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Are You Making These 8 Mistakes on Your Cover Letter? By Alison Green, Contributor | July 18, 2012, at 8:33 a.m. A cover letter is assignee, one of the against terrorism most effective ways to make a job application stand out, but it's also the part of the application that job seekers struggle with most. Cover letters can be crucial because the definition hiring is about more than the skills and experience on your resume. To Kill Prejudice. Other factors matter too—communication skills, intellect, emotional intelligence, enthusiasm, motivation, drive, and just what kind of assignee, a person you are.

And that's where a cover letter can make you rise to the top of the pack. But all too often, employers find candidates making these eight mistakes when it comes their letters: 1. Not sending a cover letter at do you double space, all . Assignee. A surprising number of candidates don't send cover letters at solution terrorism essay, all; they simply submit a resume and hope to definition be called. In a tight job market like this when candidates need something to help them stand out from the pack, it makes no sense to superman vs. spiderman essay squander the opportunity to talk about why you'd excel at assignee, the job. 2. Writing more of statements of frederick, a cover note than a cover letter . Definition. A cover letter should truly be a letter—about a full page, not simply a couple of lines explaining that your resume is attached. Vs. Spiderman Essay. 3. Simply using the cover letter to summarize your resume . The most common mistake job seekers make with their cover letter is definition, using it to do you double space essays just summarize their resume. With such limited initial contact, you do yourself a huge disservice if you use a whole page of your application to definition merely repeat the contents of the other pages. The cover letter should add something new to your candidacy—information that doesn't belong on your resume like personal traits, work habits, and why you're interested in the job. 4. Using an overly salesy opener . Hiring managers groan when they read openers like, You won't find a candidate better qualified than me or I'm the best candidate for the job.

These types of statements come across as overly cocky or naive; after all, no matter how strong a candidate you are, you have no idea what the rest of the candidate pool looks like. Instead, a good letter is simply straightforward and explains why you're a strong match. In other words, show, don't tell. 5. Being overly formal . Job seekers sometimes feel that they should be stiff or formal, but the best cover letters are written in for the of frederick douglass a conversational, engaging tone. Assignee Definition. Don't be overly casual, obviously—no slang, and solution against terrorism essay things like grammar and spelling really matter. Assignee. But your tone and the language should be conversational, friendly, and engaging. Superman Vs. Spiderman Essay. 6. Not showing a strong personal interest in the job . A compelling letter will make a convincing case that you're truly excited about the definition opportunity, explaining why (without resorting to generic reasons that you could use when writing to every other company too). 7. Do You Double Space Essays. Sending the same letter to every job . Hiring managers can tell when they're reading a form letter and when they're reading a letter tailored to this job.

If your letter works for all the jobs you're applying to, that's a signal that it needs to be more customized. Form letters aren't a deal breaker, but people who take the time to write a tailored letter explaining why they're a match for this job in particular, and why they're excited about definition it, really stand out. Employers want candidates who are interested in this job, not any job. For Harry Potter And The Hallows. 8. Saying that you'll call in assignee definition a week to schedule an interview . This comes across as overly salesy, because the thesis reality is that job seekers don't get to decide to schedule an interview; employers do, and it's inappropriately pushy to pretend otherwise. Alison Green writes the popular Ask a Manager blog, where she dispenses advice on career, job search, and definition management issues. She's also the to kill co-author of Managing to definition Change the World: The Nonprofit Manager's Guide to Getting Results, and vs. spiderman former chief of staff of a successful nonprofit organization, where she oversaw day-to-day staff management, hiring, firing, and assignee employee development. What Can I Do Now to Achieve My Career Goals? Think beyond your industry and act if you#39;re seeking a future change. How to Answer the Dreaded Interview Question: Tell Me About Yourself.

A few key points to helping you get through this tricky query. How to Start an Informal Mentorship. If your company doesn#39;t have a formal mentorship program, there#39;s no reason you can#39;t create your own! Ask key questions during your interview to get a sense of how you#39;ll fit in. Didn't Get Hired?

Don't Take It Personally. You can control a lot about how well you do in your job search … but not everything. Everything You Ever Wondered About Negotiating Salary, Answered. How much should you ask for? What if they pull your offer? We've got answers to all your trickiest salary questions.

4 Steps to a Successful Job Application. If you meet the essay qualifications, how can you put your best foot forward? 8 Things You Should Never Do at a Job Interview. Don’t make these mistakes during your next interview. 5 Things to Remember When You Don't Get the Job. Assignee Definition. How to do you double essays use rejection to your own advantage. Definition. Here's what you need to know about what to wear, how to prepare and what to say in a job interview.

Our expert contributors give their best advice on thesis prejudice answering common interview questions, perfecting job applications, negotiating salary and more. Assignee Definition. Find savvy job advice from the brains behind top careers blogs and websites, including Ask A Manager, Collegial Services, Vicki Salemi, Jobhuntercoach, Career Sherpa, Career Valet, Hallie Crawford, Robin Madell, Chrissy Scivicque and Peter Gudmundsson.

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What does ASSIGNEE mean? | Definitions & Translations

oil refinery resume May 3 TAP line from Saudi Arabia to the Mediterranean interrupted in Syria, creating all-time tanker rate highs from June to December. Sep 4 - Oct 9 Libya raises posted prices and increases tax rate from 50 percent to 55 percent. Iran and Kuwait follow in November. Dec 9-12 OPEC meeting in Caracas establishes 55 percent as minimum tax rate and demands that posted prices be changed to reflect changes in foreign exchange rates. Feb 3-4 OPEC mandates total embargo against any company that rejects the 55 percent tax rate. Feb 14 Tehran agreement signed.

Companies accept 55 percent tax rate, immediate increase in posted prices, and further successive increases. Feb 24 Algeria nationalizes 51 percent of definition French oil concessions. Apr 2 Libya concludes five weeks of negotiations with Western oil companies in essays, Tripoli on behalf of itself, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and assignee definition, Iraq. Agreement raises posted prices of oil delivered to Mediterranean from $2.55 to $3.45 per barrel; provides for a 2.5 percent annual price increase plus inflation allowance; raises tax rate from a range of 50-58 percent to 60 percent of do you space essays posted price. Jul 31 Venezuela's Hydrocarbons Reversion Law mandates gradual transfer to government ownership of all unexploited concession areas by 1974 and all their residual assets by 1983. Aug 15 U.S. Government institutes Phase I price controls.

Invoking the powers granted to the president by the Economic Stabilization Act of 1970, President Nixon orders 90-day nationwide freeze on all wages, prices, salaries and definition, rents. Sep 22 OPEC directs members to essay potter deathly negotiate price increases to offset the devaluation of the U.S. Assignee! dollar. Nov U.S. Phase II price controls begin. Plan is to allow for gradual 2-3 percent annual price increases, however, domestic petroleum prices remain at Phase I levels. Dec 5 Libya nationalizes British Petroleum concession. Mar 11-12 OPEC threatens appropriate sanctions against companies that fail to superman vs. spiderman essay comply with . . . any action taken by a Member Country in accordance with [OPEC] decisions. Jun 1 Iraq nationalizes Iraq Petroleum Company's (IPC) concession owned by British Petroleum, Royal Dutch-Shell, Compagnie Francaise des Petroles, Mobil and definition, Standard Oil of New Jersey (now Exxon). The concessions were valued at over one billion dollars. Jun 9 In a show of support for Iraq, OPEC moves to prevent companies whose interests were nationalized in Iraq from increasing production elsewhere; appoints mediators between Iraq and IPC.

Sep 30 Libya acquires a 50 percent interest in two ENI concessions. Oct 27 OPEC approves plan providing for statements for the narrative douglass 25 percent government ownership of assignee definition all Western oil interests operating within Kuwait, Qatar, Abu Dhabi and Saudi Arabia beginning on January 1, 1973, and rising to 51 percent by January 1, 1983. (Iraq declines to solution terrorism agree.) Agreements signed on December 21. Jan 17 President Nixon suspends mandatory oil import quota on No. 2 heating oil through April 30. Jan 23 Shah of Iran announces that the 1954 operating agreement between a consortium of oil companies and Iran will not be renewed when it expires in 1979. The consortium was formed in 1954 as a means to settle a dispute between a new ministry in Iran and the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC). The consortium included Standard Oil of assignee definition New Jersey, Standard Oil of California, SOCONY-Vacuum, the Texas Company, Gulf, Royal Dutch-Shell, the example Compagnie Francaise de Petroles, and the AIOC. Feb 28 Iraq and IPC reach an assignee definition agreement on compensation for nationalization.

Mar Special Rule No. 1 reimposes mandatory (Phase II) price controls on the 23 largest oil companies. Terrorism Essay! Smaller companies, representing 5 percent of the market, enjoy uncontrolled prices. Mar 16 Shah of Iran and Consortium members agree to nationalize all assets immediately in return for an assured 20-year supply of Iranian oil. Mar 16-17 OPEC discusses raising prices to offset decline of U.S. dollar value. Apr 1 OPEC increases posted prices by 5.7 percent. Apr 18 U.S. Government ends Mandatory Oil Import Program. Program, established in 1959 by President Eisenhower, had limited imports of crude and product east of the Rocky Mountains to a percentage of definition domestic crude production. Jun 1 Eight OPEC countries raise posted prices by 11.9 percent. Jun 11 Libya nationalizes Bunker Hunt concession; Nigeria acquires 35 percent participation in Shell-BP concession.

Jun 14 Nixon administration imposes 60-day economy-wide price freeze, superseding Special Rule No. 1 for oil companies. Aug Libya nationalizes 51 percent of Occidental Petroleum concession and of the Oasis consortium. Aug 17 President Nixon's Cost of of an example Living Council imposes two-tier price ceiling on crude petroleum sales: production of old oil (that produced at or below 1972 levels from existing wells) to be sold at March 1973 prices plus 35 cents; production of new oil (that produced above 1972 levels from existing wells and oil produced from new wells) to be sold at uncontrolled prices. Sep 1 Libya nationalizes 51 percent of nine other companies' concessions: Esso, Libya/Sirte, Mobil, Shell, Gelensberg, Texaco, SoCal, Libyan-American (ARCO), and Grace. Sep 5-9 Conference of less developed countries approves forming producers' associations, calls for withdrawal of Israeli forces from definition occupied Arab lands. Sep 15-16 OPEC supports price hikes and thesis of frederick douglass, designates six Gulf countries to negotiate collectively with companies over prices. Assignee! Other members to do you space negotiate individually.

Sep Kuwait rejects gradual participation increase plan, insists on immediate 60 percent participation. Oct 6 Beginning of fourth Arab-Israeli War. Oct 7 Iraq nationalizes Exxon and Mobil shares in Basrah Petroleum Company representing 23.75 percent equity in the company. Oct 8-10 OPEC meets with oil companies to discuss revision of 1971 Tehran agreement and oil prices. Negotiations fail.

Oct 16 The Gulf Six (Iran, Iraq, Abu Dhabi, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Qatar) unilaterally raise the posted price of Saudi Light marker crude 17 percent from $3.12 to $3.65 per barrel and announce production cuts. Oct 17 OPEC oil ministers agree to use oil weapon in Arab-Israeli War, mandate cut in definition, exports, and recommend embargo against unfriendly states. Oct 19-20 Saudi Arabia, Libya, and other Arab states proclaim an embargo on oil exports to the United States. Oct 23-28 Arab oil embargo extended to of an essay the Netherlands. Nov 5 Arab producers announce 25 percent cut in production below September levels. Further cuts of five percent are threatened.

Nov 18 Arab oil ministers cancel the scheduled 5 percent cut in production for EEC. Nov 23 Arab summit conference adopts open and secret resolutions on the use of the oil weapon. Assignee! Embargo extended to statements narrative douglass Portugal, Rhodesia, and assignee definition, South Africa. Nov 27 President Nixon signs the Emergency Petroleum Allocation Act (EPAA). Authorizes petroleum price, production, allocation and marketing controls. Dec 9 Arab oil ministers announce a further production cut of solution against essay 5 percent for January for non-friendly countries. Dec 22-24 OPEC Gulf Six decides to raise the posted price of marker crude from $5.12 to $11.65 per barrel effective January 1, 1974. Dec 25 Arab oil ministers cancel January 5 percent production cut. Assignee Definition! Saudi Arabian oil minister promises 10 percent OPEC production rise. J an 29 Kuwait announces 60 percent government participation in BP-Gulf concession; Qatar follows on February 20.

Feb 11 Washington Energy Conference opens. Attended by 13 industrial and oil producing nations. Called by U.S. to resolve the international energy problems through economic cooperation among nations. Henry Kissinger unveils Nixon Administration's seven-point Project Independence plan to make the U.S. energy independent. Libya nationalizes three U.S. Example! oil companies that had not agreed to 51 percent nationalization in assignee, September. Feb 12-14 Heads of state of Algeria, Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia discuss oil strategy in view of the progress in Arab-Israeli disengagement. Mar 18 Arab oil ministers announce the end of the questions for harry and the embargo against the United States, all except Libya.

May 18 Nigeria announces 55 percent government participation in all concessions. Jun 1-3 Arab oil ministers decide to end most restrictions on exports of oil to the United States but continue embargo against the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, and Rhodesia. Jun 4 Saudi Arabia announces that it will increase its participation in Aramco to 60 percent. Abu Dhabi and Kuwait follow in September. Increases are retroactive to January 1. Jun 13 IMF establishes its oil facility, a special fund for loans to nations whose balance of payments have been severely affected by assignee definition high oil prices. Jul 10-11 OAPEC lifts the embargo against the Netherlands.

Sep 6 Saudi Arabia increases its buy-back price from 93 percent to 94.9 percent of posted price. Sep 13 OPEC instructs its Secretary General to carry out a study of supply and to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice, demand in relation to possible production controls. Oct-Nov Saudi Arabians raise tax rate to 85 percent and royalty rate to 20 percent. Nov 15 International Energy Agency formed in Paris within OECD framework. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates announce a slight reduction in posted prices and tax rates. Dec U.S. Definition! Crude Oil Entitlements Program enacted, retroactive to November 1974. Dec 22 Iraq announces plans to increase its production capacity to 3.5 MMB/D by 1975 and to 6 MMB/D by 1981. Jan 13 Business Week publishes Kissinger interview hinting at military action against oil countries in case of actual strangulation. Apr 7-15 Preliminary meeting at space Paris on world economic crisis between oil-exporting (Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Iran, Venezuela), oil-importing (European countries, U.S., Japan), and non-oil Third World countries (India, Brazil, Zaire). Talks collapse after nations fail to decide whether agenda should focus on assignee, oil/energy issues or have a broader economic scope.

Apr 9 Twenty-four OECD members sign an agreement to establish a $25 billion lending facility to provide assistance to industrial nations hurt by high oil prices. Jun 13 World Bank establishes its Third Window, a fund to make loans to countries too rich to qualify for soft no-interest loans, but too distressed to afford loans at double space the prevailing normal lending rates. Definition! Action represents significant cooperation between oil-exporting and industrial nations. Sep 24 OPEC announces a 15 percent increase in government per barrel revenues as of October 1. Oct 28 Venezuela and essay questions deathly hallows, foreign oil companies agree on nationalization as of January 1, 1976. Dec 1 Kuwait and Gulf and BP agree on terms of nationalization. Dec 9 Iraq completes nationalization by assignee taking over the BP, CFP, and Shell shares of the Basrah Petroleum Company.

Dec 22 President Ford signs the thesis statements for the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) effective February 1976. Authorizes the establishment of the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR), participation in International Energy Program, and oil price regulation. Feb EPCA 3-tier price regulation begins. Small changes in Entitlements Program. April - May Lebanese civil war causes drop in Iraq exports through trans-Lebanon pipelines to definition Mediterranean. May OPEC issues press release vowing to take appropriate measures to protect OPEC interests in light of protectionist actions by certain countries. Sep 1 U.S. For Harry Potter Deathly Hallows! stripper well oil prices decontrolled. Dec 14 640 foot Argo Merchant runs aground on the Nantucket Shoals, spilling 7.6 million gallons of No. 6 fuel oil.

Dec Moderates and OPEC hawks disagree on how fast price should rise. Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates increase prices by 5 percent, others by 10 percent. May Fifty percent of Saudi Arabia's 10 MMB/D production is halted briefly due to assignee definition fire damage to separation facility in potter and the, Abqaiq field. Prices increase slightly. Jul OPEC prices reunified at $12.70 per barrel as Saudi Arabia and UAE fall into line, then official price rises to $13.66 per barrel.

Oct 23 Dry dock complex opens at Bahrain; only facility between Portugal and Singapore capable of servicing VLCCs. Mar Amoco Cadiz tanker runs aground off the coast of assignee France, spilling 1.6 million barrels of crude oil. (Largest crude spill to date.) June Iran and Saudi Arabia block efforts of OPEC price hawks to fix the price of OPEC oil in a currency more stable than the do you double space U.S. Definition! dollar. Do You Space Essays! Say world economy cannot support associated price increases. Are accused by hawks of being U.S. Assignee Definition! agents. Sept Shah puts Iran under military rule. Potter And The Deathly! Muslim leader Noori arrested in crackdown of opposition groups. Oct Iranian strikes; departure of foreign technicians. Oct Pipeline fire drops Iraqi production 300,000 to 600,000 barrels per day.

Nov Iranian oil production starts dropping. Dec Iranian production hits 1.5 MMB/D in mid-December; 500,000 on December 27, a 27-year low. OPEC production rises 1.6 MMBD over two months due to increased Saudi production. Dec 17 OPEC decides on a 14.5 percent price increase for 1979, to be implemented quarterly. Jan 16 Shah leaves Iran on vacation, never to return. Bakhtiar government established by the Shah to definition preside until unrest subsides. Jan 20 Saudi Arabia announces drastic cut in first-quarter production. 9.5 MMBD ceiling imposed. Although actual cuts never reach announced levels, spot prices of Middle East light crudes rise 36 percent. Jan 20 One million Iranians march in Teheran in thesis prejudice, a show of support for the exiled Ayatollah Komeini, fundamental Muslim leader.

Feb 12 Bakhtiar resigns as prime minister of Iran after losing support of the military. Mar 5 Iran resumes petroleum exports. Spring Gasoline shortage/world oil glut. Mar 26 OPEC makes full 14.5 percent price increase for 1979 effective on April 1. Marker crude raised to assignee definition $14.56 per barrel. May DOE announces $5 per barrel entitlement to importers of heating oil. Saudi Arabia announces intention to increase direct sales and to sell less through Aramco. Both announcements send prices higher. Jun 1 Phased oil price decontrol begins. Involves gradual 28 month increase of old oil price ceilings, and slower rate of increase of new oil price ceilings. Jun 26-28 OPEC raises prices average of to kill a mockingbird prejudice 15 percent, effective July 1.

Oct Buy-Sell Program sales average more than 400,000 B/D from October 1979 through March 1980 - highest level since February 1976, due to emergency allocations. Oct Canada eliminates light crude oil exports to U.S. refiners, except for those exports required by operational constraints of definition pipelines. Nov 4 Iran takes western hostages. Nov 12 Carter orders cessation of Iranian imports to U.S. Nov 15 Iran cancels all contracts with U.S. oil companies.

Dec 13 Saudi Arabia raises marker crude price to $24 per deathly hallows, barrel. May Saudi Light raised to $28.00 per assignee definition, barrel, retroactive to April 1. Apr-Sep Buy-Sell Program allocations drop to average of 120,000 B/D for period April to September 1980. Sep 17 Iraq breaks 1975 treaty with Iran and proclaims sovereignty over Shatt al-Arab waterway. Sep 23 Iraq invades Iran. Statements For The Of Frederick! Mutual bombing of installations. Nov 10 Iraq captures southern port of Khorramshahr. Nov 20-24 U.N. gulf war mediator Olaf Palme makes first unsuccessful peace shuttle between Tehran and Baghdad. Dec Collapse of OPEC's pricing structure. Saudis use $32 per barrel marker, others use $36 per barrel benchmark. Jan 28 President Reagan lifts remaining domestic petroleum price and allocation controls originally scheduled to expire in September 1981.

Apr After meetings in Baghdad and Teheran, attempts by nine Islamic Conference leaders to mediate peace between Iraq and assignee, Iran fail. Aug Windfall profits tax reduced. Sep 27-28 Iran defends its besieged port of Abadan, driving back Iraqi forces. Oct OPEC reaches an agreement to statements unify crude price at $32 per barrel through 1982 and definition, sets an ultimate price ceiling of $38 per for harry potter deathly, barrel. Nov 29 Major Iranian offensive mounted on central front. Mar 11 U.S. boycotts Libyan crude.

May 24 Iran recaptures Khorramshahr. Assignee! Jun Iran demands $150 billion in war reparations; pledges war until Iraq's Hussein stands trial. Jun 10 Iraq declares unilateral cease-fire. Jul 13 Iran launches first attack into Iraq. Jul 20-30 Iran moves into northern Iraq. Casualties top 13,800 in ten days. Jul 26 U.S. threatens action to preserve navigation in do you essays, Persian Gulf. Jul-Aug Heavy fighting and casualties in Iran-Iraq war. Oct Iran attacks northern Iraq, threatening Kirkuk pipeline. Mar 27 Beginning of tanker war.

Over the next nine months, 44 ships, including Iranian, Iraqi, Saudi Arabian and Kuwaiti tankers, are attacked by Iraqi or Iranian warplanes or damaged by mines. Mar-Jun Iran mobilizes 500,000 troops to assignee southern front. No offensive materializes. May 26 President Reagan rules out U.S. military intervention. Jun Civilian target truce in Iran-Iraq war. Oct Norway and Britain cut prices in response to essay for harry potter and the falling spot market.

Nigeria follows, renewing pressure on OPEC price cuts. Oct 17 OPEC cuts production to 16 MMB/D, but agreement is negated by cheating and price-discounting. Mar 11-19 Iranian offensive; heavy casualties. May-Jun Battle of the cities - heavy bombing from both Iran and assignee definition, Iraq. Jun OPEC output falls to 20-year low of 13.7 MMB/D. Jun Iran begins hit-and-run raids on Iraq.

Jul OPEC loses customers to cheaper North Sea oil. More OPEC price cuts. Aug Saudi Arabia links prices to spot market. Against! Output rises from 2 MMB/D in August to 5 MMB/D in early 1986. Aug 15 First Iraqi air raid on Iran's main oil export terminal, Kharg Island.

Nov 6 Exploratory well in definition, Ranger, Texas, blows out, spilling 150,000 BBLS of to kill a mockingbird prejudice crude oil. Dec OPEC output hits 18 MMB/D boosting a glut and triggering a price war. Feb Iran captures southern Faw peninsula, starts northern offensive. May 7 Iraq bombs Tehran refinery. Jun OPEC production-cut talks fail, ending in a tentative majority pact on an average 1986 ceiling of 17.6 MMB/D.

Jun 8 Iraqi jets attack Assadabad satellite station. Jul Brent price dips under $9 per barrel. Assignee Definition! OPEC production rises to space 20 MMB/D. Jul 27 Iraqi jets attack central Iranian city of Arak. Iran threatens missile attack of gulf states supporting Iraq.

Aug 2 Hussein offers peace in open letter to Iran. Aug 4 Reports of probable OPEC agreement on output quotas sends oil prices higher. Aug 12 Iran fires missile at refinery near Baghdad. Iraq raids Iranian terminal at Sirri Island severely disrupting Iranian exports. Dec 19 OPEC reaches an accord that would cut production by seven percent for the first six months of 1987 (from 17 MMB/D to 16 MMB/D) and would raise prices immediately toward a target world oil price of $18 per barrel. Feb OPEC majors stick to fixed prices. Jun-Aug Gulf war escalates.

Dec OPEC meeting failure. Mar OPEC/Non-OPEC meeting failure. Jul Iran accepts cease fire. Oct 14 Crude oil prices jump in anticipation of possible production accord at Gulf Cooperation Council meeting set for October 16. Nov 28 OPEC reaches production accord. Six-month agreement to set production at 18.5 MMB/D.

Although the assignee recent OPEC quota had been 19.0 MMB/D, actual OPEC production had been closer to 21.0 MMB/D. Dec Fulmar/Brent outages. June OPEC raises their production ceiling to 19.5 MMB/D. Conflicting reports of promises to increase OPEC output to compensate for questions potter deathly embargo of Iraq and Kuwait oil further compound market uncertainties. Aug 2 raq invades Kuwait. Bush orders troops to assignee Saudi Arabia. Aug 27 Market prices plunge as OPEC nears informal agreement to increase output to cover 4 MMB/D shortfall due to statements douglass invasion. Cash market trading experiences abrupt decline. Sep 6 U.S. citizen is shot in Kuwait.

API reports 4.4 MMB weekly draw in domestic crude stocks. Oil markets surge on aggressive U.S. statements toward Iraq. Sep 21 Reports that U.S refinery problems will lead to a 200,000 B/D loss in capacity and aggressive remarks by assignee definition Saddam Hussein send crude prices to new highs. Sep 24 Iraq invades the superman vs. spiderman French and assignee definition, Dutch missions in Kuwait; French President Mitterand called the action a violation of international law; a U.S. warship boards an Iraqi-flagged tanker bound for the port of narrative douglass Basrah. Sep 18 Crude prices outpace increases in product prices and there is assignee talk of superman essay cutting refinery runs. Sep 20 Poor refining margins. Sep 24 Saddam Hussein states his willingness to strike first and his intention to damage oil fields in the region if Iraq does strike. Oct 1 Saddam Hussein says he may be willing to definition negotiate the occupation of Kuwait and would consider foreign participation in thesis for the narrative, negotiations. Oct 3 API reports a 9 MMB weekly U.S. crude inventory draw. Oct. Definition! 9 Fear of war and long-term supply disruptions as Hussein threatens Israel.

Oct 10 API reports crude inventories dropped by solution against terrorism essay more than 4 MMB in the last week. Oct 11 Libya's Qadhafi says Israel must be eliminated, and U.K. Foreign Secretary Hurd says force would be used if Iraq doesn't withdrawal from Kuwait. Nov 5 Reports of increasing Saudi production and assignee, lower world demand. Nov 6 Iran's oil-producing region suffers a serious earthquake. Nov 7 API reports 5 MMB U.S. crude inventory weekly increase. Nov 8 Unconfirmed rumors that Bush would announce an do you double space essays airlift of supplies to U.S. embassy in Kuwait, which could ultimately trigger a military clash. Nov 13 Saudis ask U.S. for rights to definition bid on SPR crude.

Nov 19 Report that Iraq will bolster its forces in Kuwait. Nov 20 API reports crude inventory drop in U.S. of more than 4 MMB; Saddam Hussein announces plans to release German hostages; Soviet Union shows reluctance to endorse the to kill thesis prejudice use of force against Iraq. Nov 21 French President Mitterand voices support of a proposed U.N. resolution that would authorize the use of force in the Persian Gulf. Nov 26 U.S. Assignee Definition! proposes addition to U.N. resolution that would require Iraq's withdrawal from Kuwait by January 1. Nov 29 U.N. Security Council approves U.S.-sponsored resolution authorizing the use of force in the Persian Gulf if Iraq does not withdrawal from vs. spiderman essay Kuwait by Jan. 15, 1991. Nov 30 President Bush offers to send Secretary of State James Baker to assignee Baghdad to meet with Hussein. Dec 4 An Iraqi official reports that Iraq will withdraw if it can retain control of the of an Rumailah field and definition, keep Bubiyan and Werbah islands; also says that demands that the Palestinian issue be treated separately would not be surmountable.

Dec 5 Iraq announces willingness to do you double space speak with U.S. about resolving the Persian Gulf crisis. Dec 13 Secretary of State Baker questions Iraq's seriousness about Middle East peace. Dec 18 Bush reiterates his no concessions stance against Iraq. Jan 7 Saddam Hussein prepares his troops for what he says will be a long violent war against the U.S. Jan 9-14 At Geneva talks, Baker says that regrettably Iraqi Foreign Minister Aziz has indicated no softening in Iraq's position. Definition! Peace talks break down, but there is still talk of a peaceful solution to the crisis. Jan 15 Report that Iraq has a new peace initiative. Jan 16 U.S. begins air attack against Iraqi military targets.

President Bush directs drawdown of Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). U.S. Secretary of Energy James Watkins orders 33.75 MMB drawdown. Crude oil prices drop $9-10 per barrel in one day after having risen $3-5 per barrel during the first half of thesis statements narrative douglass January. Jan 17 Reports of early U.S. and allied success against definition Iraqi forces; DOE issues SPR sales notice. Jan 18 Iraqi Scud missiles land in Israel. Jan 22 Kuwaiti oil facilities are destroyed by Iraq and more Iraqi missile attacks on Saudi Arabia. Jan 30 DOE selects 13 firms to purchase 17.3 MMB of SPR crude oil. Feb Surplus of unsold oil held by of an essay example oil producers reaches 80-90 MMB. Feb 5 First SPR oil delivered to commercial buyers.

Feb 15 Daily market volatility as Hussein mentions withdrawal, but Bush calls his offer a cruel hoax. Feb 26 Signs of Iran crude now an option for U.S. refiners, but no imports from assignee definition Iran likely in near future. Feb 28 War ends. Superman Essay! U.N. troops move into Kuwait City. Saddam Hussein orderstroops out of Kuwait. Iraqi soldiers ignite Kuwaiti oil fields during their retreat. Mar 1 News that Kuwait will need to import crude in the short term.

Mar 12 OPEC announces production cut to 22.3 MMB/D. Mar 13 API reports a 6 MMB weekly domestic crude inventory draw; Saudi Arabia and Iran say OPEC production cuts will take effect April 1. Mar 19 Gorbachev says the definition Soviet Union will cut its oil exports by nearly half. Mar 25 Nigerian crude becomes competitive in do you double space essays, U.S. Gulf Coast as Nigeria cuts crude prices. Apr 25 Iraq expects to resume crude and product exports by July. June 3 Kuwait asks GCC members to produce 800,000 B/D of oil on its behalf.

Aug Unsuccessful coup attempt against assignee definition Soviet President Gorbachev has minimal effect on oil markets. Oct Soviet Union suspends petroleum product exports as its fuel shortages grow. NYMEX futures price for WTI climbs nearly $2, ending at $24 per barrel. Nov Last of Kuwait oil well fires extinguished by narrative of frederick well control teams. Nov U.S. Senate filibuster causes withdrawl of an Alaska National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) pro-leasing bill. Dec Soviet Union collapses as a series of definition events precipitated by Ukrainian vote for independence leads to formation of Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Mar UN threatens sanctions against Libya for its refusal to extradite suspected terrorists.

Mar CIS announces that 1991 crude exports dropped by 52%. May Saudi Arabia supports a crude oil price hike during a late-month OPEC meeting. NYMEX Futures prices exceed $22 per barrel. Oct OPEC production reaches highest level in more than a decade at 25.25 MMB/D. Dec U.S., Mexico, and Canada sign NAFTA multi-lateral free trade agreement. Nov Combination of OPEC overproduction, surging North Sea output, and weak demand lowers the price of Brent to near $15 per barrel. Apr-Sep Nigerian production disrupted by oil workers' strike in response to imprisonment of apparent winner of presidential elections.

Sources include: Dallas Morning News (DMN); Dow Jones (DJ); Energy Compass (EC); Financial Times (FT); New York Times (NYT); Petroleum Intelligence Weekly (PIW); Platt's Oilgram News (PON); Wall Street Journal (WSJ); Washington Post (WP); Washington Times (WT); and thesis statements douglass, Weekly Petroleum Argus (WPA). Jan. Definition! 14 Mexico pledges profits from state-owned Pemex's $7-billion-per-year oil revenues in an effort to secure U.S. congressional approval of $40-billion worth of loan guarantees. Subsequently, President Clinton approved a $20-billion U.S. aid package for Mexico. ( DMN ) Jan. 30 Norway's Statoil announces that a newly-formed consortium of 11 oil companies will develop a plan to supply Norwegian natural gas to the European continent. Three Norwegian companies recently signed a contract with Gaz de France to bring 1.4 trillion cubic feet of Norwegian gas to France between 2001 and 2027. ( DJ ) Feb. 28 The Pentagon announces that it monitored Iranian installation of surface-to-air Hawk missiles in the Strait of Hormuz.

The Iranians also have taken possession of and fortified the nearby Abu Musa and do you space essays, the Tunb Islands, which are claimed by both Iran and the United Arab Emirates (UAE). ( DJ ) June 14 After the semi-annual meeting of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in Vienna, President Ida Bagus Sudjana discloses the Organization's intention to roll over its present crude oil production ceiling of 24.52 million barrels per definition, day. The announcement is followed by terrorism essay a trip to Norway by Saudi Arabian Oil Minister Hisham M. Nazer. Assignee Definition! Upon arriving, the Saudi Minister asks Norwegian Minister of Industry and superman vs. spiderman essay, Energy Jens Stoltenberg to assignee definition restrain his country's oil production in the hopes of stabilizing world oil prices. ( FT, DJ ) June 30 Exxon signs a $15.2-billion deal to develop oil and gas fields near Russia's Sakhalin Island. The Sakhalin I project will develop the offshore Shayvo, Odoptu, and Arkutun-Dagi fields that together are estimated to for harry hallows contain 2.5 billion barrels of crude oil and 15 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. Exxon has a 30 percent stake in assignee, the project. ( NYT, DJ ) July 6 Venezuela's Congress approves the questions potter and the hallows country's first investment law allowing for foreign participation in oil exploration and production. The newly-passed model agreement authorizes the state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. Assignee Definition! (PDVSA) to offer 10 exploration blocks to foreign investors. Double Space Essays! If oil is assignee discovered, the government will maintain a majority stake in any joint venture formed to develop the new fields. ( FT, DJ ) July 27 Saudi Aramco awards the giant Shaybah oil field development project to U.S.-based Parsons Corporation. The $2.5-billion project will develop the 7-billion-barrel field, including the construction of crude oil production facilities, gas-oil separation plants, and a 372-mile pipeline. Solution Against! The Shaybah field is definition located on the Saudi-UAE border and against essay, is expected to produce 500,000 barrels per definition, day after it comes on solution against terrorism essay, line in 1999. ( PON ) July 28 Norwegian Finance Minister Sigbjorn Johnsen says that Norway should not lower its crude oil production in an attempt to boost world oil prices.

Norwegian Oil Minister Jens Stoltenberg believes production cuts may be necessary if prices begin to fall. Minister Johnsen's remarks follow last month's visit by definition Saudi Arabian Oil Minister Hisham M. Nazer, who asked Minister Stoltenberg to cut Norway's crude oil production. Do You Double Essays! ( PON ) Aug. Assignee! 2 Saudi Arabia's King Fahd issues a decree replacing all members of the Council of Ministers who do not have blood ties so the royal Family. Thesis Statements Narrative Of Frederick! While most of the Council's top positions are unaffected by the reshuffling, Oil Minister Hisham Nazer is definition replaced with Ali bin Ibrahim al-Naimi. ( WSJ ) Aug. 14 Iran's official news agency, IRNA, reports that Iran has been unable to sell 200,000 barrels per day of crude oil since the imposition of a unilateral oil embargo by the U.S. Iran increasingly has sold its crude oil on spot markets as opposed to solution long-term contracts. Assignee! Larger purchases by France, Spain, Italy, China, India, Pakistan, and Thailand have failed to do you space offset decreased demand by German and Japanese refiners. Before the U.S. embargo was announced in April 1995, U.S. Assignee! companies were buying between 400,000 and statements narrative of frederick douglass, 450,000 barrels per day, down from roughly 600,000 barrels per assignee definition, day in 1994. ( PON ) Aug. 28 Kuwaiti Oil Minister Abdul Mohsen al-Medej announces that his country will increase its oil production capacity to as much as 3.5 million barrels per day by to kill a mockingbird thesis 2005. ( DJ ) Sept.

13 The Kuwaiti Oil Ministry states its intention to definition seek a 200,000-barrel-per-day increase to space essays its current 2-million-barrel-per-day crude oil production quota at assignee definition the November 1995 OPEC meeting in Vienna. The announcement comes amidst growing non-OPEC oil production and weak oil prices. ( DJ ) Nov. 22 OPEC states that it will roll over the introduction of an essay its current oil production quota of 25.42 million barrels per day. The roll-over was widely anticipated because of slack world oil demand, rising non-OPEC production, and assignee, weak prices. ( DJ, PON ) Nov. Space! 29 President Clinton approves legislation lifting a 22-year-old ban on assignee, exports of oil from the Alaskan North Slope (ANS). The ban was imposed after the oil embargo by Arab oil producers in questions potter deathly hallows, 1973. The lifting of the assignee definition ban opens up about one-quarter of U.S. crude oil production for export. Superman! The ANS legislation also waives royalty payments on deep water oil and gas leases in the Gulf of Mexico. ( WP ) Dec. 12 Speaking in New York during a U.S. visit by Angolan President Eduardo dos Santos, Joaquim David, president of the state-owned oil company , Sonangol, states that Angola will increase its crude oil production by 10 percent per assignee, year over the next five years, reaching 720,000 barrels per day by the end of 1996 and 1 million barrels per day by 2001.

The statement comes amidst sporadic violence involving government forces and the introduction of an, the rebel group UNITA, less than a year after a peace accord was signed ending the assignee definition country's 20-year-old civil war. At the end of 1995, Angola had raised its crude oil production to 690,000 barrels per day. ( PON, DJ ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), Financial Times (FT), New York Times (NYT), and against, Platt's Oilgram News (PON), Washington Post (WP), and the Wall Street Journal (WSJ). For a more detailed description of 1996 events go here. January 17 Iraq agrees to talks concerning a U.N. plan to allow for assignee definition the Iraqi sale of $1 billion of oil for 90 days for a 180-day trial period. Under U.N. Resolution 986, proceeds from the sale would be used for humanitarian purposes. In the past, Iraq has opposed clauses 6 and 8b contained in Resolution 986. Clause 6 stipulates that oil exports under this plan must pass through the of an essay 1.6-million b/d Iraq-Turkey pipeline, which currently is unusable because of assignee sludge build-ups and pumping station damage. By most estimates, the line would take a minimum of three months to repair. Clause 8b states that part of the proceeds from the sales would be disbursed under U.N. Essay Questions For Harry Potter Deathly Hallows! supervision to Kurdish provinces in northern Iraq.

Negotiations between Iraq and the United Nations are scheduled to begin February 6, 1996. Definition! (FT, PON, DJ) January 30 Vice Admiral Scott Redd, commander of the U.S. Solution Terrorism! Fifth Fleet based in the Persian Gulf, states that Iran test-fired a new anti-ship missile near the Strait of Hormuz on January 6. The missile reportedly has a range of 60 miles and is viewed as a threat to regional security by U.S. naval forces operating in the area. Oil tankers carry about 15 million b/d through the Strait. (DJ) April 24 In New York, the assignee definition United Nations and Iraq end a third round of negotiations over do you space essays Iraq's possible sale of $1 billion of oil for 90 days for a 180-day trial period. Assignee! Under U.N. Statements Douglass! Resolution 986, proceeds from the sale would be used for assignee humanitarian purposes. While both sides have reached agreement on most of the key issues, chief Iraqi negotiator Abdul Amir al-Anbari says that the United States and the United Kingdom have fundamentally altered the text of a proposed agreement which he had received from the United Nations early in the third round. Al-Anbari states that the changes have postponed any possible deal. The U.N.-Iraq talks are scheduled to restart on May 10. (DJ)

April 30 In the United States, President Clinton approves the superman vs. spiderman essay sale of $227 million of assignee definition crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. For The Narrative Of Frederick Douglass! At current oil prices, roughly 12 million barrels would be sold. The Clinton Administration hopes that the sale will lower gasoline prices in the United States, which are at their highest levels in five years. (WSJ) May 20 In New York, the definition United Nations and Iraq agree to U.N. Resolution 986, which provides Iraq with the opportunity to sell $1 billion of oil for 90 days for a 180-day trial period. Essay! Under the resolution, proceeds from the sale would be used for assignee humanitarian purposes. The agreement comes following months of heated negotiations.

Iraqi oil exports are expected to begin by the Fall of 1996, after a pumping station on the Iraq-Turkey pipeline is repaired and U.N monitoring and aid distribution facilities are put in place. Shortly after the agreement, the White House announces its decision to allow U.S. oil companies to purchase Iraqi oil exports. (FT, PON, WSJ ) June 11 Exxon states that it will soon begin work on its $15-billion Sakhalin I oil and natural gas development in Russia's Far East. The Sakhalin I project will develop an do you double space estimated 5 billion barrels of assignee oil and 15 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of of an gas located in three offshore hydrocarbon fields. Assignee Definition! The $300 million appraisal program will include drilling one exploration well and conducting a 3-D seismic survey. A Mockingbird Thesis! The U.S. company says that it will start working despite ongoing differences with the Russian government over the country's new production sharing law, which is widely viewed as not offering adequate legal protection for foreign investment in the country's oil and gas sectors. (FT) June 20 The Venezuelan Congress approves eight, multi-billion dollar, profit-sharing deals which allow foreign oil companies to explore and produce oil in Venezuela for the first time since the country's 1975 nationalization of the oil industry. The deals could boost Venezuela's current oil production by 500,000 b/d by 2005.

Foreign oil companies such as Amoco and British Petroleum are expected to sign final deals with state-owned PdVSA within 10 days and may begin working on their new acreage by the third quarter of 1996. The eight blocks are estimated to hold between 7 to 11 billion barrels of light crude oil reserves. (PON, DJ) July 7 OPEC issues a resolution announcing Gabon's withdrawal from the organization, effective January 1, 1995. Definition! Gabon had an OPEC quota of 287,000 b/d. (FT) July 18 The United Nations formally approves an Iraqi aid distribution plan, a major step forward in questions potter and the hallows, the direction of allowing Iraq to sell oil under Resolution 986. (DJ) August 6 President Clinton signs a new bill imposing sanctions on non-U.S. companies which invest over $40 million a year in the energy sectors of either Iran and assignee definition, Libya. Under the law, the President would be required to impose at least two of the following sanctions: import and export bans; lending embargoes from superman vs. spiderman essay U.S. banks; a ban on U.S. procurement of assignee goods and services from sanctioned companies; and a denial of U.S export financing. Thesis Statements Narrative! The European Union has stated its opposition to the U.S. law and threatened retaliation. Assignee Definition! (FT) August 21 In Venezuela, a subsidiary of vs. spiderman state-owned Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA), Corpoven, signs a memorandum of definition understanding (MOU) with U.S.-based ARCO. The MOU provides for a $3.5-billion joint venture to develop and upgrade roughly 200,000 b/d of crude oil from the country's 270-billion Orinoco Heavy Oil Belt.

The project will produce 9° API gravity crude oil in thesis statements for the of frederick douglass, the Hamaca region and upgrade it to 25° API for export to U.S. refineries. The project will be implemented in three phases, the last of assignee which will be completed in 2006. Another PdVSA subsidiary, Maraven, recently signed another, similar deal with Conoco. (PON, FT) September 5 Following U.S. cruise missile strikes on military facilities in southern Iraq, crude oil prices rise as the market speculates when Iraq will begin exporting oil under U.N. Thesis Statements For The Of Frederick! Resolution 986. Benchmark Brent Blend for October rises above $22/barrel amidst the uncertainty. Assignee Definition! The U.S. attack follows an Iraqi-supported invasion of Kurdish safe haven areas in the country's northern area.

Subsequently, President Bill Clinton states that the U.N. oil-for-food sale should be postponed indefinitely. (DJ) October 30 Exxon confirms that it is in the introduction essay example, talks with state-owned Qatar General Petroleum Corporation concerning the application of assignee new technology to convert natural gas to petroleum products. Exxon believes that technology developed in a mockingbird thesis, a successful 200-b/d Anatural gas refinery project in Texas would work in Qatar, where a proposed $1-billion plant would be able produce between 50,000-100,000 b/d of middle distillate products. Under the proposal, Qatar's 270-Tcf North field would supply between 0.5-1 Bcf/d of gas for use as feedstock. In the past, technological barriers and definition, high costs have precluded the development of natural gas refineries. Thesis Statements For The Narrative Of Frederick Douglass! (WSJ) December 18 During a press conference, Iranian Deputy Foreign Minister Abbas Maleki states that Iran supports the free flow of oil through the Strait of Hormuz, but reserves the assignee definition option of double closing off the shipping route if it is threatened. Iran recently has admitted to deploying anti-aircraft and anti-ship missiles on Abu Musa, an island strategically located near the assignee definition Strait of Hormuz's shipping lanes. (DJ) December 30 The United Nations announces that a total of 21 contracts have been approved for the limited Iraqi oil sales under U.N. Resolution 986. Space Essays! The approved contracts will allow for assignee 43.68 million barrels of superman oil to be exported in the first 90 days of the assignee sale.

At present, exports of 26.37 million barrels have been approved for the second 90-day period of the thesis narrative of frederick sale, which allows Iraq to assignee sell up to $1 billion worth of oil every 90 days for thesis narrative of frederick douglass an initial 6-month period. In mid-December 1996, Iraq restarted the Kirkuk-Ceyhan pipeline, which is expected to carry up to assignee definition 450,000 b/d of oil under the sales agreements approved so far under U.N. Resolution 986. Iraq's remaining oil exports will flow through the Mina al-Bakr terminal. Essay! (NYT, DJ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), New York Times (NYT), and the Washington Post (WP). For a more detailed description of 1997 events go here. February 5 Japan's Ministry of Finance announces plans to assignee cut import tariffs on crude oil and most petroleum products from April 1, 1997, in a phased process that will reduce the country's crude oil import tariff rate to for the zero in assignee, April 2002. (DJ)

February 24 Qatar inaugurates the world's largest liquefied natural gas (LNG) exporting facility and formally launches Qatar Liquefied Gas Co., which will have total output capacity of thesis statements for the douglass 6 million tons per year of LNG. The facilities are part of assignee a new $7.2 billion industrial zone which also includes a sea port with a capacity to handle 25-30 million tons of LNG annually. Qatar plans to build more gas liquefaction plants in the area to exploit its natural gas reserves of around 237 trillion cubic feet. (DJ) April 1 A Shell spokesman confirms the company will declare force majeure at for harry potter deathly hallows its Nigerian Bonny terminal due to local protests which disrupted 210,000 barrels per day of the definition company's oil production. Although the protests have ended and production is returning to normal, the backlog is temporarily delaying loadings by 3 days. (DJ) May 16 A final agreement creating the Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) is signed by project participants: Russia (24 percent), Kazakstan (19 percent), Chevron Corp. (15 percent), AO Lukoil/Arco Corp. (12.5 percent), Mobil Corp. (7.5 percent), AO Rosneft/Shell Corp. (7.5 percent), Oman (7 percent), Agip SpA (2 percent), British Gas PLC (2 percent), Oryx Corp. (1.75 percent), and essay, Kazakstan Pipeline Ventures, a joint venture of Kazakstan's state oil company and assignee, Amoco Corp. (1.75 percent). The Russian government plans to transfer its stake to two Russian oil companies, AO Lukoil and AO Rosneft. CPC plans to begin building a 932-mile pipeline to transport crude oil from the Caspian region to Russia's Black Sea coast in 1998 and begin shipping around 558,000 barrels per essay for harry deathly, day of oil in 1999 (planned peak capacity is 1.4 million barrels per day). (DJ) May 20 President Clinton signs an executive order barring new U.S. Assignee Definition! investment in Burma (also known as Myanmar), effective May 21 and statements of frederick douglass, renewable annually.

U.S. Assignee! companies have invested about space essays $250 million in Burma, primarily in the oil and gas sector. The biggest U.S. investor is Unocal, which is building (with France's Total) a $1.2 billion pipeline from assignee definition Burma's Yadana natural gas field to an electric power plant in Thailand. (DJ) June 4 In a unanimous vote, the United Nations Security Council renews for another 180-day period its oil­for­food initiative with Iraq. Under the resolution, Iraq may sell $2 billion worth of oil to buy food, medicine and other necessities to essay example alleviate civilian suffering under the sanctions imposed when it invaded Kuwait in 1990. (WP) July 22 The first shipments of oil produced from Kazakstan's Tengiz field arrive at terminals on assignee, the Black Sea in Novorossiysk (Russia) and Batumi (Georgia) for a mockingbird subsequent export through the Bosphoros Strait. Volumes total between 100,000 and 150,000 barrels per day. (DJ) July 23 The U.S. State Department rules that Turkey's August 1996 agreement to purchase $23 billion worth of natural gas from assignee definition Iran over a 20-year period does not violate the Iran and Libya Sanctions Act. In a May 1997 memorandum of understanding with Iran and Turkmenistan, Turkey modified the original arrangement so that the natural gas will be purchased from Turkmenistan rather than Iran. Superman! (DJ)

August 4 In Colombia, Occidental Petroleum, a California-based international oil company, and Ecopetrol, Colombia's national oil company, declare force majeure on assignee definition, all oil exports from the Cano Limon field. The declaration comes after a series of to kill a mockingbird prejudice attacks dating back to July 30 knocked out a major oil pipeline transporting oil from the field to the Caribbean port of Covenas. The pipeline has been attacked 45 times this year which is equal to definition the total number of attacks for 1996. Responsibility for the attacks has not been determined, but leftist guerrillas from the National Liberation Army are usually blamed for such attacks. The force majeure declaration does not apply to the oil contained in the 2 million barrel storage facility at Covenas. (DJ) August 8 The United Nations approves a sale-price formula for Iraqi crude oil sales under the oil-for-food plan. The approval cleared the way for Iraq to resume limited oil exports immediately through the Turkish port of Ceyhan on the Mediterranean Sea and of an essay example, Iraq's Gulf port of Mina al-Bakr. The United Nations will also begin reviewing contracts for definition Iraqi crude oil purchases. Potter! Iraq has until September 5 to raise the $1.07 billion allowed under the existing 90 day oil-for-food plan window. Assignee Definition! Iraqi officials state they will boost exports to 2 million barrels per superman essay, day to meet the definition sales target.

However, industry experts say that Iraq's export capacity is untested beyond 1.4 million barrel per day. (DJ) September 12 The United Nations Security Council passes a resolution that allows Iraq to reach the $2.14 billion oil sales limit under its oil-for-food program by December 5. The current 6-month oil sales window, running from solution terrorism essay June 8 to definition December 5, will be split into a 120-day segment and against terrorism essay, a 60-day segment instead of definition two 90-day segments. During each segment Iraq can sell $1.07 billion worth of oil. The resolution should enable Iraq to make up for lost revenues during a delay in the start of superman essay oil sales during the first two months of the current six month sale period. (DJ) October 29 Iraq's Revolution Command Council, the country's main decision making body, announces that it will no longer allow U.S. citizens and U.S. aircraft to serve with the United Nations (U.N.) arms inspection teams.

The council's statement gives U.S. citizens working with the inspection teams one week to leave Iraq. Iraq has also asked the U.N. to stop flights by American reconnaissance aircraft monitoring its compliance with U.N. resolutions requiring the definition elimination of weapons of mass destruction. Essay! In response to this statement, the U.N. Security Council unanimously approves a statement condemning Iraq's threats to assignee definition expel the Americans. For Harry Hallows! (DJ) November 20 Iraq's Revolution Command Council formally endorses an agreement, arranged by Russia, that enables United Nation's (U.N.) weapons inspection teams to resume operations in Iraq. The deal ends a three-week standoff between the assignee U.N. and Iraq that began in late October 1997 after Iraq announced it would no longer allow U.S. citizens to statements for the narrative of frederick serve on U.N. Assignee! weapons' inspection teams. (DJ)

November 29 For the first time in four years, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agrees to an increase in its production ceiling. OPEC has raised the ceiling to 27.5 million barrels per day for the first half of 1998, effective January 1, 1998. The new ceiling represents a 10 percent increase over the current ceiling. The new quotas are as follows: Saudi Arabia 8.76 million barrels per thesis narrative, day (bbl/d), Iran 3.942 million bbl/d, Iraq 1.314 million bbl/d, Venezuela 2.583 million bbl/d, Nigeria 2.042 million bbl/d, Indonesia 1.456 million bbl/d, Kuwait 2.19 million bbl/d, Libya 1.522 million bbl/d, United Arab Emirates 2.366 million bbl/d, Algeria 0.909 million bbl/d, and assignee, Qatar 0.414 million bbl/d. (NYT) December 4 Iraq's United Nations (U.N.) Ambassador Nizar Hamdoon warns that Iraq will not allow oil to vs. spiderman essay flow during a third six-month phase of the U.N.'s oil-for-food sale until the U.N. approves an definition aid distribution plan. Despite the warning, the U.N. Security Council approves a third six-month phase following the end of the questions for harry potter and the deathly second six-month phase. Like the first two phases, the third phase allows Iraq to sell up to assignee definition $1.07 billion of oil in each of two 90-day periods. However, the sales level may be increased by against terrorism essay the Security Council in January 1998 after U.N.

Secretary-General Kofi Annan reports on assignee, Iraq's needs. The next day Iraq stops pumping oil into the Iraqi-Turkish pipeline at the end of the second six-month phase of the superman vs. spiderman United Nations (U.N.) oil-for-food program. (WP, NYT) December 11 Delegates from 150 industrial nations attending a United Nations climate conference in Kyoto, Japan reach agreement on a protocol to control heat-trapping greenhouse gases. The protocol, if ratified, would commit nations to roll back emissions of six greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulphur hexafluoride) below 1990 levels. Assignee! Under the protocol, the a mockingbird thesis prejudice United States would be required to definition reduce its greenhouse gas emissions by thesis narrative 7 percent below 1990 levels, while Europe and Japan would make cuts of 8 percent and 9 percent, respectively. Developing countries are exempt from the assignee emissions ceilings for solution against terrorism the time being. (DJ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), New York Times (NYT), Wall Street Journal (WSJ), and the Washington Post (WP). For a more detailed description of 1998 events go here. January 7 Due to definition the continuing Asian economic crisis, South Korea's refiners have reportedly cut operations to around 80 percent of capacity.

The refiners have also had difficulty securing crude oil supplies for delivery in solution, late January or February, which could cut operations to as low as 70 percent-75 percent of capacity. (DJ) January 15 Environmentalists hail the implementation of a 50-year moratorium on mining and oil exploration in definition, the Antarctic. A protocol for the introduction the protection of the Antarctic was adopted by twenty-six countries in assignee, 1991, but it could not be implemented until Japan's ratification cleared the way last month. Antarctica contains 70 percent of the world's fresh water, and the moratorium attempts to preserve the world's least polluted continent. Superman Vs. Spiderman Essay! (WP) February 5 Following a ruling by a federal judge denying a request from assignee definition environmentalists and to kill a mockingbird, Native Americans seeking to block the sale of the assignee definition Elk Hills Naval Petroleum Reserve, the U.S. Department of Energy formally transfers ownership of the reserve to Occidental Petroleum Corporation. Occidental purchased a 78 percent interest in the field for $3.65 billion. Chevron Corporation currently holds the remaining 22 percent. Elk Hills contains 450 million barrels of proven oil reserves; however, officials from Occidental believe the reserve may contain one billion barrels of recoverable reserves. (DJ) February 20 The United Nations (U.N.) Security Council votes unanimously to more than double the amount of oil Iraq can export under the essay U.N. oil-for-food program.

The Security Council's vote increases the assignee definition amount Iraq can export from $2.14 billion to $5.26 billion over six months. Iraq maintains that it only has the capability to a mockingbird thesis export up to assignee $4 billion over a six-month period. (DJ) March 31 The Organization of vs. spiderman Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) releases an official communique from its 104th (extraordinary) meeting convened in Vienna, Austria, on March 30, 1998. The communique states that member countries have agreed to voluntary cuts from definition each country's current production levels in an attempt to boost oil prices. OPEC has agreed to superman cuts totaling 1.245 million barrels per day effective April 1, 1998. The cuts, in barrels per day, break down as follows: Algeria 50,000; Indonesia 70,000; Iran 140,000; Kuwait 125, 000; Libya 80,000; Nigeria 125,000; Qatar 30,000; Saudi Arabia 300,000; United Arab Emirates 125,000; and Venezuela 200,000.

In addition, non-OPEC oil-producing countries Mexico, Oman, and Yemen have agreed to cut production by 100,000, 30,000, and 20,000 barrels per assignee definition, day, respectively. Moreover, a third non-OPEC country, Norway, the world's third largest oil exporter, has pledged to reduce its oil production by of an 3 percent, or approximately 100,000 barrels per day. However, Norway's cuts will not take effect until mid-April 1998. (Cuts are from February production based on secondary sources.) (DJ) (WSJ)(NYT) May 4 The Atlantic Richfield Company (ARCO) announces that it will acquire Union Texas Petroleum Holdings Incorporated, an independent oil company based in Houston, Texas, for definition $2.47 billion. The Introduction Of An! The acquisition will add 140,000 barrels per day to definition ARCO's oil and natural gas production and increase ARCO's total oil and gas reserves by 14 percent. Example! The deal also helps ARCO enter the Caspian Sea region, with ARCO gaining a 12.5 percent interest in assignee definition, the Caspian Pipeline Consortium and a 5 percent interest in Kazakhstan's Tengiz oil filed. Superman Essay! ARCO also will gain additional interests in projects located in assignee, the United Kingdom, Indonesia, Alaska, and Venezuela. (NYT) (WSJ) May 11 India announces that it has conducted three underground nuclear tests, the space country's first since 1974. The tests were conducted simultaneously 330 miles southwest of New Delhi, near the Pakistani border. The Indian government indicates that the definition three tests included a thermonuclear device, commonly known as a hydrogen bomb. Two days later, on May 13, 1998, India announces that it has conducted two more underground nuclear tests in the same desert range. (WP) (DJ)

June 19 The United Nations (U.N.) Security Council unanimously approves a resolution allowing Iraq to example spend $300 million on spare parts for its oil industry. The funding is intended to help Iraq increase oil exports under the fourth phase of the U.N.'s oil-for-food program. The spare parts are expected to expand Iraq's oil export capacity from 1.6 million barrels per definition, day to 1.8 million or 1.9 million barrels per day. (NYT) (DJ) June 24 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agrees, at its 105th ministerial conference, to another round of oil production cuts. In recent weeks oil prices have fallen to their lowest levels in more than a decade. OPEC members have agreed to cut production by 1.355 million barrels per the introduction, day, effective July 1, 1998, bringing the group's total reductions since March 1998 to 2.6 million barrels per day. Together with promises from non-OPEC nations such as Russia, Oman, and Mexico, world oil producers have pledged to cut world-wide production by approximately 3.1 million barrels per day. (WP) (WSJ) (NYT) August 11 British Petroleum announces that it will acquire Amoco for $48.2 billion in stock. If the assignee definition merger is approved by regulators and shareholders of both companies, it will be the questions potter and the deathly largest oil industry merger and the largest foreign take-over of assignee a U.S. company to essay date. The company will be known as BP Amoco, and assignee, it will be the world's third-largest multinational oil company in terms of net income behind Exxon and thesis for the narrative of frederick douglass, Royal Dutch/Shell Group. (NYT) (WSJ) (WP) October 1 South Korea's oil refining sector fully deregulates, allowing for 100 percent foreign investment.

Originally, South Korea had expected to fully deregulate its refining industry by January 1999, but it decided to move up the date in order to help reform its economy. Definition! (DJ) October 7 European Union (EU) nations approve an superman essay accord in which European car makers will voluntarily agree to cut carbon dioxide emissions 25 percent by 2008. EU officials say they will seek similar deals with automakers in Asia and North America. (WP) October 28 Japan's Nippon Oil Company, the country's second largest petroleum distributor and Mitsubishi Oil Company, the definition sixth-ranking company in the industry, agree to merge as of April 1, 1999. The combined company will be the largest oil distributor in Japan. (WSJ) December 2 Exxon Corporation agrees to buy Mobil Corporation for approximately $75.4 billion, which will make the company the the introduction of an example largest corporation in the U.S.

The companies say they expect to cut about assignee 9,000 jobs from their combined worldwide workforce of 122,700 and to close offices, saving $730 million. The merger comes in essay, the context of definition low oil prices, which have hurt profits at many oil companies. (DJ) December 23 The Colombian government says it will allow gasoline and to kill a mockingbird prejudice, diesel prices to float with international oil prices starting January 1, 1999. The move will end a system of artificial price fixing which has cost the definition government more than $3.2 billion in subsidies over the past five years. (DJ) Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), New York Times (NYT), USA Today (USA), Wall Street Journal (WSJ), and the Washington Post (WP). For a more detailed description of 1999 events go here. January 1 British Petroleum Company and double space essays, Amoco Corporation complete their $53 billion merger. Chicago-based Amoco is the United States' fifth-largest oil company with roughly 9,300 gasoline stations.

London-based British Petroleum, the world's third largest oil company, sells its products through a network of about 17,900 stations. (DJ) February 4 Italy's ENI SpA and Russia's RAO Gazprom, the world's largest natural gas producer, agree to build a natural gas pipeline from Russia to Turkey at definition a cost of nearly $3 billion. Each project partner will hold a 50 percent stake in the project. The proposed pipeline, called the superman Blue Stream project, is expensive by assignee industry standards partly because it would run at great depth under the waters of the Black Sea. Statements Douglass! (Asian WSJ) February 10 U.S. Energy Secretary Bill Richardson visits Saudi Arabia to discuss potential U.S. investment in the Kingdom's oil and gas sectors. Following his visit, Richardson says the Saudis are primarily interested in foreign investment in the natural gas sector and in the oil refining and marketing sectors, rather than in definition, the upstream crude oil sector.

Secretary Richardson's visit comes several months after a September 1998 meeting between several U.S. oil companies, Saudi Crown Prince Abdullah and to kill, Saudi Oil Minister Ali Naimi, in definition, which Abdullah requested proposals from the companies on the development of Saudi oil reserves. (DJ), (USA), (WSJ) March 23 In an effort to raise oil prices, which fell sharply in thesis prejudice, late 1997 and stayed low through 1998 and into early 1999, OPEC and non-OPEC countries agree to cut oil output by a combined 2.104 million barrels per day, effective April 1, 1999, for one year. OPEC members have pledged to cut 1.716 million barrels per day, while several non-OPEC countries have pledged total reductions of assignee 388,000 barrels per day. Superman Vs. Spiderman Essay! During 1998, due mainly to low oil prices, OPEC crude oil export revenues fell 30 percent (to $100 billion) from the previous year. (DJ, NYT) March 31 Arco agrees to be acquired by BP Amoco PLC for $26.6 billion in stock. If approved, the assignee merger will create the largest oil producer in the United States and for harry potter and the deathly, one of the largest energy companies in definition, the world. The deal marks the fourth largest oil company merger since the onset of statements for the low oil prices in late 1997. (DJ), (WSJ) April 5 Following the definition arrival in the Netherlands of two Libyan suspects in the 1988 bombing of Pan American Flight 103 that killed 270 people, United Nations sanctions against Libya are suspended. The sanctions, imposed on prejudice, March 31, 1992, initially included a ban on the sale of assignee definition equipment for refining and transporting oil, but excluded oil production equipment.

Sanctions were then expanded on November 11, 1993, to include a freeze on Libya's overseas assets, excluding revenue from oil, natural gas, or agricultural products. (DJ) April 15 The U.S. Of An Essay! Department of Energy (DOE) announces that it will begin taking oil deliveries within the next few days under its plan to assignee add 28 million barrels of oil to the U.S. Government's Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) from federal oil royalty payments. In Phase 1 of the plan, the SPR is expected to essay for harry potter and the deathly acquire about 43,000 barrels per day over the next 3 months from oil companies operating in the Gulf of Mexico. Assignee! Although about do you 50 percent of the oil supplied in Phase 1 will be imported, domestic producers would still benefit from the entire acquisition since the oil market is international and fungible, according to assignee a DOE official. Under Phase 2 of the program, the DOE expects to acquire about 100,000 barrels per day of royalty oil over thesis statements for the narrative douglass a 6-month period. (DJ) April 17 An oil pipeline that transports oil from Baku, Azerbaijan, to Suspa, Georgia, is officially opened. This is the second pipeline dedicated to exporting Caspian Sea oil, but the first built since the Soviet Union disbanded in 1991.

The other Caspian Sea oil pipeline, which runs through the Russian breakaway republic of Chechnya to the Russian port of Novorossisk, is often shut down. The new pipeline to Georgia has a capacity of 100,000 barrels per day. (DJ) April 28 The U.S. Assignee! Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Asset Control (OFAC), notifies Mobil that it has turned down Mobil's request for a license to swap crude oil it produces in Turkmenistan in vs. spiderman, exchange for Iranian oil. Mobil had hoped to be allowed to ship oil produced in Turkmenistan to northern Iranian oil refineries, while Iran, in turn, would provide Iranian oil from Iran's Persian Gulf export terminals to Mobil for shipment to global markets as payment. OFAC is responsible for assignee enforcing U.S. unilateral sanctions against foreign countries. As a result of OFAC's denial of a swap arrangement with Iran, Mobil will have to continue exporting its Turkmenistan oil production across the Caspian Sea by barge to Azerbaijan, where it is do you double then carried by rail or pipeline to assignee Black Sea ports. (DJ, WP) May 1 U.S.

President Clinton unveils a plan to apply the same standard for solution against essay tailpipe emissions to assignee definition cars, light-duty trucks, and double space essays, most sport utility vehicles (SUVs). Based on current nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emission levels, the proposed plan would result in a 77 percent reduction for definition cars and a 95 percent reduction for light-duty trucks and SUVs. The new standards would be phased in from the 2004 to 2007 model years. At the same time, the thesis for the narrative douglass Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a rule that would require refiners to reduce gasoline sulfur content from assignee definition a current average of nearly 330 parts per million (ppm) to 30 ppm. The new sulfur standard is being proposed in conjunction with the new tailpipe emission proposal since sulfur impedes catalytic converter efficiency, thus making it more difficult to reduce tailpipe emissions without reducing sulfur content in gasoline. Oil industry representatives have vowed to vs. spiderman essay protest the proposed rule, claiming that it will cost refiners $3 billion to $6 billion. The EPA estimates that the cost of compliance for definition both the automobile and oil industries will be between $3.4 billion and $4.4 billion. (DJ) May 10 The Board of Argentine oil company YPF unanimously approved a $13.4 billion offer from Repsol, a Spanish company. Repsol, which already owns 14.99 percent of YPF, made an double space essays all cash offer to purchase the remaining 85.01 percent last month. The Board recommended to all shareholders to definition accept the Repsol offer. Two Argentine provinces, which own about five percent of thesis for the narrative of frederick YPF's shares, remain concerned about Repsol's intentions for their regions. (WSJ)

May 12 The Caspian Pipeline Consortium (CPC) begins construction of a 981-mile pipeline that will carry crude oil from the Caspian Sea to the Russian port of Novorossisk for export to foreign markets. The pipeline's planned capacity is about 1.3 million barrels per day, and definition, the CPC is expecting to load the first tanker in mid-2001. Essay! (DJ) May 17 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) states that it will not change its Tier Two Plan to cut gasoline sulfur content and tailpipe emissions, in response to a recent appellate court ruling that the EPA had overstepped its mandate in implementing some provisions of the Clean Air Act. Assignee Definition! Beginning in 2004, the Tier Two Plan would require refiners to cut gasoline sulfur content to deathly hallows an average of 30 parts per million, down more than 90 percent from the current national average. Assignee! (DJ) May 27 Exxon and Mobil shareholders approve an $81.2 billion merger, in which Exxon will issue 1.32 shares for each share of Mobil's approximately 780.2 million shares outstanding. The merger still must receive regulatory approval from the U.S. government and the European Union.

The chairmen of both companies state that they expect regulatory approvals to be obtained by the end of the third quarter of 1999. (DJ) June 1 Sudan starts pumping oil through its pipeline linking the Heglig oil field in do you double, Western Kordofan province to Port Sudan on assignee definition, the Red Sea. The pipeline has a capacity of 250,000 barrels per day, and was financed by a consortium of Chinese, Malaysian, Canadian, and Sudanese firms. (DJ) August 9 The United States Department of Commerce dismisses a petition filed by solution against terrorism Save Domestic Oil, Inc. under anti-dumping statutes. The petition alleged that Saudi Arabia, Venezuela, Mexico, and Iraq had sold crude oil to assignee the United States at artificially low prices. The decision was based on the Department of Commerce's determination that opposition to a mockingbird thesis prejudice the petitions exceeded support. Majority support is defined as petitioner representation of at least 25 percent of the domestic industry and support from at least 50 percent of the industry expressing an opinion. Support from assignee definition a majority in the affected industry is necessary under the law for Commerce to commence a formal investigation of an anti-dumping complaint. (DJ, WP, NYT) September 14 French oil companies Total Fina and Elf Aquitaine agree to thesis for the of frederick merge, after a lengthy takeover battle, in definition, a deal which will form the world's fourth largest oil company.

The deal will give Elf Aquitaine shareholders 19 shares of Total Fina for every 13 shares of of frederick douglass Elf Aquitaine. According to Total Fina's management, the merger will result in annual cost savings for the combined firm of $1.56 billion. (WP, WSJ) September 22 The Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), at a meeting of its member states' oil ministers, decides to definition maintain current production cuts until March 2000, despite the fact the crude oil prices have doubled since early 1999. Thesis Statements Narrative Of Frederick! In another development, OPEC announces that its current Secretary General, Nigerian Rilwanu Lukman, will stay in office until March 2000. Assignee! The announcement follows a vigorously contested race to succeed Lukman in the post, in which OPEC's three largest members, Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Iraq, had fielded candidates. (DJ) September 28 Iranian Oil Minister Bijan Zanganeh announces that the do you double essays National Iranian Oil Company has discovered a new oilfield, Azadegan, with 26 billion barrels of crude oil in Khuzestan province. The discovery is the largest new find in Iran in assignee definition, the last three decades. Zanganeh expects the field to the introduction of an produce between 300,000 and 400,000 barrels per day of crude oil three to assignee four years after development begins next year. (DJ) September 30 Japan suffers a serious nuclear accident at a uranium processing plant in Tokaimura, in a mockingbird thesis, which radiation is released after an definition apparent uncontrolled nuclear chain reaction. Three workers at the plant, operated by JCO, Inc., are injured.

Japanese authorities issue a warning instructing 310,000 people in neighboring communities to solution terrorism essay stay indoors. (DJ, WSJ) October 4 The United Nations Security Council agrees to raise the monetary ceiling on Iraqi oil sales to $8.3 billion from $5.26 billion, guaranteeing the continuation of Iraqi production until the November 20 end date for the current six month extension of the definition oil-for-food program. The move is a one time adjustment, and does not bind the the introduction essay Security Council to continue a higher ceiling if the program is renewed for definition another six month term. The increase reflects the difference between previous monetary ceilings and actual Iraqi sales during previous phases of the program. (DJ) November 18 The heads of state of Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Georgia sign an vs. spiderman agreement to build a pipeline for the export of crude oil from the Caspian Basin. The 1,080-mile pipeline will begin at definition the Azerbaijani capital, Baku, and run through Georgia and thesis narrative of frederick douglass, Turkey to the Turkish port of Ceyhan. The project is expected to cost $2.4 billion, and the government of Turkey has offered guarantees that the cost of the assignee Turkish segment of the pipeline will not exceed $1.4 billion. The signing ceremony took place during a visit to Istanbul by U.S.

President Clinton for solution against a summit of the Organization for Cooperation and Security in Europe (OSCE). Definition! (WP, NYT) November 30 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) grants approval for the proposed merger between oil giants Exxon and against terrorism, Mobil. The $80 billion merger was approved by the FTC after the firms agreed to the largest divestiture of assets ever involved in a merger. The companies will sell over 2,400 retail outlets, mostly in the Northeast, Texas, and California, and a refinery in California. (DJ) December 10 The California Air Resources Board approves a regulatory change that will halve the amount of sulfur allowed in gasoline sold in California from 30 parts per definition, million to 15 parts per million, starting in 2003. The California limit would be half the national limit under a new rule proposed by against terrorism the Environmental Protection Agency. The current federal sulfur limit for gasoline is 330 parts per million. (WSJ) December 21 The Export-Import Bank drops a proposed $500 million loan to Russia's Tyumen Oil after Secretary of State Madeleine Albright exercises her statutory authority to block the transaction.

The loan had been controversial in part because of Tyumen Oil's dispute with BP Amoco over the bankruptcy of Russian oil firm Sidanko, in which BP Amoco owns a major stake. BP Amoco and Tyumen Oil later settled the assignee definition dispute on December 23. (DJ) December 31 The Panama Canal Zone reverts to Panamanian sovereignty at noon, after nearly a century of American control. More than a half-million barrels of crude oil and petroleum products transit the Canal each day. (DJ) December 31 After nearly two years of construction, ExxonMobil completes the Sable Offshore Energy Project, a $2 billion project to space bring natural gas from fields offshore Nova Scotia to the northeastern United States. The fields are estimated to contain 3.5 trillion cubic feet of natural gas. (DJ) December 31 Russian President Boris Yeltsin makes a surprise announcement that he is assignee definition resigning immediately. Vladimir Putin becomes Acting President, and presidential elections will be held within 90 days, with a date to be set by thesis statements for the douglass the State Duma.

Russia is the largest exporter of energy in the world. (DJ) The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). January 1 Energy companies and countries around the assignee world report that they have passed into thesis for the narrative of frederick the year 2000 without significant problems from the Y2K Bug. There was concern that the assignee definition inability of some computers and embedded control systems to recognize the year 2000 could create serious problems. Thesis Statements Douglass! (DJ, WP) January 6 Texaco announces that it has completed testing of the Agbami-2 well off the coast of Nigeria. The company states that the new field has crude oil reserves estimated at more than one billion barrels. (DJ, WSJ) January 7 Statoil shuts in 390,000 barrels per day of crude oil production in response to severe weather in the North Sea.

Including earlier moves by Norsk Hydro, Statoil, and Shell, a total of 1.27 million barrels per day of assignee North Sea crude oil production is shut in due to narrative douglass weather. (DJ) January 13 The National Research Council, a body of the National Academy of Sciences, releases a report confirming that the rise in global temperatures is definition undoubtedly real, deflating a key argument used by skeptics of global warming. The report does not directly address the causes of the warming trend. (WP, LAT, WSJ) January 13 The Environmental Protection Agency announces a fine of $30 million against vs. spiderman refiner Koch Industries as part of a settlement of charges that the company contaminated lakes and streams with petroleum products which leaked from pipelines. (DJ) January 13 Indonesian President Abderrahman Wahid appoints a high level panel to oversee the restructuring of the state-owned oil company Pertamina and choose a new senior management team for the firm. (DJ, WSJ)

January 14 Chevron announces that it has agreed to pay $95 million to settle charges that it underpaid royalties to the federal government for assignee oil produced on federal lands. The company says the move is not an admission of wrongdoing. (WSJ) January 16 Takashi Fukuya, Japan's Minister of International Trade and solution terrorism essay, Industry, meets with Saudi Arabia's Petroleum Minister Ali al-Naimi in an attempt to assignee reach an agreement on the renewal of statements for the narrative douglass Japanese firm Arabian Oil Company's concession for crude oil production in the Saudi sector of the Neutral Zone. The ministers reportedly failed to reach agreement on an extension. (DJ) January 19 China discovers a large natural gas deposit in the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang region of Western China. The country is considering the construction of assignee a gas pipeline from the region to more heavily populated areas along the Pacific coast. (DJ) January 22 Iraq reaches an agreement on the continuation of oil supplies to Jordan. Under the statements agreement, Iraq will give Jordan $300 million worth of crude oil in 2000 free of charge, and definition, Jordan will pay a maximum of $19 per barrel for any additional volumes imported. (DJ) January 25 Spot prices for number two heating oil close at $1.359 per gallon, after rising rapidly from $0.687 per gallon at the beginning of January 2000. A Mockingbird Thesis Prejudice! The rapid rise takes place as winter storms hit the northeastern United States, increasing short term demand for heating oil.

The spot price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil closes at $30.28 per definition, barrel. (DJ) January 26 The United Nations Security Council reaches agreement on the appointment of double space Hans Blix of Sweden, the definition former head of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), to lead the new United Nations weapons inspection organization for Iraq. Iraq has indicated that it does not intend to accept the new Security Council resolution. (DJ) January 27 Senator Charles Schumer meets with Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson to essay questions for harry deathly press for a sale of oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in response to high oil prices. In particular, northeastern members of Congress have been concerned by assignee the sharp rise in of an, prices for heating oil in assignee, late January 2000 due to cold temperatures on the East Coast of the United States. Superman! (DJ) January 27 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) decides to postpone a scheduled decision on whether to allow the definition proposed merger between BP Amoco and Atlantic Richfield, after the companies involved made a new offer to divest themselves of a mockingbird thesis further assets. Definition! (NYT) January 27 Azerbaijan experiences a short-term domestic petroleum products shortage, which cripples the country's oil fired power plants. Superman Vs. Spiderman! The government of Azerbaijan temporarily restricts oil shipments to the Russian port of Novorossisk and orders the import of a shipment of oil from neighboring Turkmenistan. (DJ) January 28 ExxonMobil's Australian unit, Mobil Oil Australia Limited, announces a compensation package to cover equipment damage and assignee definition, direct business losses arising from contaminated aircraft fuels. Around 5,000 small aircraft have been grounded in Australia due to concerns that engines could clog after consuming the to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice fuels. Mobil has said the contamination resulted from assignee definition a mistake in the production process, but has not admitted liability for financial losses incurred by questions potter its clients. (DJ)

The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). February 2 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) acts to block the proposed merger between BP Amoco and Atlantic Richfield, saying the merger would unduly restrict competition along the West coast of the United States. (WSJ, WP) February 3 The United States Navy seizes the Russian tanker Volgoneft-147 in definition, the Persian Gulf. Against Essay! The vessel is definition transporting a cargo of smuggled Iraqi gasoil in violation of against essay United Nations sanctions against Iraq. (NYT, WP) February 8 Russia's second largest oil company, Yukos Oil, announces an agreement with state oil pipeline company Transneft to build a $1.7 billion oil pipeline from Siberia to China. The pipeline would run from Angarsk in Siberia to Beijing. (WSJ) February 9 The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) issues a group of policy changes which extend the deregulation of the interstate natural gas pipeline system begun under Order 636 in 1992. Among the changes is definition a lifting, for a trial period of 30 months, of the against terrorism price ceiling on secondary market exchanges of short-term gas pipeline capacity. FERC's lifting of the ceiling is meant in part to definition encourage gas shippers to use longer-term contracts which would promote market stability. (DJ) February 11 Occidental Petroleum agrees to buy Altura Energy, the onshore U.S. oil exploration joint venture between BP Amoco and to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice, Shell, for $3.5 billion.

Altura produces about 110,000 barrels per day of crude oil, mostly in West Texas and New Mexico. (LAT) February 14 The price of West Texas Intermediate crude oil closes on the New York Mercantile Exchange at $30.30 per barrel, the highest price (in nominal terms) since the definition Gulf War in 1991. (WSJ) February 16 The United States announces sanctions against the Greater Nile Petroleum Operating Company (GNPOC), which is developing oilfields in Sudan. The sanctions prohibit American firms and individuals from the introduction essay example doing business with GNPOC, but do not cover the foreign parent companies of assignee definition GNPOC, which include China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC), Petronas, and Talisman Energy. Solution Against Terrorism Essay! (NYT) February 16 President Clinton announces the release of $125 million in assignee definition, additional federal government assistance for low income households hit by high heating oil prices. On the same day, Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson addresses the New England Heating Oil Summit in Boston. A Mockingbird! The moves come after a dramatic spike in heating oil prices in the Northeastern United States. The price for number two heating oil at New York Harbor peaked at February 4 th at $1.77 per definition, gallon. (WP, WSJ, DJ) February 18 Iranian voters go to the polls to elect members of parliament.

The election results in do you double, a landslide victory for reformist candidates allied with Iranian President Mohammed Khatami. (DJ. February 21 General Electric announces a breakthrough in the design of natural gas power generating plants, using steam instead of air to cool turbine blades. According to the company, the new design will use about 5 percent less natural gas per unit of assignee definition power generated than the best existing technologies. Against! (WSJ) February 22 Several hundred truck drivers form a convoy through downtown Washington in assignee definition, a protest against high diesel fuel prices. Trucking lobby groups such as the prejudice American Trucking Association have supported calls for definition a release of oil from the narrative of frederick Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Senator Ben Nighthorse Campbell proposes removing the federal excise tax on diesel for one year. (DJ) February 24 BP Amoco announces that it plans to assignee make $2.5 billion in investments in the development of natural gas reserves at the In Salah field in vs. spiderman essay, Algeria. Gas deliveries to Europe from the field are expected to start in 2003. (WSJ)

February 24 Saudi Arabia announces that it intends to invite representatives of companies which have submitted bids for natural gas and petrochemical investment in the country to talks which will be held in late March 2000, shortly after the end of the Muslim haj pilgrimage season. (DJ) February 26 Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson meets with Saudi Arabian Petroleum Minister Ali Naimi in Riyadh to discuss the recent rise in crude oil prices. The meeting is assignee definition part of an overseas tour which includes stops in Mexico, Norway, Egypt, Israel, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. In a joint statement, Naimi pledged to continue to review oil supply and demand levels to ensure market stability, prevent oil price volitility, and superman, avoid harming the world economy. (DJ) February 27 BP Amoco and Atlantic Richfield hold talks with the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) on assignee, their proposed merger, which the FTC has filed suit in a federal court to block. The two companies have reportedly offered major concessions, including a much larger sale of thesis statements of frederick douglass Alaskan North Slope production assets. (WSJ) February 27 Columbia Energy agrees to be acquired by NiSource, ending an eight month long takeover battle. The deal is valued at $6 billion, will make NiSource the largest natural gas company east of the Rocky Mountains. (WSJ) February 28 Arabian Oil Company, the definition Japanese firm which produces crude oil in the Neutral Zone of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia, announces the expiration of its concession for production in do you double space, the Saudi half of the assignee definition Zone. The firm's concession for the Kuwaiti portion of the thesis narrative of frederick Neutral Zone expires in 2003. (DJ)

The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Definition! Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice, The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). March 2 Valero Energy Corporation agrees to assignee purchase ExxonMobil's 160,000-barrel-per-day refinery at do you double space essays Benicia, California, and 340 retail gasoline stations for $895 million. Assignee! The sale is part of the package of divestitures which Exxon and Mobil agreed to in order to secure approval for their merger from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Valero was selected despite a higher bid from Ultramar Diamond Shamrock Corporation, in the expectation that Valero posed fewer potential problems with approval by the FTC, as it has not previously sold gasoline in California and would introduce a new competitor into that market. (WSJ) March 3 A strike by workers at superman vs. spiderman Petroleos de Venezuela (PdVSA) officially begins, but fails to attract much support from union members.

Only about 15 percent of PdVSA workers fail to report for assignee work, according to the company, and operations are not disrupted. (DJ) March 6 The United States Supreme Court overturns the State of Washington's law establishing state regulation of thesis statements oil tankers, ruling unanimously that federal laws take precedence. The attempt to assignee impose tougher regulatory standards came in the wake of the 1989 Exxon Valdez disaster in Alaska. (WP, NYT) March 7 New York Mercantile Exchange front-month West Texas Intermediate crude oil futures contract closes at thesis statements narrative of frederick douglass $34.13 per barrel, the assignee definition highest level in nine years. (WSJ) March 9 South Korea's Hyundai Corporation announces that it is to to kill thesis prejudice begin developing Libya's Elephant oilfield, discovered in 1997. The project is assignee expected to produce 150,000 barrels per day when it reaches full output capacity in 2003. Do You Space Essays! (DJ) March 14 The Clinton administration announces changes to the system for assessing royalties for oil production on federal lands. In the future, royalty calculations will be pegged closer to current spot market prices, instead of an arbitrary value at the wellhead. The changes are expected to generate an additional $67.3 million per year in revenues. (WP)

March 15 Phillips Petroleum announces that it has agreed to purchase Atlantic Richfield's assets in Alaska for assignee $6.5 billion. Questions Potter! The sale is being made in an effort to secure approval from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for the merger of Atlantic Richfield with BP Amoco. Earlier the same day, the FTC announced that it had suspended its antitrust lawsuit seeking to block the assignee merger, citing progress in talks with the essay companies involved. (DJ, NYT, WSJ) March 17 Secretary of State Madeleine Albright announces an easing of some United States economic sanctions against assignee definition Iran. Purchases of for harry several non-energy items produced in Iran, such as pistachio nuts and Persian rugs, now will be permitted. Sanctions dealing with Iran's oil and assignee, natural gas industries, however, remain in place. (NYT) March 21 Secretary of Energy Bill Richardson arrives in Algiers to meet with Algeria's oil minister, Chakib Khalil, as part of a final round of talks with oil producers about the need to increase production in advance of the OPEC ministerial meeting scheduled for March 27th.

The visit is the first to Algeria by a cabinet level American official in over a decade. Earlier in the day, Secretary Richardson had visited Nigeria for talks with President Olesegun Obasanjo. (WSJ) March 20 EPA Administrator Carol Browner announces that the Clinton Administration intends to superman essay push for a phase out of the use of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) as a gasoline additive. The administration wants Congress to pass legislation which would end the requirement for the use of MTBE in gasoline sold in some smog-prone urban areas, and instead require nationwide use of ethanol. Definition! (DJ) March 23 Vice Admiral Charles Moore, who oversees United States naval operations in the Persian Gulf, briefs the United Nations Sanctions Committee on the increased smuggling of Iraqi oil. Iraq is expected to earn in solution terrorism essay, excess of $500 million from assignee oil smuggling, and questions potter deathly hallows, possibly up to assignee definition double that amount, in the absence of strong action by solution essay Iran to prevent the assignee definition use of its territorial waters by smugglers. (DJ, NYT) March 23 BP Amoco announces that it will purchase 20 percent of the shares to be offered by PetroChina in its initial public offering (IPO) on the New York and Hong Kong stock exchanges on April 7. PetroChina is a unit of China National Petroleum Corporation China's largest oil and essay, gas company. The announcement by BP Amoco provides a needed boost to the IPO, which had to be scaled back in size by definition more than half due to essay lack of interest on the part of many large institutional investors. Assignee Definition! The two firms also announce the formation of a joint venture which will build natural gas distribution infrastructure in parts of coastal China. (LAT, WSJ) March 23 Russia's Lukoil announces the discovery of as much as 2.2 billion barrels of new oil reserves in the Russian sector of the Caspian Sea. (WSJ) March 26 Vladimir Putin is of an example elected president of Russia on the first ballot, winning 53 percent of the popular vote.

Putin took office as acting president in definition, December 1999 after the resignation of terrorism Boris Yeltsin. (DJ) March 27 ExxonMobil files a lawsuit in definition, an attempt to block the sale of Atlantic Richfield's assets in Alaska to Phillips Petroleum. ExxonMobil holds stakes in Prudhoe Bay assets currently operated by Atlantic Richfield. Questions For Harry! (DJ) March 28 After two days of meetings, oil ministers of the Organization of definition Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) agree on an increase in oil production of 1.452 million barrels per day by its members, excluding Iran and Iraq. Iraq, has not been subject to OPEC production agreements while under U.N. Thesis Statements Douglass! Security Council sanctions. Iran, though not formally signing on to the assignee definition agreement, stated its intention to raise its production in order to avoid loss of essay its market share. This would represent about a 1.7 million barrel per day increase in assignee, OPEC production targets, if Iran was included. Double! Several major non-OPEC producers, including Mexico and Norway, also have indicated an intention to raise production. (DJ)

March 30 The State Department announces that it is definition lifting its hold on an Eximbank loan to Russia's Tyumen Oil Company. The loan was blocked by the State Department in December due to a dispute between Tyumen and BP Amoco over the ownership of assets in Siberia's Chernegorneft oil field, but the two firms had since reached a settlement. Essay! (WP, NYT) March 30 The United Nations Security Council votes to allow Iraq to import $1.2 billion in spare parts and definition, other equipment for do you essays its oil industry this year under the oil-for-food program. This is an increase from the previous $600 million annual value allowed. (NYT) The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets.

Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). April 5 The government of Iran announces that it has seized a tanker which was smuggling Iraqi oil through Iranian territorial waters. Assignee! A spokesman for superman vs. spiderman essay the United States Department of State welcomes the action. (NYT, WP) April 6 PetroChina, a holding company which serves as a stock market listing entity for the China National Petroleum Corporation, launches an assignee definition initial public offering (IPO) on the New York and the introduction of an, Hong Kong stock exchanges. The IPO is valued at nearly $3 billion, scaled back drastically in size due to a lack of investor interest. (WSJ) April 7 Tosco Corporation agrees to purchase the Wood River Refinery, located in Illinois from Equilon Enterprises, a joint venture between Texaco and Shell, for $420 million. Equilon officials say the sale is part of a shift to definition concentrate on the West Coast petroleum products market. (NYT) April 12 Several Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of major United States oil companies meet with senior Saudi Arabian officials to the introduction of an essay example discuss possible investments in natural gas and petrochemical projects. The firms represented at the meetings include Chevron, Conoco, ExxonMobil, Marathon Oil, Phillips Petroleum, and Texaco.

The Saudi government announces, in conjunction with the meetings, a package of assignee legal changes that will make Saudi Arabia more open to foreign investors. Complete foreign ownership will be allowed for some types of the introduction of an example projects, and assignee, the maximum corporate tax rate for foreign enterprises will be reduced to 15 percent. (WP) April 14 BP Amoco receives approval from the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) for its $28 billion takeover of Atlantic Richfield Corporation (ARCO). As part of the approval, ARCO has agreed to sell its crude oil production operations in statements narrative of frederick, Alaska to Phillips Petroleum in a deal valued at $6.5 billion. (WP, WSJ) April 18 The China National Petroleum Corporation announces an agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela (PDVSA) to begin purchases of Orimulsion, a power-plant fuel made from bitumen from Venezuela's Orinoco region. (NYT) April 18 Amerada Hess Corporation announces an agreement with the Algerian state-owned oil company Sonatrach to develop three oil fields in central Algeria. The $555 million project will develop the El Gassi, El Agreb, and Zotti fields. (NYT) April 19 The United States Commerce Department reports a record $29.2 billion trade deficit for February 2000.

This is assignee definition due largely to statements the sharp increase in assignee definition, prices for crude oil imports, which added $1.3 billion to the monthly trade deficit. Deathly Hallows! (WP) April 24 The American Petroleum Institute (API) files a federal lawsuit seeking to overturn the Interior Department's new rules for assignee definition royalty valuation of thesis statements for the douglass natural gas produced from federal government lands. Definition! The Independent Petroleum Association of America (IPAA), which represents independent oil and gas companies, also has filed a similar lawsuit. Against! (DJ) April 25 Royal Dutch Shell agrees to pay a $2 million fine for transporting smuggled Iraqi oil aboard a Russian tanker. Definition! The tanker, Akademik Pustovoit , was detained by United States naval vessels enforcing United Nations sanctions against Iraq on April 5. The Introduction Of An Essay! Defense Department spokesman Kenneth Bacon states that Shell appeared to assignee definition have acquired the Iraqi oil unwittingly, and would therefore be allowed to keep the cargo. The fine will go into a United Nations fund for the enforcement of sanctions. (NYT, WP) April 28 Azerbaijan, Georgia, and essay for harry deathly hallows, Turkey sign a final governmental agreement in Washington on the planned Baku-Ceyhan pipeline, which would transport oil from the Caspian Sea region to Western markets through the Turkish port of Ceyhan. The agreement covers the issues of assignee definition transit fees, security, and governmental liability involved in the project. (DJ) April 29 Iraq's oil ministry states that it expects to essay for harry potter hallows export more than $8.5 billion of oil in the current six-month phase of the definition United Nations oil-for-food program. (DJ)

April 30 Total Fina Elf announces that it intends to invest $8 billion in Saudi Arabia's natural gas sector. The announcement comes following a meeting between Total Chairman Thierry Desmarest and Saudi Arabia's Oil and Gas Policy Committee, which includes Foreign Minister Saud al-Faisal and Petroleum Minister Ali Naimi. The Saudi government has been seeking foreign investment in natural gas and the introduction of an example, petrochemical projects. (DJ) April 30 The National Iranian Oil Company (NIOC) signs a 25-year agreement with a consortium of multinational firms for a set of studies dealing with its natural gas sector. The topics will include estimating reserves and assessment of Iran's prospects for both increased domestic use and export of natural gas.

Firms involved in the agreement include BP Amoco, Royal Dutch Shell, British Gas, and assignee, Gaz de France, among others. (DJ) The following chronology lists international events that hold significance for world petroleum markets. Solution Essay! Sources include: Dow Jones (DJ), The Los Angeles Times (LAT), The New York Times (NYT), The Washington Post (WP), and The Wall Street Journal (WSJ). May 2 ExxonMobil signs a production-sharing agreement with Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC) for the development of natural gas from Qatar's offshore North Field. The project is expected to eventually produce 1.75 billion cubic feet per day, much of which will be exported to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) as part of the Dolphin Project, a series of pipelines linking the assignee definition gas grids of Qatar, the UAE, and the introduction of an, Oman. (DJ)

May 5 Indonesia's central government proposes three management options to the government of Riau province for the Penkanbaru field, Indonesia's largest. Definition! The options include the possibility of Riau taking over state oil company Pertamina's stake in the field. The move is part of an effort by the introduction of an essay the government of President Wahid to distribute oil and gas revenues more fairly among Indonesia's regions. (DJ) May 10 BP Amoco reports the definition discovery of a major natural gas field off the coast of Trinidad, which may hold 2 trillion cubic feet of gas. BP Amoco recently announced a planned expansion of its liquefied natural gas (LNG) facility in Trinidad, which will triple its capacity by 2003. Space Essays! (DJ)

May 16 Several sources, including the assignee Washington Post, report a major oil find at the Kashagan field offshore from Kazakhstan, with reserves reportedly greater than 8 billion barrels. If these early reserve estimates prove correct, the additional production volumes could boost chances for construction of the proposed Baku-Ceyhan pipeline. (WP, DJ) May 16 Senate majority leader Trent Lott and other Republicans introduce legislation intended to boost United States domestic oil production. Among other actions, the bill would provide a tax credit of up to the introduction of an essay $3 per barrel for production from marginal wells during periods of low oil prices and open up the coastal portion of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) to oil exploration. (DJ) May 17 Chevron announces that it is to acquire an additional 5 percent stake in Tengizchevroil, the firm which operates the Tengiz field in Kazakhstan, in a deal valued at $450 million. The Kazakh government share in the field will fall to 20 percent. (DJ) May 17 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) formally proposes a rule which, if finalized, would reduce allowable sulfur levels in diesel fuel by 97 percent over the next five years. The move is opposed by major refiners. (DJ)

May 19 BP Amoco receives approval from the European Union for its acquisition of assignee Burmah Castrol, for $4.7 billion. To Kill A Mockingbird Prejudice! After the purchase, BP Amoco will hold a 15 percent market share for automotive lubricants in Europe, comparable to TotalFinaElf and assignee definition, ExxonMobil. (DJ) May 19 A federal appeals court denies a petition by six major oil companies to rehear a decision upholding a Unocal patent for to kill prejudice phase two reformulated gasoline. Assignee! Uncertainty over Unocal's patent rights has led some refiners to stay out of the market for reformulated gasoline, fearing that they may infringe on one of Unocal's five patents related to reformulated gasoline. (DJ) May 21 Russian President Vladimir Putin appoints Alexander Gavrin as Minister of Energy. Gavrin, a former Lukoil executive, replaces Victor Kalyuzhny. Putin also abolishes Russia's State Committee on the Environment, transferring its functions to superman vs. spiderman the Ministry of Natural Resources, which licenses oil and gas development. (WSJ, WP) May 22 The United States Supreme Court agrees to hear a case involving the power of federal agencies to issue regulations under broad grants of authority from Congress. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is assignee definition appealing a decision by a federal appellate court which invalidated new standards set by the EPA in 1997 for ozone and particulate matter emissions.

The case, Browner vs. Do You Double Space! American Trucking Association , is significant because it is the assignee definition first time since 1935 that a federal regulatory program has been struck down under the non-delegation doctrine. Do You Double Essays! (NYT, WSJ) May 23 The Energy Information Administration releases a study of assignee oil reserves in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR), which currently is superman essay off-limits to oil exploration. The study estimates that there are between 5.7 and 16 billion barrels of recoverable oil in the ANWR. (WSJ) May 24 BP Amoco agrees to purchase the assignee definition 18.1 percent of Houston-based upstream oil and gas producer Vastar Resources which it does not already own. Double! The deal is assignee definition valued at $1.6 billion. (WSJ) May 26 Devon Energy agrees to acquire Santa Fe Snyder Corporation for $2.35 billion in stock, plus the assumption of about $1 billion in debt. The deal will put Devon Energy among the solution terrorism largest independent oil and gas producers in assignee definition, the United States. (DJ)

May 29 According to the Energy Information Administration, retail gasoline prices in do you double essays, the United States reach their highest level ever, with an average price of assignee $1.538 per gallon. Do You Double! The previous peak was $1.529 per gallon, on March 20, 2000. Assignee! These figures are not adjusted for inflation. (DJ) May 30 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) denies requests from petroleum marketers in Chicago and Milwaukee for solution essay a temporary exemption from a requirement to sell phase two reformulated gasoline, rejecting marketers' claims of supply shortages in those cities. Earlier, on May 18, the EPA had approved such a temporary waiver for St. Louis, based on a local supply shortage. Definition! (DJ) May 31 Iraqi Oil Minister Amir Muhammad Rashid states that Iraq does not intend to cooperate with the United Nations Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC), the new body created to essay questions for harry potter deathly verify Iraq's destruction of prohibited weapons. Assignee Definition! In other comments, he also states that Iraq does not intend to sign more contracts with foreign oil companies to develop its oilfields until contracts previously awarded are implemented. (DJ)

May 31 TransCanada Pipelines agrees to do you space essays sell its stakes in definition, several natural gas transmission assets in a mockingbird, Argentina, Brazil, and Chile to TotalFinaElf for $440 million. The sales come as part of definition TransCanada's drive to questions potter deathly hallows divest non-core assets, which the assignee company expects to a mockingbird result in revenues of assignee definition $3 billion. (DJ) May 31 Oilfield services firms Baker Hughes and Schlumberger agree to create a venture which will unite the two companies' seismic survey units. The joint venture, Western Geco, will own seismic survey hardware, data processing operations, and the companies' archives of seismic survey data. The firm will be 70 percent owned by Schlumberger and 30 percent owned by essay Baker Hughes. Baker Hughes will receive a payment of $500 million as part of the transaction. (DJ) June 6 The World Bank executive board votes to approve a loan of assignee $193 million to support a project to build a crude oil pipeline from Chad to the coast of Cameroon. The countries will collect an estimated $2 billion in revenues from the project over a period of 25 years. (DJ) June 8 The Brazilian government conducts an auction of oil exploration and production concessions covering a total of 21 blocks, both onshore and offshore.

The auction represents an important step in superman vs. spiderman essay, the opening of Brazil's oil industry to international competition and investment. (NYT) June 9 The United Nations Security Council passes a resolution extending the oil-for-food program, under which Iraq sells oil to finance imports of food and other civilian necessities, for a period of six months. (NYT) June 9 The United States and definition, Mexico sign a treaty resolving the issue of economic rights over to kill a mockingbird prejudice the deepwater doughnut hole area in the Gulf of Mexico between the two countries. The agreement is based on measuring distances from assignee definition each country's coast, and gives the United States rights to 38 percent of the area. (DJ) June 10 Syrian President Hafez Assad dies in Damascus.

Syria's parliament votes to amend the constitution to lower the minimum age for terrorism a president, a move seen as facilitating a succession by his son, Bashar Assad. (DJ) June 15 The German government announces an agreement with utilities for the complete phaseout of nuclear power. Nuclear power plants will be closed after a lifespan of 32 years. Nuclear power supplies about assignee definition one-third of Germany's electricity, and the introduction of an, the phaseout plan may complicate Germany's plans to reduce fossil fuel consumption to curb greenhouse gas emissions. (DJ) June 15 The Department of Energy orders the release of 500,000 barrels of crude oil from the Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR). The oil is to be loaned to Citgo's refinery at Lake Charles, Louisiana, which has been cut off from it normal crude oil supplies by an obstructed waterway. (DJ)

June 19 Husky Oil of Canada agrees to purchase Renaissance Energy in a $2 billion deal. The new entity created by the merger will be the second largest producer of oil and assignee, gas in of an essay, Canada. (WSJ) June 19 The Energy Information Administration (EIA) reports a one-week rise of assignee five cents in the average price of regular gasoline, to $1.681. This is the seventh straight week of increasing prices. Gasoline prices in the Midwest are the nation's highest, at $1.874. To Kill A Mockingbird Thesis! (DJ) June 20 The Federal Trade Commission (FTC) launches a formal investigation into high gasoline prices in some areas of the Midwest, which have seen gasoline prices rise disproportionately in relation to the rest of the United States. (DJ) June 21 Oil ministers from the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), meeting in Vienna, agree to raise crude oil production quotas by a total of 708,000 barrels per assignee, day. OPEC's total production quota (excluding Iraq) will rise to vs. spiderman 25.4 million barrels per day as of July 1, 2000.

The next day, crude oil futures rise, with the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) August West Texas Intermediate contract closing June 22 at $32.19. (DJ) June 26 The United States Supreme Court orders the assignee federal government to refund $156 million which Mobil Oil and Marathon Oil had paid for exploration rights off the coast of North Carolina. Plans to develop the area were derailed in 1990 by the Outer Banks Protection Act, which required extensive environmental analysis by the Department of the Interior before drilling would be permitted. The plaintiffs argued that the law amounted to vs. spiderman an open ended moratorium on the companies' exploration plans. (DJ) June 27 The Wall Street Journal reports that PSG International, the joint venture company formed by GE Capital and assignee, Bechtel to build the space Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline (TCGP), has laid off most staff and closed offices associated with the definition project. The discovery of natural gas at essay questions potter deathly the Shah Deniz field off Azerbaijan in assignee definition, 1999 has complicated negotiations on the project. (DJ) June 29 Norway's Oil and Energy ministry announces that it is rescinding its production cut of terrorism essay 100,000 barrels per day, which it had undertaken in definition, cooperation with production cuts by the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), of which it is not a member. It is against unclear whether the move will have a significant impact, as Norway's production cuts are subtracted from planned, not actual, quantities, and definition, it is unclear whether Norway can meet its full planned production of 3.4 million barrels per day in the near term. (DJ) June 30 The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposes a rule change which would make it easier for refiners to use ethanol in gasoline. The proposed change allows refiners to slightly increase the evaporative property in gasoline to against terrorism accommodate ethanol, in exchange for the carbon monoxide reductions which result from ethanol use. (DJ)

June 30 The Department of assignee Justice and the State of Wisconsin file suit against Murphy Oil, alleging Clean Air Act violations at the company's refinery in superman vs. spiderman essay, Superior, Wisconsin. (DJ) June 30 Australia's Woodside Petroleum rejects an definition asset-equity swap deal proposed by Royal Dutch Shell, which would have resulted in thesis prejudice, Shell owning a majority interest in Woodside. Analysts have said the rejection by Woodside may result in a hostile takeover bid by Shell. (DJ) June 30 Shareholders of the Russian natural gas company Gazprom elect Dimitry Medvedev, a former senior government official, to take over assignee definition as Chairman. Medvedev replaces former Prime Minister Victor Chernomyrdin in the post. Gazprom provides the thesis statements narrative of frederick douglass Russian government with almost one-fifth of assignee its tax revenue and against terrorism essay, accounts for about 6 percent of definition Russia's gross domestic product. (DJ) July 3 News reports attributed to vs. spiderman essay sources at the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) say that Saudi Arabia plans to increase production by assignee definition 500,000 barrels per day in an effort to lower the the introduction of an example price of the AOPEC Basket. Later the same day, Saudi Oil Minister Ali Naimi confirms that Saudi Arabia intends to increase production Avery soon if prices remain above the OPEC price range of assignee $22-$28 per barrel. (DJ) July 5 Halliburton announces that it has received contracts from the Brazilian state-owned oil company Petrobras for the development of the Barracuda and statements, Caratinga offshore oilfields. The contracts, with a total value of $2.5 billion, provide for the construction of two floating production, storage, and offloading units and the drilling of 51 wells. (DJ) July 5 Tosco Corporation agrees to sell its Avon refinery near San Francisco to Ultramar Diamond Shamrock in a transaction valued at $800 million. (DJ)

July 11 Kuwait Petroleum Corporation announces plans to assignee increase its crude oil production capacity to three million barrels per day, in a program of facility upgrades which will take approximately three years to complete. (DJ) July 12 The Kuwaiti parliament ratifies a treaty with Saudi Arabia resolving competing claims to offshore mineral rights. The two countries will share revenues from the Khafji, Dorra, and thesis for the of frederick douglass, Hout oil and gas fields. The treaty will allow the two governments to assignee begin negotiations with Iran to settle conflicting claims, which have again surfaced as Iran has begun drilling in the Dorra offshore gas field. (DJ) July 12 In a policy shift which will allow foreign investors a majority stake in the planned Xinjiang-Shanghai natural gas pipeline project, the do you space essays Chinese government announces that it is ending its ban on assignee definition, foreign ownership of natural gas infrastructure. A Mockingbird! A tender for the project is planned for later this year and construction is to begin in 2001. The shift is seen as a further attempt by China to attract foreign capital to its energy sector. (DJ) July 13 BP Amoco agrees to sell its Alliance Refinery at Belle Chasse, Louisiana, to Tosco Corporation for $660 million. The sale will bring Tosco's refining capacity to 1.35 million barrels per day.

BP Amoco plans to sell its Alliance Pipeline to other buyers. Assignee! BP Amoco currently owns 21 refineries, but has announced plans to sell off more refining capacity, including its interests in Singapore. (DJ) July 24 BP Amoco announces that it will launch a new brand identity worldwide, consolidating the acquisitions of Amoco, Burmah Castrol, and for harry and the hallows, Atlantic Richfield. The company will drop the assignee definition Amoco name, and will adopt a new green, white, and yellow logo based on the sun god Helios from Greek mythology. Questions For Harry Hallows! (DJ) July 25 Israeli-Palestinian peace talks at Camp David, Maryland, break off after two weeks of U.S.- mediated negotiations fail to produce an agreement. (DJ) July 25 A petroleum products pipeline catches fire in southeastern Nigeria, resulting in many deaths. Assignee! Oil pipeline fires are common in the Niger Delta region, often resulting from attempts to steal petroleum products. Thesis Narrative Douglass! (DJ) July 25 A large spill of diesel fuel takes place in definition, Guanabara Bay near Rio de Janeiro in Brazil.

The event is the third major oil spill in Brazil in 2000. (WP) July 26 The Offshore Kazakhstan International Operating Consortium (OKIOC), which includes nine international oil companies, reports substantial flows of oil and natural gas from the first well drilled at the Kashagan field. OKIOC plans to drill a second test well at thesis statements for the douglass the western end of the structure, 25 miles away from the first well, before the end of 2000. (WSJ) July 27 Qatar General Petroleum Corporation (QGPC) and ExxonMobil sign a memorandum of definition understanding with Kuwait Petroleum Corporation for exports of Qatari natural gas to Kuwait. The gas will come from Qatar's offshore North Field. (DJ) July 27 Italy's ENI signs a deal with Iran worth $3.8 billion for terrorism the development of the country's South Pars gas field in the Persian Gulf. The project will take five years to become operational, and will eventually produce 530 million cubic feet of gas per assignee definition, day. (DJ) July 28 Spain's Repsol and essay questions for harry and the, Brazil's Petrobras agree to a $1 billion asset swap which will make Repsol the second largest oil refiner in Brazil.

The two companies also agree to definition jointly produce electricity in Brazil. (DJ) July 30 Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez wins reelection with 60 percent of the popular vote. His Patriotic Pole party also wins a controlling majority in solution against, the country's new unicameral legislature. (DJ) July 31 A Shell executive involved in the Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline (TCGP) project warns that time is running out for assignee reaching an agreement with the government of Turkmenistan. Terrorism Essay! The Turkmen government has reportedly been asking for a pre-payment from the companies developing the assignee pipeline, a demand they have not been willing to accept.

In June 2000, consortium partner PSG International closed offices in the region associated with the solution against terrorism TCGP project. (DJ) July 31 The Middle East Economic Survey (MEES) reports that Saudi Arabia has shortlisted eleven bidders who will be asked to submit formal proposals for integrated natural gas projects and downstream oil projects in assignee, August 2000. The firms reported to have been invited to bid include Royal Dutch Shell, Phillips Petroleum, Chevron, ExxonMobil, Texaco, Conoco, BP Amoco, ENI, Marathon Oil Canada, TotalFinaElf, Enron, and Occidental. (Enron and Occidental have submitted a joint bid.) (DJ) August 1 ExxonMobil announces that it expects to attain cost savings of essay for harry potter deathly $4.6 billion as a result of its recent merger, up 65 percent from its original estimate. Cost-cutting measures include a staff reduction of 19,000 from the original combined total of 123,000. (WSJ) August 1 The Organization of definition Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) officially tells member governments to of an essay example cancel plans to assignee raise production. Superman Essay! On July 17th, with the price of the OPEC Basket above $28.00 since July 1, OPEC President Ali Rodriguez told members in a letter to prepare for an increase by assignee definition the end of July, provided the OPEC Basket price stayed above the $28.00 ceiling in OPEC's Aprice band. The price then fell below the essay questions potter and the threshold. Assignee Definition! (LAT) August 10 General Motors and ExxonMobil announce that they are jointly developing a gasoline processor for fuel cell-powered vehicles. The processor will create a stream of hydrogen derived from the essay for harry potter and the hallows gasoline which will run the assignee definition fuel cell, which could be twice as efficient as a regular gasoline engine.

General Motors says it plans to put fuel cell-powered vehicles on the market in significant numbers by thesis for the douglass 2004. (WSJ) August 10 Venezuelan President Hugo Chavez meets with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein in Baghdad as part of assignee a tour of members of the against terrorism Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). He is the first head of state to visit Saddam Hussein since the 1990 Iraqi invasion of assignee definition Kuwait. (NYT, WP) August 10 Shares of Petrobras, the Brazilian oil company, begin trading on the New York Stock Exchange, as the Brazilian government sells a 16.6 percent stake in do you space essays, the majority state-owned firm, raising more than $4 billion. (WSJ, NYT) August 16 ExxonMobil announces that it and four other refiners will ask the assignee Supreme Court to review a lower court ruling upholding Unocal's patent covering reformulated gasoline. The Supreme Court will announce this fall whether it will hear the case. (WSJ)

August 17 The Wall Street Journal reports that, in a reversal, President Sapamurad Niyazov of Turkmenistan is again actively pursuing the double Trans-Caspian Gas Pipeline. Assignee! The shift in policy reportedly is communicated during a meeting with the solution terrorism Turkish ambassador in assignee definition, Ashgabat. (WSJ) August 20 Ten people die as a result of solution terrorism essay a gas pipeline explosion outside of definition Carlsbad, New Mexico. The pipeline, which carries natural gas from West Texas to thesis narrative of frederick douglass California, is owned by El Paso Energy. (DJ) August 22 PetroChina, China's largest oil and gas company, and the Hong Kong firm Hutchinson Whampoa announce the formation of assignee definition a joint venture which will develop a business-to-business Web portal for oil and the introduction of an essay example, gas businesses in China. PetroChina says it expects the move to definition reduce its own procurement costs by 5 to 10 percent. (DJ) August 23 The Energy Information Administration reports that crude oil stock levels in the United States have fallen to essay for harry potter deathly their lowest level since 1976.

Crude oil for assignee October delivery closes at $32.02 on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), up 80 cents. Double Essays! (DJ) August 24 Enron announces an agreement with German regulators which will allow the company to begin supplying the municipal utilities of two German cities with natural gas. As with other members of the European Union (EU), Germany must open part of its natural gas market to foreign competition to fulfill its EU commitments. (DJ) August 24 Iraq's Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz says Iraq will not cooperate with the United Nations Monitoring, Verification, and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC), the assignee body created by the United Nations to replace the former United Nations Special Commission on Iraq (UNSCOM). (DJ) August 25 President Clinton begins an official visit to Nigeria.

In the first six months of 2000, Nigeria ranked as the fifth largest supplier of crude oil to deathly the United States, accounting for about 10 percent of American imports. (NYT) August 25 BP Amoco wins the definition right to retain its 10 percent stake in the Russian oil company Sidanco, when Sidanco shareholders vote to allow the former rival to receive newly-issued shares in exchange for space a subsidiary it lost in a disputed bankruptcy proceeding. (DJ) August 25 Florida Power and assignee definition, Light (FPL), the largest electric utility in the United States, files with the Florida Public Service Commission for approval to do you double space essays raise electricity tariffs in the state. The company cites increased costs for assignee natural gas and fuel oil. (DJ) August 28 Futures contracts for heating oil on the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX) reach their highest price since October 1990, trading as high as $1.00 per gallon before falling back to close at 99.9 cents per gallon. The price rise reflects low stock levels for thesis narrative of frederick heating oil in assignee, the United States, which have fallen almost 40 percent in relation to the same period last year.(DJ) August 30 The Department of Energy awards contracts to create a 2- million-barrel reserve of heating oil. The oil will be stored in privately owned facilities in Woodbridge, New Jersey, and New Haven, Connecticut. (DJ) August 31 PetroChina announces that it plans to eliminate 50,000 jobs annually over the next five years in a move to cut its operating costs. At the end of 1999, PetroChina had a staff of 480,000. (DJ)

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Rosetta Stone – Financials Essay Sample. The Rosetta Stone is a leading developer of software for learning languages in the world. Rosetta Stone revolves around a very simple idea: learning a language should be fun, easy, and most definitely effective. Rosetta Stone began their business with one man’s quest for assignee, a better way to learn a language. The company’s idea came to the world when Allen Stoltzfus began studying Russian in 1980s and became very frustrated with his slow progress.

He knew there was a better way to learn a language, through immersion, which he had experienced years earlier while studying in Germany. He started to superman vs. spiderman, learn German not from sitting in the classroom, but from learning of being a part of the culture and the world of Germany. However, his idea had to assignee, wait for the technology to simulate the way that people learn their native language, such as with pictures, sounds in context, and with no translation. That time came in 1992 when Fairfield Language Technologies was founded in statements for the narrative douglass, Harrisonburg, Va. Then Allen, the company’s Chairman and definition President, and his brother, Eugene Stolzfus, the company’s first Executive Vice President, combined their skills and create the a mockingbird thesis structural and visual components of the assignee program, which quickly went from a dream to reality.

They called their product “Rosetta Stone,” named after the superman vs. spiderman artifact that had unlocked the secrets of Egyptian hieroglyphics for linguists. The name certainly fits the assignee product. The software unlocks language-learning success to questions for harry hallows, millions of users around the world. In 2003, Tom Adams was named CEO and his innovative leadership and passion for language-learning has taken the company global. In 2006, the company was sold to investment firms ABS Capital Partners and Norwest Equity Partners, and was renamed after their signature product. Before the offering, ABS owned 46% of Rosetta and Norwest owned 30%. In January 2006, to get the company off the ground, ABS provided $29 million and assignee definition Norwest invested $19 million. Those investments have paid off handsomely.

The company became publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange (RST) in April, 2009, providing language-learning solutions for 30 different languages in more than 150 countries. After that ABC’s 46% stake was worth about $145 million, while Norwest’s stake was worth about $95 million. They essentially made about five times their money in 3 years. The company became a leader in providing educational materials in particular targeting individuals, businesses and school, as well as the solution against U.S. government and military. The teaching technique Rosetta Stone employed, called “dynamic immersion,” is assignee definition, akin to double, how kids learn their first language. No translations or tedious grammar drills are used. Instead, learners gain command of assignee definition, new words and proper pronunciation by matching them with images and pictures that provide real-life context. According to its SEC filing, the company’s idea for business and motto brought the expected results. Rosetta Stone reported a profit of double, $13.9 million in 2008, up from $2.3 million the year before.

Since Tom Adams joined Rosetta Stone as chief executive, the company had grown from a small, family-owned business with $10 million in annual revenue and 90 full-time employees into definition, a 1,200-employee operation with first-quarter revenue in 2009 of $50.3 million. Moreover, the terrorism essay consumer revenue was $167.70 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, and an increase of $60.6 million, or 57%, from the year ended December 31, 2007. Institutional revenue was $41.7 million for the year ended December 31, 2008, and assignee definition an increase of $11.5 million, or 38%, compared to the year ended December 31, 2007. Cost of revenue for the year ended December 31, 2008 was $28.7 million, and an increase of $8.0 million, or 38.6% from the year ended December 31, 2007. Superman Vs. Spiderman Essay? Operating expenses, such as sales and marketing for the year ended December 31, 2008 were $93.4 million, and an increase of $27.90 million, or 43%, from the assignee year ended December 31, 2007. The company financial data obviously showed that Rosetta Stone became a leading provider of thesis for the douglass, technology-based language learning solutions. Mr. Adams chose to take Rosetta Stone public in April, 2009. The company offered 6.25 million shares of common stock and it was a rousing success, selling out shares priced above the assignee estimated range of $15 to the introduction of an essay example, $17 and raising $129 million.

Rosetta Stone shares were priced at $18 in the company’s initial public offering, above the estimated range, making it the definition fourth IPO on an American exchange in 2009 as equities markets struggle to stabilize. Rosetta Stone stocks end the day with large gains, such as the 39.60% price increase of Open Table. The cost of going public is extremely expensive and time consuming, but Rosetta Stone proved that if it is planned right it is possible to succeed even during the time of recession. Rosetta Stone sold 3.125 shares at the offering price of $18.00 per solution terrorism essay, share to the public and assignee definition founders and the other shareholders also sold 3.125 million of their own shares. In this IPO, the vs. spiderman essay underwriters’ direct compensation was $1.26 per share, which means that the stock was sold at a price of $18 to the public, but Rosetta Stone received $18.00 – $1.26 = $16.74 per assignee, share. For the 3.125 million shares issued by Rosetta Stone, these direct underwriters also made the same amount on the shares they sold for founders and the introduction of an essay example other existing shareholders. The other costs, such as lawyers’ fees, accountants’ costs, printing, and engraving cost the company totaled about $3.5 million. However, Rosetta Stone proved that the money left on the table, which is equal to the number of assignee definition, shares multiplied by the difference in the closing price and the offering price, can be quite large.

Rosetta Stone experienced a first-day run-up to $25.12 from an offering price of $18.00, so its indirect costs totaled 3.125($25.12 – $18.00) = $22.25 million. Thus, Rosetta Stone received proceeds of 3.125($18.00 – $1.26) = $52.3 million, the underwriters and their sales forces received $3.9 million, other expenses totaled about $3.5 million, and $22.5 million was left on do you double space the table. Numbers like those are definitely encouraging and they show demand is slowly outpacing fear in another formerly shunned corner of the market. However, one of the assignee definition hottest stocks in thesis narrative of frederick douglass, 2009 has become an investor disappointment in 2010. Assignee Definition? From 2009 to 2010 shares of Rosetta Stone have dropped 33 percent. Shares, initially offered at essay potter, $18.00, hit closing high of $31.67 by May 5, 2009. On September 2, 2010, the stock traded below its initial offering price. Year after year, Rosetta Stone, has seen their bottom line shrink from a gain of assignee definition, $13.3 million to a loss of of an, $20.0 million despite an increase in revenues from $258.90 million to $268.40 million. An increase in the percentage of sales devoted to SGA (all direct and indirect Selling, General Administrative expenses) costs from 71.12% to definition, 83.26% was a key component in the falling the bottom line in to kill thesis prejudice, the face of rising revenues.

Shares of Rosetta Stone are still dropping. Everyone looks for the reasons and Mr. Definition? Adams, CEO, explains that the reason for poor U.S. sales was not weak consumer demand, but it was changes in the advertising market. He also explains that Rosetta Stone uses cheap advertising – “bought at the last minute in the introduction essay, the television spot market” – to drive sales on its website and through call centers (September, 2010). Moreover, the bankruptcy of Borders Group, one of Rosetta Stone’s retail partners, also negatively affected the revenue and earnings for the fourth quarter of 2010. In 2011, Rosetta Stone’s revenue increased 8% to $80.5 million on bookings of $84.8 million.

The company lowered its prices during 2011 and focused on promoting more appealing price points in definition, its holiday promotional campaigns in the quarter, which pushed average price unit price down to $313, a 20% decrease. Total consumer units sold increased 28% to 221.70 thousands units in the quarter. Rosetta The change reflects fewer units sold which partially offset by the introduction of an higher average sales price per unit. As of the definition second quarter 2012, Rosetta Stone reported revenue decrease 9% to $60.8 million reflecting basically the rationalization of less efficient kiosks, lower sales internationally and thesis statements for the narrative a decline in the Institutional business because of the non-renewal of the Army and Marines contracts last year. Adjusted EBITDA (Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization) for assignee, the second quarter was $1.1 million, an increase of $2.4 million from ($1.3) million in the second quarter of 2011. Essay Questions Potter And The? The improvement in Adjusted EBITDA was primarily driven by a reduction in assignee definition, sales and marketing expenses.

Rosetta Stone recorded a net loss of $4.5 million in the second quarter 2012, compared to a net loss of essay questions potter, $4.6 million in the second quarter of 2011. Net loss per share was $0.22 unchanged from a net loss of assignee, $0.22 per share in the prior year period. Cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments were $120.4 million at June 30, 2012, an douglass, increase of definition, $4.1 million compared with $116.30 million at December 31, 2011 and an increase of $5.2 million from the prior year period. The company has no debt. Net cash provided by operating activities in essay, the quarter was $3.4 million compared with ($2.9) million a year ago. Capital expenditures were $1.0 million. Free cash flow for the quarter was $2.4 million, compared with ($5.8) million in the second quarter of 2011. Based on definition Rosetta Stone’s financial statements, the company appears to have some financial risk as the company holds substantial amount of cash on terrorism its books with very little or no debt. The company’s accounts receivable are also typical for the industry, although worsening, with 68.02 days worth of sales outstanding.

Last inventories seem to be well managed as the inventory processing period is typical for the industry, at assignee, 61.87 days. The Rosetta Stone is going through some tough times, but it is still selling for a value price. Like many companies Rosetta Stone tries to find the way to keep up with the do you space customers’ expectations and improvement to their technological side. Based on the financial data, the company still tries to find the way to be more stable on the market. It is important to notice that Rosetta Stones tries to improve their profitability by better balancing the need to generate positive margins on the bottom line with investments to definition, drive growth. Essay Potter And The Deathly Hallows? They focus is on the cost structure, which enables the company to pursue profitable growth. Some of the actions that Rosetta Stones implements in this fiscal year are the following: reducing and better managing the media spending, continuing to optimize the distribution channels, streamlining the definition European operations and solution essay carrying out a headcount reduction, primarily in the U.S. The end result should be a positive Adjusted EBITDA. Rosetta Stone’s President and Chief Executive Officer, Swad also confirms that the company priorities for this year are the following features that have to come to comprehension: leveraging the company’s brand, innovating the company’s platform, and expanding distribution.

Rosetta Stone obviously has a great opportunities ahead in the high-value institutional and international customer markets. The main goal of the company is to keep up with the prospect and going public most definitely increased the potential market to the company. Assignee Definition? Rosetta Stone isn’t doing great operationally these days, but at current prices, Rosetta Stone certainly is space essays, building a brand and holds the promise of riding the trends toward globalization and personalized, go-at-your-own-pace education. Amendment No. 5 to Form S-1: United States Securities and Exchange Commission (March 31, 2009). Retrieved August 8, 2012 from http://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1351285/000104746909003564/a2188696zs-1a.htm Ehrhardt, Michael C., and Eugene F. Brigham. Financial Management: Theory and Practice. Assignee Definition? 13th ed. Mason, OH: South-Western Cengage Learning, 2011.

Rosetta Stone – About Us (2012). Retrieved August 7, 2012 from. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Rosetta Stone – Financials. essay editing for only $13.9 per narrative of frederick douglass, page. Top grades and assignee definition quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Rosetta Stone – Financials. Rosetta Stone is one of the leading language-learning international software companies with sales in essay, over 150 countries world-wide. They offer over 30 different languages through compact disc and assignee definition online tutorials…. Abstract The research in to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice, this report provides foundational facts and figures related to Amazon, Inc. and assignee all subsidiaries’ current financial condition starting with the share price.

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100 Writing Practice Lessons #038; Exercises. Want to become a better writer? Perhaps you want to write novels, or maybe you just want to get better grades in your essay writing assignments, or maybe you#8217;d like to start a popular blog. If you want to write better, you need practice. But what does a writing practice actually look like?

In this post, I#8217;m going to give you everything you need to kick off your writing practice and become a better writer faster. This was the question I had when I first started The Write Practice in 2011. I knew how to practice a sport and how to practice playing an instrument. But for assignee definition, some reason, even after studying it in college, I wasn#8217;t sure how to practice writing. I set out to create the best writing practice I could.

The Write Practice is the thesis narrative of frederick douglass result. Assignee. I found that the do you double space essays best writing practice has three aspects: Deliberate . Writing whatever you feel like may be cathartic, but it#8217;s not an effective way to definition, become a better writer. Thesis. You#8217;ll get better faster by instead practicing a specific technique or aspect of the definition writing process each time you sit down to write. This is why we have a new lesson about the writing process each day on The Write Practice, followed by a practice prompt at the end so you can put what you learned to use immediately. Timed . Space Essays. It#8217;s no secret writers struggle with focus. There are just too many interesting distractions—Facebook, email, Kim Kardashian#8217;s Instagram feed (just kidding about that last one, sort of)—and writing is just too hard sometimes. Setting a timer, even for just fifteen minutes, is an easy and effective way to assignee, stay focused on essay questions for harry potter what#8217;s important. This is why in our writing practice prompt at the end of each post we have a time limit, usually with a link to assignee definition, an online egg timer, so you can focus on deliberate practice without getting distracted. Feedback . Getting feedback is one of the requirements to deliberately practice writing or any other craft. Feedback can look like listening to the reactions of your readers or asking for to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice, constructive criticism from editors and other writers. This is why we ask you to post your writing practice in the comments section after each lesson, so that you can get feedback from other writers in The Write Practice community.

It#8217;s also why we set up the assignee definition Becoming Writer community, to provide critique groups for writers to get feedback on their finished writing pieces. Our 100+ Best Writing Practice Exercises and solution against terrorism Lessons. Now that you know how we practice writing at The Write Practice, here are our best writing practice exercises and lessons: All-Time, Top 10 Writing Lessons and Exercises. These ten posts are our most viewed articles to boost your writing practice: 1. How To Use Neither, Nor, Or, and Nor Correctly . Even good writers struggle figuring out when to use neither/nor and either/or. In this, the most popular post on The Write Practice, our copy-queen Liz Bureman settles the confusion once and for all. Click to definition, continue to the writing exercise. 2. Do You Use Quotation Marks or Italics for Song and to kill thesis prejudice Album Titles?

The wrong punctuation can make any writer look silly. If you#8217;ve ever been confused about assignee, whether to use quotes or italics for song titles and potter album titles, this post will clear things up. Click to continue to the writing exercise. Assignee. 3. Ten Secrets To Write Better Stories . Statements For The Of Frederick. How does Pixar manage to assignee, create such great stories, year after year? And how do you write a good story? In this post, I distill everything I#8217;ve learned about how to write a good story into thesis statements for the of frederick douglass, ten tips. Click to continue to the writing exercise. 4. How To Use an assignee definition, Ellipsis… Correctly . The Introduction Of An Essay Example. Judging by my Facebook feed, most people are using ellipses incorrectly, or at least over using them. Here#8217;s how to use those trio of periods correctly in your writing. Click to continue to the writing exercise.

5. 35 Questions To Ask Your Characters From Marcel Proust . To get to know my characters better, I use a list of definition questions known as the Proust Questionnaire, made famous by French author, Marcel Proust. A Mockingbird Thesis Prejudice. Click to continue to definition, the writing exercise. 6. Do You Space Essays. How a Scene List Can Change Your Novel-Writing Life. Creating a scene list changed my novel-writing life, and doing the same will change yours too. Includes examples of the scene lists from famous authors. Assignee Definition. Click to continue to for the narrative of frederick, the writing exercise. 7. Why You Need to assignee, be Using the Oxford Comma . Most people I#8217;ve met have no idea what the Oxford comma is, but it#8217;s probably something that you have used frequently in your writing. Click to continue to the writing exercise.

8. How to a mockingbird thesis prejudice, Conduct an Interview Like a Journalist . The interview is the most-used tool in definition, a journalist#8217;s bag. But that doesn#8217;t mean novelists, bloggers, and questions hallows even students can#8217;t and don#8217;t interview people. Here#8217;s how to conduct a great interview. Click to assignee, continue to the introduction, the writing exercise. Assignee. 9. Why You Should Try Writing in Second Person . You#8217;ve probably used first person and third person point-of-view already. But what about second person? This post explains three reasons why you should try writing from this point-of-view. Click to essay questions and the hallows, continue to the writing exercise.

10. The Secret to assignee definition, Show, Don#8217;t Tell. You#8217;ve heard the classic writing rule, #8220;Show. Don#8217;t Tell.#8221; Every writing blog ever has talked about for the, it, and for good reason. Assignee. Showing, for some reason, is really difficult. Click to do you double essays, continue to the writing exercise. 12 Exercises and Lessons To Become a Better Writer. Assignee. How do you become a better writer?

These posts share our best advice: 6 Lessons and Exercises from statements for the narrative of frederick douglass Great Writers. If you want to be a writer, learn from the great writers who have gone before you: 12 Genre and Format Specific Writing Lessons and Exercises. Here are our best writing lessons for definition, specific types of writing, including essays, screenplays, memoir, short stories, children#8217;s books, and humor writing: 14 Characterization Lessons and Exercises. Good characters are the foundation of good fiction. Here are our best lessons to create better characters: I talk to so many writers, some of whom are published authors, who struggle with grammar. Here are our best writing lessons on grammar: 4 Journalism Lessons and Exercises. Want to be a journalist? Or even use techniques from journalism to improve your novel, essay, or screenplay?

Here are our best writing lessons on journalism: 16 Plot and Story Lessons and Exercises. Want to write a good story? Our top plot and to kill a mockingbird story lessons will help: 6 Lessons and Exercises to Beat Writer#8217;s Block. Writer#8217;s block is real, and it can completely derail your writing. Here are six lessons to get writing again: 7 Literary Technique Lessons and definition Exercises. These writing and storytelling techniques will teach you a few tricks of the trade you may not have discovered before: 3 Inspirational Writing Lessons and Exercises. Need some inspiration? Here are three of our most inspiring posts: 3 Publishing Blogging Lessons and Exercises. If you want to get published, these three lessons will help: Need inspiration or just a kick in the pants to potter, write.

Try one of our top writing prompts: Is It Time To Begin Your Writing Practice? It#8217;s clear that if you want to become a writer, you need to practice writing. We#8217;ve created a proven process to practice your writing at assignee definition The Write Practice, but even if you don#8217;t join our community, I hope you#8217;ll start practicing in some way today. Personally, I waited far too long to start practicing and solution terrorism essay it set my writing back years. How about you? Do you think practicing writing is important? Let me know in the comments section. Choose one of the writing practice posts above. Then, read the lesson and participate in the writing exercise, posting your work in the comments section of that post.

And if you post, please give feedback to your fellow writers who also posted their practices. Have fun and happy practicing! You have THE BEST content for definition, writing on the introduction of an essay this blog!! Thank you, Kristen. This made my morning. Assignee Definition. #128578; I can#8217;t remember when I started following this website. I have to look in my notebooks because that#8217;s where I did these practices. I didn#8217;t have access to a computer when I did them, so I wrote them out, setting the the introduction of an essay time limit.

But even when I do get to a computer, I have my reservations about putting my practices on the page. even though it#8217;s practice, I want them to be the best, almost perfect. But I know it won#8217;t be. I#8217;ve gotten feedback before that says so. It still gets to assignee, me that I didn#8217;t put something together that not everyone liked. I need to get over it. After all, that is what these practices are about: to thesis for the narrative douglass, learn and improve on our craft. I don#8217;t know either, George, but it#8217;s been several years. Perfectionism is something so many of us face, and it#8217;s made worse when you don#8217;t have a critique community as warm and encouraging as ours is. I hope you and everyone here are always willing to try something new, even if it comes out a little messed up, because you know we#8217;ll support you and definition try to do you double essays, make you better. What a great share! Thanks so much!

You#8217;re so welcome, Elizabeth. Thank you for definition, commenting. when I ran writing classes I wrote. when I am #8220;a member of writing classes#8221; the teacher/leader/facilitator is NOT MY AUDIENCE and so I don#8217;t write as well/as much. I don#8217;t get the feedback I need from fellow students because most of them have never run their own writing projects/workshops. So many people expect you to essay questions and the, write their story for definition, them. Double Space. I#8217;ve actually got quite a few stories of assignee me own. I have finally decided I like owning them. #128521; It sounds like you need a new critique group, Patience! Hope you can find a place where you get the feedback you need. Wow! Terrific round-up of for harry potter resources. #128578; Practice is definition, necessary, period. Of An Essay. It doesn#8217;t matter what you want to learn.

If you want to improve, practice is vital. It#8217;s odd. I#8217;ve known and applied that principle for years on a variety of assignee definition things. Painting. Drawing. Blogging. Gardening. To Kill A Mockingbird Thesis Prejudice. Laundry.

But never writing. Like you, I had the notion that just writing every day was all it took to improve. Why not the same level of dedication to writing? Perhaps it#8217;s time to assignee definition, change that! I can relate, Carrie. Statements For The Narrative Of Frederick. It#8217;s easy to confuse the craft of writing with journaling, thinking that you can just write whatever you feel like and assignee you#8217;ll get better, write something worth reading. Double Essays. The truth is that writing interesting things to definition, read is a skill, but the good news is that you can get better at it with practice.

Thanks for essay example, practicing with us! #128578; I love these suggestions , and have set Writing Practice as my homepage so the first 15 minutes of definition my day is spent writing, whether its a practice or exercise here or another that is sprinkled through out this site, Thank you for all you do everyone here at The Write Practice. This is great Debra. Superman Essay. I want to write the first 15 minutes of my day too! I agree with Joe, Do it. Could be your to do list#8230; ( that could lead to assignee definition, something else story wse later) I love that, Debra. Thesis Statements For The Narrative Of Frederick Douglass. Such a good way to start your day. Assignee Definition. The best! Thank you so much for do you space, this. You#8217;re very welcome! I simply LOVE all the tips and suggestions given on this blog.

They are super helpful! THANK you. We love sharing them with you. #128578; Hi! You forgot the link to How to Write a Story a Week: A Day-by-Day Guide. Thanks a lot for your work! This post is amazing. It#8217;s a great post Thiago. Definitely one of our most shared.

Thanks for mentioning it! BTW here#8217;s the definition link: Wow!! There are so many exercises#8230;. I just love it. The Introduction Of An Essay Example. I am gonna really enjoy it. Awesome! Thank you for reading and practicing with us. #128578; I only read halfway , My tootie is jumping all over me, and typing this is a struggle when a 3yr old wants his Toy Story movie on Youtube in this computer. Assignee. Thank you for this article, will come back later to space, finish reading.

I know the assignee feeling! Good luck! Can#8217;t wait to to kill a mockingbird thesis, get stuck in with this! #128578; Very helpful! Thank you! I#8217;ve just bookmarked this page. Thanks for assignee, this wonderful list. This is awesome! So many helpful tips.

I will be coming back to this often. Thanks for superman vs. spiderman, posting this! Wow, so many goodies! Thank you for always providing such amazing content!! I have enjoyed all these articles.

Thank you for the help an definition, inspiration to get my writing on its way. My creativity is boosting with confidence. Tootle loo. Amazing contents for beginners like me Joe. I am highly inspired by your commitment. Thank you. Although I have only read half of thisc article, the practice exercises are excellent.

Some of them are exactly what a beginning writer like myself needs. I am committing to at least try ALL of them. very helpful! thank you.. Amazing articles! Thanks so much for essay questions and the hallows, sharing! My god this article made me love this site . You know it#8217;s kinda hard for a beginner writer, who don#8217;t know where to start and fixing goals, even samll ones give us a direction . A place to go , an aim for our creativity so thanks you , this community and this site. Love you all . At your pens ! #128521; Wow.

This is great. I find all your posts informative, but this one is the best for me to use as a guide to get my self starting to write#8230;.Thank you. I#8217;m an assignee definition, old lady who wants to the introduction of an, publish one more book before I die #8212; have published several, all non-fiction, and done two under contract to a major publisher (reference books). So help me, the BIGGEST problem I have all along, is keeping track of the damned paper work and research that goes into a book. Yet I never ever see articles on something as simple as #8220;How to file#8221; #8212; Oh I know, there#8217;s wonderful software these days so probably I will never find a way to get paper organized #8212; everybody will use software and do it on assignee definition the computer. I#8217;m too old for that #8212; just one look at the learning curve for thesis for the, software, even putting the damned stuff into computer files is even MORE frustrating than paper!!

Oh well, somehow I managed in assignee definition, the past to get books published, I may be able to do it one more time. The Introduction Example. you enjoy writing more than anything else and you do indeed care to help others write. I love writing but translation from Arabic into English and English into Arabic is taking all of my time from the early hours of the morning till the evening. I will soon get all of your books in order to read them as soon as possible. One thing I am sure of. Definition. You know what you are doing very well. Hamzah. Excellent! Many useful tips. Many thanks! Liz and Joe, I have only do you essays, looked at a few exercises. Assignee Definition. Already, I am convinced that your site is one of the best sites out there.

Thank your for sharing your wisdom. Wow, these are the best lessons and exercises for writing. Actually i#8217;m participating in a compitition this wendsday. so, i#8217;m quite nervous and exited. this helped me a lot. Magnificent post ever I have read. This article will help me a lot to write a right way. Thank you.

i need your help to the introduction essay, improve to become a better writer please. i think i usually commit moist of these errors and i don;t pay attention to assignee, many advices too.

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Assignment Meaning in the Cambridge English Dictionary

English as A Lingua Franca Essay Sample. According to definition, Merriam-Webster (2014), Lingua Franca is terrorism, defined as a common language spoken among peoples with different native languages. Specifically, it has no geographic restriction, which means it could be an official and standard language that applied to cross-national diplomacy and could be a regional language utilized by peoples who speak different mother tongues as well. It is known as “bridge language”, “working language”, “vehicular language” and assignee, “trade language”. It functions as a medium to facilitate the communication among peoples with diversified language backgrounds. English as a Lingua Franca (ELF)

The term ELF is do you, defined as “communication in English between speakers with different first languages” (Seidlhofer 2005, cited in Gu, Patkin and Kirkpatrick 2014). A more detailed definition from Firth (1996), cited in Seidlhofer (2004), is assignee, that “it is a contact language between persons who share neither a common native tongue nor a (common) national culture, and for whom English is chosen as foreign language of communication.” It is used by individuals from “linguacultural background” and speakers and essay potter deathly, locations of ELF are changeable. ELF can occur among employees within an international corporate headquartered in Shanghai, over the internet and social media or just between two backpackers in definition a hostel in Italy (Cogo 2012). World Englishes (WE) In general, World Englishes refers to all varieties of Englishes existed in the world today, particularly “new Englishes”-the localized or indigenized Englishes (Pakir 2009). It is a sign of adaptation of English in certain geographic areas. Business English Lingua Franca (BELF) BELF focuses on the application of English Lingua Franca in business circumstances, but whether it is a neutral code of communication remains controversial. The supporters believe that it is neutral because it is not a mother tongue of vs. spiderman anyone.

Besides, it is widely-used in global business where “BELF users and definition, communicators” are participants and to kill thesis, have the right to use it (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). Definition! The opposite views argues that ELF creators are from diverse cultural backgrounds which proves that this language is not cultural-neutral (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005, in Meierkord 2012). The theory was lodged out by Benjamin Lee Whorf and is also known as Whorf Hypothesis.

Whorf believed that language shapes how we perceive the world and determine the way we think. Thesis For The Narrative Of Frederick Douglass! He asserted that “every speech community fits the need of its culture”. A famous example would be Eskimos’ various words in describing snow. Another would be sign language-a different system used by deaf people in daily communication (Bergman n.d.). Reasons for ELF. Wide Geographical Distribution. The historical reasons play an indispensable role in shaping English into assignee, lingua franca. During the to kill prejudice, period of British Colonialism (17th and 18th centuries), English has been brought to America, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Carrabin, South Africa and definition, South Asia and English are well-established after years of development. Markedly, after the fall of the Britain Empire, Commonwealth of Nations was founded. Most of the members are from the former British Empire and new members from the Africa and Asia are included which quickens the pace of English becoming lingua franca in those nations.

As a result, both the influence and the number of English speakers are substantial. In other words, English has been a worldwide phenomenon. Spread of Political and Economic Power. The spread of a mockingbird thesis English is bound up with culture value transmission including political and economic element (Pennycook 1994). “It is closely linked to definition, national and increasingly non-national forms of culture and knowledge that are dominant in the world” (ibid.). In the late 19th century, America has become the a mockingbird thesis prejudice, most powerful country both in its economic and definition, political influence.

During the British colonialism times, the solution essay, most effective way to expand the political and economic power is to assignee definition, force the people from colonies to learn English, which seems to be an unfeasible approach in the contemporary world. Nowadays, the spread of political and economic power conceals behind every piece of product in Hollywood industry and every trade of advanced technologies and questions and the deathly hallows, English has been an important medium during the whole process. In the current times, America is in the dominant position of the world, along with the promotion of the frequent use of English. Globalization, driven by technological upgrades in media and communication tools, is a flow of capital, goods, personnel and other resources around the world, generating new modes of global activity (Castells 1996, cited in Blommaert, p. Definition! 13). After the Second World War, corporation among different countries has become more frequent with the process of globalization. In the political field, the growing number of the foundation of global organizations, including WHO and NATO requires for a shared language in order to improve the work efficiency. In terms of global business, a common trading language is needed during international trade and English has become the choice.

In addition, other factors like cross-national advertising, pop music as well as education all serve as catalysts for English as a lingua franca for the reason that English language acts as a dominant medium during the information spreading. Implications for Management. The increasing awareness of language choice has taken place in global companies and during the “cross-national merger”. However, the language selection could be an intractable strategic decision and the challenge is considerable (Maclean 2006; Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005) given that the working staff are from diverse cultural backgrounds with different first languages. English as A Single Corporate Language. The adoption of English as the standardized language is a prevalent phenomenon in international companies. This is not only a strategy from English-speaking enterprises but it is frequently used by do you, non-English speaking companies during their business expansion. An example would be Siemens AG, whose language management strategy has experienced a process of the exclusive use of German, the equal emphasis on definition, German and English and the dominant position of of an essay English application in the current times (Maclean 2006). There exist several advantages of the assignee, application of English in corporations. Firstly, the single corporate language policy is instrumental in improving the operation efficiency.

Cross-border management and vs. spiderman, direct communication between the headquarters and subsidiaries would be more effective and assignee, time-saving. Secondly, English has been widely-used in international business throughout the world and the status of English in the contemporary world is unshakable (ibid.). This is based on the fact that English has become a lingua franca in business field. As has been mentioned above, some scholars have categorized it as Business English Language Franca (BELF) (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). Essay! Some regard it as a culture-neutral language while others deny the opinion for the terms are created by people from diverse races and colors. According to Whorf Hypothesis, language is the determinant of people’s thoughts (Bergman n.d.).

Consequently, thoughts of those who don’t learn English as their first language are varied from those who learn English as their first language. English speakers from non-native English-speaking countries are affected by their native cultures. Assignee Definition! For native speakers of English, it is space essays, also a challenge to integrate into the group of those who learn English as a second language (Maclean 2006). As a result, the potential threat of the implementation of the single corporate language is that it could result in assignee poor internal communication and misunderstandings among the questions for harry potter and the deathly, employees from different cultural backgrounds, which, in return, will jeopardize the working efficiency over the long haul. Furthermore, the flexibility of monolingual policy is doubted. For instance, some operational problems are culturally specific to a certain geographical region and cannot be described in English. The emergence of the phenomenon is definition, closely related to the local language and cultural atmosphere (ibid.). Multilingual Policy Adoption. Nordea has been a cross-national corporate resulted from of frederick two merging companies from Finland and Sweden. For Nordic countries where Finland and Sweden are included, English exerts very little influence in those countries and the development of assignee English as a communication tool is a relatively new thing.

The tradition lingua franca of these regions is do you double space, Swedish which was what Nordea adopted as the corporate language at the beginning (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). However, Swedish has been replaced by assignee, English after the to kill a mockingbird thesis, occurrence of “internal political problems” which is not an definition ideal solution in the long run (Maclean 2006). As can been seen, the application of a single corporate language may worsen the current situation of to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice non-English speaking corporation, adding more complexity to rather than simplify the existed environment especially when the assignee, third language is unfamiliar to the introduction of an essay example, most receivers in the organization. In this case, the relatively ideal solution is to take the advantage of the assignee, multilingual situation and explore the possibilities of combining the existed language abilities of the superman vs. spiderman, staff rather than force the employees to acquire a second language (Maclean 2006). The adoption of bilingual, trilingual or multilingual strategy is assignee definition, matched with the complexity of the language environment of a company (Dhir and thesis statements, Abiodun 2002, cited in Maclean 2006). The Establishment of “Culture Three” A similar case study of language use and internal communication in two merger companies from Finland and Sweden was conducted.

One is definition, a Paper manufacturer and the other one is a mockingbird prejudice, a bank group (Louhiala Salminen et al. 2005). The company has also experienced a process of language selection (from the adoption of Swedish to assignee definition, English). However, despite cultural differences, the questions for harry and the deathly, result of the study shows that there is assignee, “no evidence of conflicts or misunderstandings”. Besides, the study suggests that the shared value has formed within the company philosophy no matter whether it is because of the do you double, closeness of geography between Finland and Sweden or the working experience (ibid.). When referring to the culture disparity in business, a “culture three” which is out of the cultural differences should be established (Holden 2002, cited in Louhiala Salminen et al. Assignee! 2005). In the case companies, the culture is neither Swedish nor Finnish.

It is “a new combination where interaction proceeds smoothly and contains discoursal features of both cultures” (ibid.). Thesis Statements For The Of Frederick! To achieve this goal, it needs to assignee definition, have a pragmatic language which is functional in day-to-day use and is effective and efficient in communication as well. Linguistic correctness is not the focus (ibid.). The grammar of such language may not be as authentic as native speakers but seldom impedes the communication and understandings. Implications for Non-native Speakers of English.

English is the introduction essay example, no longer the language of native speakers and more business activities have taken place among non-native English speakers. As a result, English during business trade is more functional. The correctness of grammar, fluency and pronunciation of English play a less important role in the success of business. Knowledge and effective communication are more vital in business interactions nowadays (Kankaanranta and Louhiala-Salminen 2010). As has been mentioned in the previous section, non-native English speakers are from diverse culture backgrounds and are deeply influenced by their indigenous culture. Therefore, all encounters between non-native English speakers are collapses of cultures which requires for assignee, a wider range of knowledge of the backgrounds of the non-native English speakers for essay questions for harry potter and the hallows, the purpose of conflicts elimination (ibid.). Playfulness and Creative Use of Language. Here is an assignee example of a conversation among non-native speakers of English. “Extract : the boat (Isabel: Portuguese; Nana: Japanese; Anna: Italian) Isabel: I mean we don’t have problems … we all get on yeah Nana: yeah I think we are all on the same …on in… ah: what is it… on the same boat?

Nana: yeah? … how do you say? On the same boat? Isabel: I don’t know yeah…on the same boat I think…on the bus on the train. Anna: anyway we understand you. Isabel: yeah … we are all foreigners. Nana: all foreigners (laughing)” The context based on the discussion of the correctness of a preposition of an English slang. Instead of saying “I don’t know”, Isabel plays the language by offering different suggestions which continues the conversation. The non-native English speakers burst into laughter by the “mockery” that “we are all foreigners”.

The foreign backgrounds are what bring the non-native English speakers together which in a way promote the vs. spiderman, communication and understandings among non-native speakers. The creativity in English application reveals the assignee, optimistic attitude of superman essay being “non-native” (ibid.). Those who perceive English as imperialism claim that the popularity of English endangers the preservation and survival of other native languages (Khan 2010). Take Arabic language as an example. Assignee Definition! The government has input a large amount of money in correcting the false use of superman vs. spiderman native language since English has become the second language of the country (ibid.). The opposing view has pointed out definition, that the of an essay, frequency of the assignee, second language application will not surpass that of the mother tongue consider that mother tongue is the most familiar and comfortable language for an individual, which, as a result, will not pose a threat to the survival of native languages (ibid.). Objectively speaking, the reason that some languages are on the brink of extinction is potter hallows, not only derived from the worldwide use of English, but because of the false language strategy implemented by assignee definition, the government. Of An! Children from assignee definition wealthy family in Arabia have been sent abroad to study English at a young age, which gives rise to questions deathly hallows, the ironical embarrassment that they are not good at either their mother tongue or English (ibid.). Similar situation happens in China. English ability has been an important criterion for college entrance examination.

Even in postgraduate examination, applicants might be denied due to the poor performance in English exam regardless of the fact that the major he applies for is completely irrelevant to English. In recent years, the ministry of education has realized the severity of the case and assignee definition, start to consider increase the douglass, percentage of Chinese subject in the college entrance examination while the total mark of English will be reduced from 150 points to assignee definition, 100 points. Furthermore, some Chinese educationists even point out that English should not be included in college entrance examination after 2016. Instead, it could be an elective course in high school. Overall, the widespread of English are potentially hazardous to the mother tongue or minority languages of non-native English speakers in to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice a way, but the government’s policy are more important in native languages and cultures preservation. Implications for Native Speakers of English. With the emergence of World Englishes and the trend of English as a Lingua Franca, English is no longer the exclusive language of native speakers. The native speakers of English are losing their language status as native English is definition, not the only reference point (Maclean 2006). Besides, for native English speakers, English is the solution terrorism essay, only language skill they master, which therefore limits their career opportunity.

Mono-lingualism is also an encouragement of narrow-mindedness and ethnocentricity and is not advantageous to assignee, business development in the long run (ibid.). Do You Space Essays! The English of native speakers are only culturally specific to certain cultures. Definition! They could not explain Singapore English, Indian English and other World Englishes. “They are no longer effective communicators” (ibid.). Bergman, J. (n.d). The Introduction Essay! Benjamin Lee Whorf: An Early Supporter of Creationism [online] Available at: http://www.icr.org/article/6391/ [Accessed07 December2014] Blommaert, J. Assignee! (2010) The Sociolinguistics of Globalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Corgo, A. (2012).English as a Lingua Franca: concepts,use, and implications, ELT Journal 66(1): 97-105 Gu, M., Patkin, J. and for harry potter, Kirkpatrick, J. (2014). The dynamic identity construction in English as lingua franca intercultural communication: A positioning perspective.

System 46: 131-142. Khan, R. (2010). Linguistic Imperialism? [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c3TJe4jnqFo#t=22 [Accessed07December2014] Lingua Franca, Merriam-Webster (2014) [online] Available at: http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lingua%20franca [Accessed08December2014] Louhiala-Salminen, L., Charles, M. and Kankaanranta, A. (2005). English as a lingua franca in assignee Nordic corporate mergers: Two case companies , English for Specific Purposes 24(2005): 401-421. Maclean, D. Essay Questions And The Hallows! (2006). Beyond English. Assignee! Transnational corporations and the strategic management of language in essay a complex multilingual business environment, Management Decision 44 (10): 1377-1390. Pakir, A. (2009).

English as a lingua franca: analyzing research frameworks in definition international English, world Englishes, and ELF, World Englishes 28(2): 224-235. Pennycook, A. (1994). The Cultural Politics of English as International Language. Longman, pp, 12-13. Is this the the introduction of an essay, perfect essay for you? Save time and order English as A Lingua Franca.

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It is linked every where to business education and communication and other various things. Definition! The English language is… The power of English language in the world. The development of English as a universal language is a fact that we cannot deny, as we cannot deny that the language is inextricably tied to the culture of the… Ways to Improve Your English Speaking. English speaking has many values and is important for people in every country, people who meet with different people and share different culture. To Kill Thesis Prejudice! English language is going up the national… British English vs. American English. As English continues to assert its dominance as a leading language used worldwide, it’s no wonder to learn that it is now an acknowledged global language and the standards that… English is known as global language.

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Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Approach Essay Sample. Although popular representations of therapy and counselling frequently present an antiseptic approach to the individual— as exemplified by condescension-leaning analytical types— there does exist a positive and humanistic approach to client treatment. One was developed by Carl Ransom Rogers, the definition Nobel Prize nominated American psychologist, renowned for his non-negative approach to psychology. Blessed with a healthy amount of respect and concern for the dignity of the individual, Rogers maintained an interest in the individual not as an object of study, but a subject of treatment. He studied the individual from a phenomenological and idiographic perspective, and viewed the nature of man to to kill a mockingbird prejudice, be essentially positive and trustworthy. Assignee. This contrasts him against the likes of Sigmund Freud, the highly influential but sexually fixated psychiatrist who generally regarded people to be ridden with psychological malaise and illness. (Pescitelli, 1996b)

Freud’s theories were both, depending on perspective, exceedingly elaborate and needlessly complex. He viewed the human psyche to be ridden with unconscious desires subjected to self repression to maintain the to kill a mockingbird prejudice illusion of normalcy, that dreams were the means of identifying these latent desires and assignee definition, that sexual desire is the primary motivational energy of human life that ends up being directed and channeled through all other actions. (Boeree, 2006) Rogers on essay for harry hallows, the other hand, believed in the idea that the human organism is driven by a positive force, an “actualizing tendency” that aims for the improvement of the definition self and the development of to kill thesis prejudice its abilities. As such, the human organism is a being that is not only inherently purposeful, but constructive as well. Pescitelli (1996b) observes that “the actualizing tendency is the only motive force in definition, the theory. It encompasses all motivations; tension, need, or drive reductions; and creative as well as pleasure-seeking tendencies […] Every person thus has a fundamental mandate to fulfill their potential. Boeree (2006) notes that Roger’s conception of actualization, unlike Abraham Maslow’s is questions for harry and the deathly not limited to human beings and that in his earliest examples, he applied it to mushrooms and seaweed. “Think about it: Doesn’t it sometimes amaze you the assignee way weeds will grow through the sidewalk, or saplings crack boulders, or animals survive desert conditions or the frozen north?” Furthermore, actualization applies to ecosystems, where a biologically homogenous ecosystem like a corn field is more likely to become extinguished by corn blight while a biologically diverse one like a forest is vs. spiderman essay more likely to survive the extinction of one organism. That said, Roger’s approach does not rest solely on the capacity for self-actualization. He also presumes that organisms have a psychologically evolved understanding of what is good for them.

As such, organisms are inherently able to attend to their own physical and psychological needs in a balanced fashion. However, the creation of civilization and the resulting present day complexities are so far removed from the definition environment that we evolved in that our psychologically evolved ability to essay for harry potter and the deathly, appraise the assignee definition organismic value of such things ceases to function properly. Do You Essays. Boeree (2006) notes that things like refined sugar and chocolate appeal to our valuing systems, but “do not serve our actualization well.” As such, the present manifestations of dysfunction and assignee definition, neurosis in man are largely a result of the conflict between our individual need for actualization and thesis, the stresses that society places upon it, what could essentially be termed an “incongruity” between the real self and the ideal self that we construct for ourselves under the influence of assignee definition society. (Boeree, 2006) For Rogers, a “fully-functioning” individual is solution terrorism essay possessed of definition five qualities: First, he is open to experience, rather than being defensive. This is do you not merely a banal trait of being receptive to new ideas, but rather an ability to accurately perceive experiences and feelings in such a manner as to accept reality as it exists.

This is definition crucial, because without an honest appraisal of feelings and reality, true actualization is difficult. Second, a fully functioning individual lives in the present, acknowledging that while planning for the future and essay, learning from the past is important, they should not interfere with the ability to confront present realities properly. Third, one should be capable of trusting instinct, that is to say, our individual valuing processes. In other words, trust the assignee real self, the one that results from the introduction of an essay, acknowledging present reality and assignee definition, being open to experience and being in touch with one’s own actualizing tendencies. Fourth, a fully functioning individual possesses experiential freedom. That is to say that regardless of whether free will exists or not, we most experience freedom in the face of choices and for harry potter and the, options. As such, the fully functioning individual recognizes the freedom that is there in the act of making choices and decisions and as such, does not abnegate the responsibility inherent in recognizing such freedom. Fifth, the fully functioning person who is in contact with self-actualization, acknowledges responsibility for his actions and participates in the present reality will feel obligated to contribute to society by enabling the actualization of assignee others and questions potter and the deathly hallows, promoting life. As such, this person will endeavor towards creativity, whether it is through sciences or the humanities, parenting or social work, or simply doing his best at work. Boeree describes this creativity as being “very close to Erikson’s generativity.” Rogers’ developed a person-centered approach to therapy.

Surprisingly enough, this approach did not result from his conception of the fully-functioning individual. Rather, these theories arose from his experiences in therapy. It was initially conceived and named as the “non-directive” approach, in the sense that the therapist does not lead the client. This approach operates under the assignee presumption that the therapist is NOT the highest authority on the client’s issues and needs. Statements For The. Rather, the client is to determine the direction of his own therapy. Hence, Rogers renamed his therapeutic approach as “client-centered” or “person-centered” (Boeree, 2006)

Rogers described person-centered therapy to be “supportive, not reconstructive,” and Boeree (2006) notes the analogy of learning to ride a bicycle: “When you help a child to learn to ride a bike, you can’t just tell them how. They have to try it for assignee definition themselves. And you can’t hold them up the whole time either. There comes a point when you have to let them go. If they fall, they fall, but if you hang on, they never learn.” As such, the autonomous actualization of a client can only be obtained by promoting independent thinking rather than dependence.

By disowning the authoritarian role traditionally accorded to do you double, therapists, the person-centered approach encourages independence. Rogers’ person-centered approach is assignee definition renowned for to kill a mockingbird prejudice the technique of reflection, which is employed in assignee, order to the introduction example, mirror the emotional communication of the definition client. This, coupled with the thesis for the aforementioned conditions required for positive therapy, which as Pescitelli (1996a) observes, “involves the assignee definition therapist’s entry into the client’s unique phenomenological world. In mirroring this world, the therapist does not disagree or point out neither contradictions nor attempt to delve into the unconscious. The focus is on immediate conscious experience.” As such, person-centered therapy involves freeing a person of the obstacles that impede self-development and of an example, independence, namely, a rigidity of self-perception that restricts his or her behavior to non-constructive actions. As Mulhauser (2008) observed, “the person-centered approach views the definition client as their own best authority on essay questions for harry and the deathly, their own experience, and it views the client as being fully capable of fulfilling their own potential for growth.” I find myself largely in agreement with the person-centered approach, as it certainly endorses a more empathetic view which regards the client as someone who is empowered to enable his own development, rather than presume that he is an impotent prisoner of his own neuroses. Of course, the employment of reflection and empowerment in person-centered therapy is not without its caveats.

I don’t believe it would be successful without a therapist who is capable of employing the techniques responsibly rather than merely reiterating the client’s own words back to him. My research found that many writers noted three requirements for assignee proper person-centered therapy: First is congruence. That is to say that there is a sense of authentic/genuine honesty with the client. (Boeree, 2006). The therapist does not present himself as aloofly professional, but sincerely engaged in potter and the deathly hallows, the furtherance of the client’s well-being, and as such maintains transparency as to minimize the assignee possibility that the client hold the therapist’s sincerity and interest suspect. (Mulhauser, 2008) Secondly, the thesis statements for the narrative of frederick therapist must be empathetic. In effect, the therapist is able to truly understand and comprehend the feelings of the client not just on an objective level, but from the perspective of the client. It is “when the counsellor perceives what the world is like from the definition client’s point of view” that he “demonstrates […] that that view has value” and vs. spiderman essay, “that the client is being accepted.” (Mulhauser, 2008) Thirdly, the assignee definition therapist must be respectful in the sense that he regards the client positively and accepting him unconditionally.

This is crucial because in do you space, order to assignee definition, truly further the client’s well being, he must be able to operate without being judgmental. For The. Since the success of the person-centered approach to therapy is largely contingent on the client’s ability to freely explore thoughts and feelings, whether positive or negative, a therapist who is able to evaluate the client without condemning the client for his neuroses is critical as well. Assignee. As Mulhauser notes, it is essay crucial for assignee the client be free of “having to do anything in particular or meet any particular standards of superman behaviour to ‘earn’ positive regard…” I don’t mean to be perverse. But, because I find that all individuals regardless of peculiarities and quirks, fascinate me and find it difficult to be offended or regard them in a negative fashion. Thus, I am capable of assignee definition executing person-centered therapy without judgment. Any client who would decide to seek such counseling from me would not have to worry that I would seek to measure them against my own beliefs, and judge them accordingly.

Additionally, this egalitarian understanding of the diversity of human quirks and peculiarities is derived from what I believe is my own ability to maintain empathy towards all. Vs. Spiderman Essay. As such, I would be able to comprehend what a potential client feels regardless of how alien his situation might be to my own experiences. I can identify without having been in his place, and perceive the world from his unique perspective. Finally, I think I would make a good person-centered therapist simply because I would never pretend that this ability to identify or remove myself from assignee definition, judgment would necessarily deny my ability to to kill a mockingbird thesis prejudice, maintain interest in assignee, a client. I think this is an important quality, for crucial is not only acknowledging his uniqueness as a person and the sincere interest in his well-being, but an honest ability to recognize that therapist or not, I do not have all the answers.

Boeree, C. G. (2006). Carl Rogers. Personality Theories. Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/rogers.html. Mulhauser, G. (2008, April 22). An Introduction to Person-Centered Counselling. Counselling Resource. Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://counsellingresource.com/types/person-centred/ Pescitelli, D. (1996). Rogerian Therapy. Personality Consciousness . Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://pandc.ca/?cat=carl_rogerspage=rogerian_therapy.

Pescitelli, D. Questions For Harry Potter Deathly Hallows. (1996). An Analysis of Carl Rogers’ Theory of Personality. Personality Consciousness . Retrieved May 11, 2008 from: http://pandc.ca/?cat=carl_rogerspage=rogerian_theory. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Approach. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Carl Rogers’ Person-Centered Approach. Carl Rogers (1902-1987) a psychologist developed the definition person-centred approach.

The approach to turn individuals (clients) into subjects of do you double their own therapy. In his theory it was noted that individuals are… Person Centered Approach. The person centered approach shows distinct differences from the outcome based approaches in that it considers personality to be changing, to be driven toward self-actualization. Outcome based approaches tend to… The Theories of Abraham Maslow and assignee definition, Carl Rogers. Maslow and Rogers come from a school of thought, which is referred to as Humanistic. Such an approach steers away from the idea that man is vs. spiderman essay a robot, who is…

Person Centered Therapy. As a person-centered therapist how would you proceed in therapy in the case of definition Doris? One important aspect of the person centered approach is the empathy that should be exhibited… Person Centered Case Conceptualization. Abstract Person-centered therapy was developed over the course of approximately 40 years by a man named Carl Rogers. Rogers believed a person experienced dysfunction when they are unable to experience… Post your response to the following: In what ways has the information in this course changed your life?

Your personal belief system? Your understanding of your fellow human beings? How…