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BioGraph: unsupervised biomedical knowledge discovery via automated hypothesis generation. Essay War? We present BioGraph, a data integration and essay for students data mining platform for the exploration and discovery of biomedical information. On The? The platform offers prioritizations of putative disease genes, supported by school essay functional hypotheses. We show that BioGraph can retrospectively confirm recently discovered disease genes and identify potential susceptibility genes, outperforming existing technologies, without requiring prior domain knowledge. 5 Page On The? Additionally, BioGraph allows for generic biomedical applications beyond gene discovery.

BioGraph is accessible at . area under the ROC curve. Comparative Toxicogenomics Database. Gene Ontology Annotations. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes. School Application? Online Mendelian Inheritance in on the war Man. receiver operator characteristic. Letter Superintendent? unified medical language system. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-r57 ) contains supplementary material, which is 5 page on the, available to authorized users.

High-throughput methods for large scale and genome-wide identification of disease-related genes often result in large sets of potential targets requiring expensive and arduous experimental validation [ 1 ]. For the high-throughput discovery of genes associated with disease (further referred to as 'disease genes'), it is necessary to identify functionally interesting research targets among large sets of candidates. The latter often requires a thorough understanding of possibly indirect functional relations between the research subject and its putative targets. However, one of the most common problems facing biomedical researchers today is on punctuality for students, finding or keeping up with the knowledge relevant to research interests in essay vietnam the shear amount of available literature and data. Especially when required information is functionally only indirectly connected to on global warming, a researcher's main field of interest, the data deluge becomes unmanageable. Based on the availability of large volumes of curated biomedical databases, various methods for gene prioritization have emerged in recent years [ 2 ]. 5 Page Essay Vietnam War? These computational technologies rank putative disease genes with the goal of identifying true disease genes as prominent genes in the ranking. Computational technologies are complementary to conventional 'wet lab' gene discovery technologies in that they can support the prioritization and comprehension of, for example, associated regions from genome wide association studies or linkage studies, allowing researchers to more efficiently select the most compelling variants for structural further study. Essay On The Vietnam War? A common prioritization approach is the high application essay identification of potential causative genes that complement sets of known genes associated with disease, utilizing genetic interaction networks, regulatory networks or high-throughput datasets [ 3 , 4 , 5 ]. The statistical fusion of prioritizations from multiple, heterogeneous resources allows for ranking by 5 page vietnam war incorporating diverse types of knowledge [ 6 , 7 ]. Alternatively, literature mining is a related research theme that employs natural language processing to extract biomedical information from the literature and to adopt this information for the discovery of cover of schools new knowledge [ 8 ]. Prioritization platforms commonly lack an easily accessible user interface for the formulation of 5 page on the war queries and the intelligible interpretation of the results. One common problem is that most of the letter for assistant of schools data mining platforms are supervised, that is, they require prior domain knowledge from the user. 5 Page On The Vietnam? For example, in disease gene prioritization techniques, it is commonly required to define a set of known disease genes on which the system can be trained for the identification of new genes. Since these training gene sets are subjective, they will consequently vary between users and outcomes are strongly dependent on them, and the robustness of the predictions becomes impaired.

These platforms offer rankings of possible susceptibility genes, but often lack comprehensible support for these prioritizations. Often, rankings of research targets are offered without references to the literature, inhibiting the user from structural, evaluating the rationale behind the predictions. Still, platforms that offer rationale and incentives for researching functional support are mostly limited to a specific domain of interactions. A common paradigm, for example, is to adopt protein or gene interaction networks for essay the construction of functional hypotheses, which excludes alternative functional explanations in support of the predictions. Here, we propose BioGraph, a user-friendly computational platform that strives to an essay on global warming, overcome such deficiencies by applying novel data mining techniques on on the integrated databases of diverse types of cover letter biomedical knowledge. 5 Page Essay On The Vietnam? Schematic representation of the data integration and data mining methodology . (a) Public databases with heterogeneous biomedical relations are integrated into a common network. (b) Illustratively, genes (green circles), diseases (red boxes) and protein domains (blue diamonds) are related through gene-disease associations, gene-gene interactions and gene-domain annotations and integrated into a unified graph. (c) The a priori accessibility of each concept is computed by performing stochastic random walks to detect highly connected hubs in the network (area of a node scales with its rank score). (d) The a posteriori rank of write each concept with respect to on the, a source concept, in this case disease A, is computed by performing random walks with restarts in the source. (e) The posterior probabilities are adjusted using the prior probabilities to score the importance of each concept, specific to the source target (area of node scales with log of rank score). Genes (green circles) are ranked according to write warming, this score, gene 1 being most specific to disease A and gene 8 least specific. Integration of heterogeneous knowledge sources. Number of relations.

Gene Ontology term. Gene/gene family/protein domain/repeat/region. Gene Ontology term. OMIM Morbid Map [ 11 ] Overview of the 21 publicly available curated databases used to essay on the, create BioGraph's heterogeneous knowledge base. Specific concept types were extracted from the essay various databases and integrated into a central graph. Note that these represent relations selected for Homo sapiens only. OMIM's disease-disease relations have been added after the data freeze of vietnam March 2010. CTD, Comparative Toxicogenomics Database; DIP, Database of Interacting Proteins; GOA, Gene Ontology Annotations; HPRD, Human Protein Reference Database; KEGG, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes; MeSH, Medical Subject Headings; MINT, Molecular Interactions Database; OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man; PPI, protein-protein interaction.

The integrated databases were selected based on their quality of relations with respect to curation methods and peer-reviewed references to the literature. Curated database producers employ domain experts to read and maters thesis extract proven knowledge from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Such processes of indexing, albeit time-consuming, ensure that the collected knowledge is accurate and complete, allowing for the successive establishment of new relations, for example, with BioGraph or related prioritization algorithms. We did not integrate databases constructed from high-throughput experiments with statistical or computational inferences where no manual curation of the indexed relations was performed. 5 Page On The Vietnam War? Such databases may include information of lower quality and consequently impair the an essay warming predictive quality of consecutive data mining. We provide an assessment of each database's quality in the Results section. The integrated databases in BioGraph consist of three types. Essay? (1) Curated databases (for example, Online Mendelian Inheritance in application Man (OMIM) and various protein-protein interaction databases) constructed by manual extraction of vietnam war published, peer-reviewed information about write on global, a specific type of information, guaranteeing the quality of the relations in these databases. (2) Curated ontology databases (for example, Gene Ontology (GO) and Medical Subject Headings) using hierarchical classifications of 5 page essay war subjects. (3) Curated annotation databases (for example, GO Annotations (GOA) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway database) that relate biomedical entities or concepts to ontology terms. With regard to the integration of warming diverse databases with diverse identifiers for the concepts, each concept is provided with a distinct accession number, based on essay on the war the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) [ 9 ], to guarantee each concept's uniqueness. It should be noted that some of the integrated concepts (especially microRNAs and pathways) are underrepresented in UMLS.

In these cases, we have extended the index of UMLS identifiers by these concepts' originating identifiers (for example, by adopting miRBase and maters thesis KEGG pathway accession numbers). 5 Page On The Vietnam War? Relations between concepts are extracted from the how to writing knowledge resources, represented in a common format, annotated with semantic relation types (denoting the 5 page essay on the vietnam war meaning of the relations, for example, 'protein interaction' or 'disease drug') and on punctuality for students references to supporting literature, as provided by the integrated databases. All relations in the network are equally weighed independent of their support in the databases or the literature. We have experimented with weighing relations differently, dependent on the quality of the war resource database, semantic type or references in the literature, but have not noticed a significant effect of such weights on test benchmarks, as discussed later. To sanitize the resulting network for an essay the subsequent data mining algorithms, disconnected concepts from the largest connected network are removed and essay vietnam war dangling concepts (that is, concepts connected to only one other concept) are pruned. As a result, the integrated network comprises 54,567 biomedical entities representing unique biomedical concepts and 425,353 unique relations among these entities, supported by 244,258 references to 52,866 items from the biomedical literature.

The integrated network is frequently updated with updates of its dependent resources and the list of integrated databases may be appended with additional resources. Provided with the integrated network, one can intuitively conjecture that nearby concepts in the integrated network are related. Indeed, since functionally related concepts are connected in the graph, we may assume that concepts that are close but only indirectly related in cover for assistant superintendent of schools the network may also be functionally related in the real world. However, empirical analysis of the war network shows that most of the concepts in the network are interconnected in only a few steps. This indicates that the network shows so-called small-world properties. Indeed, there is a considerable abundance of highly connected nodes. For example, interactions of proteins with water and ATP compounds or functional annotations such as the location of a protein in membranes or protein binding are prevalent. These unspecific hubs serve as ubiquitous connections mediating short path lengths between functionally unrelated concepts. This characteristic of the network prevents successful prioritization using simple shortest path methods. Still, our prioritization technique relies on the detection of high essay nearby concepts in the network with respect to a source concept, but we correct the 5 page war ranking of write concepts for their global accessibility in the network.

We provide a short technical summary of the methods here, but refer the interested user to the full implementation details in the Additional materials and 5 page essay on the war methods in Additional file 1 . Letter For Assistant Of Schools? We utilize stochastic random walks (trajectories on the network that consist of taking successive steps from one entity to a random related entity) on the knowledge network to essay vietnam, measure the a priori importance or accessibility of concepts in a graph. This technique determines the global centrality of concepts in our integrated network. Warming? For this purpose, we compute the 5 page essay on the vietnam limit distribution that yields the probability of visiting the concepts when performing an write infinite random walk on 5 page essay on the vietnam the integrated network. Google's PageRank algorithm [ 10 ] adopts a similar link analysis algorithm to rank web pages by their relative importance. Network hubs (top ranked concepts with a high prior probability) are generic and unspecific target concepts in the network (Additional Table 1 in Additional file 1 ). These hubs indicate important concepts for diverse biomedical processes, but should be avoided when trying to maters thesis, find relevant and on the non-obvious links between seemingly unrelated concepts. For computing the vicinity of targets to a source concept in similarity to the prior probabilities, we compute the limit distribution of a stochastic model of random walks with restarts in the source concept (with probability 0.25 at each step). As such, we compute the a posteriori accessibility of each concept from the source concept, measuring the probability of visiting each target concept from the source disease, pathway, and so on.

Concepts are scored by their posterior probability, divided by the square root of their respective prior probabilities and ranked with respect to this resulting score. In practice, for a gene prioritization query, a user of the web application provides a 'research subject' (for example, a disease, but also a pathway, a GO annotation or a gene may represent a research subject) and a list of 'research targets' (for example, putative genes or compounds) that need to be ranked in relation to the research subject. Our algorithm then assesses and ranks the relations between the source concept and each of the target concepts as above. Since any type of concept can be provided as the subject or target of a prioritization, our method does not require prior domain knowledge from the user, that is, there is no need to define a gene set of known disease-causing genes for thesis the identification of related genes, which results in a more reproducible and robust user experience. Automated generation of functional hypotheses. Schematic representation of the backtracking heuristic to find most probable paths from 5 page essay, a source concept s to a target t . (a) Assume a network with source and target concepts. For clarity, the nodes are ordered by their accessibility from s (leftmost nodes are most accessible, rightmost nodes least accessible). (b) As a first step in how to writing the backtracking process, we find the neighbors of the target t , leading in the direction of the source, that is, the neighbors of t with highest accessibility with respect to s . (c) The paths from the target are repeatedly expanded to include highly accessible nodes leading toward the source concept. Pruning of least probable paths keeps the growing set of on the war paths to a workable size (not shown). (d) Most probable paths that arrive in the source (continuous lines) are considered as functional hypotheses linking the target to the source concept. Unfinished paths (dashed paths) continue being expanded until k paths between s and t have been found. The resulting set of paths is presented to the user as a network with putative hypotheses linking the source to thesis structural, the target.

Each directed edge represents a supporting relation among intermediate concepts, with annotated semantic meanings and literature references intelligibly supporting the relation for evaluation by the user. In cases where the target is highly ranked, specific and relevant connections and concepts are included in the constructed hypotheses. If the functional hypotheses linking concepts is limited to visiting general hub concepts, this is 5 page vietnam, usually a sign that the how to writing linked source and essay on the target concepts can be considered unrelated, reflected by a bad ranking score. Cover Letter Of Schools? In order to assess the quality of BioGraph in prioritizing interesting research targets, we study its application in the identification of genes known to essay vietnam, be associated with disease. Test sets of structural proven disease-related genes were selected from the OMIM Morbid Map database and Comparative Toxicogenomics Database (CTD). OMIM Morbid Map contains several thousand diseases and disease genes with a proven underlying molecular basis, manually selected and indexed from the peer-reviewed medical literature by experts [ 11 ]. Similar to the curation process for OMIM Morbid Map, the 5 page vietnam war CTD employs professional biocurators who read and manually curate the how to writing literature to essay on the vietnam war, derive proven relations among genotypes and on punctuality for students phenotypes, ensuring that the indexed data are valid and 5 page on the vietnam accurate. Essay? We have adopted the BioGraph framework to prioritize all human genes in the context of essay vietnam war diseases selected from essay, these databases and evaluate the positions of the diseases' proven susceptibility genes in on the this ranking. We then compute sensitivity and specificity values and observe the thesis structural area under the receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) as the standard performance measure for analyzing the quality of prioritizations or classifications [ 12 ]. A perfect ranking algorithm that manages to put the true disease genes at essay vietnam the top would score 100% on such a test, where random rankings score 50%. Provided with a reliable and an essay on global warming valid AUC measure, it can be interpreted as the probability that when we randomly pick one positive and one negative example, the prioritization algorithm will assign a higher rank to the positive example than to the negative. An algorithm that scores well on 5 page essay war this assessment is thus likely to identify disease-associated genes as high-ranking genes and how to writing vice versa. Disease-gene prioritization benchmark.

As a first application, we analyzed the performance of our platform in on the vietnam war prioritizing known disease genes among all genes in essay on punctuality our integrated knowledge base. For testing a known disease-gene association, we first removed the link between the disease and its susceptibility gene from the knowledge base. We then ranked all genes in the network in relation to the disease and evaluated the ranking of the test gene. If the test genes ranked high, BioGraph allows retrieval of these genes as valid disease genes based on integrated information linking the disease to its susceptibility gene. For this test, we adopted published benchmarks and 5 page vietnam compared our prediction performance to that of Endeavour. Endeavour is a related and mature technology for gene prioritization [ 6 ], which adopts a data fusion method to build statistical models of known disease-causing genes with respect to cover for assistant of schools, various data sets. Using order statistics, genes are prioritized by measuring the matching quality of 5 page essay on the war test genes to these training profiles. Thesis Structural? We have computed the 5 page essay performance of BioGraph's prioritization method for the disease-gene prioritization benchmark initially published to evaluate the performance of Endeavour. This benchmark consists of 627 genes known to cause 29 diseases, selected from the OMIM database, of which 609 disease genes are present in on punctuality our integrated knowledge base [ 6 ]. Benchmarking a disease gene with BioGraph requires that each disease gene is evaluated by first removing the direct relations between the gene and the disease from the essay vietnam integrated network to ensure that the thesis relation to be prioritized is essay on the vietnam, not already in the network. Moreover, variants of the disease (for example, subtypes or syndromes that have the disease as one of its symptoms) are also disconnected from the disease gene.

In order to how to writing, identify these related diseases, we have selected the diseases for which at 5 page vietnam war least one of its UMLS synonyms has the original disease's name as its substring. For example, we identify Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4C as a related disease to Charcot-Marie-Tooth or Alport's disease as related to Deafness, since a synonym of Alport's disease is Nephritis with nerve deafness. This method provides an objective interpretation of the benchmark by maters thesis guaranteeing that no prior direct information can be exploited by our prioritization algorithm. Subsequently, for the prioritization of a disease gene, we perform a ranking of the integrated network's 16,912 known human genes with respect to essay vietnam war, the disease concept. For benchmarking Endeavour, each disease-gene relation was tested by removing the gene from the disease's known gene set, by training Endeavour on the remaining disease genes and by ranking the gene among a set of how to writing 99 random test genes. For both platforms, we adopt the 5 page on the vietnam AUC for analyzing the quality of these prioritizations. Top inferred genes for schizophrenia. SZ association studies. Affected by the antipsychotics aripiprazole and write an essay on global warming risperidone, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, associated with autistic disorder. No association studies.

Associated with autistic disorder [ 16 ] Target of mir-20b. No association studies. Related to HTR2A. Target of mir-29*, related to 5 page essay vietnam, COMT , folic acid. Target of mir-29*, related to COMT , folic acid. No association studies. Target of mir-206. No association studies.

No association found [ 23 ] Target of mir-20b, involved in CNS development. No association studies. Target of mir-346. No association studies. Interacts with DISC1 , target of mir-206. No association studies. Myelin sheet, interacts with RTN4R , axonogenesis. Weak positive association [ 22 ]. Putatively associated with mental retardation [ 38 ] Target of mir-29*, Alzheimer's disease. No association studies. Schizophrenia-like phenotypes in on punctuality BACE1 -null mice [ 39 ] Target of mir-20b. No association studies.

Target of mir-206, axonal and synaptic transmission. Vietnam? No association studies. Down-regulated in superintendent psychosis [ 40 ] Interacts with ZNF804A and AKT1. No association studies. Associated with epilepsy [ 41 ] Interacts with RTN4R , neurite growth. No association studies. Interacts with AKT1 , target of mir-20b. No association studies. Interacts with RTN4R , axonogenesis, CNS development.

No association studies. Associated with essential tremor and Parkinson's disease [ 42 ] BioGraph top inferred genes for schizophrenia that are not known as direct relations in the integrated network. 5 Page On The War? Prioritizations are based on a data freeze of essay for students September 2009 to retrospectively verify predictions in more recent literature. CNS, central nervous system. The benchmark indicates that our prioritization approach yields a considerable improvement over mature technologies. On The Vietnam? There are two noteworthy differences in write an essay the experimental benchmarking design. Our platform does not require a training set of known disease-causing genes since it will implicitly base prioritizations on integrated disease-gene associations in addition to other heterogeneous types of integrated knowledge of the disease. This has a major advantage for the user since no prior knowledge of the disease is required. Secondly, our platform provides a ranking of the disease gene in relation to all known genes, where Endeavour ranks disease genes among a random set of on the vietnam war 99 non-disease genes. As a quality control of the integrated databases, we have assessed the effect of each database on the benchmarking results by leaving out one database at a time and by assessing the maters thesis prioritization algorithm on the Endeavour benchmark. Essay Vietnam War? This experiment showed that none of the included databases significantly harms the overall prediction capabilities.

Conversely, it should be noted that some databases (most specifically CTD gene-disease, GOA and Medical Subject Headings) are essential for successful prioritization, since leaving out these databases has a significantly negative impact on the benchmarks. More information on these quality checks is available in the Additional materials and methods in essay for students Additional file 1 . Ranking recently discovered disease genes. In the above benchmark tests, well-known disease genes are expected to rank high. 5 Page War? Indeed, important susceptibility genes usually become the letter for assistant of schools subject of intensive research efforts. Consequently, a literature and 5 page essay on the vietnam database bias may exist toward indirect evidence linking a gene to a disease in thesis the integrated databases. Since BioGraph is capable of using this indirect evidence, the literature bias of important disease genes may strengthen the predictive power of our algorithm. 5 Page Essay Vietnam War? To remove this bias, we can more objectively evaluate the platform by ranking recently discovered disease-gene relations that are not present in the knowledge base. Provided with the essay on punctuality integrated network for which the resource datasets were frozen in March 2010, we identified all recently curated additions of human disease-gene relations from the July 2010 releases of the OMIM Morbid Map (15 new disease genes) and CTD (830 direct, non-inferred relations) that are not present as direct relations in the knowledge base from March 2010. This yielded 845 recent disease-gene relations for which the ranks in the disease's genome-wide prioritization have been determined based on the integrated network of March 2010. ROC curve of prioritization performance on 845 recent disease-gene relations . The performance of BioGraph prioritizations is 5 page, 86.14%, confirming the relations recently added to the resource databases but not present in the integrated database. The diagonal dashed line represents a theoretical random algorithm.

The above benchmarks demonstrate that BioGraph is capable of retrospectively finding or confirming existing disease genes, indicating that we can adopt the method to predict putative susceptibility genes for heritable diseases. Maters Thesis? Feasible applications of the framework are the identification of functionally interesting genes from sets of candidate genes - for example, in the identification of promising genes in linked regions, copy number variation regions or for the identification of vietnam genes through genome-wide association or expression studies. How To Writing? Additionally, the automated construction of hypotheses is of interest to explore genetic/genomic findings in essay peer-reviewed functional support. Collecting functional support for newly discovered disease-gene associations is not always obvious, especially when the functional evidence is indirect and spans several fields of interest. With the advent of high-throughput methodologies and torrents of published material to substantiate these findings, detecting relevant information has become a laborious process where computational techniques, such as those presented here, allow for these processes to be automated. Beyond applications in genetics and an essay on global genomics, the 5 page vietnam framework can similarly be adopted to prioritize or to determine functional support for biomedical relations other than disease-gene associations - for example, in on punctuality linking drug compounds, annotation terms, pathways, and so on essay vietnam war - making the framework a very versatile tool in the discovery of diverse types of biomedical knowledge. Cover Letter For Assistant Superintendent Of Schools? In one feasible application, BioGraph can be adopted to determine functional interactions between drug compounds and for the in silico exploration of drug-drug interactions or the prioritization of identifying compounds in screening pipelines. Essay Vietnam War? Another example application is the computational inference of clinical biomarkers related to pathways, biochemical functions or disease processes, building on the various integrated types of write an essay warming concepts, relations and integrated literature references to essay on the war, detect promising candidates. Genome-wide prioritization of genes related to schizophrenia.

To illustrate possible applications of the framework, we have employed the essay for students platform to predict candidate genes for schizophrenia (SZ) and substantiate the top predictions with support adopting the automatically generated functional hypotheses. 5 Page Essay On The War? SZ is a common neuropsychiatric genetic disorder with approximately 1% prevalence and with 64% heritability. It is characterized by a constellation of symptoms, including hallucinations and delusions, and how to writing symptoms such as severely inappropriate emotional responses, disordered thinking and concentration, erratic behavior, as well as social and occupational deterioration [ 13 , 14 ]. The newly identified genes are indirectly inferred from the integrated knowledge, but not directly associated in our gene-disease resource databases. The predictions in this section are based on a dataset freeze of the integrated databases from September 2009. This data freeze allows us to test if the predicted genes have been observed in on the vietnam war genetic studies since the data freeze. Table 2 shows the top 20 inferred BioGraph genes with respect to the SZ concept, as designated by an essay on global warming its UMLS accession ID [UMLS:C0036341], and essay a short summary of the hypotheses of their relatedness with SZ by our platform. PRL , the school application essay top inferred gene that is not a known disease-causing gene for SZ, encodes the prolactin hormone, of which the most commonly known function is to stimulate lactogenesis. Prolactin's relation to 5 page essay on the vietnam war, SZ is important, especially due to the effects of maters thesis dopamine-regulating drugs aripiprazole and risperidone on the expression of essay on the vietnam war prolactin and their adverse hyperprolactinemia-associated side effects [ 15 ] where the secretion of prolactin is regulated by dopamine, following the current dopamine hypothesis of SZ. We did not find published association studies of prolactin with SZ, although an association with autistic spectrum disorder was reported [ 16 ]. Additionally, PRL is located on on punctuality chromosome 6p22.3, which is linked to SZ through DTNBP1 [ 17 ] and ATXN1 [ 18 ]. Although no causal associations have been shown between prolactin function and 5 page essay on the vietnam war SZ, BioGraph hypothesizes PRL as a likely candidate gene for SZ. Schematic representation of the write an essay on global top ten automatically generated hypotheses supporting the essay war susceptibility of PRL in relation to schizophrenia . Solid, dashed and dotted line styles represent the importance of the link in write an essay on global descending order, that is, the probability to visit the relation to reach the target gene concepts while performing random walks from the on the war source schizophrenia concept.

All links are grounded in for assistant superintendent their originating integrated curated knowledge bases, annotated with their semantic meanings and enriched by their references to the literature (not shown). Schematic representation of the 5 page on the war top ten automatically generated hypotheses supporting the an essay on global warming susceptibility of HTR1A in relation to schizophrenia . Significant associations with SZ and polymorphisms in 4 of the 5 page essay on the vietnam top 20 ranked genes, namely HTR1A [ 19 ], DRD2 [ 20 ], DNMT3B [ 21 ] and ATXN1 [ 18 ], have previously been shown. These known disease-gene relations are not indexed by letter our integrated databases, but were successfully prioritized by our data mining platform. Most notably, significant association of polymorphisms in DNMT3B with SZ was only reported in October 2009, where the 5 page vietnam war data for our predictions are based on integrated databases from September 2009, demonstrating the usefulness of the currently proposed prioritization technique. Write On Global? Additionally, the highly ranking OMG gene has been shown to be associated with SZ, warranting replication studies for 5 page on the war confirmation [ 22 ]. SYN3 is the only gene in the top 20 for which several association studies have been performed, but where the findings show no support for SYN3 as a SZ susceptibility gene [ 23 ]. For the remaining 15 of the high school application top 20 genes, we did not find published association studies to support or contradict possible roles of these genes in 5 page vietnam SZ, although for high school application essay some genes associations with SZ-like symptoms or related psychiatric and various neurological disorders have been shown, supporting the essay putative role of thesis structural these genes in SZ (Table 2 ). We have constructed BioGraph, an vietnam war integrated network of curated relations from heterogeneous knowledge sources, such as disease-gene-compound associations, protein-protein interactions, GO and pathway annotations, microRNA targets, protein domains, and so on. In order to guarantee the essay accurateness of the integrated knowledge, the essay vietnam integrated databases were selected based on their curation processes for the indexing of knowledge from the school application peer-reviewed scientific literature. We show that the automated generation of functional hypotheses in this integrated network of biomedical knowledge allows the 5 page essay successful prioritization and cover letter superintendent identification of research targets in the context of vietnam a research subject. More specifically, we can successfully identify proven disease genes for hereditary diseases as highly ranking genes among all human genes in the context of their disease and vice versa. We have shown that ensembles of highly probable walks through this network can be adopted to successfully rank putative relations among non-obvious and indirectly associated concepts, with a focus on adopting these automatically generated hypotheses for the prioritization of possible susceptibility genes of diseases. Cover Letter For Assistant Superintendent? The prioritization and automated hypothesis generation platform is available as a web service [ 24 ]. BioGraph offers a range of significant improvements over leading prioritization platforms for in silico identification of disease-related genes.

Most notably, and in contrast with other methods, our approach is unsupervised and does not require prior domain knowledge from the user. 5 Page On The Vietnam War? This removes possible user biases and problems with prediction robustness in common supervised machine learning approaches that require, for example, training sets of letter known disease causing genes to define the subject of an analysis. Furthermore, highly ranked targets are grounded in comprehensible functional hypotheses, consisting of refereed relation paths in 5 page vietnam war support of the prioritization. Since our method is cover of schools, based on the integration of heterogeneous knowledge sources, the generated hypotheses offer richer semantics about inferred biomedical relations compared to essay vietnam war, related data mining efforts in, for example, gene and protein interaction networks. Maters Thesis? Tests on published benchmarks (AUC 92.92%) show that our prioritization method outperforms leading technologies and notable differences in the rankings are supported by comprehensible hypotheses that confidently support the prioritization.

In experimental cases where an accountable gene needs to be identified in a set of 100 genes, BioGraph prioritizes the 5 page essay on the war gene among the essay top 10 genes in 73.73% of the cases. We showed that BioGraph is able to retrospectively confirm recent disease-gene associations to the integrated databases (AUC 86.14%). Additionally, relations that have been confirmed in recent publications were successfully predicted. For example, BioGraph ranked DNMT3B as a top ranking SZ susceptibility gene using integrated data frozen in September 2009 while this association was published in October 2009. Additionally, of the top 20 prioritized inferred genes for schizophrenia, 4 disease genes were not indexed by the integrated resources but are confirmed as true associations by the literature. Finally, we would like to note that, although the focus of the applications of BioGraph in this paper is in the ranking of 5 page vietnam war disease-gene relations, the how to writing presented methodology is generic and applicable in 5 page essay on the vietnam various biological research settings requiring the construction of intelligent and intelligible hypotheses among interrogated concepts. One may use the platform, for example, to on global warming, identify diseases related to a pathway of interest, or to enrich a priori defined gene sets to determine related ontology terms, compounds or protein domains. This work was supported by the GOA project 'BioGraph: Text mining on heterogeneous databases: An application to optimized discovery of disease relevant genetic variants' of the University of Antwerp, Belgium.

We wish to thank Leonardo de Almeida Souza and Mojca Strazisar for providing fruitful discussion of the manuscript draft. On The? The authors declare that they have no competing interests. WD, PDR, JDF and BG conceived the project. AL, JDK and PDR created the letter superintendent BioGraph resource, data miner and 5 page essay on the hypothesis generator, designed and carried out the performance tests and built the web service. All authors have read and approved the manuscript for publication. This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the maters thesis terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is on the, properly cited. Anthony ML Liekens 1 Email author Jeroen De Knijf 2 Walter Daelemans 3 Bart Goethals 2 Peter De Rijk 1 Jurgen Del-Favero 1 1. Applied Molecular Genomics group, VIB Department of Molecular Genetics Universiteit Antwerpen, Universiteitsplein 1 Wilrijk Belgium 2. Advanced Database Research and Modelling group, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium 3. Computational Linguistics and Psycholinguistics Research Center Universiteit Antwerpen Antwerpen Belgium. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Maters Thesis? .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at essay your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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Essay on the vietnam war

LEEWS (Law Essay Exam Writing/Preparation Science/System) changes the game! A proven effective (true) science of preparing for and executing the on the vietnam war A essay exam, LEEWS is applicable to bar as well as law school exams. Maters Thesis. Unique, proven systems are put in place for (systematically!) identifying issues [No more haphazard spotting!], presenting analysis in concise paragraphs (roughly one per issue), briefing cases in 2-4 lines(!!), taking far fewer class notes, and compiling condensed, effective, 30-50 page course outlines. Essay War. And much more. Maters Thesis. A law student learnsfinallyto learn/think as a reasonable facsimile of a [practicing] lawyer.

I briefed, outlined my notes, reviewed the law, but still felt totally unprepared for upcoming exams. Vietnam. This program was exactly what I needed the tools to confidently tackle exams in a methodical way. Jan Court, Univ Texas '00. Just knowing you have a plan i.e., the steps keeps you from worrying about panic. Rob Goldbaum, U. Chicago '92. 3 Sample Law Essay Exams From the write an essay on global warming LEEWS Primer (with Model Responses) [And an example of LEEWS' effectiveness in war, practice.] 1 Actual Civil Procedure Exam With Model Response (written by a LEEWS grad) and Professor Comments.

The entire grade (!!) in most law school courses will depend upon performance on how to writing a final exam, most if not all of 5 page essay which is essay in high school application, nature. (You are basically asked to identify and analyze so-called issues generated in a hypothetical [made up] and usually complex fact pattern, much as a lawyer might.) Most exams are 3-4 hours in length, and vietnam war, either closed or open book. How To Writing. The former means you bring nothing into the exam with you (save the code in a course based on on the a code of rules [e.g., IRS Code in taxation, Federal Rules of Civil Procedure in civil procedure]). Normally open book allows you to bring in class notes, textbook, outlines, whatever, which tends to reassure students. However, open book is misleading, as there is typically little time to thesis structural, refer to essay war, aids. Open or closed book, the maters thesis law you need to know should be in your head. Some professors offer take home exams, which may have 8-24 hour time limits, and limits as to how much you can write or type.

Grading is invariably anonymous to essay on the vietnam war, protect professors and how to writing, students alike. Unlike college and graduate school, class participation, acquaintance with the professor, even midsemester (as opposed to midyear) midterms generally have no bearing on law school grades. Essay On The Vietnam War. Ask professors themselves, or upperclass students about the grading policies and practices of individual professors. There follow three examples of essay hypotheticals selected from among the for assistant of schools eight in the appendix of the LEEWS Primer. Following are models of the LEEWS approach to war, breaking fact patterns down into units corresponding to letter superintendent, relevant issues [Planning Phase], as well as fully developed written responses corresponding to our format of concise paragraphs, roughly one per issue [Writing Phase]. The law needed to address each hypo is provided, as the subjects may as yet be unfamiliar to you.

You may want to attempt a response before looking at the models. Standard exam writing advice posits that you follow IRAC. I.e., identify the Issue, state the applicable Rule, Analyze, Conclude. (Sounds great, until you realize you don't know what an issue is, much less how to identify all issues lurking in the fact pattern; you don't know how to 5 page on the vietnam war, analyze as a lawyer; and cover superintendent of schools, you don't know how to present analysis concisely.) Whether you are familiar with the three subjects tested or no, all essay exercises are predictable in nature. 5 Page On The War. A typically complex and confusing fact pattern is followed by question(s)/instruction(s) that in effect require you to identify or spot the legal issues that would be of how to writing interest to 5 page essay on the vietnam, a judge or lawyer. You must then resolve those issues, bringing to bear relevant law and an essay, the analytic dialectic between law and facts known as lawyerlike thinking. Should you find yourself thinking, as you review the model responses, I don't think I can ever do that, unless you have a knack for 5 page on the vietnam, taking such exams (possessed by only a small handful of students -- 5-7%, even at Harvard), you are probably correct. Maters Thesis. Which is why so few law students manage even a single A on final exams. But rest assured that anyone with reasonable intelligence and diligence can produce such responses consistently. Showing you how is what LEEWS is all about -- for any exam in any subject, no matter the question(s)/instruction(s) posed by the professor.

Civil Procedure Hypothetical (60 min.) Coris Becker, an occasional tennis player, fell while descending steps at essay on the vietnam, the Only For Us Racquet Club in Long Island City, Queens County, New York. As she explained to her husband moments later by phone: Not the most graceful move in the world, Morris. I got so mad, I smashed Mommy's new titanium Stroker. Be a dear and how to writing, bring home din-din. Essay On The Vietnam War. I'm going to be in how to writing, the hot tub for hours. As she limped out to her Lexus, Coris ran into the club owner, Jett Setter. He grinned and remarked, I saw that spill, Coris. Not the most graceful move in the world.

At which point Coris determined to sue Setter personally, as well as the club. Although a resident of on the vietnam war Queens County, Coris, joined by her mother, Doris, a resident of Manhattan, New York County, brought suit against Only For Us Racquet Club, Inc. (OFU, Inc.) and Jett Setter personally in New York County, seeking damages for Coris' injury and the destruction of the tennis racquet. Thereupon followed, inter alia , the following events and motions: 1 OFU, Inc. and maters thesis, Setter moved for a change of venue to Queens County. 2 Attempts to serve Setter personally at 5 page on the vietnam, his club were twice unsuccessful, so a copy of the summons and complaint was affixed to the door of his home. Another was mailed to him. [So-called nail and mail service.] 3 Although the complaint affixed to his door separated from the summons and blew away, and the mailed copy never arrived, Setter, by his attorney, appeared in thesis structural, the action, answered the complaint, interposed affirmative defenses, and otherwise defended against the action. Only later during an appeal did he assert lack of personal jurisdiction as a defense.

4 OFU, Inc. served notice of the deposition of a person who, while standing in the next phone booth, had overheard Coris' conversation with her husband. Coris moved for a protective order forbidding disclosure of war anything overheard as a privileged conversation. 5 OFU, Inc. requested an admission from Doris that Coris has a tendency to negligent behavior. Doris ignored it. 6 Following a directed verdict during trial dismissing her cause of action for destruction of the racquet, Doris immediately instituted a claim for damages on the same ground in small claims court, Manhattan. You are a law clerk to, where appropriate, both trial and appellate judges assigned to this case. Prepare a memorandum of law respecting the issues raised in the above. Majority state law applies.

RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPO. (Such legal knowledge should be in your head as well as your course outline. Note: The law provided herein may or may not be currently accurate.) Discovery (scope of) Generally, all information not otherwise privileged that is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, whether or not the material would be admissible as proof. Communications between spouses A confidential communication between husband and wife is privileged against disclosure by either spouse or by a third person (e.g., an eavesdropper). Personal Jurisdiction Generally, in school application essay, order to determine the rights and duties of 5 page essay on the vietnam war parties to an action, and to bind the parties personally to its determinations, a court must have in personam jurisdiction over said parties. Said jurisdiction will be had, inter alia, where a defendant is present in the state where an action is brought, and personally served with process. Where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence, a plaintiff is entitled to how to writing, substitute such service by affixing a copy of the summons and 5 page on the, complaint to the door or other conspicuous place at the defendant's last known address, and also mailing a copy of same by regular mail to said address (so-called nail and mail). A court has held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Waiver of Where a defendant appears, answers the complaint, interposes defenses, and at no time during or after trial moves to dismiss based on, nor claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the defense will be deemed waived on appeal. Requests for admission A request for essay, admission imposes a duty on essay on the vietnam the party served to acknowledge the on punctuality existence of facts that are not in doubt and on the war, that should not be necessary to prove at trial.

The party served normally has 30 days to structural, respond. Failure to timely respond results in the matter being deemed admitted. Inter alia , it is 5 page essay vietnam war permissible to request that a party admit to a legal conclusion (e.g., that an employee was acting with authority, or that the party was traveling against traffic on a one-way street). Maters Thesis. However, it is not proper to request an admission to an abstract statement of 5 page essay on the vietnam war law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per se). Res Judicata Doctrine that for reasons of economy, prevention of harassment, and avoidance of inconsistent judicial rulings (policy!), the relitigation of claims and issues is generally prohibited. Claim preclusion Doctrine whereby a final judgment on the merits of how to writing a claim or cause of action precludes reassertion of 5 page essay war that claim or cause of action in structural, a subsequent suit. Venue Refers to the proper place for trial of a lawsuit. The purpose of venue rules is to prevent a plaintiff from forcing a defendant to trial where it would be burdensome for him to appear and defend (policy!). Unless compelling reasons exist to on the vietnam, direct otherwise, a transitory action (meaning that the transaction which is the subject of the action could have happened anywhere) should be tried in the county where the action arose. MODEL RESPONSE TO CIVIL PROCEDURE HYPOTHETICAL.

(1/4 - 1/3 of allotted time divided into 10-15 minute intervals) Preliminary Overview Six distinct events/motions. Perform Steps One, Two, and Three (The Blender) on each is my initial perspective on how to high application essay, proceed. [Always the Steps, always the Steps a constant way of on the thinking.] Step One [Conflict pairings and party objective(s) for each of the six events/motions.] The conflict pairings for all six are either Coris and/or Doris versus OFU, Inc. and/or Jett Setter. [The consistent overall objectives are to application, obtain damages on one side and to avoid liability on the other. Essay Vietnam War. However, given that this is a civil procedure exam, the objectives that count for purposes of generating premises are intermediate in nature. Thesis Structural. In the larger (intermediate) sense they are to keep the litigation going versus termination on a procedural ground. Vietnam War. More immediate to the six events/motions:] 1 = Change venue to Queens County vs. keep it in Manhattan County. 2 = Establish personal jurisdiction vs. not.

3 = Have lack of personal jurisdiction defense ruled moot vs. Structural. exists and viable. 4 = Preclude disclosure of overheard conversation vs. have it ruled discoverable. 5 = Have fact admitted vs. On The. not admitted. 6 = Have claim heard in small claims court vs. dismissed. [My view at this point is that each event/motion will generate no more than one or two premises, and will be relatively straightforward of analysis. Therefore, the time to be allotted each will be roughly the same. As it would interrupt continuity of train of thought and be time wasting to continue applying the Steps to an essay, all six, from this point on 5 page on the vietnam war I shall work on each question to completion before going on to the next .] Step Two [Consider each pairing, party, and objective. Cull facts (and course outline) for relevant premises.] 1 = Venue of transitory action is overriding , (i.e., governs the determination, no matter which party's perspective/objective is considered.

See definition of Step Two and footnote, page 104.) 2 = Nail and mail service vs. due diligence rule. [Complete analysis/discussion of No.2 (7-8 minutes??), then on to No.3; . . . No.4; . . How To Writing. . 5; . . . 6.] 3 = Rule re lack of war personal jurisdiction and grounds for waiver thereof overrides. 4 = Rule re discovery of spousal communication overrides.

5 = Requests for admission, and failure to respond thereto overrides. 6 = Res judicata rules override. Step Three [Consider each premise to note missing elements or real issues.] [Since there appear to be but one or two premises to cover letter, be considered for each event/motion, and since I am working on each exclusive of the others, Step Three is 5 page vietnam unnecessary as an essay for students, independent exercise. It is part and 5 page essay, parcel of inspecting the law giving rise to the premise under consideration to determine whether it is necessary to state all of the law to begin the maters thesis first paragraph of analysis, or whether one or more elements can be focused on as pivotal.] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No overlap of discussion apparent. No reason apparent not to proceed in the chronology given. [When question(s)/instruction(s) offer a labeling format, you of course normally use it. The professor/bar grader will likely be looking for on the vietnam, it (Here -- 1,2,3, etc. It seems unnecessary, time wasting, and probably confusing to mention conflict pairings here.

However, I am thinking of and guided by them.] Generally, unless compelling reasons exist to direct otherwise, a transitory action [flag relevant law with underlining or boldface] should be tried in the county where the action arose. Maters Thesis. Transitory has been defined to mean that the transaction that is the subject of the action could have occurred anywhere. Essay On The. Coris' fall and the destruction of the racquet could have occurred anywhere. [Concludes statement of relevant premise, i.e., controlling legal precept, that abruptly begins every paragraph.] Moreover, Coris, Only For Us, Inc. (OFU), and Jett Setter all reside in Queens County. The residence in New York County of Coris' mother, Doris, whose claim is minor, is the only apparent reason for trying the maters thesis action in New York County. It is hardly compelling. [Concludes lawyerlike analysis -- application of law to relevant facts.] Conclusion : The motion should be granted. 5 Page On The. [No hedging, as this seems open and shut.] So-called nail and mail service will satisfy the requirements of personal jurisdiction only where personal service on a defendant cannot be effected through due diligence. [Law.] It has been held that three attempts at in hand service at a defendant's place of business, without attempting to serve the defendant at home or leave the summons and complaint with a person of thesis suitable age and discretion at the place of business does not satisfy the requirements of due diligence. Vietnam. Plaintiffs made no attempt to serve defendant Setter personally other than twice unsuccessfully at his place of business. [Analysis.]

Conclusion: The attempted nail and mail service was likely [Hedging!] ineffective for lack of due diligence. Where a defendant who has not been properly served nevertheless appears in an action, answers the complaint, and interposes affirmative defenses, but never moves to dismiss for lack of personal jurisdiction, nor at thesis, any time claims lack of personal jurisdiction, the vietnam war defense of lack of personal jurisdiction will be deemed waived upon the taking of an appeal. [Law.] Setter, as concluded above, was never properly served. Nevertheless, he appeared, answered the maters thesis complaint, defended in 5 page essay war, the action, and at no time prior to appeal claimed lack of personal jurisdiction. Arguably, raising the claim on appeal is on global warming after trial. However, waived upon the taking of an appeal clearly indicates that the essay on the time for raising the high application essay claim would be deemed tolled. 5 Page. [Analysis.] Conclusion : Setter's defense of lack of personal jurisdiction would be deemed waived on appeal. Generally, all information that is not privileged and is relevant to the subject matter of the action is discoverable, even if not admissible as proof. Confidential communications between husband and wife are privileged from disclosure by either spouse and by a third party (e.g., an for students, eavesdropper). War. [Law.] Coris' statement that she had smashed the racquet was relevant for its truth, as well as an indication of maters thesis Coris' truthfulness. Confidential normally implies private or secret. Essay On The War. [Add clarification, or law, where needed, and appropriate.] A conversation at a phone that was apparently near other phones would not seem confidential. Moreover, given that Coris had not yet determined to sue, her statement in the context of remarks about dinner and a hot tub seems merely casual. [Analysis.]

Conclusion : The motion will fail. The conversation with the for students husband was not confidential, and therefore not privileged. A request for an admission imposes a duty on the party served to acknowledge the existence of facts that are not in 5 page vietnam, doubt and maters thesis, that should not be necessary to prove at war, trial. However, inter alia, it is not proper to request an admission to on punctuality for students, an abstract statement of law (e.g., that allowing a minor without a license to drive is negligent, per 5 page on the war, se). For Assistant Of Schools. The statement in 5 page on the, question seems manifestly a matter that is in some doubt, and that may be necessary to prove at trial. Moreover, in that negligence is a legal conclusion, the statement would appear to write an essay, be an abstract statement of on the law. Conclusion : Doris' disregard of the request is of no consequence, as said request imposed no duty of acknowledgment.

A final judgment on the merits of a claim or cause of action generally precludes reassertion of that claim or cause of maters thesis action in a subsequent suit. Doris' action in essay war, small claims court is grounded in the same facts (destroyed tennis racquet) and sets forth the maters thesis same cause of action as the one dismissed in the primary action herein. A directed verdict during trial seems both a final judgment and a judgment on the merits. Conclusion : The action in small claims court would be dismissed as res judicata. Corporations Hypothetical (50 min.) The RIP Corporation, formed in 1998 by the Bottomline brothers, Ohmy, Padthe, and Savethe, for the purpose (as duly set forth in vietnam, its bylaws and articles of incorporation) of manufacturing and retailing so-called landscape rape accessories for four wheel drive and other off-the-road vehicles, quickly prospered and went public. Between 1999, when 100,000 shares were first sold over the counter, and 2001 the total value of RIPCORP (as the enterprise was affectionately known) shares, after two splits, rose tenfold to forty million dollars. Flush with their success and invincible in application, their avarice, the Bottomline brothers led RIPCORP in the aggressive pursuit of profit wherever it might be found.

The brothers held the chief executive positions in the corporation, as well as a majority of 5 page on the vietnam seats on the board of directors. They further owned thirty percent of the outstanding shares, by far the largest voting block. Thus, acquiescence in their increasingly bold ventures was virtually assured. Matters began to tangle when Meddle, a shareholder of record since purchasing 100 shares at the initial offering, took umbrage at RIPCORP's proposed acquisition of Southeast Asia ski resort options. In the school application fall of 2001 Meddle sought permission to inspect the RIPCORP minutes and other records relating to 5 page essay on the, the ski resort venture. When she refused to for students, accede to the demand of the Bottomline brothers that she first divulge her intentions regarding the inspection, the brothers issued a directive limiting access to the books and records to persons cleared by them, and under no circumstances to Meddle or her representative. Thereupon Meddle brought suit in her own right and on behalf of RIPCORP against 5 page vietnam war, the corporation and the Bottomline brothers personally to gain access to the books and thesis structural, records, to block the ski resort venture as an ultra vires act, and for repayment by the RIPCORP board of directors of 5 page vietnam war any expenses incurred in connection with the on punctuality for students pursuit of said venture. 1) RIPCORP moved to dismiss the action for, inter alia, lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on the board of directors, and failure to state a cause of action. 2) RIPCORP moved in the alternative that the court require Meddle to post $25,000 security for costs as a precondition to continued maintenance of the suit.

3) Meanwhile, the RIPCORP board passed a resolution providing for indemnification of the directors in on the vietnam war, the event Meddle prevailed, and purchased insurance to provide for same. Meddle immediately moved to quash these actions. How should the court decide the maters thesis motions under 1, 2, and 3 above? RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR CORPORATIONS HYPO. Ultra vires acts Generally includes acts beyond the purpose or powers of the corporation, and sometimes includes acts within the purposes and 5 page, powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority. Many jurisdictions now restrict ultra vires challenges to the following: 1) the thesis structural right of a shareholder to enjoin unauthorized corporate acts; 2) the 5 page essay war right of the attorney general of the state to enjoin such activities; 3) the right of the maters thesis corporation to recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present or former) responsible for the ultra vires act(s). Shareholder inspection rights Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. 5 Page Vietnam War. Courts will determine whether a purpose is maters thesis proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of stockholder meetings on essay on the vietnam war demand if 1) he has been a stockholder of record for at least six months immediately preceding the demand; or 2) he is a holder of 5 percent of any class of outstanding shares. Shareholder rights of cover superintendent of schools action Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in his own name to enforce his rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in favor of the corporation.

The latter derivative action may be maintained only if 1) the plaintiff is 5 page essay on the war a shareholder when the maters thesis action is brought; 2) the plaintiff was a shareholder when the alleged wrong to the corporation occurred; and 3) the 5 page on the vietnam plaintiff shows in his complaint that he has demanded that the board of directors commence the action, or that there are sufficient reasons for not making the demand (e.g., the board members are the defendants). Note that in order to minimize the possibility of derivative actions without merit being brought merely for nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, the corporation may require the plaintiff to post security for costs, unless 1) the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at least 5 percent of any class of thesis outstanding shares; or 2) the value of vietnam their shares exceeds $50,000. Indemnification Generally, a director or officer may not be indemnified (reimbursed) against a judgment obtained against him in a direct action by the corporation, or a derivative action on behalf of the corporation, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the school essay action, unless, inter alia, he is adjudged to 5 page on the vietnam, have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the officer/director is shown. MODEL RESPONSE TO CORPORATIONS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The three motions referred to on punctuality for students, by the question are like three questions, each to be considered separately. [Note the enormous benefit here of skipping over the facts.] Step One Conflict pairing(s) : [A quick review of the 5 page essay vietnam war motions in conjunction with the maters thesis sentence that precedes them reveals the single conflict pairing throughout.] RIPCORP, Inc. v. Meddle, etc., or vice versa for each motion (i.e., question). Objectives : [Somewhat confusing, as the sentence immediately preceding the motions reflects three ultimate objectives of Meddle.

However, the objectives relevant to war, a Step One analysis and the question are implied in the three motions. Note that motion #1 also provides Movant RIPCORP's premises (!!). Whether the ultimate objectives will be achieved depends upon resolution of the motions.] 1) dismiss the action versus keep it going; 2) $25,000 security be required to be posted, versus not; 3) board indemnification resolution and purchase of insurance be quashed, versus maintenance of same. Step Two [RIPCORP is movant for motions 1 and maters thesis, 2, Meddle for 3. The motions themselves, especially the first, point to overriding premises.

In that a court may dismiss all or part of a suit, each premise must be considered in light of each of Meddle's objectives set forth in the preceding sentence . The facts in the first two paragraphs need only be considered for purposes of analysis.] 1) Lack of standing, failure to first make a demand on essay on the vietnam the board, and failure to essay on punctuality for students, state a cause of action respecting each of Meddle's three objectives = potentially nine discussions. but probably not. 2) [Must refer to relevant portions of corporations toolbox.] The law [Noted in toolbox only. Don't write it in your outline.] respecting requirement that a shareholder plaintiff in action against corporation post bond. 3) The law respecting indemnification and/or insurance of directors in 5 page, such a suit. Step Three [The motions seem more or less equivalent in weight.

Given the complexity of the maters thesis relevant premises noted in Step Two, the effort necessary for a Step Three analysis seems needlessly duplicative of the analysis to be performed in writing the 5 page essay on the war actual response. Therefore, it seems advisable to thesis, skip Step Three and go to the writing phase .] Preview of a logical sequence for discussion No reason apparent for not proceeding chronologically. Lack of standing/failure to state a cause of action. Generally, a shareholder may sue the corporation in her own name to enforce her rights as a shareholder, and/or on behalf of the corporation to procure a judgment in 5 page on the, favor of the corporation.

Inter alia, the maters thesis latter derivative action can be maintained only if the plaintiff is 5 page essay on the vietnam war a shareholder when the action is brought and when the for assistant superintendent of schools alleged wrong to the corporation occurred. Meddle (M) is currently a shareholder, and has been since long before the ski resort venture. Generally, shareholders have a limited right, founded in essay vietnam war, common law and statute, to inspect corporate books and records which are relevant to a proper purpose. Courts will determine whether a purpose is proper. A shareholder may examine the stock book and minutes of thesis stockholder meetings on demand if she has been a stockholder of on the vietnam war record for at thesis, least six months immediately preceding the demand; or she is a holder of five percent of any class of outstanding shares. M's 100 shares, presumably grown after 'two splits to 400, constitutes much less than five percent of any class of shares.

However, she has been a stockholder of record since the initial offering, over two years prior. So-called ultra vires acts acts beyond the purposes or powers of the corporation, and sometimes acts within the purposes and powers of the corporation, but performed in an unauthorized manner or without authority may properly be challenged by shareholders. Moreover, the corporation may recover damages from the officers and/or directors (present and vietnam war, former) responsible for structural, the ultra vires act(s) . Given that RIPCORP's stated corporate purpose is to manufacture and retail accessories for 5 page essay on the, off-road vehicles, the Southeast Asian ski venture (Venture) has the appearance of an thesis structural, ultra vires act for which damages may be sought. Failure to first make a demand on the board. Another requirement for maintaining a derivative action is that the plaintiff demand that the board commence the action, or there be sufficient reasons for not making such demand (e.g., the 5 page essay on the vietnam war board members are the defendants). The Bottomline brothers are named in M's suit and hold a majority of seats on the board, thereby satisfying the exception. Conclusion : The motion should be denied, as all of RIPCORP's challenges lack merit. Corporations, in order to minimize the maters thesis possibility of 5 page on the derivative actions without merit being brought merely for school essay, nuisance value settlements or counsel fee awards, may require a shareholder plaintiff to post security for on the vietnam war, costs , unless the plaintiff or plaintiffs hold at on punctuality for students, least five percent of any class of essay outstanding shares, or the value of their shares exceeds $50,000.

M's 100 shares constituted but 1/10th of high application one percent of the initial 100,000 share offering. Their value at the time of the suit would have been 1/10th of one percent of forty million dollars, or approximately $40,000. However, M has been a shareholder since the very beginning of the 5 page essay on the vietnam war corporation, and, as set forth, supra , a challenge to thesis, the Venture seems hardly without merit. [Yes, basic math may be necessary!] Conclusion : Although M falls $10,000 short of the $50,000 exception, the motion should probably be denied. Given that M's sharehold nearly satisfies the exception, and the policy justification underlying the security requirement seems utterly lacking, it is unlikely that a court would permit the 5 page on the vietnam war corporation to impose this financial impediment. [Note the essay use of the policy underpinning as a basis for a counterargument.] Generally, a corporate director (or officer) may not be indemnified against a judgment obtained against him in on the vietnam war, a direct action by the corporation or a derivative action, or for amounts paid in settlement thereof. The director may, however, be indemnified against expenses of defending the action, unless, inter alia, he is how to writing adjudged to have violated his fiduciary duty of good faith and reasonable care in essay on the war, the circumstances. The corporation may purchase insurance to indemnify officers and directors for even the above judgments, providing no deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of the how to writing officer/director is shown. [Given this much legal preamble, it seems appropriate to begin the analysis in a new paragraph.]

M's action is in part derivative on behalf of essay on the vietnam war RIPCORP, and a judgment obtained in this respect cannot be indemnified against. Thesis. The facts are unclear about whether the resolution indemnifies against expenses of defending against the action. Essay Vietnam. Assuming, arguendo , that it does, the for assistant inherent improbability, indeed inherent folly of the Venture, coupled with its seeming obvious ultra vires aspect, strongly suggests a violation by the directors of their duty to exercise reasonable care, if not a violation of their duty to act in good faith. However, given that RIPCORP appears to have been engaged for some time in 5 page essay on the vietnam, a pattern of an essay warming divers schemes wholly unrelated to its stated purpose, it is unlikely that a court would be willing to take judicial notice of such a conclusion so early in the proceedings. Nothing in the facts suggests deliberate dishonesty or unlawful gain on the part of any RIPCORP director/officer that would preclude the purchase of indemnification insurance. Conclusion : The motion should be granted as to any portion of the resolution that purports to indemnify against 5 page on the vietnam, judgments obtained on thesis structural behalf of the corporation, denied as to 5 page on the vietnam, portions that indemnify against judgments obtained by M, and denied with leave to renew at a later time with respect to all other portions. T properly executed a will in for students, 1994, by 5 page on the vietnam the terms of which he distributed his entire estate in the following manner: First: I bequeath my racehorse, Swayback, to my friend, X. Second: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y.

Third: I give, devise, and bequeath the rest, residue, and remainder of thesis my estate to my faithful companion, Z. In 1998, having fallen out with Z, T properly executed a new will with the following terms: First: I bequeath $100,000 to my brother, Y. Second: I give, devise, and bequeath the essay on the war rest, residue, and remainder of my estate to my (new) faithful companion, B. In 1999, having reconciled with Z and spurned B, T properly executed a codicil to his 1994 will, by the terms of which he increased the legacy to Y to $150,000; and in all other respects he ratified, confirmed, and republished the 1994 will. T died in 2001. In a probate proceeding the evidence established the following:

1) Although sober when he made the codicil in 1999, T was drunk out of his mind when he executed the application essay 1994 will. 2) T sold Swayback to a syndicate in 5 page war, 1997 for $200,000. 3) Inadvertently in how to writing, 2000 T, falling asleep at his desk with cigarette in hand, set fire to some papers. One of the papers destroyed was the original copy of the 1999 codicil, which T had been reviewing. 4) Y died in 2000. 5) S, the son of Y, was one of several witnesses to T's execution of the 1994 will. Discuss the 5 page rights of the various parties in terms of who takes what from for assistant superintendent of schools, T's estate. RELEVANT LEGAL PRINCIPLES FOR WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Ademption Occurs when a specific legacy (defined below) is not in existence or not in the possession of the testator when he dies (because, for example, it has been sold or given away).

When an ademption occurs, the 5 page essay on the vietnam legatee takes nothing. Death of a beneficiary A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses (returns to the estate). High Application. By statute in 5 page war, many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Disposition of essay on punctuality for students estate Shall be in accordance with a decedent's last will and testament. Execution of a will A properly executed will implies at least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will. Republication A properly executed codicil to on the, a revoked will operates as a republication of application essay a will that is, in form, properly executed. This is 5 page on the so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of write an essay on global testamentary capacity at the time of making.

Revocation As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior will by implication. 5 Page War. A will may further be revoked by means of its physical destruction. Such destruction, however, must be accompanied with the intent and for the purpose of revoking the will. Specific legacy A bequest of for students a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature. It must be taken by the legatee as and where he finds it. Testamentary capacity Absent evidence to 5 page on the, the contrary, testamentary capacity will be presumed where the testator, in executing a will or other document, accurately recites the nature and extent of his property, and recognizes the natural objects of his bounty.

Witness as beneficiary A witness to on punctuality for students, a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. MODEL RESPONSE TO WILLS HYPOTHETICAL. Preliminary Overview The instruction points to parties who stand to take from T's estate. Each will be in opposition to anyone or anything that would prevent him from taking from T's estate. Step One X, Y, Z, B, and A vs. Essay Vietnam War. anyone or thing (including each other, T, the high application essay state, or the estate) that stands between him and taking from T's estate. B v. Z seems a key conflict. Step Two [Each claimant must establish that the will or codicil upon vietnam war, which he bases his claim is valid and controlling.

Each will likewise seek to defeat a competitor claim. Legal precepts governing testamentary disposition set forth in my wills toolbox will come into play. However, it would be inefficient and confusing to try to sort them out at maters thesis, this point. Better to focus on one conflict at a time in the writing phase. Possibly there will be overlap of premises/discussion.] Step Three [Having declined to set forth the premises of the various parties in Step Two, I may as well go straight to the response. My impression is that once the controlling rules are set forth, analysis will be relatively uncomplicated.] Ability of 5 page on the a per stirpes witness, S, to take may be an interesting discussion. Preview of a logical sequence of discussion Resolving which instrument controls seems the essay on punctuality obvious first step. Therefore, beginning with B v. Z would seem to 5 page, make sense. B and Z's rights [This label conforms to the instruction. B v. Z might confuse.

But I'm thinking B v. Z!] As a general rule, a subsequent will that is entirely inconsistent with a prior will, or a later will that makes a complete disposition of the on global warming testator's property, shall be deemed to have revoked the prior willby implication. The 1998 will was inconsistent with the 1994 will and made a complete disposition of T's property, thereby revoking the 1994 will and Z's legacy. However, a properly executed codicil to a revoked will operates as a republication of a will that is, in 5 page vietnam, form, properly executed. This is so despite the fact that the will so republished may have been invalid for want of testamentary capacity at structural, the time of making. The properly executed 1999 codicil republished the properly executed 1994 will, thereby restoring Z's legacy. The fact that T was sober when making the essay codicil moots any effect of maters thesis T having been drunk when making the 1994 will.

There being no evidence to the contrary, the 5 page on the war fact that T in cover letter superintendent of schools, executing the codicil accurately recited the nature and extent of his property and 5 page essay vietnam war, recognized the natural objects of thesis his bounty will establish his testamentary capacity in making the codicil. Although a will may be revoked by means of physical destruction , such destruction must be accomplished with the intent and for the purpose of 5 page on the war revoking the will. The circumstance that the original copy of the codicil was destroyed inadvertently in 2000 is thus of no avail to letter for assistant of schools, B. Conclusion : The 1998 will is revoked, and B takes nothing. Z takes the rest, residue, and remainder of T's estate under the 1999 codicil that revived the 1994 will. An ademption occurs when a specific legacy (i.e., a bequest of a particular, individualized chattel, differentiated from all other articles of the same or similar nature) is not in existence or not in on the war, the possession of the testator when he dies. When an ademption occurs, the legatee takes nothing. The racehorse, Swayback, appears to how to writing, be such a particular, individualized chattel. In that Swayback was sold prior to T's death, the republication of the 1994 will is of no avail to X. Conclusion : X takes nothing from T's estate, as his legacy has adeemed.

A disposition to a beneficiary who predeceases the testator ordinarily lapses. Essay Vietnam. By statute in many jurisdictions, however, dispositions to beneficiaries who are issue or siblings do not lapse, providing such beneficiaries have surviving issue. Such surviving issue will take the thesis structural legacy in equal proportions per stirpes . Therefore, although Y predeceased T, Y's son, S, would take the $150,000, providing he is not disqualified by essay vietnam having witnessed the now republished 1994 will. A witness to a will may take under that will, providing said will can be proved in probate without his assistance. How To Writing. A properly executed will implies at essay war, least two witnesses thereto who do not stand to take under said will.

S was one of several witnesses to an essay on global warming, the 1994 will, implying that more than two persons witnessed the will. Therefore, presumably two other witnesses exist to prove the 5 page essay war will in probate. NB: Arguably S should be permitted to take under the 1994 will per cover letter for assistant superintendent of schools, stirpes, even were he one of only 5 page on the vietnam two witnesses to the will. The rationale for not allowing a witness necessary to probate to take under the will being probated is presumably the conflict of interest posed. The reliability of a witness with a vested interest in write an essay on global warming, having the will probated is compromised. Y, however, not S stood to take under the 5 page essay on the war 1994 will. Had there been any consideration of Y predeceasing T, and therefore S taking, S probably would not have been asked to witness the will. Cover For Assistant. However, it could also be contended that that was then, and now S does have a compromising vested interest. [This latter paragraph is not necessary. However, it demonstrates the kind of interest and essay war, thoughtfulness that may catch a professor's attention and maters thesis, garner an vietnam, A. Possibly it should be highlighted in some way, perhaps with a red star.

I might even decide to put it on the blank page left at the beginning. (See p.75.)] Conclusion : Y, having predeceased T, will take nothing. However, Y's intended legacy will go to the son, S, per stirpes . S's having witnessed the will under which he takes should not disqualify him, providing two others of the maters thesis several witnesses to the will exist to prove it in probate. Actual Civil Procedure I Exam, Fall 2006, U. Essay On The. Memphis School of Law (with Model A+ Response and Professor Comments) [The example that follows is an actual exam and school, model response sent to 5 page war, us by one Richard Townley, Sr., U. Thesis Structural. Memphis class of 2009E (evening division). 5 Page Vietnam. The exam was given jointly to two first year classes by their professors. An Essay. Richard ordered the audio CD version of LEEWS. His is the verbatim model response offered to students with professor comments! as what was wanted. His response received the highest grade, one of only two A+ grades. His accompanying remarks are reprinted in the Results section. Inter alia (among other things), he said, LEEWS was absolutely essential to my success. . The exemplar is, in fact, *my* exam essay answer, and 5 page essay vietnam, if I say so myself, it's a pretty good LEEWS exemplar as well. We reiterate that the LEEWS objective for every response is a series of paragraphs, each beginning with relevant law and presenting balanced lawyerlike analysis. How To Writing. . What is on the war surely wanted when confronted with a task such as what follows is a system whereby in structured, step-by-step fashion, the examinee knows exactly what is on global warming wanted and essay on the vietnam, how to proceed and present.

For example, a LEEWS grad will immediately skip over the confusing fact pattern to the question/instruction, typically at the end, and perform Step One. A LEEWS grad has also read many such introductory instructions, and therefore will skim through quickly to note what, if anything, is new and/or unusual. How To Writing. Note that the average student managed less than 17 points out of a possible 45 on the essay exam versus Richard's 39 (!!). 5 Page Vietnam. . It may be further noted that although these professors did not require a so-called IRAC format [and we commend that!), Richard's paragraphed response could easily have been conformed to a Follow IRAC instruction by thesis structural merely introducing an issue statement before each paragraph, and a conclusion statement at the end. LEEWS posits that in general issue statements are unnecessary, as starting a paragraph with law implies the issue, and conclusions are unimportant.] Civil Procedure I -- Exam Results -- Fall, 2006 ( 11 = Prof Banks, 12 = Prof Entman)

Essays - 45 points. Average -- 11 [17.2]; 12 [16.1]; both sections [16.6] Range -- 11 [3 - 42]; 12 [4 - 39] Multiple Choice - 55 points (35 questions) Average -- 11 [33.70]; 12 [35.00]; both sections [34.36] Range -- 11 [18.86 - 50.29]; 12 [17.29 - 53.43] Total - 100 points. Average -- 11 [50.90]; 12 [51.09]; both sections [50.99] Range -- 11 [22.86 - 92.29]; 12 [26.29 - 83.00]

Average Grade - 11 [2.33] Both Sections [2.34] 12 [2.34] A+: 82 and above. F : 0 - 32. INSTRUCTIONS - Read these instructions carefully. You are responsible for following them to the letter and will be assessed a point penalty or given a failing grade for failure to follow instructions. Before you begin work on 5 page essay on the war this examination, be sure that you have an examination booklet consisting of 8 consecutively numbered pages -- beginning with this page. Part I consists of problems calling for written analysis.

Part II consists of 35 multiple choice questions. If your examination is incomplete, you should advise the for assistant of schools instructor immediately. 5 Page War. It is your responsibility to ensure that you are working with a complete examination. The exam is closed book. You may not use any material other than this examination booklet, the answer sheet, blank paper and an appropriate writing instrument. You may not, of how to writing course, confer with or receive assistance from essay on the, any other person. Your answers for thesis structural, Part I should be written on the paper provided.

Be sure to identify clearly which subpart you are answering (e.g., I. A.). 5 Page Vietnam War. When you have completed your answers to Part I, number your pages consecutively, write your identification number on each page, and on punctuality for students, staple all of the pages together in the upper left hand corner. 1. Answer only the question asked and do so with organization, precision, legibility, and proper grammar and spelling. 2. 5 Page Essay On The. If a court rule or a statute is relevant to a problem, you may identify it by high school application number, but you must discuss its substance whether or not you mention the rule or statute by number. 3. Write on only one side of a page and leave a left margin. Write your identification number in the space provided on the answer sheet for Part II and mark the appropriate corresponding circles on your answer sheet to indicate your examination number. On The War. Do not staple the answer sheet for Part II to structural, anything.

Submission of Exams -- General Instructions When you have finished the examination, place your answers to Part I, your answer sheet for on the war, Part II, and the exam booklet in the separately designated boxes. All examination booklets must be turned in. You must write your identification number on this exam booklet at the top of the how to writing first page and return the booklet in order that your exam answer sheet may be matched with the correct version of the essay answers. Do not write your name on anything. For this examination, unless we have specifically studied to the contrary, you should assume the following:

1. all states have adopted rules of civil procedure identical to the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure; 2. all states have enacted statutes that authorize the exercise of jurisdiction on each of the traditional bases recognized by the Supreme Court up to essay on punctuality for students, the date of its decision in International Shoe; 3. all states have also enacted the essay following statutes: X.C.A. 1-1-111: A court may exercise personal jurisdiction over a person (including an individual, his executor, administrator, or other personal representative, or a corporation, partnership, or any other legal or commercial entity) who acts directly or by an agent, as to a claim for relief arising from the persons. (a) transacting any business within this State; (b) causing tortious injury by an act or omission in this State; (c) causing tortious injury in this State by an act or omission outside this State if the person regularly does or solicits business, or engages in any other persistent course of structural conduct, or derives substantial revenue from goods used or consumed or services rendered in this State; (d) owning, using or possessing any property situated in vietnam war, this State; (e) contracting to insure any person, property, or risk located within this State at the time of high school application essay contracting.

X.C.A. 2-2-222: In any suit brought in the courts of war this State, service of process may be achieved by sending a summons and application, a copy of the complaint by registered mail, return receipt requested, to the defendant's home address, or principal place of business, wherever located. The problems in Part I are worth a total of 45 points. They are not of equal weight. A. You are now an essay on the vietnam war, associate attorney in a law firm. How To Writing. Respond fully to on the, the following memorandum from one of your employers. I Quit is not a recommended answer. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec.

11, 2006. [Fact pattern (hypo)] Tristan and Isolde are partners in a furniture repair business. Their shop is in the State of Swabia where most of their customers are from. Sometimes people from the nearby States of Prussia and Bavaria bring repair jobs to the shop in Swabia. Write An Essay Warming. Isolde was raised in Prussia and lived there with her parents until June, 2003, when she moved into an apartment in 5 page essay vietnam, Swabia to see if she would enjoy living away from thesis structural, home. In July, 2003, a vice-president of on the vietnam war First Commercial Industrial Bank of Prussia [First Commercial] attended a lecture on furniture repair that Isolde gave in Prussia. He decided that Tristan and Isolde had a promising business and that the bank would do well to procure their business. After receiving a letter at their shop offering the banks services, Tristan and Isolde decided to borrow $150,000 from how to writing, First Commercial.

By telephone, they requested the bank send them the paperwork at their shop. On August 15, 2003, Tristan and Isolde signed the essay on the war loan papers at their shop and Tristan immediately took them to First Commercials main office, located ten miles away in the State of Prussia. First Commercial then gave them a check for how to writing, $150,000 minus closing costs of approximately $5,000. 5 Page On The War. The loan agreement provided that its interpretation and validity would be governed by the law of Prussia and that it was to be repaid in two years. Due to how to writing, financial difficulties, Tristan and Isolde made only two payments on the loan. Essay On The Vietnam War. When First Commercial threatened to sue them, Tristan settled the banks claim against him for $50,000. First Commercial then sued Isolde in the United States District Court for Prussia to collect the unpaid principal and interest. First Commercials attorney served Isolde with process by registered mail, return receipt requested, to her at the shop in Swabia. On May 15, 2005, after Isolde failed to respond to the complaint and high application essay, summons, the court entered a default judgment against her for $100,000. On December 1, 2006, First Commercial sought to register the judgment against Isolde with the United States District Court for vietnam war, the District of Swabia.

In conjunction that proceeding, First Commercial procured a writ of garnishment, attaching $10,000 that Isolde had in a bank account in maters thesis, Swabia. First Commercial also procured a writ of garnishment from the federal court in Bavaria, attaching a $5,000 debt owed to Isolde by one of her customers there. [Question/instruction] We represent Isolde. Please submit a memo to me discussing fully whether Isolde has any defenses she may raise to 5 page on the vietnam war, the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Be sure to thesis, discuss fully any possible defenses that you may have considered and rejected and explain fully why you have rejected them.

B. The next day, you receive the following memorandum from the same partner. Again, respond fully. To: Associate. Re: First Commercial Industrial Bank v. Isolde. Date: Dec. 5 Page Essay War. 12, 2006. I have now learned that Isolde was involved in an automobile accident in Swabia a week after she was served with process by registered mail.

She was rendered unconscious for two days. An ambulance rushed her to maters thesis, the nearest hospital, which was located in Prussia. Three days after the accident, but while she was hospitalized in 5 page on the vietnam war, Prussia, a private process server acting on behalf of First Commercial served Isolde in her hospital bed with a another copy of the how to writing summons and complaint for on the, the same lawsuit. Given that she was served while in the state, it now seems to me that the judgment of the federal district court in Prussia against Isolde is unquestionably valid and is enforceable in both Swabia and Bavaria. Application. Please discuss fully whether you believe that assumption is on the vietnam war valid and whether the maters thesis service on Isolde in the hospital establishes jurisdiction. The discussion below is a verbatim copy of a students essay that received a top grade. Commentary by Professors Banks and Entman appears in brackets. . [LEEWS note: We reprint this commentary in blue.] LEEWS NOTE: IRAC (merely a formula for organizing analysis of an issue) prescribes a statement of I ssue to on the vietnam war, precede the on global statement of R ule, and the discussion ( A nalysis). (And C onclusion at the end.) The LEEWS paragraphing format posits that an abrupt statement of premise (relevant law) to begin a paragraph implies the issue, making a separate statement of on the vietnam issue unnecessary (thereby saving time). Richard's model response in LEEWS format does this. Our only suggestion is that underlining or boldfacing key words in the preamble of law e.g., Subject matter jurisdiction in on punctuality, the opening paragraph, federal diversity statute in the next to assist the professor in on the, recognizing the topic (issue). Subject-matter jurisdiction.

The federal courts are courts of limited jurisdiction; they can only hear certain types of cover superintendent claims as outlined in Article III of the US Constitution and as authorized by Congressional Statute. Essay On The Vietnam War. First Commercial will argue that the US District Court has subject-matter jurisdiction to hear this case based on the diversity of citizenship of the write parties. First Commercial is a citizen of Prussia. Isolde has been living in essay on the vietnam war, Swabia for one month. [The facts do not give sufficient information to know how long Isolde had been living in Swabia at the time First Commercial filed its complaint, which is the time at which jurisdiction must either exist or not. At most, one can deduce that the suit was brought as early as November 2003 or as late as April 2005. Consequently, Isolde must have been living in Swabia for more than one month, but not the essay two or three years that some students stated.] She can argue that she is still domiciled in 5 page, Prussia, where she lived her whole life up to cover letter, June of vietnam war 2003, because she only moved to Swabia temporarily, to structural, see if she would enjoy life on her own. If Isolde is found to be a domiciliary of Prussia, then there is 5 page essay not diversity of citizenship and maters thesis, thus no subject matter jurisdiction. On The Vietnam. However, if Isolde is thesis structural found to have relocated to Swabia with the 5 page vietnam war intent of staying for the indefinite future, then the parties are diverse. The federal diversity statute also requires the amount in controversy to exceed $75,000.

The $100,000 judgment against Isolde satisfies this requirement. N.B. [Please do not use abbreviations, including this one.] This action could not be brought under federal question jurisdiction because breach of contract is a state common-law claim. Therefore nothing in the plaintiffs complaint arises under the thesis Constitution and laws of the United States. Subject-matter jurisdiction is never waived, and in this case, it has not been previously litigated, so it could be raised on collateral attack. However, it is more likely than not that the 5 page on the war court will find that Isolde did move to Swabia with the intent to stay indefinitely, so the District Court in Prussia probably did have subject-matter jurisdiction. Personal jurisdiction. In the alternative, Isolde can argue that the rendering court in Prussia lacked jurisdiction over the person.

Because this has not been litigated, it can be raised on collateral attack in maters thesis, the enforcing court. [We would have preferred a discussion at this point that specifically points out that Isolde never even appeared in 5 page vietnam war, the first action. Most of you could have improved your answers by making better use of the facts to support your analysis. The reason Isolde can raise personal jurisdiction on collateral attack is because she did not appear at all in the original action. Since she did not appear, there is no reason to discuss Rule 12.] First, Isolde will argue that there are no traditional bases for school application essay, establishing jurisdiction over her in Prussia. N.B. The federal courts derive their personal jurisdictional reach from the state in which they are situated, so the essay vietnam war District Court can exert personal jurisdiction over an out of state defendant only how to writing if the state court could do so. Isolde was not served with process with Prussia, so transitory [transient?] jurisdiction does not attach. Because it is necessary that she be domiciled in Swabia to establish diversity of citizenship, First Commercial cannot argue that she be subjected to personal jurisdiction on the basis of essay war domicile. Even though the contract included a choice-of-law provision applying the laws of Prussia to possible disputes, that is not the same as a consent provision. [A surprising number of students referred to this as a forum selection clause. At least one student referred to it as a forum selection clause in thesis structural, part of the answer and a choice of law provision in another part of the same answer.

Another specifically stated that it was a forum selection clause and not a choice of essay vietnam law provision. Mistakes of this type may be attributable to superintendent, sloppy reading of the facts but they are also a strong indication of essay on the a serious lack of preparation. Failure to write an essay on global, devote sufficient time to study of the assigned materials frequently manifests itself in a persons demonstrated obliviousness to important distinctions. Others simply didnt know what to do with the fact, thus reflecting a failure to study the Burger King opinion and to pay attention to our class discussions of it.] Statutory basis. First Commercial will argue that the long-arm statute conferred specific jurisdiction over Isolde on vietnam the basis of the first of the enumerated acts: a) transacting any business within the State. The claim for maters thesis, relief, the 5 page essay on the $100,000 breach of contract, arises from the defendants act of entering into the loan contract, which First Commercial will argue was executed on Tristans delivery of the loan documents to the Banks main office in Prussia. Isolde will counter that her act was signing the documents, which took place at the furniture shop in cover for assistant, Swabia. This is essay vietnam war a valid argument so long as the court reads the statute literally and narrowly. However, if a court interpreted the statute broadly (See Gray v. American Radiator) it might find that the high school application essay statute reaches the out of state act, the signing of the contract, which causes an in state result, the execution of the contract. [It is probably not necessary to stretch the construction of the statute as the court did in war, Gray to hold that it confers jurisdiction, given the facts of this problem.

The statute covers transacting business in the forum state directly or by an agent. Like McShara in Burger King, Tristan was acting on behalf of the partnership (thus as an agent) in thesis structural, delivering the papers to the bank. The facts specifically state that Isolde, along with Tristan, signed the papers and that he immediately took them to the bank. You should never, as many of you did, overlook the statement that Isolde signed the on the war papers or speculate that she may not have read them. There is simply no basis in the facts for speculating that Isolde didnt know what she was signing. Indulging in speculation that she might not have reveals desperation.] Constitutional Standard. The Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution provides that no state shall deprive a citizen of life, liberty or property without due process of law.

The U.S. Supreme Court defined the due process standard as it relates to imposing personal jurisdiction on for assistant superintendent an out of state defendant in International Shoe: jurisdiction is constitutional only if the on the vietnam cause of action arises from the defendants minimum contacts with the forum, such that the assertion of jurisdiction would not offend traditional notions of fair play and an essay warming, substantial justice. 5 Page Essay Vietnam. Assuming, arguendo, [LEEWS note: We teach the proper use of words like arguendo -- because they are useful and add a lawyerly caste to the presentation.] that the long-arm statute is sufficient to provide a statutory basis of jurisdiction over Isolde, would such jurisdiction be constitutional under the for assistant superintendent of schools Shoe standard? [While it is implicit in the answer that the constitutional hurdle becomes important only on the war if the court first accepts the argument that the statute confers jurisdiction, a perfect answer would have explained that relationship more fully.] Isolde will argue no, because the high essay contact which gives rise to on the vietnam, the claim, the high school application essay signed loan contract, was brought into essay on the vietnam, the forum by the unilateral actions of a third party, Tristan. Therefore, Isolde did not purposefully avail herself of the privileges of maters thesis conducting activities in the forum, Prussia. First Commercial will counter that Tristan and Isolde were operating together to secure the loan. They reached into the forum when they called First Commercial. Isolde knew that Tristan was taking the documents to Prussia, [run-on sentence, a sin committed by many students in these essays] therefore it was imminently [eminently] foreseeable that the contract would be executed there, and she could reasonably anticipate being haled into court in Prussia over any disputes to the contract. (See Denckla, Worldwide VW).

While there are some open questions regarding minimum contacts, the facts seem to favor First Commercial. On The War. In the alternative, [In addition?] can Isolde raise any of the fairness factors, defining fair play and substantial justice, articulated in the US Supreme Courts Burger King decision? In weighing the relative burden on Isolde compared to the interest of high school application First National in litigating in Prussia, it does not seem unfair to require Isolde to travel to a nearby state where she lived most of her life and where she sometimes appears to give lectures. The interest of the 5 page forum state in adjudicating the thesis dispute would be well served because of the 5 page essay on the vietnam choice of law provision; Prussia has an interest in adjudicating its own laws. The interest of the several states in efficiency and public policy do not seem to enter the picture, so the fairness factors do not point to Prussia as an unfair forum for Isolde. Conclusion.

Although Isolde has some colorable arguments, she probably cannot invalidate the original judgment on a defense of lack of personal jurisdiction. [Many of you neglected altogether most of the issues about validity of the Prussia judgment treated in structural, the foregoing answer, instead discussing at length personal jurisdiction, subject matter jurisdiction, and service of 5 page war process in the enforcement proceedings in Swabia and Bavaria. Such discussions reflect a lack of knowledge of our classwork on Assignment 27, a failure to read the how to writing Shaffer v. Heitner opinion carefully, and a failure to study the problems following that opinion in the casebook.]

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The Vietnam War (1955-1975) essay

5 Questions Your Volunteer Job Description Should Answer. Effective volunteer management involves good communication and coordination of 5 page on the job duties. Like employees, it is important for volunteers to have a clear understanding of essay on punctuality for students what is expected of them and given the 5 page war training and tools to perform job tasks. A well-run volunteer program will include a streamlined process to recruit, place and train volunteers in a role that best matches their personality, interests and skill-set. A volunteer job description should be detailed enough to describe, not only job tasks, but also job hours and who to go to with questions. When writing a church volunteer job description, it is important to answer the following questions who , what , where , when and how . School! Simply consider the essay vietnam war job tasks that need to be performed, and ask these questions to determine the needed detail for the job description. Essay! Who does the volunteer report to?

For example, who oversees ushers and who does the volunteer report to 5 page essay vietnam, when scheduled to work? What tasks are the volunteer responsible for performing? For example, what does the usher do when he/she is on duty? Where does the job get performed? For example, where do ushers meet before, during and after church services and where do they hang their coats or purses while on duty. When is the shift the volunteer will be working? For example, when is the usher scheduled to work as part of the volunteer job schedule. How does the volunteer perform job responsibilities? For example, how does an usher dress, how do they communicate with guests, how do they take the offering, etc. Ok, lets now create an example of a church volunteer job description using the template below:

Example Church Volunteer Job Description. Job location : Volunteer Room behind West hallway WHERE. Straighten chairs in auditorium Fill chair pockets with offering envelopes Stack offering baskets Place bulletins in bins by all doors Usher guests to seats Assist people with special needs, ie; wheelchair, stroller, etc. Collect offering Empty offering baskets, sort and put in safe. Ushers meet in letter superintendent of schools, the marked volunteer room behind the west hallway. Lockers and coat racks are available for personal items. Usher supplies, offering baskets, envelopes, umbrellas, first aid kit etc. are located in 5 page essay on the, the marked closet on the north side of the volunteer room. Ushers are asked to maters thesis, wear suits for men and appropriate business attire for on the vietnam, women. Volunteers should report for their shift at least 15 minutes ahead of time. Ushers are expected to represent the church in on punctuality, a positive way and demonstrate good customer service skills by being polite, patient, encouraging and engaging with the congregation and visitors. If an usher has a problem with a visitor or congregant, they should contact Elder Smith for essay on the, assistance.

Gather a few folks who understand what needs to be done, sit in a room with a laptop and just go down the maters thesis list and answer the questions: who, what, where, when and how. You will be surprised at how quickly you can create volunteer role descriptions. Essay Vietnam War! Lastly, church volunteers are free labor and a valuable asset. Take the time to letter for assistant superintendent, develop systems and 5 page on the vietnam war processes to support them. Investing some time thinking through and creating detailed job descriptions is how to writing one way to show your volunteers support and appreciation. If you would like more information on managing the volunteers in your church, please check out our book on volunteer management: A Volunteer Coordinator#8217;s Handbook for Engaging, Motivating and Developing Volunteers. training videos, forms. and job descriptions. Click Here For Unlimited Access To Our Library!

THANKS, I HAVE ALWAYS NEED THIS KIND OF POST #8230;THANKS ONCE AGAIN. Thankyou for sharing this wisdom to 5 page, help me understand how to keep my. Family in the way of cover letter for assistant superintendent of schools God will and to like for one another it#8217;s Amazing grace to discover this tips and By The grace of God I pray to use them for essay on the, my family and my brother and sister in the Lord may God bless us to be out of ignorance in marriage. [#8230;] who donate their time to how to writing, a ministry should be provided with clear job expectations, a detailed volunteer job description and orientation to the organization. For example, if a new volunteer is unfamiliar with the [#8230;] [#8230;] List of 5 page on the vietnam volunteer opportunities and volunteer job descriptions. [#8230;] [#8230;] one-on-one in order to maters thesis, give the volunteer the opportunity to ask questions of clarity. Essay On The Vietnam War! A detailed volunteer job description also helps to reinforce training [#8230;] [#8230;] church employees or volunteer job description should reflect their goals and should be updated annually to reflect goal responsibilities.

This [#8230;] [#8230;] a church can make. When employees and volunteers receive thorough training, and detailed job descriptions, they are better prepared to complete job assignments. Using policies and procedures as part of on global [#8230;] [#8230;] candidate. The person performing the 5 page on the vietnam interview should take the time to review the application and volunteer job description that the candidate is structural applying [#8230;] Join over 17,000+ subscribers and enter your email below to 5 page on the, receive weekly updates and tips to help you manage your church better! You will also receive a copy of our FREE E-Book! This book is superintendent perfect for Executive Pastors or Business Administrators who need help managing the essay day-to-day operations of a church. Check it out! To access this book on Amazon, click here. This book provides practical steps to improve how the process of work gets done.

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