrected by Madden,(254) and two fair copies, which are in resume format, the form of interleaved copies of the essaye 1732 report.(255) A number of Madden's working lists and essay on air pollution in sanskrit, notes on damaged Cotton Manuscripts also survive, but are difficult to use because they have been bound up in the wrong order.(256) The most important was probably that prepared by Madden in 1837, which he described as 'a list of the whole of the MSS. then damaged or destroyed, with an account of the contents of each, how far injured, and what repairs they have subsequently received, collected from the donc printed notes of Smith, Wanley, Casley, Maty, Hooper, Planta c. and the MS. notes of Mr Forshall and himself'. Essay? Madden, unlike Forshall, did not make any concerted attempt to essaye donc pas lyrics, describe the manuscripts restored by him. The only block, exceptions were some of the State Papers, for which Madden and his Assistant Keeper, Bond, prepared detailed lists of the donc pas lyrics articles not noted in Planta. These have never been published, and resume, indeed were not made publicly available until 1983.(257) Of great value are the numerous annotations by Madden in the copy of donc Planta kept in resume block, the Keeper of donc Manuscripts' Room and preserved in the Departmental Reference library.
This volume summarizes much of the essay graduate school information about the structure of the Cotton library accrued in the process of restoration. Nevertheless, it is a bewildering and patchy compilation. The rearrangement, reidentification and recovery of masses of material is recorded in essaye, a very piecemeal fashion, through a mass of in steroid scribbled notes, many of them by Madden and sometimes vitriolic in their denunciation of earlier workers on the collection. Another valuable source for the history of the restoration under Madden is the printed annual returns of progress in the British Museum, which list each of the Cotton Manuscripts restored year by year.(258) Finally, Madden's own annotations on the manuscripts themselves often contain valuable information. His notes on the flyleaf of the Cotton Genesis, for example, provide a particularly lucid summary of the misfortunes of this manuscript. Much of this material lay hidden from public view until recently. Essaye? Madden left a box containing his personal diaries and other material to the Bodleian Library but these were reserved from public use until 1 January 1920. When the box was opened, it was found that the contents consisted of not only the personal diaries but also Madden's official diaries, report books and lists of goals graduate acquisitions.
Recognising that these belonged more properly to the Museum's Archives, the Curators of the Bodleian Library offered them to donc, the Trustees.(259) The then Keeper of manuscripts, Julius Gilson, reported that these volumes 'are almost wholly concerned with the business of the Department of MSS. and would naturally have remained as part of its archives, but for the evidence they contain of the difficult relations between Sir Frederic Madden and the then Principal Librarian, Sir A. Panizzi'. Gilson therefore recommended that this material should be accepted as a gift to the Museum, but proposed that 'they remain part of the archives of the department instead of being placed with collections open to the public, to whom they would be of little use'.(260) These vital records of the restoration process consequently remained in the Departmental Archives, virtually unknown, until they were incorporated as Additional Manuscripts in 1981. Similarly, Madden's notes on his restoration work, including the ledger recording the work on write up a focus each manuscript, were kept in the Departmental Archives until 1983, when they were also made Additional Manuscripts. Perhaps partly as a result of this, printed references to Madden's work on the Cotton Manuscripts are few and far between. In 1854, Gustav Waagen, in his guide to Treasures of Art in Great Britain , described how in 1835, on his first visit to the British Museum, the leaves of the Cotton Genesis were 'still quite crumpled up with the essaye effects of the essay in steroid fire'. By 1854, 'they had been successfully smoothed out, and pas lyrics, mounted on separate sheets of paper, so as to admit a due estimate being formed of their style of art'.(261) Julius Zupitza in his 1882 facsimile of Beowulf noted how further textual losses to the manuscript had been stopped by a new binding. He observed, however, that 'admirably as this was done, the binder could not help covering some letters or portions of letters in every back page with the edge of the paper which now surrounds every parchment leaf'.(262) Zupitza does not mention Madden's name, neither does he indicate that the work on Vitellius A. How To Focus Group? XV was part of a general restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
A few other editions of essaye donc pas lyrics texts rescued by Madden also mentioned his work.(263) More detailed accounts of the restoration process were given in two nineteenth-century guides to the Museum Library. In 1854, Madden's trusty transcriber, Richard Sims, in in steroid, his unofficial Handbook to the Library of the British Museum , gave a lucid short account of the restoration.(264) The work of Madden and Forshall was also briefly noted by Edward Edwards in his 1859 Memoirs of Libraries .(265) Of recent histories of the Museum, Esdaile gives Madden's work the briefest passing mention,(266) while Miller refers only to essaye pas lyrics, the discovery of model lab report material in the garret in 1837.(267) It was not until 1981 that the procedures adopted by Madden and essaye, his binders in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts were first described in detail, by Professor Kevin S. Kiernan in his groundbreaking book Beowulf and the Beowulf Manuscript . Kiernan describes the model procedure adopted in inlaying the individual leaves of the Beowulf manuscript in the following terms: The binder first made pencil tracings of the separate folio leaves on sheets of heavy construction paper. These tracings are usually quite visible in the MS. the binder then cut out the donc pas lyrics center of the paper, following the outline, but leaving from 1 to 2 mm. of model lab report paper within the traced line, so that the frame would be slightly smaller than the vellum leaf it was designed to hold. Paste was then applied to this marginal retaining space, and the folio was pressed into essaye place. Lab Report? Finally, transparent paper strips were pasted on like Scotch tape along the edge of the donc vellum on the recto, thus to secure the american history mounted leaf from both sides.(268) Kiernan points out the advantages of this procedure. Donc? It saves having to handle the how to write up a vellum while consulting the manuscript. Moreover, it avoids the risk of confusing leaves inherent in handling the loose vellum. The drawback is that the edges of the paper frames cover letters and parts of letters on the verso of each leaf, which are thus effectively lost.
However, as Kiernan points out, at essaye pas lyrics, least 'there is something left to try and decipher; without the paper frames many of baseball essay in steroid these uncertain letters would now be gone'.(269) In 1983, Kiernan triumphantly vindicated this conservation strategy. He showed that by lighting the obscured vellum from behind with a cold fibre-optic light source, many of the covered letters could be read.(270) Recently, Kiernan has used a digital camera to record images of the obscured letters and donc, demonstrated the use of computer imaging to restore the hidden letters to their place in model, the manuscript.(271) Thus, by stabilizing the condition of the vellum, Madden and Gough had allowed future scholars, using technological aids undreamt of in the mid-nineteenth century, to read letters which would otherwise have disappeared in the British Museum Reading Room in the nineteenth century. Kiernan's work on the Beowulf manuscript has implications for the study of donc pas lyrics all Cotton Manuscripts inlaid in this way. Baseball Essay In Steroid? Wherever the text on the verso of an inlaid leaf runs up to the edge of the paper frame, there is essaye donc pas lyrics, likely to group, be text concealed beneath the edge of the mount, which may be read with the aid of fibre-optic backlighting. This applies to both vellum and paper manuscripts, since many of the burnt paper volumes were inlaid in a similar fashion, although usually using much lighter paper than in pas lyrics, the case of the vellum manuscripts.
Moreover, the inlaying of the model paper manuscripts, undertaken by Tuckett, was often much more clumsily done than with the vellum manuscripts, so larger portions of text are concealed beneath the mounts. The first of the Cotton Manuscripts to be inlaid in this way was a paper manuscript, Vitellius F. Essaye? V, the sixteenth-century diary of Henry Machyn, a merchant tailor of London, which contains, along with much other heraldic information, the first description of a Lord Mayor's Show. The restoration of this manuscript was supervised by Madden in 1829, while he was still Forshall's assistant.(272) Madden noted that 'The fragments forming the present Volume were formerly kept in a case, without any regard to order, and essay on air pollution in sanskrit, are thus decribed by Dr Smith(273) in his Catalogue. Cod. chartac. in fol. constans foliis solutis circiter 150 in pas lyrics, pixide asservatis, quae rite disponere frustra tentavimus .'(274) The paper leaves were badly singed around the edges by the fire, but none were lost.(275) The pages were inlaid by Tuckett using exactly the same technique as the later restorations.(276) Much lighter paper was used for the frames of Vitellius F. V than in subsequent restorations and the inlay was less skilfully done. Nevertheless, the result is an impressive first attempt. Just as in up a focus group report, the Beowulf manuscript, the paper mounts conceal odd letters and words around the pas lyrics edges of the leaves on the verso which can now be read by the use of career goals essay graduate school fibre-optic light.(277) Madden took the inlaid leaves of Vitellius F. V and compared them with Strype, who, in Madden's words, 'made use of the MS. when perfect, and pas lyrics, who quotes largely from it'; Madden was thus able to resume block format, restore the manuscript to its original order. Donc Pas Lyrics? He carefully noted the month and year of each entry in ink at the top of each page, and, wherever an entry is mentioned by lab report, Strype, gives the pas lyrics reference in pencil on the manuscript itself.
His comment on in steroid the work might serve as a motto for the whole restoration process: 'The curiosity and value of these fragments seemed a sufficient warrant for the labor and time consumed in arranging them in their present form'.(278) As a result of Madden's work, John Gough Nichols was able to produce the first full edition of Machyn's diary in 1848.(279) Madden was sufficiently pleased with the results of this first experiment to have two further burnt paper manuscripts in the Vitellius press, Vitellius F. IV and VIII (which afterwards turned out to in fact be folios 1-95 of Otho D. IV) inlaid and rebound in September 1834, three years before he became Keeper.(280) These early prototypes show that the essaye credit for devising the techniques used in restoring the Cotton Manuscripts belongs to Madden, though he may have been inspired by examples of resume block Gough's work he had seen in Oxford. This is confirmed by Madden's stress on the fact that the essaye donc volumes were restored 'under my superintendence' and the way in which he gave both Gough and Tuckett very detailed instructions on the procedures they were to on air pollution in sanskrit language, use. The physical labour involved in the work undertaken by Gough and Tuckett was enormous. They had to essaye donc, open up, clean, flatten, make frames for and mount thousands of leaves.
Each stage of the work required manual dexterity and skill of the lab report highest order. Just as arduous, however, was the intellectual labour involved in identifying and arranging the inlaid leaves. As these were returned to Madden, he checked their order, making amendments as necessary, and then passed them over to Tuckett for binding. It should be noted that, in this respect, the notes made by Madden in the binding ledger, Additional MS. 62577, as to the binder responsible for particular pieces of work are misleading.
Even where the donc letter G appears beside a note that a volume was inlaid and rebound, Gough was responsible only for the inlaying of the leaves. The inlaid folios arranged by Madden were actually bound up by focus, Tuckett. Gough's time was too valuable to be spent on such routine tasks.(281) Madden provides little information in his diaries and elsewhere as to the exact procedures adopted by him in sorting and arranging the donc pas lyrics inlaid leaves.(282) References to work on individual manuscripts are usually frustratingly vague, but it is re/collecting early asian essays in cultural, clear that, in establishing the order of the leaves, he relied heavily on early catalogues such as Smith and Wanley. Essaye? In his personal diary for 26 May 1854, he notes that he 'Collated the Cottonian MS. Otho D. X (now inlaid) with Smith's list of contents. Originally it consisted of essay on air pollution language 291 leaves, but previous to essaye donc, Smith's Catalogue (1696), thirty six leaves had been cut out, leaving only career, 255 and at present I find only 239 much injured by fire'.(283) By 1865, Madden had traced the remaining leaves and placed them in the appropriate places in the volume.(284) In other cases, the essaye donc pas lyrics process of arrangement was more complex. On 29 March 1845, Madden 'Began to arrange for the binder the vellum fragments of MS. Essay On Air Pollution Language? Cotton Otho B. II containing Alfred's Saxon version of Gregory de Cura Pastorale.
This volume was much injured in the fire of essaye donc 1731, and only 49 leaves remain of it, which have been inlaid by Gough. I am enabled to write focus, place them in order by comparing each leaf with the printed Latin text of Gregory's work, a tedious and rather difficult task.'(285) Madden was still engaged on essaye donc this work four months later.(286) The reconstructed Otho B. II was then used as an aid in arranging another copy of the same text, Tiberius B. XI.(287) The complexity of the task confronting by Madden and the care with which he carried it out is evident, to take a random example, from a collection of twelfth-century historical works, Otho D. VII. The surviving manuscript includes works by Diceto, Robert de Torigni, Ailred of Rievaulx and Henry of Huntingdon. These represent a very partial survival of the original volume, comprising parts of articles 3, 5-8 and 11 of the manuscript as described by resume, Smith. In the first of the surviving articles, Diceto's Abbreviatio Chronicorum , the order of the leaves has been determined by reference to two different manuscripts (Royal MS. 13 E. Essaye? VI and Cotton MS. Claudius E. III) together with Twysden's printed edition. Detailed references to these various works are supplied in pencil on the paper frames of the leaves. On f. 10 a reference to baseball essay in steroid, the Royal MS. has been replaced with one from essaye, Claudius E. III and re/collecting asian american in cultural history, the folio number altered from 6 to 9 and then 10, apparently reflecting a rearrangement. Donc Pas Lyrics? Between ff.
15 and 25 there are a number of erased pencil numerations which show leaves being fed in to the sequence and rearranged while still loose. After f. 14, where two leaves are noted as missing, blank paper leaves, already ruled with ink borders, have been provided to receive the career essay graduate blank leaves if found. Essaye Pas Lyrics? On ff. 26 and 27 inlaid leaves have been pasted into previously prepared blank leaves of this type. On Air Pollution In Sanskrit Language? Confusingly, these extra leaves were not foliated when they were added to the volume and the foliation of the subsequent leaves was not altered. Madden also attempted at various points to indicate the original pre-fire foliation of particular leaves (e.g. ff. 62-65). This was useful to him in sorting, but, as it was not consistently done or clearly labelled, it was likely afterwards to cause great confusion.
To provide guidance for the binder, Madden put an extra foliation on the top right hand corner, which is still just visible, though heavily cropped and largely erased. The foliation sequences provide important clues as to the stages in the restoration process, as can be seen also from the insular gospel fragment, Otho C. V.(288) Casley reported that 'some pieces of leaves' of essaye donc pas lyrics this manuscript had survived the fire and indeed illustrates one of lab report them.(289) Nevertheless, the manuscript is described as wanting by Planta. The fragments were eventually retrieved from the refuse in the garret by Forshall, cut open and flattened. The manuscript consisted in 1841 of sixty loose leaves.(290) However, six of the fragments thought by Forshall to belong to Otho C. V were in fact from Otho A. I.(291) Moreover, some of the fragments now joined together to form a single folio were probably separate in Forshall's time.(292) Nevertheless, it is clear that the bulk of the manuscript was recovered by Forshall, and essaye, that the additions made by Madden from the loose material in the garret were relatively few. The leaves treated by Forshall can be identified from the 'notching' left when the manuscript was cut open, a practice abandoned under Madden.(293) The volume, including the six leaves from Otho A. I, was inlaid by Gough and arranged by Madden during the latter part of 1848.(294) A much heavier grade paper than usual was used for the inlay, perhaps in essay in sanskrit language, order more effectively to protect the fragments, which are particularly brittle. In arranging the leaves, Madden painstakingly wrote the biblical references for each leaf on the top of the paper mount. Some of the points at which identification proved particularly difficult are evident from the occasional erasure and correction of essaye donc pas lyrics these references.(295) During the course of the arrangement, Madden established that some fragments belonged to the same folio and could be joined together, so he returned them to Gough to be inlaid again.(296) The old foliation in the top right hand corner of the ink border framing the inlaid leaf was made by Madden shortly before he sent the leaves to Tuckett to be bound. Four leaves were added to the sequence after Madden had completed this foliation(297) and were given starred folio numbers.
In 1855, seven years after the manuscript was bound, six of the leaves which Madden's assistant Hamilton(298) realised in essay on air in sanskrit, fact came from Otho A. I(299) were removed.(300) There is no disruption in the sequence of Madden's foliation and his binding ledger does not show that the manuscript was rebound after 1848. The most reasonable inference from this is that the leaves from Otho A. I had been placed at the end of the volume and could be removed without disrupting the foliation. At the essaye donc same time as the essay leaves from Otho A. I were removed, Hamilton is also reported to have 'inserted some fragments' in Otho C. V.(301) Since the only indication of any disruption in the foliation are the donc four starred folios, the in sanskrit most likely explanation is that these are the fragments identified by Hamilton, which were presumably tipped in to the old binding. Unfortunately, all other evidence of this rearrangement was destroyed when the inlaid leaves of Otho C. V were mounted on donc pas lyrics guards and rebound in 1963.(302) Although the various foliations are vital evidence of the restoration process, one of the weaknesses of Madden's work was the confusion he left in the referencing system of particular manuscripts. New leaves were inserted and their order altered but the foliation was not amended. Occasionally, asterisks were used to indicate additional folios, but this was not consistently done.
Thus, in Vitellius C. VIII, Madden inserted new material after Planta's f. 139. He continued Planta's foliation sequence from re/collecting asian american in cultural history, this point in pencil up to essaye donc pas lyrics, f. 153, then used starred foliation for some further added leaves. However, he did not alter the numeration of the remaining leaves with a Planta foliation. As a result, before 1875, the manuscript contained two sets of essay ff. 148-153. Such a situation was clearly unsatisfactory, and was one of the reasons for the refoliation of all the Cotton Manuscripts in the 1870s and 1880s, when Madden's successors, Bond and Thompson, introduced the system of foliation still used in the Department of donc pas lyrics Manuscripts.(303) The work performed by Madden and how to up a group report, his team on donc the arrangement of the lab report restored leaves was a bibliographical and palaeographical tour de force . Their tools were limited in scope: Smith, Wanley and a handful of very old editions. Many of the fragments were scorched and shrunk beyond recognition. Modern aids such as ultra-violet light and even a table-lamp were unavailable. The task of sorting and arrangement of the leaves became even more formidable after 1852 when the fragments started to be flattened and inlaid without preliminary sorting. By 1856, thousands of inlaid and unsorted loose leaves had accumulated in folders, each of which had to be individually identified.
In the essaye pas lyrics meantime, Madden was growing older and his sight began to deteriorate. He therefore started to involve his most competent assistants in the sorting and early in cultural history, arrangement of the fragments. The first to be recruited in this way was his Assistant Keeper, Edward Augustus Bond, who was to succeed Madden as Keeper and afterwards rose to be Principal Librarian. In 1850, Madden noted that he 'Gave Tiberius A. XV into essaye pas lyrics Mr Bond's hands to arrange.'(304) Bond was also extensively involved in work on the State Papers. Some of Madden's assistants were unequal to block format, the task. In 1853, Madden complained that he had been 'Employed in collating the Cotton MS. Essaye Donc? Otho D. I (which was done in a very slovenly way previously by Mr Lerieu, one of my assistants) and inserted 17 additional leaves'.
Three years later, 'Mr Lerieu brought me the remains of MS. Cott. Calig. D. X, XI, E. I and E. II which have been in his hands ever since 1852'.(305) More enthusiastic about the career goals essay graduate work was N.E.S.A. Hamilton, who in 1876 published the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis ,(306) a text which came to his attention as a result of his work with the Cotton Manuscripts. This document records an pas lyrics early stage in the Domesday survey of Cambridgeshire and block format, was (erroneously) hailed by essaye donc pas lyrics, no less a figure than John Horace Round as 'the true key to the Domesday Survey'.(307) In Galbraith's view, Round's misinterpretation of the function of this document, compounded by Maitland's acceptance of Round's position, fundamentally distorted Domesday studies until very recently.(308) Hamilton's edition of the Inquisitio was dedicated to the memory of Madden, 'the greatest palaeographer of the age', and in his introduction Hamilton described how he had been asked by essay pollution, Madden 'to arrange and pas lyrics, where possible to restore to their proper places a considerable number of block separate and essaye pas lyrics, damaged leaves, which were known to belong to manuscripts in career essay school, the Cotton collection; and it was while thus employed that he made the essaye pas lyrics discovery of the important nature of the Domesday portion of the manuscript [Tiberius A. VI].'(309) Madden urged Hamilton to publish the text, which had been omitted from Henry Ellis's edition of Domesday-related material even though it was in in steroid, the same manuscript as another text, the Inquisitio Eliensis , which had been included.(310)
Hamilton did a great deal of work on the Cotton fragments, but was not wholly reliable. On 31 January 1854, Madden recorded how 'Mr Hamilton identified the Cotton MS. Donc? Append. XXXI to be Vitellius F.VI said by Planta to be lost ';(311) on on air in sanskrit closer examination three months later Madden felt some doubts about the identification, observing that 'It does not correspond satisfactorily with Smith, but it maybe'.(312) In the 1860s, Hamilton was assigned the arrangement of the remaining Old English fragments, most of which are now in essaye donc pas lyrics, Otho A. VIII, Otho B. X and Otho B. Baseball Essay In Steroid? XI.(313) These three volumes are among those where recent work has revealed serious deficiencies in the arrangement, with leaves inserted upside down and donc, assigned to the wrong manuscripts.(314) It seems that these volumes were in an even worse state when they left Hamilton's hands and up a, were sent to Madden for checking. On 12 May 1863, Madden, while examining these volumes, 'Identified 5 leaves of the Anglo-Saxon Boethius, Otho A. VI, and essaye pas lyrics, directed them to be inserted in their places which I ascertained by collation with Rawlinson's edition. Mr Hamilton (to whom I have previously given the Anglo-Saxon fragments) made sad work of them. Five leaves of Boethius he notes as Colloquy. Description of on air Britain!!'.(315) Even so, when Madden sent the checked volumes to the binder, very obvious errors in the reconstruction remained, evidence perhaps of his own failing powers.(316) Madden's most important associate in the task of identifying and essaye pas lyrics, arranging the fragments was the young Edward Maunde Thompson.
Thompson had been a clerk in Panizzi's office, and was transferred, at Panizzi's insistence, to Manuscripts in 1862.(317) Despite this unpromising start, he soon distinguished himself. In May 1863, Thompson identified article 3 of Vitellius A. III(318), located a number of essay on air in sanskrit fragments from pas lyrics, Otho A. III and model, rearranged Vitellius A. VII.(319) On 1 June, he found the last eleven leaves of the chronicle of Roger of Wendover, Otho B. V.(320) 'This is important', Madden declared.(321) On the donc following day, 'Mr Thompson identified the leaves of the commencement of up a focus group Tib. A. IX which were missing before 1734 when the Report on the Library was printed, also the nine last leaves of Vitell. A. VIII.'(322) Madden was delighted: 'Mr Thompson is a most useful assistant his services more valuable than several of the older ones'.(323) However, even Thompson was not above making mistakes. He seems to have been responsible for identifying seven leaves from Æthelweard's chronicle, Otho A. X, as part of the essaye unique manuscript of Asser, the first article of Otho A. XII,(324) a mistake which seriously misled Henry Bradshaw in his account of the placenames in Asser(325) and american in cultural, was only rectified by Sir George Warner some years later.(326) These leaves, further damaged in the bindery fire, still form the essaye donc first seven folios of Otho A. XII. It is perhaps only when mistakes like this come to light that the modern reader becomes conscious that many of the Cotton Manuscripts are in a way replicas or reconstitutions, made from the original materials by Madden and his colleagues. The words of Susan Sontag describing the early asian essays 1845 restoration of the smashed Portland Vase come to mind: 'neither replica or original.
A perfect job of reconstruction, for the time'.(327) Madden's great enterprise has been exhaustively described here, but there are still many other aspects of the work which would be worth further investigation. The Cotton Charters, which, as Madden noted, were in a particularly bad condition in 1838, were also repaired. Essaye Pas Lyrics? The charters had perhaps the most complex history of any part of the Cotton collection. They were the only part of the collection which was renumbered when it came to the Museum, being assigned a roman number representing the drawer in which the charter was stored and an arabic number recording the piece number of the charter within the drawer. The original Cotton Charters only extend as far as XVI.3. The numbers from graduate school, this point onwards were assigned by Samuel Ayscough to various unnumbered charters and seal impressions while he was compiling his catalogue of charters in the 1790s.(328) These included a number of Harleian charters.(329) Madden was afterwards to lament the 'sad confusion' that Ayscough had caused in the charter numeration.(330) In Madden's time, these later additions to the charters were distinguished, following Ayscough's usage, as 'Cartae Miscellaneae Addendae' or 'Various Collections'. During the Bond's Keepership (1866-78), the use of a separate designation for donc these charters ceased, and they have since always been referred to as Cotton Charters and Rolls. This has led to goals school, the confusing situation where the item known nowadays as Cotton Charter XXIV.17 was in fact presented to the Museum by Mr Leake of Middlewich in 1788.(331) Madden not only restored damaged charters but also recovered many charters from the damaged fragments in the garret.(332) The numeration assigned to essaye, these charters presumably reflects Madden's view of their likely provenance.
Hand in hand with the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts went a closer investigation of the history of the collection, leading to the rediscovery of much lost and early asian american essays history, stray material. Madden compiled a detailed list of lost or strayed Cotton Manuscripts.(333) He persuaded Sir Thomas Phillipps to sell a stray Cotton manuscript in essaye pas lyrics, his possession, Vitellius D. Block? IX, to the Museum at essaye donc, a special price.(334) Perhaps the how to up a focus group most exciting rediscovery was that of the Utrecht Psalter. On 1 December 1856, Madden 'Received a letter from Mr D. Laing giving me a description of a MS. in the University Library Utrecht [the famous Utrecht Psalter], which proves to be one of the lost Cotton MSS. Claudius C.VII which is marked Deest in Smith's Catalogue of essaye donc 1696. On Air Pollution In Sanskrit Language? Mr Laing recommends that the Trustees should negotiate for its acquisition. I think so too .'(335) The second half of the nineteenth century saw a great leap forward in pas lyrics, critical and editorial standards. Madden's work with the Cotton Manuscripts was of early asian essays in cultural fundamental importance in this movement. The connection between Hamilton's influential edition of the Inquisitio Comitatus Cantabrigiensis and the restoration work has already been mentioned. Madden rescued important manuscripts of many of the key English historical sources edited in the Rolls Series and elsewhere, such as (to take two random examples) one of only essaye donc pas lyrics, two extant manuscripts of resume block format Roger of Wendover's Flores Historiarum (Otho B. V) and a presentation copy of Capgrave's De Illustribus Henricis (Tiberius A. VIII).
Moreover, the work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts, by essaye donc pas lyrics, establishing the exact extent of the survival of essay particular manuscripts, helped clear the ground for donc pas lyrics new editions of texts whose chief witnesses had been destroyed or reduced to a few fragments, such as Gildas and Asser. Madden's achievements as 'Restorer of the Cotton library' may not have achieved much public recognition, but they can be seen as underpinning the goals graduate school emergence of modern historical technique in Britain. This is pas lyrics, reflected in the prominence of those most closely associated with the work on the Cotton Manuscripts -- Thompson, Hamilton, Bond and Madden himself -- in the editing of the Rolls Series. The two main published catalogues of the Cotton Library, those of career goals essay graduate school Thomas Smith, published in 1696, and Joseph Planta, published in 1802, had both, within fifty years of their publication, ceased to be accurate guides to the collection they describe. The 1731 fire reduced Smith's catalogue overnight to the status of essaye pas lyrics a historical document: an indispensable guide to the contents of the career essay graduate school collection before the fire but no longer an essaye up-to-date working catalogue.
The process by which Planta's catalogue became equally outmoded was more complex but equally devastating. Criticisms of it had begun to be widely voiced as early as the 1830s. Most telling were those made by Sir Nicholas Harris Nicolas in his Observations on the State of write up a group Historical Literature , published in 1830. This attacked the work of the Record Commission which, rather than the Museum Trustees, had published the catalogues of the Harley, Lansdowne and Cotton Manuscripts. That these three catalogues were 'often erroneous and generally unsatisfactory', Sir Nicholas declared, 'is well known to all who have consulted them'.(336) He complained that the essaye donc pas lyrics Cotton catalogue, like the on air pollution third volume of the Harley catalogue, was full of pas lyrics short and vague descriptions of complex manuscripts.(337) He also attacked the school accuracy of the catalogue: 'The descriptions of the manuscripts are not unfrequently erroneous, and what is equally material, the general index at the end of the donc pas lyrics volume is extremely incomplete. For example, the on air Cottonian collection contains the highly valuable chronicle of Lanercost, but no special reference is to be found to it in the general index; and other omissions of donc pas lyrics equal consequence might easily be cited.'(338) In giving evidence to essay in sanskrit, the 1836 Select Committee on the Museum, Nicolas not only pas lyrics, repeated the criticisms in model, his earlier pamphlet, but also also drew attention to the problem of the burnt manuscripts. He noted that Planta did not give any indication as to the contents of manuscripts thought to essaye pas lyrics, be completely lost, and offered no hint that any further fragments might still be surviving in the Museum.(339) Forshall's initial restoration work had, of course, already rendered Planta seriously out of model date in this respect and it was no longer an accurate statement of those Cotton Manuscripts which were available for consultation in the Reading Room.
Forshall conceded to the Select Committee that a supplement to donc pas lyrics, Planta's catalogue was needed. The basis for this would be the 'considerable materials' which he had already begun to essay in sanskrit language, gather.(340) Planta's inadequate treatment of the burnt and missing manuscripts was a glaring deficiency in his catalogue. An even more serious fault, however, was his failure to distinguish between manuscripts lost in the fire and those already noted as wanting in Smith's 1696 catalogue. Some of these were lost to the Library as a result of loans and survive elsewhere. Others may simply have been phantoms which never existed.(341) As Madden's restoration work proceeded, the refrain of 'deest' and donc, 'desideratur' which echoes through Planta's catalogue became more and more misleading. Model? Increasingly, manuscripts dismissed by Planta as lost or useless were being made available for public consultation.
Moreover, as Madden's facelift of the collection continued, manuscripts described by Planta were rearranged, so that the description itself became out of date. This was communicated to readers, if at donc, all, by brief written notes, often very inadequate or confusing, in the margins of copies of Planta's catalogue in the Reading Room. Not surprisingly, towards the end of Madden's time as Keeper, readers became very frustrated with this situation. Madden's personal diary for 6 December 1861 contains the following entry: Saw Mr Panizzi in his room, who shewed me a printed sheet sent to him by the post, anonymously, in which some person bearing no good will to the Dept. of MSS. Essay On Air Pollution Language? has taken the essaye donc pas lyrics trouble to collect from my Annual Reports to the House of Commons the references to write up a report, the injured Cottonian MSS. which have been restored by my direction and under my superintendence, and then by way of a grievance, asking why a copy of essaye donc Smith's Catalogue of 1696 has not been placed in the Reading Room, with an account of write up a report those MSS. Donc? which had been restored.
My answer is thus, to this anonymous piece of spite. 1. There is a copy of Smith's Catalogue in essay, the Reading Room always has been. 2. At the donc end of on air pollution in sanskrit language Casley's Catalogue of the Royal Library there is a short list of those MSS. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? damaged or lost by fire in 1731. 3. Language? A great part of the donc MSS. so restored have been bound placed on the shelves, are accessible to every reader. 4. Practically the whole are easily accessible, for every reader who wishes to early american essays in cultural history, know of any remains of essaye pas lyrics a MS. (said by baseball, Planta to be lost ), exist, has only to ask, and he is immediately informed. 5. For a long time past I have [purposed] an interleaved copy of essaye pas lyrics Planta's Catalogue for re/collecting early essays in cultural history the Reading Room, in which are to be entered descriptions of the MSS. wholly or in part recovered or restored; but up to the present time, it has been found impossible to execute this, since it would require the services of an extra assistant devoted especially to essaye donc pas lyrics, the task.(342) Despite his dusty reply to goals graduate school, this anonymous criticism, Madden was conscious of the need to provide better information about the availability of particular Cotton Manuscripts. In June 1861, he had pointed out to the Trustees that all the essaye restored manuscripts needed to be described, and that Planta's catalogue 'requires careful revision, and how to up a focus group report, additions to be made; to do which would require a good palaeographer one well versed in English History and Middle Age literature'.(343) As Madden approached the end of his work on the manuscripts, he had prepared a detailed account of the current condition of those reported as lost or injured by the parliamentary committee of 1732.(344) This information was inserted in essaye donc, two interleaved copies of the committee's report. One was retained for internal Departmental use.
The other was placed at the catalogue desk in the Reading Room shortly before Madden submitted his resignation.(345) This provided an asian in cultural history authoritative account of the restoration work, but unfortunately it did not stay in the Reading Room for very long. It was withdrawn from the catalogue desk, perhaps when a separate Manuscripts Students' Room was opened in 1885. It was at first placed in essaye pas lyrics, the general printed book collections with the lab report pressmark 362.b.14, but was afterwards returned to the Manuscripts Department, where it rejoined its companion in the Departmental Reference Library.(346) The two volumes remained there until 1983, when the copy originally intended for the Reading Room was incorporated in the Manuscript collections as Additional MS. 62573. In 1984 this information was finally made available in essaye donc pas lyrics, print, when one of the volumes was published in facsimile in in steroid, Colin Tite's indispensable edition of Thomas Smith's catalogue.(347) The interleaved copy of the essaye pas lyrics parliamentary report is the only convenient statement available of the work done by Madden on model lab report the Cotton Manuscripts but is nevertheless unsatisfactory in a number of ways.
It was not kept up to date and does not record the further work on the collection done after Madden left the Museum.(348) Moreover, Madden's notes are restricted to the manuscripts listed by Casley as lost or effectively destroyed but his work was far more wide-ranging than this. Many leaves were added to manuscripts described by Casley as damaged but usable, and there are only indirect references to the extensive work undertaken in rearranging and sorting the manuscripts in the Appendix. Had it been made more widely available, the interleaved copy of the donc parliamentary report would have provided a useful stop-gap, but it was never a replacement for a new catalogue. The preparation of a new catalogue was a constant aspiration of early asian american in cultural successive Keepers of Manuscripts, rather as the restoration of the fragments had been up to Madden's time. Essaye Pas Lyrics? In the 1870s, while George Warner was arranging the loose inlaid fragments left by resume block format, Madden into essaye pas lyrics a separate series, he compiled detailed descriptions of them. Shortly before the First World War, Eric Millar described the bulk of the appendix and the remaining loose fragments. These descriptions may perhaps have been intended to be the first stage in the preparation of a new catalogue. With the outbreak of the First World War, however, this project was abandoned, and Millar and Warner's descriptions filed away. They were not finally typed up until 1973, and only made available in the Students' Room in 1981.(349) In 1931, the tercentenary of Cotton's death, a special exhibition of how to write up a his finest manuscripts was held in the King's Library.
The then Keeper, Sir Harold Idris Bell, expressed a hope in the preface to the exhibition catalogue that it would be soon be possible to pas lyrics, start work on a new catalogue, similar to that recently produced for resume format the Royal and King's Manuscripts.(350) Shortly afterwards, the Trustees gave permission for this work to begin.(351) Manuscripts in the Julius, Tiberius and Caligula groups were assigned for description to essaye pas lyrics, various officers including Bell himself, Robin Flower, Francis Wormald, Eric Millar, and Theodore Skeat. The rules drawn up for the new catalogue still survive. They stressed that 'The new catalogue was sanctioned by the Trustees on the understanding that the work for it would be done concurrently with that on the General Catalogue. It is important that it should not interfere too much with the latter, the arrears in which, though reduced, are as yet by no means overtaken. It has therefore been decided that Officers should devote no more than two days a week to the Cotton catalogue'. It was proposed to issue the catalogue in a series of fascicules, with the first volume containing descriptions of the earlier manuscripts, arranged in Emperor order. It was hoped to draw on write group report the expertise of readers and an appeal for donc pas lyrics information on the manuscripts was to be circulated among readers. F. M. Powicke and V. H. Galbraith were to be consulted on the treatment of chronicles and F. Format? M. Stenton was to act as advisor on donc pas lyrics the cartularies. Goals Essay? This ambitious scheme, which would undoubtedly have produced a first-rate catalogue, was again cut short by the outbreak of war. The dispersal of staff and collections during the donc war, as well as such vicissitudes as the destruction during the Blitz of the printers stock of the descriptions of the Catalogue of Additions to the Manuscripts for 1921-1925 and baseball essay, part of 1926-1930, meant that an essaye pas lyrics arrear of publication built up which is only just being eradicated.(352) The retirement of Madden did not mark the conclusion of work on the restoration of the Cotton Manuscripts.
He had passed over to Maunde Thompson a large pile of pollution in sanskrit language inlaid fragments not yet identified and a little loose material. The annual reports of the Museum for 1867 and 1868 indicate that work continued on these fragments,(353) but it was soon abandoned as Madden's successor, Bond, began to essaye donc pas lyrics, concentrate on his pet project, the creation of the classed catalogue. When Maunde Thompson himself became Keeper in 1878, the decision seems to baseball in steroid, have been taken to bind up the remaining inlaid fragments in separate volumes. Rather than attempting to reunite these with their parent volumes, detailed descriptions were prepared which indicated as far as possible the provenance of essaye pas lyrics particular fragments. This was the origin of the present series of goals essay Cotton fragments, which represent the remnant of the material found by donc pas lyrics, Madden in the garret in 1837. The loose material which had not been inlaid by graduate school, Madden was kept respectively in a 'case', a 'portfolio' and essaye pas lyrics, 'box'. Detailed work on how to write focus group the identification of this material was undertaken by Millar, but does not seem to have led to any extensive rearrangement. The loose material was not generally available for public consultation. Essaye? Eventually in asian essays in cultural history, 1990 the decision was taken to sew the loose material into inert transparent plastic sleeves to facilitate its use in essaye pas lyrics, the Students' Room. This work was undertaken by Cyril Titus of the Manuscripts Conservation Studio under the supervision of Rachel Stockdale, relying on essay on air pollution in sanskrit language the work of Millar and Warner. The material from the former 'case' is now available as Fragments XXX.
It is intended that the contents of the 'box' and 'case' will also be bound up in this fashion. The story of the restoration is essaye donc, not yet ended. Indeed, it may be beginning afresh. Apart from the possibilities opened up by the use of computer imaging as demonstrated by Kevin Kiernan, Madden's restoration work is beginning to show signs of age. Vellum behaves in a different way to paper. As the vellum moves in one direction, the paper moves in another. Gough's paper frames are buckling and in block format, one or two places the essaye donc pas lyrics vellum is focus group report, becoming detached from the paper frames. Essaye Donc Pas Lyrics? Even more seriously, in up a focus group, the later stages of the restoration process, acid paper was used for the mounts of some of the fragments.
This accounts for the yellowing of some frames in a manuscript like Otho B. X.(354) In order to stabilise the pas lyrics situation, some of the burnt Cotton Manuscripts have been recently encapsulated in plastic(355) but, as David Dumville has observed,(356) this makes study of the manuscripts difficult. A conservation technique which balances the need to write up a group report, preserve the manuscripts against the requirements of donc public access needs to be developed. Career Goals Essay School? In some respects, we are back in the time of Ellis and essaye pas lyrics, Forshall. Again the words of Susan Sontag in respect of the Portland Vase seem apposite. Resume Block Format? 'A perfect job of reconstruction, for its time. Until time wears it out. Donc? Transparent glue yellows and bulges, making seamless joints visible. Can something shattered, then expertly repaired, be the early american essays same, the same as it was? Yes, to the eye, yes, if one doesn't look too closely.
No, to the mind'.(357) Reports of Matthew Maty and essaye pas lyrics, Henry Rimius on the condition. of the baseball in steroid Cotton Library, July 1756. These reports are printed from the copies in the minutes of the Standing Committee of the Museum Trustees, vol. 1, 1754-1757 (British Museum Archives CE 3/1), 102-106, 110-114. [ The initial report ] The report of Dr Maty and Mr Rimius concerning the state in which they have found the manuscripts and medals in the Cottonian collection. According to the order given us by the Honourable Committee of the Trustees of the pas lyrics British Museum, Friday July 16th, 1756, we waited upon Mr Widmore at the Cottonian Repository, and examined the manuscripts, by up a group report, comparing them both with the catalogue, composed by Mr Smith and printed in 1695, and donc pas lyrics, with the lab report account which was given by Mr Casley in essaye donc pas lyrics, 1732 of the state of the manuscripts after the fire. Essay Pollution In Sanskrit? For this purpose we opened the several presses distinguished by the names of the twelve Caesars, those of Cleopatra and essaye pas lyrics, Faustina, and the Appendix; and having counted the number of volumes under every division, we took one or two of each and compared them with the catalogues, to be satisfied they answered to the accounts given of how to focus report them. And though, for want of time, we could not be as particular as we could have wished in our examination, we hope the following account will be found agreeable to the actual state of essaye this valuable, though hitherto much neglected, collection. The manuscripts contained in the presses called Julius, Augustus, Claudius, Nero, Vespasianus, Titus, Domitianus, Cleopatra, Faustina, and those of the Appendix, have suffered nothing by the fire, and have been found to agree with Mr Smith's catalogue.
Yet several of these being placed in presses much exposed to dampness in a cold and shady place, could hardly notwithstanding Mr Widmore's endeavours (which he has assured us to have been very assiduous) be preserved from re/collecting early asian american essays in cultural history, must and mouldiness and will want to be aired and carefully dried up before they are placed in the Museum. The condition of the manuscripts contained in the presses called Tiberius, Caligula, Galba, Otho and Vitellius, obliges us to essaye donc, be a little more particular, as we could not find some of the articles specified by Mr Casley, and as several of those which he declares to be entirely destroyed, may still be of some use in careful hands. Beginning therefore with Tiberius we find the division. A. Answering to re/collecting asian american essays in cultural, the two catalogues; 12 and 15 entirely destroyed; all the books damaged besides 1, 5 and 6. Yet the most damaged still capable of being read, either in part or entire. B. 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 8 still subsisting; 9, though said to be burnt to a crust, very legible in the inside. C. Essaye? Though nothing is said of them in the account, have most of them greatly suffered by the fire. D. 6 is model, wanting; 9, marked with a star in donc, the account as entirely destroyed, has been found by us. E. Answers to the catalogue compared with the report.
A, B, C. Suffered nothing, or very little by the fire, and have been collated with Mr Smith's catalogue. D E. Answers to Mr Casley's account of the effect of the resume format fire upon them. A. 6 is essaye donc, not found; 15 exists, though damaged; and 18 which was referred to in Mr Smith's catalogue as being transferred to Caligula A.14 was reported to essay in steroid, be lost by Mr Casley. B, C, D, E. Answer to the catalogues compared one with the other. A. According to the report consists of 18 numbers all destroyed; yet we discovered the first part of number XII being the Life of Alfred by Asser Menevensis. C. 1, 4 and essaye donc pas lyrics, 13, said to be destroyed, are in part legible. The other numbers answer to the catalogue as well as. D E. Several bundles and loose papers not taken notice of by Mr Casley may, in part, be recovered and read.
Besides the damage done by career goals, the fire to the manuscripts in this press, it has suffered no less by the carelessness of those that have been the first employed in preserving them, as well as by the extraordinary moistness of the place. The great humidity, together with the extension of that hue, which the fire extracted from the volumes wrote on donc vellum, having rolled the edges of most of them, defaced the marks and how to group, afforded both lodging and food to numberless shoals of worms and other insects. In this state we cannot answer whether number 15, under the division C, all those that were under D, number 13 under E, and 15 and 17 under F, which were the only ones under the several divisions we could not find, besides those that have been marked in pas lyrics, Mr Casley's report as entirely destroyed, may not still be recovered, at least in part, among the goals school sad remains of this precious part of the donc pas lyrics collection. The medals or coins, of which Mr Pegge and how to write group report, the late worthy Mr Folkes gave some manuscript account in 1747 and essaye donc, 1748 have been found by us in a most confused state. The Reverend Mr Widmore has never examined them according to these accounts, and answers only to the number, which we found to be as follows: Pope's Heads, Seals co. Medals or English coins. The account of the charters, curiosities co. and of Major Edwards's books, we beg leave to refer to the meeting of the committee, as we have not had time hitherto to examine them. London. Career Goals School? July 22 1756. [ The further report ] The charters, warrants, deeds and other records contained in the last press of the Cottonian cabinet might have been examined with more ease and in less time had we found them disposed in any order, properly endorsed, or at least regularly numbered and sufficiently described.
But as nothing of all this has to our knowledge hitherto been done, and as no other assistance could be procured but the rough draft of a catalogue, which the Reverend Mr Widmore has made of them for his own use, we were obliged to essaye, look them over american essays, one by one, to pick up the essaye pas lyrics late learned Keeper's loose sheets, and to affix to every one of them a number by which they could more easily be found out. We cannot and indeed we ought not to be very particular in our account of these precious relicts, as such an account would not only model lab report, be dry and tedious, but also in essaye, a manner useless, since Mr Widmore has promised to lend his notes. These, though he himself modestly owns them imperfect, will still be of format great use in the future arrangement of this part of the collection. Essaye? We declare that of above five hundred pieces mentioned by him in his rough draft, no more than four or five have escaped our researches. These few appeared to us to be of little consequence, to lose more time than we could spare in looking for them amidst the rubbish of bits of parchment or of paper, scorched by pollution in sanskrit language, the fire, or consumed by old age, which Mr Widmore thought too much destroyed to be either used or described. We think however a more particular examination will be necessary, as it is not impossible but some things may still be retrieved. As this Honourable Board required from us not an accurate description but simply a general survey of the whole, we flatter ourselves that what we have said hitherto and are now going to add will in some measure answer their intention though not our desire of fulfilling our duty. The upper part of this last press contains sixteen, and the under one seven, drawers filled with papers or parchments. Several of them being entirely relative to the Cotton family seem to be of little use to the public, and the same may be said of many more, which only pas lyrics, serve to swell but in our opinion by no means to enrich this collection.
Some capital pieces are already sufficiently known, and their importance seems to require the greatest care of them. Among them deserves the first rank, King John's famous grant of privileges, which though one of the sufferers by the fire, is still very legible, and would be much more so had anything been done to repair the how to write focus group report damages done by this dreadful accident. We have put this piece by itself in a separate drawer, viz. no. 16 at bottom. Donc? The explanations of Magna Carta and of that of the Forests by Edward the in sanskrit language First are likewise subsisting, and ought we think to be brought nearer than they now are to the preceding piece. Amongst the public records preserved in our collection, we beg leave to mention Pope Innocent's Bull containing the cession of the weak king, Robert de Bruce's claim to the crown of Scotland as laid before Edward I in essaye donc pas lyrics, French in 1297, the block format Scotch Barons' submission to the English King's determination, the declaration of John, King of France, about the quarrel between the Dukes of Lancaster and Brunswick in 1352, the Archbishop of Canterbury and of York's letter to Henry VIII containing their synod's compliance with his desires in the affair of the divorce with Ann of essaye pas lyrics Cleves, an instrument of the Dutch commissioners in 1585 confirming the cautionary cession of some of their towns. Some original, though not very remarkable, letters of Queen Elizabeth, Prince Maurice and co. are likewise found there. The antiquity of many of the pieces contained in write focus group report, this press is alone sufficient to donc, render them venerable.
Several of them are of the ancient Saxon and career goals essay graduate, Danish kings, viz. Ethelbert, Edred, Kinewolf, Canut, Alfred and co. and must be very near a thousand years old. Historical, chronological and genealogical rolls, drawn up by monks, in the ages of ignorance and darkness, may still afford some satisfaction. Inventories of the essaye books and effects of the several monasteries, expenses for the table of their abbots, and orders for the table of some princes, will probably likewise be examined and compared. But what constitutes by much the greatest part of these records relates to the church, viz. Model Lab Report? Pope's Bulls, indulgences, grants and dispensations, ordinations of essaye donc bishops, but especially pious gifts and grants to monasteries. Model? Some of them have appeared in print, others have not, though deserving of that honour, and proper to ascertain the titles of several churches to their estates. The antiquities contained in three or four of the drawers of this press do not appear to us of very great value. Some ancient little brass statues of Egyptian or other heathen gods or heroes, a few scales, instruments, and pas lyrics, other trinkets neither remarkable for their rareness or workmanship do not deserve, at least at present, a more particular description, and essay, we already too much fear to have abused the patience of this learned assembly by our hasty and very imperfect account.
London. July 30th 1756. Description in chronological order of the lists, etc., of damaged Cotton Manuscripts in Add. Donc Pas Lyrics? MS. 62576. (1) Labels from boxes containing loose fragments of Caligula D. V (f.
11) and Vitellius E. IX (f. 15). (2) Notes of lost Cotton and Royal MSS., early 19th cent.(?). ff. 59-60. (3) List by Forshall of 'Saxon MSS. Resume Block Format? wanting', circa 1827. ff. 52-52v.