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Abbaye de lessay orgue de staline
Vanguard Investments Group, Malvern, PA. Tools Used : Jenkins/Hudson, Ant, MS Build, TFS Team Explorer, and de lessay, Subversion, Jenkins, Travis CI. Decisions In Paradise Part 3 Essays. CM Solution Architect for Healthcare Emerging Products. Tools Used : Jenkins, Puupet, Chef, Capastrino, Ruby, Maven, Git, Java. Conducted multiple CM assessments including “As-Is” and “To-Be” with recommendations to improve Healthcare CM and release management practices. Consulted on tools evaluation, selection and implementation including HP EDGE mandated and open source ALM tool chains.
Consulted on the appropriate use of industry standards and frameworks (e.g. CMMI/EDGE). Developed Healthcare Product Release and Configuration plan and managed CM team responsible for build automation (development and maintenance), code promotion through environments, and production packaging and installation support for customers. The configuration management tools utilized were HP CMDB, HP Service manager, Quality Center, Subversion, Team Foundation Server, Ant, Electric Commander, Jenkins, Nexus, Ivy and InstallAnywhere, InstallShield. Configuration Manager for CM processes, standards, builds and environments for the various Healthcare applications and Products.
Directed setup, use, and build scheduling for environments and implemented a Continuous Delivery pipeline. Abbaye. Designed and personal writing ucas, implemented CM requirements, approach, and abbaye, tooling for statement service ucas Java (J2EE) and .NET -based application development. Designed, coded, and implemented automated build scripting in Ant, Ivy, Jenkins/Hudson, and Maven. Defined development workflow Agile/SCRUM/Waterfall SDLC processes and established processes around them and implemented toolset integration for CaliberRM, Quality Center, Subversion, and various scripting tools and databases. Abbaye De Lessay. Defined package process and tools, including the design of a CMDB for full requirements traceability.
Led team of CM build specialists, tool integrators, environment coordinators and packagers and defined and essay, assisted with Data Management (and Testing data baseline) CM strategies. Managed Healthcare product packaging for release to customers utilizing InstallShield and InstallAnywhere. Tools Used : Jenkins, Puupet, Chef, Capastrino, Ruby, Maven, Git, Java. Abbaye. 2005 2009, Configuration/Release manager. As CM manager responsible for building and running continuous integration environments that support multiple development teams working toward towards common builds and essay organizer, Major Responsibilities included.
Designing and implementing a continuous development and abbaye, deployment process that is uniform throughout several development teams and across projects. Implemented Continuous Integration validation tests on code check-in. Design and implement, working with QA automation team, post check-in automated unit and system tests and Established and documented workflow. Trained development, QA and production deployment teams. Managed tools like Subversion, Jenkins, JIRA and Performed maintenance and troubleshooting of build/deployment systems.
Plan, coordinate and execute releases to QA, stage and production environments and Managed complex code branches from dante alighieri, multiple development teams for abbaye current and future releases. Merged code and ensure successful builds with intended functionality. Ensured releases are documented for supportability and functionality and stakeholders spanning multiple organizations are notified in biography best, advance. Responsible for configuration management including deployment of new software/configuration changes into our UAT, Training, Production and de lessay, DR environments. Additional duties included working with development and infrastructure teams to improve the configuration and release management processes and writing, environments for more efficient, higher quality software deployments. De Lessay. Aspen Software Consultants, Dallas, TX. CM Administrator at IRS, Dallas, TX : Participated and Lead on software configuration management boards and provided support for the release process form the different Vendors. Involved in Building and deploying software releases, Building and compiling code of varying complexity using automated and manual efforts to exampleessays, ensure complete and accurate code compilation for release into various critical environments.
Coordinated individual and Master Release Schedule(s), Administered and maintained version control, version control software, code repository and backup files. Implemented ClearCase/ClearQuest and Requisite Pro, Build Forge, ClearCase UCM configuration and change management tool. Abbaye. Configuration Analyst at Capital One, Plano TX : Responsible for Rational development tools support over personal writing ucas, multiple environments consisting of ClearCase, ClearCase Multisite ClearQuest. De Lessay. Ongoing project support for clients, Upgrades for existing rational tool set including ClearQuest Schema upgrades and ClearCase VOB schema upgrades. Dante. ClearQuest integrated with ClearCase for change/defect management and tracking tasks with an Oracle back-end for CQ schemas. Recommended security policies and created triggers using PERL scripts, which were applied to abbaye de lessay, VOB’s. Configuration Analyst at Verizon, Irving, TX : Installation and customization of the rational suite, Set-up of the Requisite Pro environment and administration. Dante Essay. Integration between ClearQuest and Test director, ClearCase UCM configuration and de lessay, change management tool.
Creation and Maintenance of VOBs, Views, Triggers and Installation Release Areas and Maintenance of Developers streams, Provision of day-to-day user support and Creation of Perl triggers for development VOB’s. 1998- 2002, Configration Management manager. Developed plan and statement writing service ucas, organizational processes to improve configuration management within the abbaye, enterprise to include the part 3 essays, establishment of a change control board (CCB). Contributed to the attainment of CMM Level 2 and 3 Certifications working closely with software quality assurance group. Conducted extensive configuration management training and abbaye de lessay, Developed CM policies and procedures including the CM plan and handbook in support of applications.
As a Software Configuration Management (SCM) Specialist Team Foundation Server (TFS) Administrator served a critical function within the software development organization. This role was responsible for managing and supporting the software development lifecycle to include processes, tools, and automation efforts. As a Senior SCM Specialist/TFS Administrator reported to the Program Manager and worked closely with Development and Deployment teams providing configuration and release management support, technical expertise and administration of TFS and other related software development lifecycle tools. Introduction to biography best, CMMI, Carnegie Mellon Univeristy**. Abbaye. M.E (Elect Engg), Andhra University, India B.E (Elect Engg) Andhra University, India. Talks/Presentations/Publications/Projects.
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Abbaye de lessay orgue de staline
modernist art essay 1. Roots of de lessay Modernism. Until recently , the word ‘modern’ was used to refer generically to the contemporaneous; all art is modern at dante alighieri essay, the time it is made. In his Il Libro dell'Arte (translated as ‘The Craftsman’s Handbook’) written in the early 15th century, the Italian writer and painter Cennino Cennini explains that Giotto made painting ‘modern’ [see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] . Giorgio Vasari writing in de lessay the 16th century, refers to the art of his own period as ‘modern.’ [see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] In the personal statement writing service history of art, however, the term ‘modern’ is used to refer to a period dating from roughly the 1860s through the 1970s and describes the style and ideology of de lessay art produced during that era. It is this more specific use of modern that is intended when people speak of in paradise 3 essays modern art. The term ‘modernism’ is de lessay also used to refer to the art of the modern period. More specifically, ‘modernism’ can be thought of as referring to the philosophy of modern art. In the title of her 1984 book [see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] , Suzi Gablik asks ‘Has Modernism Failed?’ What does she mean? Has modernism ‘failed’ simply in personal writing ucas the sense of coming to an end? Or does she mean that modernism failed to accomplish something?
The presupposition of the latter is that modernism had goals, which it failed to achieve. If so, what were these goals? For reasons that will become clear later in this essay, discussions of modernism in art have been couched largely in de lessay formal and stylistic terms. Exampleessays! Art historians tend to speak of modern painting, for example, as concerned primarily with qualities of colour, shape, and line applied systematically or expressively, and marked over time by abbaye de lessay, an increasing concern with flatness and essay a declining interest in subject matter. It is generally agreed that modernism in art originated in the 1860s and that the French painter Édouard Manet is the first modernist painter. Paintings such as his Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe (‘Luncheon on the Grass’) and abbaye Olympia are seen to have ushered in narrative friendships the era of modernism. 1863, oil on canvas (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) 1863, oil on canvas (Musée d'Orsay, Paris) But the question can be posed: Why did Manet paint Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe and Olympia ? The standard answer is: Because he was interested in exploring new subject matter, new painterly values, and abbaye new spatial relationships. But there is another more interesting question beyond this: Why was Manet exploring new subject matter, new painterly values and spatial relationships?
He produced a modernist painting, yes, but why did he produce such a work? When Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe was exhibited at the Salon des Refusés in 1863, many people were scandalized not only by the subject matter, which shows two men dressed in contemporary clothes seated casually on the grass in the woods with a nude woman, but also by the unconventional way it was painted. Two years later the public were even more shocked by his painting of Olympia which showed a nude woman, obviously a demi-mondaine , gazing out morally unperturbed at the viewer, and painted in a quick, broad manner contrary to the accepted academic style. Why was Manet painting pictures that he knew would upset people? It is in trying to answer questions like these that forces us to adopt a much broader perspective on the question of modernism.
It is within this larger context that we can discover the underpinnings of the philosophy of essay graphic modernism and identify its aims and goals. It will also reveal another dimension to the perception of abbaye de lessay art and the identity of the biography best artist in the modern world. The roots of de lessay modernism lie much deeper in history than the middle of the 19th century. For historians the modern period actually begins in biography best the sixteenth century, initiating what is called the Early Modern Period, which extends up to abbaye de lessay the 18th century. The intellectual underpinnings of modernism emerge during the Renaissance period when, through the study of the art, poetry, philosophy, and science of ancient Greece and Rome, humanists revived the notion that man, rather than God, is the measure of all things, and promoted through education ideas of citizenship and civic consciousness. The period also gave rise to ‘utopian’ visions of a more perfect society, beginning with Sir Thomas More's Utopia , written in 1516, in which is described a fictional island community with seemingly perfect social, political, legal customs.
In retrospect we can recognize in Renaissance humanism an expression of biography best that modernist confidence in the potential of humans to shape their own individual destinies and the future of the world. Also present is the abbaye de lessay belief that humans can learn to understand nature and natural forces, and even grasp the nature of the universe. The modernist thinking which emerged in the Renaissance began to take shape as a larger pattern of thought in the 18th century. Mention may be made first of the so-called ‘Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns’, a literary and artistic dispute that dominated European intellectual life at the end of the 17th century and the beginning of the narrative friendships 18th century. The crux was the issue of abbaye whether Moderns (i.e. contemporary writers and artists) were now morally and essay graphic writing artistically superior to the Ancients (i.e. writers and artists of ancient Greece and Rome). Introduced first in France in 1687 by Charles Perrault, who supported the Moderns, the discussion was taken up in England where it was satirized as The Battle of the Books by Jonathan Swift. It was also satirized by abbaye de lessay, William Hogarth in a print called The Battle of the narrative Pictures , which shows paintings mostly by Renaissance and Baroque masters attacking Hogarth’s own works of equivalent but more contemporary subject matter: an Old Master painting of a Penitent Mary Magdalen , for example, attacks scene three from Hogarth’s series The Harlot’s Progress , while an ancient Feast of the Gods attacks scene three from Hogarth’s The Rake’s Progress . In one instance, the ancient Roman painting from the 1st century BCE known today as the Aldobrandini Wedding is shown slicing into the canvas of the second scene from the Hogarth’s Marriage à-la-Mode series. William Hogarth , The Battle of the Pictures , engraving and etching, 1743. Though treated humorously by Swift and Hogarth, the ‘Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns’ was driven by abbaye, deeper concerns that pitted institutionalized Authority, whose claim to power was supported by established tradition, custom, law, and lineage, against more progressive individuals who chafed under the restrictions that Authority imposed on their lives and the functioning of society.
The conflict introduces an important dichotomy that was to remain fundamental to the modernist question: the division between conservative forces, who tended to support the argument for the Ancients, and the more progressive forces who sided with the Moderns. In the 18th century, the Enlightenment saw the intellectual maturation of the humanist belief in reason as the primary guiding principle in the affairs of humans. Through reason the mind achieved enlightenment, and for exampleessays, the enlightened mind, a whole new and exciting world opened up. The Enlightenment was an intellectual movement for which the most immediate stimulus was the so-called Scientific Revolution of the abbaye de lessay 16th and 17th-centuries when men like Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, and Isaac Newton, through the application of reason to the study of the natural world and the heavens had made spectacular scientific discoveries in which were revealed various scientific truths. More often than not, these new-found truths flew in the face of conventional beliefs, especially those held by biography best, the Church. For example, contrary to what the Church had maintained for centuries, the abbaye ‘truth’ was that the Earth revolved around the sun. The idea that ‘truth’ could be discovered through the application of reason based on study was tremendously exciting. The open-minded 18th-century thinker believed that virtually everything could be submitted to reason: tradition, customs, morals, even art. But, more than this, it was felt that the ‘truth’ revealed thereby could be applied in the political and organizer writing social spheres to ‘correct’ problems and ‘improve’ the de lessay political and social condition of humankind. This kind of thinking quickly gave rise to the exciting possibility of creating a new and better society.
The ‘truth’ discovered through reason would free people from the shackles of personal statement corrupt institutions such as the Church and abbaye the monarchy whose misguided traditional thinking and old ideas had kept people subjugated in ignorance and superstition. The concept of freedom became central to alighieri essay the vision of a new society. Through truth and freedom, the world would be made into a better place. Progressive 18th-century thinkers believed that the lot of humankind would be greatly improved through the process of enlightenment, from being shown the truth. With reason and truth in hand, the individual would no longer be at the mercy of religious and secular authorities, which had constructed their own truths and de lessay manipulated them to their own self-serving ends. Friendships! At the root of this thinking is the belief in the perfectibility of humankind. Enlightenment thinking pictured the abbaye de lessay human race as striving towards universal moral and intellectual self-realization. It was believed that reason allowed access to truth, and knowledge of the truth would better humankind.
The vision that began to take shape in the 18th century was of a new world, a better world. In 1762, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, in his Inquiry into the Nature of the Social Contract , proposed that a new social system should rest on ‘an equality that is moral and legitimate, and dante that men, who may be unequal in strength or intelligence, become every one equal by convention and legal right.’ By joining together into civil society through the social contract, individuals could both preserve themselves and attain freedom. These tenets were fundamental to the notion of modernism. Such declarations in support of liberty and de lessay equality were not only found in books. In the 18th century, two major attempts were made to put these ideas into practice. Such ideas, of course, were not popular with conservative and traditional elements, and their resistance had to be overcome in both cases through bloody revolution. The first great experiment in creating a new and better society was undertaken in what was literally the new world and the new ideals were first expressed in the Declaration of Independence of the newly founded United States in 1776.
It is Enlightenment thinking that informs such phrases as ‘we hold these truths to graphic organizer be self-evident’ and which underpins the notion ‘that all men are created equal.’ The document’s worldly character is reflected in its stated concern for man's right to de lessay pursue happiness in his lifetime, which signals a shift away from a God-centered, Christian concentration on the afterlife to biography best one focused on the individual and the quality of a person’s life. Fundamental, too, is the notion of freedom; liberty was declared one of man's inalienable rights. In 1789, another bloody revolution undertaken in France also attempted to create a new society. De Lessay! Its aim was to supplant an oppressive governmental structure centered around an absolute monarchy, an aristocracy with feudal privileges, and a powerful Catholic clergy, with new Enlightenment principles of citizenship, nationalism, and inalienable rights; the narrative essay friendships revolutionaries rallied to the cry of equality, fraternity, and liberty. The French Revolution, however, failed to bring about a radically new society in France. Several changes of regime quickly followed culminating in Napoleon’s military dictatorship, the abbaye de lessay establishment of the Napoleonic Empire, and essay writing finally the restoration of the monarchy in abbaye de lessay 1814. Revolutionary activity continued, though, in 1830 and again in 1848. Mention can be made here of a third major attempt to essay create a new society along fundamentally Enlightenment lines that took place at the beginning of the 20th century. Abbaye De Lessay! The Russian Revolution, initiated in 1915, perhaps the most idealistic and utopian of all, also failed. It is in exampleessays the ideals of the de lessay Enlightenment that the roots of Modernism, and the new role of art and the artist, are to be found.
Simply put, the overarching goal of essay friendships Modernism, of modern art, has been the abbaye de lessay creation of essay friendships a better society. What were the means by which this goal was to be reached? If the desire of the 18th century was to produce a better society, how was this to abbaye be brought about? How does one go about perfecting humankind and creating a better world? As we have seen, it was the 18th-century belief that only the enlightened mind can find truth; both enlightenment and truth were discovered through the application of exampleessays reason to knowledge, a process that also created new knowledge. The individual acquired knowledge and at the same time the means to discover truth in it through proper education and abbaye instruction.
Cleansed of the corruptions of religious and political ideology by open-minded reason, education brings us the truth, or shows us how to reach the truth. Education enlightens us and makes us better people. Alighieri Essay! Educated, enlightened people will form the foundations of the new society, a society which they will create through their own efforts. Until recently, this concept of the role of education has remained fundamental to western modernist thinking. Enlightened thinkers, and abbaye here might be mentioned for example Thomas Jefferson, constantly pursued knowledge, sifting out the truth by dante alighieri, subjecting all they learned to reasoned analysis. Jefferson, of course, not only consciously cultivated his own enlightenment, but also actively promoted education for others, founding in abbaye de lessay Charlottesville an ‘academical village’ that later became the University of Virginia. Exampleessays! He believed that the de lessay search for truth should be conducted without prejudice, and, mindful of the Enlightenment suspicion of the Church, deliberately did not include a campus chapel in his plans. The Church and its narrow-minded influences, he felt, should be kept separate not only from the State, but also from in paradise part education.
Jefferson, like many other Enlightenment thinkers, saw a clear role for art and architecture. Art and architecture could serve in this process of enlightenment education by providing examples of abbaye those qualities and personal service ucas virtues that it was felt should guide the enlightened mind. In the latter half of the 18th century, the model for abbaye de lessay, the ideals of the exampleessays new society was the world of ancient Rome and Greece. Abbaye! The Athens of Pericles and Rome of the Republican period offered fine examples of emerging democratic principles in government, and of heroism and virtuous action, self-sacrifice and essay civic dedication in the behaviour of their citizens. It was believed, in fact, certainly according to the ‘ancients’ in the Quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns mentioned earlier, that the ancient world had achieved a kind of abbaye perfection, an ideal that came close to decisions in paradise 3 essays the Enlightenment understanding of truth. The German art historian Johann Winckelmann, writing in the 18th century, was convinced that the art of abbaye de lessay ancient Greece was the most perfect and directed contemporary artists to in paradise part 3 essays examples such as the Apollo Belvedere . Roman marble copy after a bronze original of de lessay c. 330 BCE (Musei Vaticani, Rome) It is under these circumstances that Jacques-Louis David came to paint the classicizing and didactic historical painting Oath of the Horatii exhibited at the Salon in 1785. David favored the classical and academic traditions both in terms of style and subject matter. His painting depicts a stirring moment in the heroic story of courage and biography best patriotic self-sacrifice in pre-Republican Rome. The firmly modeled statuesque male figures on the left enact a virile drama through which are displayed their noble virtues. De Lessay! The energy and physical tension of their actions is contrasted to writing ucas the curvilinear shapes and collapsing forms of the women on the right who are shown overcome by emotion and abbaye de lessay sorrow, showing the weakness of female nature.
This was a grand and edifying work treating an honorable and moralizing subject. Jacques-Louis David , Oath of the Horatii. 1785, oil on canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) David himself saw the role of art in building a new society in no uncertain terms. An active supporter of the French Revolution, he was a member of the Revolutionary Committee on Public Instruction where he explained that the Committee: considered the arts in all respects by which they should help spread the progress of the human spirit, to narrative essay friendships propagate and abbaye transmit to posterity the biography best striking example of the sublime efforts of an immense people, guided by reason and philosophy, restoring to earth the reign of liberty, equality, and abbaye de lessay law. He states categorically that ‘the arts should contribute forcefully to public instruction.’ With respect to the quarrel of the Ancients and Moderns, David can be associated with the supporters of the Ancients. He envisioned a new society based on conservative ideals. Organizer! In contrast, there were other artists, we can call them Moderns, whose vision of a new world order was more progressive. The Moderns envisioned a world conceived anew, not one that merely imitated ancient models.
The problem for the Moderns, however, was that their new world was something of an unknown quantity. The nature of abbaye de lessay ‘truth’ was problematical from the outset, and their dilemma over the nature of humans who possessed not only a rational mind open to reason but also an emotional life which had to be taken into account. It was also felt that reason stifled imagination, and without imagination no progress would be made. Reason alone was inhuman, but imagination without reason ‘produces monsters‘ (see Francisco de Goya‘s The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters ). It was agreed, though, that freedom was central and statement was to be pursued through the very exercise of freedom in the contemporary world. Francisco de Goya , The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. Etching and abbaye aquatint. (Caprichos no.
43: El sueño de la razón produce monstruos ), 1796-1797. After the biography best Revolution of 1789, the Ancients came to be identified with the abbaye de lessay old order, the ancien régime . They were caste as politically conservative and associated with a type of academic art called Neoclassicism. In contrast, the Moderns were seen as politically progressive in a left-wing, revolutionary sense and dante alighieri essay associated with the anti-academic movement called Romanticism. The nature of this division is de lessay best seen in the rivalry of the classicizing artist Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres, and the Romantic painter Eugène Delacroix. In the Salon exhibition of 1824, Ingres exhibited his Vow of Louis XIII and Delacroix his Massacre of Scios . In his review of the exhibition in essay organizer writing the Journal des débats , the critic Étienne-Jean Delécluze described Ingres’ work as ‘le beau’ (the beautiful) because in both style and subject matter it followed classical academic theory and promoted the right-wing, conservative values of the ancien régime . De Lessay! In contrast, Delacroix’s painting was labeled ‘le laid’ (the ugly) because of the alighieri essay way it was painted, with loose brushwork and unidealized figures, and because its subject matter, the abbaye de lessay slaughter of thousands of Greek inhabitants on the island of Chios by Turkish troops in 1822, not only lacked examples of valour and virtue, but also expressed a more liberal criticism of the alighieri essay event and abbaye moral outrage over its occurrence in the contemporary world. J-A-D Ingres , Vow of Louis XIII.
1824, oil on biography best, canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) Eugène Delacroix , Massacre at Chios. 1824, oil on de lessay, canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) For conservatives, Ingres represented order, traditional values, and the good old days of the ancien régime . Biography Best! Political progressives saw Delacroix as the representative of contemporary or modern life. He was associated with political revolution and new progressive intellectual views; his supporters claimed he had established the idea of liberty in art. Delacroix was the first major progressive modernist artist in France. His paintings deliberately rejected the Academic ideal of the beautiful and instead, in the view of de lessay conservatives critical of his work, he instituted the essay writing ‘cult of ugliness’. Abbaye! Other artists were seen to narrative adopt this same position, notably Gustave Courbet and Édouard Manet, each of abbaye whom deliberately rejected the Academic model of the beautiful. Their ideas and approach to art were regarded as so subversive that they were accused of attempting to undermine not only the writing Academy but even the State. The threat of progressive modernism was such that the State, beginning with the Universal Exposition in Paris in 1855, embarked on a program the effect of which was to neutralize and depoliticize works of art. The plan for de lessay, the Universal Exposition was to narrative include, in a retrospective exhibition, examples of various different styles of French art, including those of Ingres and de lessay Delacroix, in a way that highlighted eclecticism but which simultaneously also had the decisions in paradise 3 essays effect of turning the paintings into non-threatening ‘works of art’.
With the support of conservative forces and compliance of formalist critics and art historians, the abbaye political and social commentary essential to progressive modernist art was effectively stripped away leaving only the paint on the canvas, which was discussed simply in exampleessays terms of its formal qualities. In his guide to the Universal Exposition ( Guide pratique et complet à l'Exposition universelle de 1855 ), Prince Napoléon-Joseph-Charles-Paul Bonaparte, who presided over the Universal Exposition, wrote that in Delacroix’s painting Liberty Leading the People, 28 July 1830 : There are no longer any violent discussions, inflammatory opinions about art, and in Delacroix the colorist one no longer recognizes the flaming revolutionary whom an immature School set in opposition to de lessay Ingres. Each artist today occupies his legitimate place. The 1855 Exposition has done well to elevate Delacroix; his works, judged in so many different ways, have now been reviewed, studied, admired, like all works marked by genius. [Translation from Patricia Mainardi : see BIBLIOGRAPHY ] Eugène Delacroix , Liberty Leading the People, 28 July 1830. 1830, Oil on canvas (Musée du Louvre, Paris) Thus, Delacroix the ‘flaming revolutionary’ was transformed into Delacroix the ‘colorist.’ Although some progressive artists, such as Gustave Courbet, perhaps sensing how inclusion in the exhibition might compromise their work, refused to participate, the exampleessays Universal Exposition effectively initiated a way to contain the impulses of progressive modernism and neutralize the threat it posed to the prevailing conservative ethos of abbaye society. Until recently, this has remained a prevailing approach to modernism. The socialist statements so forcefully made by graphic organizer, Gustave Courbet in his painting The Stonebreakers , for example, and the sharp political commentary of Édouard Manet in his The Execution of the Emperor Maximilian , 1867, for example, have been generally suppressed and replaced by de lessay, discussions of the formal qualities of each work. 1849-50, oil on canvas (destroyed) Execution of the Emperor Maximilian.
1867, oil on exampleessays, canvas (Kunsthalle, Mannheim) But although these discussions may have deliberately repressed its revolutionary and confrontational character, progressive modernism itself, as an ideology and a political movement, remained vital and de lessay active.
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Abbaye Sainte-Trinit de Lessay — Wikipdia
essays and notes New Memoryhole story : Reinventing Big Brother [8 June,2003] A couple of days ago a new story has been added to the Memoryhole. Read more. 1984 opera [4 May,2005] On May the 3rd the opera adaption of George Orwell's 1984 received its premiere in the Royal Opera House (Covent Garden) in London. Abbaye! Read more. The sensitive person?s hostility to the machine is in one sense unrealistic, because of the obvious fact that the machine has come to stay. But as an biography best, attitude of abbaye de lessay mind there is a great deal to be said for it. Alighieri! The machine has got to be accepted, but it is probably better to accept it rather as one accepts a drug ? that is, grudgingly and suspiciously. , George Orwell, The Road to Wigan Pier. Eleven rules for making a perfect cup of tea. Orwell about autobiographies.
Socialism and the English genius. Decay of language in literaure. Great man's thoughts on another great man. Spanish war and de lessay newspapers. Another experience as a policeman in Burma. Changes in the language. Orwell about his time working in a bookshop. Essay on James Burnham, who inspired Orwell when he imagined the essay writing, geopolitical structure of abbaye 1984. Nationalism in history. Utopia and socialism. Thoughts on nature.
Work : Essays : Notes on Nationalism. By nationalism I mean first of all the habit of assuming that human beings can be classified like insects and that whole blocks of millions or tens of millions of people can be confidently labelled good or bad. But secondly -- and this is much more important -- I mean the essay graphic, habit of identifying oneself with a single nation or other unit, placing it beyond good and evil and recognizing no other duty than that of advancing its interests. Nationalism is not to abbaye be confused with patriotism. Dante! Both words are normally used in abbaye, so vague a way that any definition is liable to be challenged, but one must draw a distinction between them, since two different and even opposing ideas are involved. By patriotism I mean devotion to a particular place and service a particular way of life, which one believes to be the best in the world but has no wish to force on other people. Patriotism is of its nature defensive, both militarily and de lessay culturally. Nationalism, on the other hand, is inseperable from the desire for power. The abiding purpose of every nationalist is to secure more power and more prestige, not for himself but for essay the nation or other unit in which he has chosen to de lessay sink his own individuality. So long as it is applied merely to the more notorious and identifiable nationalist movements in decisions in paradise part, Germany, Japan, and other countries, all this is obvious enough.
Confronted with a phenomenon like Nazism, which we can observe from the abbaye, outside, nearly all of 3 essays us would say much the same things about it. But here I must repeat what I said above, that I am only using the abbaye, word nationalism for lack of a better. Decisions In Paradise! Nationalism, in the extended sense in abbaye de lessay, which I am using the word, includes such movments and tendencies as Communism, political Catholocism, Zionism, Antisemitism, Trotskyism and Pacifism. It does not necessarily mean loyalty to a government or a country, still less to one's own country, and it is not even strictly necessary that the units in which it deals should actually exist. To name a few obvious examples, Jewry, Islam, Christendom, the Proletariat and the White Race are all of them objects of biography best passionate nationalistic feeling: but their existence can be seriously questioned, and there is abbaye de lessay, no definition of biography best any one of them that would be universally accepted. It is also worth emphasizing once again that nationalist feeling can be purely negative. There are, for example, Trotskyists who have become simply enemies of the USSR without developing a corresponding loyalty to any other unit.
When one grasps the implications of this, the nature of what I mean by nationalism becomes a good deal clearer. A nationalist is one who thinks solely, or mainly, in terms of competitive prestige. He may be a positive or a negative nationalist -- that is, he may use his mental energy either in boosting or in denigrating -- but at any rate his thoughts always turn on victories, defeats, triumphs and humiliations. Abbaye! He sees history, especially contemporary history, as the endless rise and decline of great power units, and decisions part 3 essays every event that happens seems to him a demonstration that his own side is on the upgrade and de lessay some hated rival is on the downgrade. Exampleessays! But finally, it is important not to confuse nationalism with mere worship of abbaye de lessay success. The nationalist does not go on the principle of simply ganging up with the strongest side. On the contrary, having picked his side, he persuades himself that it is the strongest, and is able to exampleessays stick to his belief even when the facts are overwhelmingly against de lessay, him. Exampleessays! Nationalism is power-hunger tempered by self-deception.
Every nationalist is capable of the abbaye de lessay, most flagrant dishonesty, but he is also -- since he is conscious of biography best serving something bigger than himself -- unshakeably certain of being in the right. Now that I have given this lengthy definition, I think it will be admitted that the habit of mind I am talking about is widespread among the English intelligentsia, and more widespread there than among the mass of the people. For those who feel deeply about contemporary politics, certain topics have become so infected by considerations of abbaye prestige that a genuinely rational approach to them is almost impossible. Statement Writing Service Ucas! Out of the hundreds of examples that one might choose, take this question: Which of the de lessay, three great allies, the USSR, Britain and the USA, has contributed most to alighieri essay the defeat of Germany? In theory, it should be possible to give a reasoned and perhaps even a conclusive answer to this question. In practice, however, the necessary calculations cannot be made, because anyone likely to bother his head about such a question would inevitably see it in terms of competitive prestige. He would therefore start by deciding in favour of Russia, Britain or America as the abbaye de lessay, case might be, and only after this would begin searching for arguments that seemd to support his case. And there are whole strings of kindred questions to statement writing service ucas which you can only get an honest answer from someone who is indifferent to the whole subject involved, and whose opinion on abbaye de lessay it is essay, probably worthless in any case. Hence, partly, the remarkable failure in our time of political and military prediction.
It is curious to reflect that out of al the experts of all the schools, there was not a single one who was able to abbaye de lessay foresee so likely an event as the Russo-German Pact of 1939. And when news of the Pact broke, the essay friendships, most wildly divergent explanations were of it were given, and predictions were made which were falsified almost immediately, being based in nearly every case not on a study of probabilities but on a desire to make the USSR seem good or bad, strong or weak. De Lessay! Political or military commentators, like astrologers, can survive almost any mistake, because their more devoted followers do not look to them for decisions in paradise an appraisal of the abbaye de lessay, facts but for the stimulation of nationalistic loyalties. And aesthetic judgements, especially literary judgements, are often corrupted in the same way as political ones. It would be difficult for an Indian Nationalist to enjoy reading Kipling or for a Conservative to see merit in Mayakovsky, and there is always a temptation to claim that any book whose tendency one disagrees with must be a bad book from a literary point of view.
People of strongly nationalistic outlook often perform this sleight of hand without being conscious of biography best dishonesty. In England, if one simply considers the number of people involved, it is abbaye, probable that the dominant form of decisions in paradise part 3 essays nationalism is old-fashioned British jingoism. It is certain that this is still widespread, and much more so than most observers would have believed a dozen years ago. However, in this essay I am concerned chiefly with the reactions of the intelligentsia, among whom jingoism and even patriotism of the old kind are almost dead, though they now seem to be reviving among a minority. Among the intelligentsia, it hardly needs saying that the dominant form of nationalism is Communism -- using this word in a very loose sense, to include not merely Communist Party members, but fellow travellers and russophiles generally. A Communist, for my purpose here, is one who looks upon the USSR as his Fatherland and feels it his duty t justify Russian policy and advance Russian interests at de lessay all costs. Obviously such people abound in England today, and friendships their direct and indirect influence is very great. But many other forms of nationalism also flourish, and it is by de lessay noticing the points of resemblance between different and even seemingly opposed currents of statement service thought that one can best get the matter into abbaye perspective.
Ten or twenty years ago, the form of nationalism most closely corresponding to Communism today was political Catholicism. Its most outstanding exponent -- though he was perhaps an decisions in paradise part 3 essays, extreme case rather than a typical one -- was G.K. Abbaye! Chesterton. Chesterton was a writer of considerable talent who whose to suppress both his sensibilities and his intellectual honesty in the cause of Roman Catholic propaganda. During the last twenty years or so of his life, his entire output was in reality an endless repetition of the same thing, under its laboured cleverness as simple and essay friendships boring as Great is Diana of the Ephesians. Abbaye De Lessay! Every book that he wrote, every scrap of dialogue, had to demonstrate beyond the possibility of mistake the dante essay, superiority of the Catholic over the Protestan or the pagan.
But Chesterton was not content to think of this superiority as merely intellectual or spiritual: it had to abbaye de lessay be translated into terms of national prestige and military power, which entailed an ignorant idealisation of the 3 essays, Latin countries, especially France. Chesterton had not lived long in France, and his picture of it --- as a land of Catholic peasants incessantly singing the Marseillaise over glasses of red wine -- had about as much relation to reality as Chu Chin Chow has to everyday life in Baghdad. And with this went not only an enormous overstimation of French military power (both before and after 1914-18 he maintained that France, by itself, was stronger than Germany), but a silly and vulgar glorification of the actual process of de lessay war. Chesterton's battle poems, such as Lepanto or The Ballad of Saint Barbara, make The Charge of the Light Brigade read like a pacifist tract: they are perhaps the most tawdry bits of bombast to be found in our language. Personal Service Ucas! The interesting thing is that had the romantic rubbish which he habitually wrote about France and abbaye the French army been written by somebody else about Britain and the British army, he would have been the first to jeer. In home politics he was a Little Englander, a true hater of jingoism and imperialism, and decisions in paradise according to his lights a true friend of democracy. Yet when he looked outwards into abbaye de lessay the international field, he could forsake his principles without even noticing he was doing so. Thus, his almost mystical belief in the virtues of democracy did not prevent him from admiring Mussolini.
Mussolini had destroyed the representative government and the freedom of the essay, press for which Chesterton had struggled so hard at home, but Mussolini was an Italian and had made Italy strong, and that settled the matter. Abbaye De Lessay! Nor did Chesterton ever find a word to say about imperialsm and the conquest of coloured races when they were practised by Italians or Frenchmen. His hold on reality, his literary taste, and even to some extent his moral sense, were dislocated as soon as his nationalistic loyalties were involved. Obviously there are considerable resemblances between political Catholicism, as exemplified by Chesterton, and Communism. So there are between either of these and for instance Scottish nationalism, Zionism, Antisemitism or Trotskyism. It would be an oversimplification to say that all forms of nationalism are the same, even in their mental atmosphere, but there are certain rules that hold good in all cases. The following are the decisions in paradise part, principal characteristics of nationalist thought: OBSESSION . As nearly as possible, no nationalist ever thinks, talks, or writes about abbaye de lessay, anything except the superiority of his own power unit. 3 Essays! It is difficult if not impossible for abbaye any nationalist to conceal his allegiance.
The smallest slur upon his own unit, or any implied praise of a rival organization, fills him with uneasiness which he can relieve only by making some sharp retort. If the chosen unit is an actual country, such as Ireland or India, he will generally claim superiority for it not only in military power and political virtue, but in art, literature, sport, structure of the language, the physical beauty of the inhabitants, and perhaps even in climate, scenery and exampleessays cooking. He will show great sensitiveness about abbaye de lessay, such things as the correct display of flags, relative size of service ucas headlines and the order in which different countries are named. Nomenclature plays a very important part in nationalist thought. Countries which have won their independence or gone through a nationalist revolution usually change their names, and any country or other unit round which strong feelings revolve is likely to de lessay have several names, each of friendships them carrying a different implication. Abbaye De Lessay! The two sides of the Spanish Civil War had between them nine or ten names expressing different degrees of love and narrative hatred. Some of these names (e.g. Patriots for Franco-supporters, or Loyalists for abbaye de lessay Government-supporters) were frankly question-begging, and there was no single one of the which the two rival factions could have agreed to use.
INSTABILITY The intensity with which they are held does not prevent nationalist loyalties from being transferable. To begin with, as I have pointed out dante alighieri already, they can be and often are fastened up on some foreign country. Abbaye De Lessay! One quite commonly finds that great national leaders, or the founders of nationalist movements, do not even belong to the country they have glorified. Sometimes they are outright foreigners, or more often they come from peripheral areas where nationality is doubtful. Examples are Stalin, Hitler, Napoleon, de Valera, Disraeli, Poincare, Beaverbrook. The Pan-German movement was in part the personal writing service ucas, creation of an Englishman, Houston Chamberlain.
For the past fifty or a hundred years, transferred nationalism has been a common phenomenon among literary intellectuals. With Lafcadio Hearne the transference was to Japan, with Carlyle and many others of his time to Germany, and in our own age it is usually to Russia. But the peculiarly interesting fact is that re- transference is also possible. A country or other unit which has been worshipped for years may suddenly become detestable, ans some other object of affection may take its place with almost no interval. In the first version of H.G. De Lessay! Wells's Outline of biography best History, and others of his writings about that time, one finds the United States praised almost as extravagantly as Russia is praised by Communists today: yet within a few years this uncritical admiration had turned into abbaye de lessay hostility.
The bgoted Communist who changes in a space of weeks, or even days, into an equally bigoted Trotskyist is personal service, a common spectacle. In continental Europe Fascist movements were largely recruited from among Communists, and de lessay the opposite process may well happen within the next few years. What remains constant in the nationalist is graphic organizer, his state of mind: the object of his feelings is changeable, and may be imaginary. But for an intellectual, transference has an important function which I have already mentioned shortly in connection with Chesterton. It makes it possible for him to be much more nationalistic -- more vulgar, more silly, more malignant, more dishonest -- that he could ever be on behalf of his native country, or any unit of which he had real knowledge. Abbaye De Lessay! When one sees the slavish or boastful rubbish that is written about Stalin, the Red Army, etc. by fairly intelligent and sensitive people, one realizes that this is only possible because some kind of dislocation has taken place. In societies such as ours, it is unusual for anyone describable as an intellectual to exampleessays feel a very deep attachment to his own country.
Public opinion -- that is , the section of public opinion of which he as an intellectual is aware -- will not allow him to do so. Most of the people surrounding him are sceptical and disaffected, and he may adopt the abbaye de lessay, same attitude from imitativeness or sheer cowardice: in that case he will have abandoned the form of nationalism that lies nearest to hand without getting any closer to a genuinely internationalist outlook. He still feels the need for a Fatherland, and it is natural to look for one somewhere abroad. Having found it, he can wallow unrestrainedly in exactly those emotions from which he believes that he has emancipated himself. God, the King, the Empire, the essay friendships, Union Jack -- all the overthrown idols can reappear under different names, and because they are not recognized for what they are they can be worshipped with a good conscience. Transferred nationalism, like the use of scapegoats, is a way of attaining salvation without altering one's conduct. INDIFFERENCE TO REALITY. All nationalists have the power of not seeing resemblances between similar sets of facts. A British Tory will defend self-determination in Europe and oppose it in India with no feeling of inconsistency.
Actions are held to be good or bad, not on their own merits, but according to who does them, and there is almost no kind of outrage -- torture, the use of hostages, forced labour, mass deportations, imprisonment without trial, forgery, assassination, the bombing of civilians -- which does not change its moral colour when it is committed by de lessay our side. The Liberal News Chronicle published, as an example of decisions in paradise shocking barbarity, photographs of Russians hanged by the Germans, and then a year or two later published with warm approval almost exactly similar photographs of abbaye de lessay Germans hanged by the Russians. It is the in paradise, same with historical events. History is thought of largely in nationalist terms, and such things as the Inquisition, the tortures of the Star Chamber, the exploits of the de lessay, English buccaneers (Sir Francis Drake, for essay instance, who was given to sinking Spanish prisoners alive), the de lessay, Reign of Terror, the heroes of the Mutiny blowing hundreds of Indians from the graphic organizer, guns, or Cromwell's soldiers slashing Irishwomen's faces with razors, become morally neutral or even meritorious when it is felt that they were done in the right cause. If one looks back over the past quarter of a century, one finds that there was hardly a single year when atrocity stories were not being reported from some part of the world; and abbaye yet in not one single case were these atrocities -- in essay friendships, Spain, Russia, China, Hungary, Mexico, Amritsar, Smyrna -- believed in and disapproved of by the English intelligentsia as a whole.
Whether such deeds were reprehensible, or even whether they happened, was always decided according to political predilection. The nationalist not only abbaye does not disapprove of atrocities committed by his own side, but he has a remarkable capacity for not even hearing about them. For quite six years the English admirers of essay Hitler contrived not to learn of the existence of Dachau and Buchenwald. And those who are loudest in denouncing the German concentration camps are often quite unaware, or only very dimly aware, that there are also concentration camps in Russia. Huge events like the Ukraine famine of 1933, involving the deaths of millions of people, have actually escaped the attention of the abbaye, majority of English russophiles. Dante! Many English people have heard almost nothing about the extermination of German and Polish Jews during the present war. Their own antisemitism has caused this vast crime to bounce off their consciousness.
In nationalist thought there are facts which are both true and untrue, known and unknown. A known fact may be so unbearable that it is habitually pushed aside and not allowed to enter into logical processes, or on the other hand it may enter into every calculation and yet never be admitted as a fact, even in one's own mind. Every nationalist is haunted by abbaye de lessay the belief that the dante essay, past can be altered. He spends part of his time in a fantasy world in which things happen as they should -- in which, for abbaye de lessay example, the Spanish Armada was a success or the Russian Revolution was crushed in decisions part 3 essays, 1918 -- and he will transfer fragments of this world to the history books whenever possible. Much of the propagandist writing of our time amounts to plain forgery. Material facts are suppressed, dates altered, quotations removed from their context and doctored so as to change their meaning. Abbaye! Events which it is felt ought not to have happened are left unmentioned and personal ucas ultimately denied. In 1927 Chiang Kai Shek boiled hundreds of Communists alive, and abbaye de lessay yet within ten years he had become one of the heroes of the Left. The re-alignment of world politics had brought him into the anti-Fascist camp, and essay so it was felt that the boiling of the abbaye, Communists didn't count, or perhaps had not happened.
The primary aim of progaganda is, of course, to influence contemporary opinion, but those who rewrite history do probably believe with part of 3 essays their minds that they are actually thrusting facts into the past. When one considers the elaborate forgeries that have been committed in order to show that Trotsky did not play a valuable part in the Russian civil war, it is difficult to de lessay feel that the exampleessays, people responsible are merely lying. More probably they feel that their own version was what happened in de lessay, the sight of God, and that one is justified in rearranging the records accordingly. Indifference to objective truth is encouraged by decisions part the sealing-off of one part of the world from another, which makes it harder and harder to discover what is actually happening. Abbaye De Lessay! There can often be a genuine doubt about the exampleessays, most enormous events. For example, it is impossible to calculate within millions, perhaps even tens of millions, the number of abbaye deaths caused by the present war. The calamities that are constantly being reported -- battles, massacres, famines, revolutions -- tend to inspire in the average person a feeling of biography best unreality. One has no way of verifying the abbaye, facts, one is biography best, not even fully certain that they have happened, and one is always presented with totally different interpretations from de lessay different sources. What were the rights and wrongs of the Warsaw rising of August 1944?
Is it true about the German gas ovens in Poland? Who was really to blame for the Bengal famine? Probably the truth is discoverable, but the facts will be so dishonestly set forth in almost any newspaper that the ordinary reader can be forgiven either for swallowing lies or failing to dante alighieri essay form an opinion. The general uncertainty as to abbaye what is in paradise part 3 essays, really happening makes it easier to cling to lunatic beliefs. Since nothing is ever quite proved or disproved, the abbaye de lessay, most unmistakable fact can be impudently denied. Moreover, although endlessly brooding on power, victory, defeat, revenge, the nationalist is often somewhat uninterested in alighieri essay, what happens in the real world.
What he wants is to feel that his own unit is getting the better of some other unit, and he can more easily do this by scoring off an abbaye de lessay, adversary than by examining the facts to see whether they support him. All nationalist controversy is at the debating-society level. It is always entirely inconclusive, since each contestant invariably believes himself to narrative have won the victory. Some nationalists are not far from schizophrenia, living quite happily amid dreams of power and conquest which have no connection with the physical world. I have examined as best as I can the mental habits which are common to all forms of nationalism. The next thing is to classify those forms, but obviously this cannot be done comprehensively. Nationalism is an abbaye, enormous subject. The world is decisions part 3 essays, tormented by innumerable delusions and hatreds which cut across one another in abbaye, an extremely complex way, and some of the most sinister of them have not yet impinged on the European consciousness. In this essay I am concerned with nationalism as it occurs among the English intelligentsia. In them, much more than in ordinary English people, it is unmixed with patriotism and therefore can be studied pure.
Below are listed the varieties of nationalism now flourishing among English intellectuals, with such comments as seem to be needed. It is convenient to use three headings, Positive, Transferred, and essay friendships Negative, though some varieties will fit into more than one category. 1. NEO-TORYISM. Exemplified by such people as Lord Elton, A.P. Herbert, G.M. Young, Professor Pickthorn, by the literature of the Tory Reform Committee, and by such magazines as the abbaye, New English Review and the Nineteenth Century and After . The real motive force of neo-Toryism, giving it its nationalistic character and biography best differentiating it from ordinary Conservatism, is the desire not to recognize that British power and influence have declined. Even those who are realistic enough to see that Britain's military position is not what it was, tend to claim that English ideas (usually left undefined) must dominate the world. All neo-Tories are anti-Russian, but sometimes the main emphasis is anti-American.
The significant thing is that this school of thought seems to be gaining ground among youngish intellectuals, sometimes ex-Communists, who have passed throught the usual process of disillusionment and become disillusioned with that. Abbaye! The anglophobe who suddenly becomes violently pro-British is a fairly common figure. Writers who illustrate this tendency are F.A. Voigt, Malcolm Muggeridge, Evelyn Waugh, Hugh Kingsmill, and a psychologically similar development can be observed in T.S. Eliot, Wyndham Lewis, and narrative essay various of their followers. 2. Abbaye De Lessay! CELTIC NATIONALISM. Welsh, Irish and Scottish nationalism have points of essay friendships difference but are alike in their anti-English orientation. Members of all three movements have opposed the war while continuing to describe themselves as pro-Russian, and the lunatic fringe has even contrived to be simultaneously pro-Russian and pro-Nazi. But Celtic nationalism is not the same thing as anglophobia. Its motive force is a belief in the past and future greatness of the de lessay, Celtic peoples, and it has a strong tinge of biography best racialism. The Celt is de lessay, supposed to decisions in paradise part be spiritually superior to de lessay the Saxon -- simpler, more creative, less vulgar, less snobbish, etc. -- but the usual power hunger is statement ucas, there under the de lessay, surface.
One symptom of it is the alighieri essay, delusion that Eire, Scotland or even Wales could preserve its independence unaided and owes nothing to British protection. Among writers, good examples of this school of thought are Hugh MacDiarmid and Sean O'Casey. Abbaye De Lessay! No modern Irish writer, even of the essay graphic, stature of Yeats or Joyce, is completely free from traces of nationalism. 3. ZIONISM. This has the unusual characteristics of a nationalist movement, but the American variant of it seems to de lessay be more violent and malignant than the British. I classify it under Direct and not Transferred nationalism because it flourishes almost exclusively among the Jews themselves.
In England, for several rather incongrous reasons, the intelligentsia are mostly pro-Jew on the Palestine issue, but they do not feel strongly about it. All English people of goodwill are also pro-Jew in the sense of disapproving of Nazi persecution. But any actual nationalistic loyalty, or belief in personal, the innate superiority of Jews, is hardly to be foung among Gentiles. 2. De Lessay! POLITICAL CATHOLOCISM. 3. COLOUR FEELING. Biography Best! The old-style contemptuous attitude towards natives has been much weakened in abbaye de lessay, England, and various pseudo-scientific theories emphasizing the superiority of the white race have been abandoned. Among the intelligentsia, colour feeling only occurs in the transposed form, that is, as a belief in the innate superiority of the narrative essay, coloured races. Abbaye De Lessay! This is now increasingly common among English intellectuals, probably resulting more often from masochism and sexual frustration than from contact with the decisions in paradise 3 essays, Oriental and Negro nationalist movements. Even among those who do not feel strongly on the colour question, snobbery and imitation have a powerful influence. Almost any English intellectual would be scandalized by the claim that the white races are superior to the coloured, whereas the opposite claim would seem to him unexceptionable even if he disagreed with it. Nationalistic attachment to de lessay the coloured races is usually mixed up with the belief that their sex lives are superior, and there is a large underground mythology about the sexual prowess of essay Negroes.
4. CLASS FEELING. Among upper-class and middle-class intellectuals, only in the transposed form -- i.e. as a belief in the superiority of the proletariat. Here again, inside the intelligentsia, the pressure of public opinion is overwhelming. Nationalistic loyalty towards the proletariat, and most vicious theoretical hatred of the bourgeoise, can and often do co-exist with ordinary snobbishness in de lessay, everyday life. 5. Personal Statement Service Ucas! PACIFISM The majority of pacifists either belong to abbaye obscure religious sects or are simply humanitarians who object to the taking of personal statement ucas life and abbaye prefer not to follow their thoughts beyond that point. But there is a minority of intellectual pacifists whose real though unadmitted motive appears to be hatred of western democracy and decisions in paradise part admiration of totalitarianism. De Lessay! Pacifist propaganda usually boils down to saying that one side is as bad as the other, but if one looks closely at alighieri the writings of younger intellectual pacifists, one finds that they do not by any means express impartial disapproval but are directed almost entirely against Britain and the United States. Moreover they do not as a rule condemn violence as such, but only violence used in defense of western countries. The Russians, unlike the de lessay, British, are not blamed for organizer writing defending themselves by warlike means, and indeed all pacifist propaganda of this type avoids mention of Russia or China. Abbaye! It is not claimed, again, that the Indians should abjure violence in exampleessays, their struggle against abbaye de lessay, the British. Decisions In Paradise Part 3 Essays! Pacifist literature abounds with equivocal remarks which, if they mean anything, appear to abbaye de lessay mean that statesmen of the type of Hitler are preferable to those of the type of Churchill, and that violence is perhaps excusable if it is violent enough.
After the exampleessays, fall of France, the French pacifists, faced by a real choice which their English colleagues have not had to make, mostly went over to the Nazis, and in England there appears to have been some small overlap of membership between the Peace Pledge Union and the Blackshirts. Pacifist writers have written in abbaye de lessay, praise of narrative essay Carlyle, one of the intellectual fathers of abbaye de lessay Fascism. All in all it is in paradise part, difficult not to abbaye feel that pacifism, as it appears among a section of the intelligentsia, is narrative essay friendships, secretly inspired by an admiration for power and successful cruelty. The mistake was made of pinning this emotion to Hitler, but it could easily be retransfered. 1. Abbaye De Lessay! ANGLOPHOBIA.
Within the intelligentsia, a derisive and essay graphic organizer mildly hostile attitude towards Britain is de lessay, more or less compulsory, but it is an unfaked emotion in many cases. During the war it was manifested in the defeatism of the intelligentsia, which persisted long after it had become clear that the Axis powers could not win. Many people were undisguisedly pleased when Singapore fell ore when the British were driven out of Greece, and there was a remarkable unwillingness to believe in good news, e.g. el Alamein, or the number of German planes shot down in the Battle of Britain. Essay! English left-wing intellectuals did not, of course, actually want the Germans or Japanese to win the war, but many of them could not help getting a certain kick out of seeing their own country humiliated, and wanted to feel that the final victory would be due to Russia, or perhaps America, and not to de lessay Britain. In foreign politics many intellectuals follow the principle that any faction backed by Britain must be in the wrong. As a result, enlightened opinion is quite largely a mirror-image of Conservative policy. Anglophobia is always liable to reversal, hence that fairly common spectacle, the biography best, pacifist of one war who is a bellicist in the next. 2. ANTISEMITISM There is little evidence about this at present, because the Nazi persecutions have made it necessary for any thinking person to side with the Jews against their oppressors. De Lessay! Anyone educated enough to have heard the word antisemitism claims as a matter of course to be free of it, and anti-Jewish remarks are carefully eliminated from all classes of literature.
Actually antisemitism appears to be widespread, even among intellectuals, and the general conspiracy of silence probably helps exacerbate it. People of Left opinions are not immune to it, and their attitude is sometimes affected by the fact that Trotskyists and Anarchists tend to exampleessays be Jews. But antisemitism comes more naturally to people of Conservative tendency, who suspect Jews of weakening national morale and diluting the abbaye, national culture. Neo-Tories and political Catholics are always liable to dante alighieri succumb to antisemitism, at least intermittently. 3. TROTSKYISM This word is used so loosely as to include Anarchists, democratic Socialists and even Liberals. I use it here to mean a doctrinaire Marxist whose main motive is hostility to the Stalin regime. Trotskyism can be better studied in obscure pamphlets or in papers like the abbaye de lessay, Socialist Appeal than in the works of Trotsky himself, who was by no means a man of one idea. Although in some places, for instance in the United States, Trotskyism is dante, able to attract a fairly large number of adherents and develop into an organized movement with a petty fuerher of its own, its inspiration is essentially negative. The Trotskyist is against Stalin just as the abbaye, Communist is for him, and, like the majority of Communists, he wants not so much to essay alter the external world as to feel that the battle for prestige is going in abbaye, his own favour. In each case there is the same obsessive fixation on a single subject, the same inability to form a genuinely rational opinion based on probabilities. The fact that Trotskyists are everywhere a persecuted minority, and that the accusation usually made against them, i.e. of collaborating with the Fascists, is obviously false, creates an impression that Trotskyism is intellectually and morally superior to Communism; but it is doubtful whether there is much difference.
The most typical Trotskyists, in any case, are ex-Communists, and no one arrives at Trotskyism except via one of the left-wing movements. No Communist, unless tethered to his party by years of habit, is secure against a sudden lapse into Trotskyism. The opposite process does not seem to happen equally often, though there is no clear reason why it should not. In the biography best, classification I have attempted above, it will seem that I have often exaggerated, oversimplified, made unwarranted assumptions and abbaye have left out of in paradise account the existence of de lessay ordinarily decent motives. This was inevitable, because in this essay I am trying to isolate and identify tendencies which exist in all our minds and pervert our thinking, without necessarily occurring in dante essay, a pure state or operating continuously. It is de lessay, important at this point to correct the friendships, over-simplified picture which I have been obliged to make. To begin with, one has no right to assume that everyone, or even every intellectual, is infected by nationalism. Secondly, nationalism can be intermittent and limited.
An intelligent man may half-succumb to a belief which he knows to de lessay be absurd, and he may keep it out of exampleessays his mind for long periods, only reverting to it in moments of anger or sentimentality, or when he is certain that no important issues are involved. Thirdly, a nationalistic creed may be adopted in abbaye de lessay, good faith from dante non-nationalistic motives. Fourthly, several kinds of nationalism, even kinds that cancel out, can co-exist in the same person. All the way through I have said, the nationalist does this or the abbaye de lessay, nationalist does that, using for purposes of illustration the extreme, barely sane type of nationalist who has no neutral areas in his mind and no interest in anything except the struggle for power. Actually such people are fairly common, but they are not worth the powder and shot. In real life Lord Elton, D.N. Pritt, Lady Houston, Ezra Pound, Lord Vanisttart, Father Coughlin and all the rest of their dreary tribe have to in paradise part 3 essays be fought against, but their intellectual deficiencies hardly need pointing out. Monomania is not interesting, and de lessay the fact that no nationalist of the more bigoted kind can write a book which still seems worth reading after a lapse of years has a certain deodorizing effect. But when one has admitted that nationalism has not triumphed everywhere, that there are still peoples whose judgements are not at graphic organizer the mercy of abbaye de lessay their desires, the fact does remain that the pressing problems -- India, Poland, Palestine, the Spanish civil war, the dante essay, Moscow trials, the American Negroes, the Russo-German Pact or what have you -- cannot be, or at least never are, discussed upon de lessay, a reasonable level. The Eltons and Pritts and dante essay Coughlins, each of them simply an enormous mouth bellowing the same lie over and over again, are obviously extreme cases, but we deceive ourselves if we do not realize that we can all resemble them in unguarded moments.
Let a certain note be struck, let this or that corn be trodden on -- and it may be corn whose very existence has been unsuspected hitherto -- and de lessay the most fair-minded and exampleessays sweet-tempered person may suddenly be transformed into a vicious partisan, anxious only to score over his adversary and indifferent as to how many lies he tells or how many logical errors he commits in doing so. When Lloyd George, who was an abbaye de lessay, opponent of the essay friendships, Boer War, announced in the House of Commons that the British communiques, if one added them together, claimed the killing of more Boers than the whole Boer nation contained, it is recorded that Arthur Balfour rose to his feet and shouted Cad! Very few people are proof against lapses of this type. The Negro snubbed by a white woman, the Englishman who hears England ignorantly criticized by an American, the Catholic apologist reminded of the Spanish Armada, will all react in much the same way. One prod to the nerve of abbaye de lessay nationalism, and narrative essay the intellectual decencies can vanish, the past can be altered, and the plainest facts can be denied. If one harbours anywhere in one's mind a nationalistic loyalty or hatred, certain facts, although in a sense known to be true, are inadmissible. Here are just a few examples. I list below five types of abbaye de lessay nationalist, and against each I append a fact which it is personal writing service, impossible for that type of nationalist to accept, even in his secret thoughts: BRITISH TORY: Britian will come out of this war with reduced power and prestige. COMMUNIST.
If she had not been aided by abbaye Britain and America, Russia would have been defeated by dante alighieri Germany. IRISH NATIONALIST. Eire can only remain independent because of British protection. TROTSKYIST. The Stalin regime is accepted by abbaye the Russian masses. PACIFIST. Those who abjure violence can only do so because others are committing violence on their behalf. All of these facts are grossly obvious if one's emotions do not happen to alighieri be involved: but to the kind of de lessay person named in each case they are also intolerable, and so they have to be denied, and narrative friendships false theories constructed upon their denial. I come back to the astonishing failure of military prediction in the present war.
It is, I think, true to say that the intelligentsia have been more wrong about the progress of the war than the common people, and that they were more swayed by abbaye partisan feelings. The average intellectual of the Left believed, for instance, that the war was lost in 1940, that the Germans were bound to overrun Egypt in 1942, that the Japanese would never be driven out of the lands they had conquered, and that the Anglo-American bombing offensive was making no impression on Germany. He could believe these things because his hatred for in paradise 3 essays the British ruling class forbade him to admit that British plans could succeed. There is no limit to the follies that can be swallowed if one is under the influence of feelings of this kind. I have heard it confidently stated, for instance, that the American troops had been brought to Europe not to fight the Germans but to crush an abbaye, English revolution. One has to belong to the intelligentsia to believe things like that: no ordinary man could be such a fool. Exampleessays! When Hitler invaded Russia, the officials of the MOI issued as background a warning that Russia might be expected to abbaye de lessay collapse in six weeks. On the other hand the Communists regarded every phase of the war as a Russian victory, even when the Russians were driven back almost to the Caspian Sea and had lost several million prisoners. Statement Writing Service Ucas! There is no need to multiply instances. The point is that as soon as fear, hatred, jealousy and power worship are involved, the sense of de lessay reality becomes unhinged. And, as I have pointed out already, the sense of right and wrong becomes unhinged also.
There is no crime, absolutely none, that cannot be condoned when our side commits it. Even if one does not deny that the crime has happened, even if one knows that it is essay, exactly the same crime as one has condemned in some other case, even if one admits in abbaye, an intellectual sense that it is unjustified -- still one cannot feel that it is wrong. Loyalty is involved, and so pity ceases to function. The reason for the rise and spread of nationalism is narrative essay friendships, far too big a question to be raised here. It is enough to de lessay say that, in the forms in which it appears among English intellectuals, it is a distorted reflection of the frightful battles actually happening in the external world, and that its worst follies have been made possible by the breakdown of patriotism and narrative essay friendships religious belief.
If one follows up this train of thought, one is in danger of being led into a species of Conservatism, or into political quietism. It can be plausibly argued, for instance -- it is even possibly true -- that patriotism is an inocculation against abbaye de lessay, nationalism, that monarchy is a guard against dictatorship, and that organized religion is a guard against superstition. Exampleessays! Or again, it can be argued that no unbiased outlook is abbaye, possible, that all creeds and causes involve the same lies, follies, and barbarities; and narrative this is often advanced as a reason for keeping out of politics altogether. I do not accept this argument, if only because in the modern world no one describable as an intellectual can keep out of politics in the sense of not caring about them. I think one must engage in politics -- using the word in de lessay, a wide sense -- and that one must have preferences: that is, one must recognize that some causes are objectively better than others, even if they are advanced by equally bad means. As for the nationalistic loves and hatreds that I have spoken of, they are part of the alighieri essay, make-up of most of us, whether we like it or not. Whether it is possible to get rid of them I do not know, but I do believe that it is possible to struggle against them, and that this is essentially a moral effort. It is a question first of all of discovering what one really is, what one's own feelings really are, and then of making allowance for the inevitable bias.
If you hate and fear Russia, if you are jealous of the wealth and power of America, if you despise Jews, if you have a sentiment of inferiority towards the British ruling class, you cannot get rid of those feelings simply by taking thought. But you can at abbaye de lessay least recognize that you have them, and prevent them from contaminating your mental processes. The emotional urges which are inescapable, and biography best are perhaps even necessary to political action, should be able to exist side by side with an acceptance of reality. But this, I repeat, needs a moral effort, and de lessay contemporary English literature, so far as it is alive at all to the major issues of our time, shows how few of us are prepared to make it. This site is protected by COPYLEFT. Narrative Essay! You are free to use any material found on this page as long it is de lessay, not for a commercial purpose, or unless otherwise stated on the page.
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Abbaye de lessay 50 states
43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in abbaye de lessay, a while, it can be hard to essay graphic, know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the de lessay resume advice you need into one place. Read on for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on biography best it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the de lessay perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to decisions in paradise 3 essays, the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of abbaye, your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in biography best, and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on abbaye de lessay a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of decisions in paradise part 3 essays, cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of abbaye, this as your brag file . 3. Put the decisions Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and abbaye de lessay, accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. Exampleessays? So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is abbaye, when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the biography best get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case?
Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the de lessay rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of essay, different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is abbaye de lessay, still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the biography best skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is abbaye, a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the exampleessays information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is abbaye, a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and biography best, important experience, training, and abbaye, credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space?
Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Can’t figure out how to statement writing ucas, tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to de lessay, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to personal statement writing service ucas, have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on abbaye de lessay that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the dante ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of de lessay, good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by biography best, using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page.
You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and abbaye, keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the essay organizer writing computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to de lessay, a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10.
Make Your Contact Info Prominent. Dante? You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to de lessay, include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Biography Best? Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to abbaye de lessay, look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the friendships most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.
Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. Abbaye De Lessay? As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and dante, only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to de lessay, allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. Biography Best? If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about de lessay your current role, always choose the graphic writing latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for de lessay, the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them.
Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Essay Graphic Organizer Writing? Remember that the abbaye first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to essay, be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to abbaye, your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!
As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the part 3 essays benefit was to your boss or your company. Abbaye De Lessay? By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into in paradise part, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an abbaye de lessay, “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about narrative essay friendships how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20.
Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Abbaye De Lessay? There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly.
Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and alighieri essay, make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on abbaye de lessay which words to include? Dump the job description into narrative, a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include?
Detail-oriented, team player, and hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . De Lessay? We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. Writing? 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and abbaye, relevant to personal writing ucas, you getting the de lessay job than where you went to exampleessays, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by de lessay, listing the writing most recent or advanced degree first, working in abbaye, reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to exampleessays, the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates.
The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the abbaye de lessay fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.
Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to narrative essay friendships, get the abbaye skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out personal statement writing all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to de lessay, skip including skills that everyone is expected to dante essay, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of abbaye de lessay, skills related to exampleessays, a position—say, foreign language, software, and abbaye de lessay, leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Essay Friendships? Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and abbaye de lessay, detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for writing ucas, skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on abbaye de lessay your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on essay a music company?
Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for abbaye de lessay, a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by statement service ucas, someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and de lessay, accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.
Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about dante personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to abbaye de lessay, The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in organizer writing, an interview. If you have gaps of abbaye, a few months in your work history, don’t list the exampleessays usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to abbaye de lessay, new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and make it less of an exampleessays, issue.
Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for abbaye, killing it on dante your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).
While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out de lessay there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is exampleessays, interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the abbaye obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of graphic organizer, typos. And don’t rely on spell check and de lessay, grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an 3 essays, editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc.
That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Abbaye De Lessay? To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and narrative, Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to abbaye, take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to dante alighieri, pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in.
When your resume is de lessay, updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of dante essay, Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is abbaye de lessay, a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on statement writing ucas the web. Abbaye De Lessay? Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. In Paradise? If you’re an individual or company looking for de lessay, help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class.
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Abbaye de lessay 50 states
essay on de lessay, news media Robert G. Kaiser. I n 1998, Ralph Terkowitz, a vice president of The Washington Post Co., got to narrative essay know Sergey Brin and Larry Page, two young Silicon Valley entrepreneurs who were looking for backers. Terkowitz remembers paying a visit to the garage where they were working and keeping his car and driver waiting outside while he had a meeting with them about the idea that eventually became Google. An early investment in Google might have transformed the Post 's financial condition, which became dire a dozen years later, by which time Google was a multi-billion dollar company. But nothing happened. De Lessay? “We kicked it around,” Terkowitz recalled, but the then-fat Post Co. had other irons in other fires.
Such missteps are not surprising. People living through a time of revolutionary change usually fail to grasp what is going on around them. The American news business would get a C minus or worse from any fair-minded professor evaluating its performance in the first phase of the Digital Age. Big, slow-moving organizations steeped in their traditional ways of doing business could not accurately foresee the next stages of a technological whirlwind. Obviously, new technologies are radically altering the ways in which we learn, teach, communicate, and are entertained.
It is impossible to essay organizer know today where these upheavals may lead, but where they take us matters profoundly. Abbaye De Lessay? How the digital revolution plays out over time will be particularly important for personal statement service ucas, journalism, and therefore to the United States, because journalism is the craft that provides the lifeblood of a free, democratic society. The Founding Fathers knew this. They believed that their experiment in self-governance would require active participation by an informed public, which could only be possible if people had unfettered access to information. James Madison, author of the First Amendment guaranteeing freedom of speech and of the press, summarized the proposition succinctly: “The advancement and diffusion of knowledge is the only guardian of true liberty.” Thomas Jefferson explained to his French friend, the Marquis de Lafayette, The only security of all is in a free press. The force of public opinion cannot be resisted when permitted freely to de lessay be expressed.” American journalists cherish another of Jefferson's remarks: “Were it left to me to decide whether we should have a government without newspapers or newspapers without a government, I should not hesitate a moment to prefer the latter.” The journalistic ethos that animated many of the Founders was embodied by a printer, columnist, and alighieri essay editor from Philadelphia named Benjamin Franklin. The printing press, which afforded Franklin his livelihood, remained the engine of American democracy for more than two centuries. But then, in the second half of the 20th century, new technologies began to undermine long-established means of sharing information. First television and then the computer and abbaye the Internet transformed the way people got their news.
Nonetheless, even at the end of the century, the business of providing news and analysis was still a profitable enough undertaking that it could support large organizations of professional reporters and editors in print and broadcast media. Now, however, in the first years of the 21st century, accelerating technological transformation has undermined the business models that kept American news media afloat, raising the possibility that the great institutions on which we have depended for news of the world around us may not survive. These are painful words to write for someone who spent 50 years as a reporter and editor at essay friendships The Washington Post . For the abbaye, first 15 years of my career, the exampleessays, Post 's stories were still set in lead type by linotype machines, now seen only in museums. We first began writing on computers in the late 1970s, which seemed like an unequivocally good thing until the rise of the Internet in de lessay, the 1990s. Essay? Then, gradually, the ground began to shift beneath us. Abbaye? By the time I retired earlier this year, the Graham family had sold the biography best, Post to Jeff Bezos, the abbaye, founder of Amazon, for $250 million, a small fraction of its worth just a few years before. Donald Graham, the dante alighieri essay, chief executive at the time, admitted that he did not know how to save the de lessay, newspaper. In fact, digital technology has flummoxed the owners of traditional news media, especially newspapers, from the beginning. For example, in 1983, in essay, the early years of computerized production of newspapers when almost no one knew what was coming, The New York Times almost committed digital suicide. The Times decided it only de lessay, needed to retain the rights to the electronic versions of its stories for alighieri essay, 24 hours after publication. To make a little extra money, the Times sold rights to abbaye everything older than 24 hours to Mead Data Central, owners of the Lexis-Nexis service.
Mead Data Central then sold electronic access to Times stories to law firms, libraries, and the public. By the early 1990s, as the essay, Internet was becoming functional and popular, this arrangement was a big and de lessay growing problem: newspapers, including the Times , were planning “online,” computerized editions, but the Times had sold control of its own product to Mead Data. Luckily for personal service ucas, the country's best newspaper, the Anglo-Dutch firm Reed Elsevier bought Mead Data in 1994. The sale triggered a provision in the original Times -Mead contract that allowed the Times to reclaim the abbaye, electronic rights to its own stories. That enabled the essay graphic writing, Times to put its journalism online in 1995. But putting newspapers online has not remotely restored their profitability. For the moment, The New York Times is making a small profit, but its advertising revenues are not reassuring. The Washington Post made profits of more than $120 million a year in abbaye, the late 1990s, and essay graphic organizer writing today loses money—last year more than $40 million.
Newsweek magazine failed, and Time magazine is teetering. Abbaye De Lessay? Once-strong regional newspapers from Los Angeles to Miami, from Chicago to Philadelphia, find themselves in desperate straits, their survival in doubt. News divisions of the major television networks have been cutting back for more than two decades, and narrative friendships are now but a feeble shadow of their former selves. Overall the economic devastation would be difficult to exaggerate. One statistic conveys its dimensions: the advertising revenue of abbaye all America's newspapers fell from $63.5 billion in 2000 to biography best about $23 billion in 2013, and is still falling. Traditional news organizations' financial well-being depended on the willingness of advertisers to pay to abbaye de lessay reach the mass audiences they attracted. Advertisers were happy to pay because no other advertising medium was as effective. Biography Best? But in the digital era, which has made it relatively simple to target advertising in very specific ways, a big metropolitan or national newspaper has much less appeal. Internet companies like Google and Facebook are able to sort audiences by abbaye, the most specific criteria, and thus to offer advertisers the possibility of dante alighieri essay spending their money only on ads they know will reach only de lessay, people interested in personal service, what they are selling. So Google, the master of targeted advertising, can provide a retailer selling sheets and towels an audience existing exclusively of people who have gone online in the last month to shop for abbaye de lessay, sheets and towels. In Paradise Part? This explains why even as newspaper revenues have plummeted, the ad revenue of Google has leapt upward year after year—from $70 million in 2001 to abbaye de lessay an astonishing $50.6 billion in biography best, 2013.
That is more than two times the combined advertising revenue of every newspaper in America last year. And the situation for de lessay, proprietors of newspapers and magazines is likely to dante essay get worse. One alarming set of statistics: Americans spend about de lessay, 5 percent of the time they devote to media of all kinds to essay magazines and newspapers. But nearly 20 percent of advertising dollars still go to print media. So print media today are getting billions more than they probably deserve from advertisers who, governed by the inertia so common in human affairs, continue to buy space in publications that are steadily losing audience, especially among the abbaye de lessay, young. When those advertisers wake up, revenues will plummet still further. King County Journal. Union City Register Tribune. Halifax Daily News. Rocky Mountain News.
News organizations have tried to adapt to the new realities. As the Internet became more popular and more important in decisions in paradise 3 essays, the first decade of the 21st century, newspaper proprietors dreamed of paying for their newsrooms by mimicking their traditional business model in the online world. Their hope was to de lessay create mass followings for their websites that would appeal to advertisers the way their ink-on-paper versions once did. But that’s not what happened. The news organizations with the most popular websites did attract lots of eyeballs, but general advertising on their sites did not produce compelling results for advertisers, so they did not buy as much of it as the papers had hoped. And the friendships, price they paid for it steadily declined, because as the Internet grew, the number of abbaye de lessay sites offering advertising opportunities assured that “supply” outstripped “demand.” Advertising revenues for the major news sites never amounted to even a significant fraction of the revenues generated by printed newspapers in the golden age. There seems little prospect today that online advertising revenues will ever be as lucrative as advertising on paper once was. The other online innovation that has devastated newspapers is Craigslist, the free provider of what the newspapers call “classified advertising,” the biography best, small items in small print used by individuals and businesses for abbaye de lessay, generations to buy and sell real estate and merchandise, and to hire workers.
Twenty years ago classifieds provided more than a third of the revenue of The Washington Post . Craigslist has destroyed that business for the Post and every major paper in the country. The Philadelphia Inquirer/Daily News headquarters building on Broad Street in Philadelphia, October 6, 2005. The paper is one of many major newspapers facing cutbacks and dwindling circulation. D espite two decades of trying, no one has found a way to make traditional news-gathering sufficiently profitable to assure its future survival. Serious readers of America's most substantial news media may find this description at odds with their daily experience.
After all, The New York Times , The Wall Street Journal , and The Washington Post still provide rich offerings of good journalism every morning, and dante they have been joined by numerous online providers of both opinion and news—even of classic investigative reporting. Digital publications employ thousands of de lessay reporters and editors in new and sometimes promising journalistic enterprises. Decisions Part? Is this a disaster? Of course not—yet. But today's situation is probably misleading. The laws of economics cannot be ignored or repealed. Nor can the actuarial tables.
Only about abbaye de lessay, a third of Americans under 35 look at a newspaper even once a week, and narrative the percentage declines every year. A large portion of abbaye today's readers of the few remaining good newspapers are much closer to the grave than to high school. Today's young people skitter around the Internet like ice skaters, exercising their short attention spans by decisions, looking for fun and, occasionally, seeking out serious information. Abbaye? Audience taste seems to 3 essays be changing, with the result that among young people particularly there is a declining appetite for the sort of information packages the great newspapers provided, which included national, foreign and local news, business news, cultural news and criticism, editorials and opinion columns, sports and obituaries, lifestyle features, and abbaye de lessay science news. Alas for those who continue to want access to that kind of product, there is no right to reliable, intelligent, comprehensive journalism. We only get it when someone provides it. And if it doesn’t pay someone a profit, it’s not likely to dante essay be produced. New York City. 1959. Abbaye? TV news anchorman Walter Cronkite.
© Dennis Stock/Magnum Photos. B efore digital technology changed the world, the news was quite orderly and predictable. To find out what was happening, you bought a paper, listened to personal writing service ucas the radio, or watched television. Most people relied on one or two sources for all their news—a newspaper and abbaye de lessay a TV network, for example. A few institutions and biography best a few individuals dominated the provision of de lessay news: Walter Cronkite and John Chancellor; The New York Times and The Washington Post ; Time and Newsweek . The universe of news providers was small and decisions 3 essays also remarkably homogeneous. David Brinkley could move from NBC to ABC without causing much of a stir. When Roone Arledge, whose first big accomplishment was to make ABC the leading network for sports, was empowered to build a new ABC News, he did it by raiding the staffs of NBC and CBS.
Similarly, when Ted Turner launched CNN, he poached talent from the networks. Abbaye? This small, nearly-closed world rarely provided any surprises. Politically, the big news organizations cast themselves as fair-minded and even-handed, never partisan. Time magazine may have been somewhat more conservative, The New York Times more liberal, but none drifted far from the center of the political spectrum. For nearly four decades after World War II, mainstream journalism was notably non-ideological. At the height of their success, all the best news organizations shared two important qualities: a strong sense of responsibility about their roles as providers of news and analysis, and plenty of money to spend on those missions. In their heyday, roughly the last third of the 20th century, these institutions tended to unify American society. News anchors like Cronkite, Chancellor, Tom Brokaw, Dan Rather, and Peter Jennings were reassuring, avuncular figures with whom millions of Americans shared the dramas of the day.
All the mainstream print and broadcast media sought to provide an information supermarket whose aisles—from sports to business to politics, foreign affairs, entertainment news, and essay graphic organizer gossip—would hopefully attract mass audiences across all classes of society. And they made money—a lot of it—by selling those mass audiences to abbaye de lessay advertisers. NBC/NBCU Photo Bank via Getty Images. The money allowed for an extravagant approach to news. Editors and producers could put their news instincts ahead of other considerations, including profits—at least occasionally. I did this myself, dispatching reporters around the country and personal writing the world with something awfully close to abandon when I was a senior editor of The Washington Post . The best newspapers—the best of a much more crowded field than exists today—invested in de lessay, Washington bureaus, foreign correspondents, and investigative reporting teams, not to mention luxuries almost unheard of writing now. For years, for example, no reporter for the Los Angeles Times had to suffer the indignity of flying in abbaye, coach; business or first class was the norm. The broadcast media enjoyed even more extravagance.
In the part 3 essays, 1970s the three television networks each maintained large corps of foreign correspondents stationed in bureaus across the globe, and abbaye also domestic bureaus in the major American cities. They all did serious documentaries and showed them in prime time. Editors and producers pursued stories that interested them, without much concern for in paradise 3 essays, how readers or viewers might react to the journalism that resulted. Members of this tribe of journalists shared a sense of what “the news” was. The most influential of abbaye de lessay them were the editors and reporters on the best newspapers, whose decisions were systematically embraced and narrative echoed by other editors and abbaye de lessay writers, as well as by the producers of television news. As many have noted now that their power has declined, these news executives were gatekeepers of a kind, deciding which stories got the dante alighieri, most attention. The most obvious examples of their discretionary power came in the realm of investigative reporting. One of the cardinal events of this era was Walter Cronkite's decision in late October 1972 to report in detail on the CBS Evening News the findings of two young Washington Post reporters, Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, on the developing Watergate scandal. Cronkite’s decision highlighted the strength of the news culture, while also helping to de lessay put the Post —then still emerging as a leading newspaper—at the center of national attention. This was a golden era in journalism, a time when a prosperous and widely-respected press demonstrated an unprecedented willingness to friendships confront a sitting president.
Watergate and the Vietnam War both made it much easier to challenge authority. Newspapers especially began to show increasing self-confidence—sometimes it felt like arrogance—by moving away from reactive journalism that focused on the events of the previous day and devoting more space and energy to “enterprise” journalism, which included not just in-depth investigations, but stories about trends in society, profiles, and feature stories. Thanks to this new boldness, the relationship between reporters and government deteriorated and became quite contentious. Deference gave way to de lessay skepticism and, often, cynicism about the believability of public officials and government agencies. One of the great symbolic moments of this era was the decision by the Nixon administration to seek a court order to statement writing ucas stop The New York Times from publishing details of a secret Pentagon history of the Vietnam war that a disgruntled official had leaked to the paper. Initially a federal district court accepted the government’s argument that publication endangered “national security,” and issued an order to the Times to cease publication of stories based on the “Pentagon Papers.” The Times 's source, Daniel Ellsberg, then leaked another set of the papers to The Washington Post , which hurriedly began preparing stories about them. The government sought court action to block the Post as well. The Supreme Court agreed to take the case. The Times and Post hired some of the abbaye de lessay, best (and most expensive) lawyers in the country to argue for publication. Essay Graphic Organizer? The court quickly decided in favor of the newspapers' right to publish. Abbaye De Lessay? Nixon's attempt to impose “prior restraint” on narrative essay friendships, the American press had failed.
Two private corporations, the Times and Post companies, had defied the government and then persuaded the Supreme Court to let them get away with it. Journalists still remember this as a critical moment in the history of abbaye de lessay their business. 1902-03: Ida Tarbell profiles John D. Rockefeller and the Standard Oil Company The progressive era of the late 19th and early 20th centuries was a time of social activism as Americans and their president, Theodore Roosevelt, fought corruption and monopolistic practices in government and industry. Tarbell, a former school teacher, wrote a series of articles for McClure’s Magazine about the giant Standard Oil Company and its owner John D. Decisions Part? Rockefeller. The series was published in book form in 1904, and in 1911 the U.S. Supreme Court found the company to be in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act, causing its breakup.
Ironically, Tarbell didn’t like the term “muckraker,” which was applied to her and other reform-minded journalists of the era. 1906: Upton Sinclair exposes conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants Chicago was America’s center of meat processing and packing around the turn of the century in 1900. Although Sinclair’s famous 1906 work, The Jungle , was a novel, he based it on seven weeks in disguise working in Chicago’s meatpacking plants. His exposé of conditions that immigrant workers faced in the stockyards and the unsanitary practices of the industry coincided with passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906 and the Federal Meat Inspection Act of 1906. Sinclair later focused on American journalism itself, calling attention in 1920 to the practice of “yellow journalism” in his book The Brass Check . 1953: Murrey Marder dogs Sen. Joseph McCarthy's witch hunt In February 1950, U.S. Senator Joe McCarthy declared that more than 200 Communists were working at abbaye the U.S. State Department.
After his re-election in 1952, McCarthy conducted a series of hearings on the matter and decisions in paradise 3 essays implicated Army personnel in espionage. Abbaye De Lessay? In 1953, Murrey Marder, writing for The Washington Post , began full-time coverage of Sen. McCarthy and his hearings. Marder investigated the senator's accusations against Army personnel stationed at Fort Monmouth in New Jersey, finding that the senator's charges against them were all false. Marder later opened the London bureau of the The Post , and biography best after his retirement, helped create the Nieman Watchdog Project. 1962-64: David Halberstam calls foul on the U.S. military's rosy Vietnam claims In October 1963, President John F. Kennedy was so upset about David Halberstam’s reporting from Saigon that he asked Arthur Ochs Sulzberger, the publisher of The New York Times , to transfer David Halberstam out of Vietnam. Since the previous year, Halberstam had offered dogged and skeptical coverage of U.S. government officials’ optimistic portrayals of their and the South Vietnamese government’s efforts against abbaye de lessay, North Vietnam. “The job of the reporters in Vietnam,” Halberstam wrote in 1965, “was to dante report the news, whether or not the news was good for America.” In 1964, Halberstam earned a Pulitzer Prize for his Vietnam reporting.
1969: Seymour Hersh exposes the My Lai massacre and abbaye de lessay cover-up In March 1968, U.S. Army soldiers massacred hundreds of civilians in decisions part 3 essays, My Lai, a South Vietnamese village. In the months following, Army commanders downplayed the incident, keeping it hidden from the abbaye de lessay, public. Organizer? However, due to pressure on abbaye de lessay, the chain-of-command from a soldier in the infantry company involved, Lieutenant William Calley, Jr. was court martialed in September 1969 for his role. The public wouldn't learn of exampleessays My Lai until Hersh, acting on a tip, interviewed Calley and abbaye his lawyer.
Hersh's story was published by dante alighieri essay, Dispatch, a small news agency with a tiny staff, and then picked up nationally. Calley was the only soldier convicted in abbaye de lessay, relation to the massacre. Hersh won the 1970 Pulitzer Prize for his reporting. 1971: The Pentagon Papers leaked and essay graphic published. In 1971, with the Vietnam War still going after almost a decade, a military analyst named Daniel Ellsberg leaked a seven-thousand page history of U.S.-Vietnam relations that had been prepared for internal use by the Pentagon. Lengthy sections of these “Pentagon Papers” were published in The Washington Post and The New York Times , revealing the de lessay, covert origins of decisions a war that was exceedingly unpopular at home. The Nixon administration ordered the newspapers to cease publication of any of the documents. This led to a Supreme Court case ( New York Times Co. v. United States ) that eventually ruled in favor of the press. 1972: Woodward and Bernstein expose the Watergate break in de lessay, In June 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee offices at the Watergate Complex in personal statement, Washington, DC. Two young reporters at The Washington Post , Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, were intrigued that one of the burglars was on the payroll of President Richard Nixon’s reelection committee and began digging further. Woodward and Bernstein uncovered a series of political crimes and “dirty tricks” that connected the burglary back to the White House.
Their reporting led to indictments of 40 administration officials and de lessay the eventual resignation of President Nixon. The paper won the exampleessays, 1973 Pulitzer Prize for de lessay, the investigative reporting. 1992: Florence Graves reveals sexual misconduct in Congress In 1992, shortly after the Anita Hill controversy, Florence Graves, founder of Common Cause magazine, began an investigation into sexual misconduct on Capitol Hill. She quickly found a pattern of charges pointing to narrative essay Senator Bob Packwood. In the fall of 1992, The Washington Post published Graves'story detailing allegations from abbaye 10 women of sexual misconduct by the Oregon senator. The story not only led to the first-ever Senate Ethics Committee investigation of sexual misconduct and the eventual resignation of Senator Packwood, but also to the passage of the landmark Congressional Accountability Act, subjecting Congress to the same discrimination laws as the rest of the personal statement, nation. 2010: Dana Priest and William Arkin detail secret government organizations On July 19, 2010, Washington Post reporters Dana Priest and William Arkin published “Top Secret America,” a series of investigative articles revealing the massive and what they characterized as mismanaged post-9/11 growth of the U.S. intelligence community. The series, benefiting from the work of more than a dozen other journalists at The Post , compiled hundreds of de lessay thousands of records over narrative essay friendships two years, identifying 45 government organizations (1,271 sub-units) and 1,931 private companies engaged in abbaye de lessay, top-secret intelligence work. The series highlighted the oversight challenges facing such a fast-growing and exampleessays secretive system with such an important agenda: maintaining the safety of de lessay American citizens. Reuters/Jason Reed JIR.
2013: The Washington Post and The Guardian report on NSA surveillance In early June 2013, The Post and The Guardian broke nearly-simultaneous stories about National Security Agency surveillance activities being conducted on U.S. citizens and foreign officials. Both sets of articles, led by Barton Gellman at The Post and biography best Glenn Greenwald at The Guardian , along with Laura Poitras and Ewan MacAskill, initially relied on a confidential source who was a former NSA analyst and then-employee at a private sector consulting firm. The source had told Gellman that he was operating out of conscience and knew that he would be exposed. That person was Edward Snowden. Both newspapers shared the Pulitzer Prize this year for their articles. Washington Post reporters Carl Bernstein (center) and Bob Woodward (left), the team who broke the Watergate story. Abbaye De Lessay? Washington, D.C., 1974. © Wayne Miller/Magnum Photos. T he golden era had its shortcomings, to writing be sure.
A herd mentality too often prevailed, especially in Washington coverage. Self-important journalists were too common. And both the abbaye de lessay, conventional wisdom and conventional attitudes remained strong. So, for example, when confronted by a story like the AIDS epidemic, the great news organizations reacted slowly and clumsily. Dante Alighieri Essay? Few journalists paid serious attention to the rising disparities in American society. Toward the end of the era, in abbaye, the first years of the graphic organizer, 21st century, the news media succumbed to the national anxieties produced by the 9/11 attacks and failed to challenge effectively the Bush administration's rush to war in Iraq. Many journalists joined the rush. This was an embarrassment for de lessay, our major journalistic institutions and a disservice to the country. Nevertheless, America's best news organizations have proved their value again and again, even in recent years, as their fortunes have declined. The culture of organizer journalistic skepticism born in the 1960s and 1970s has continued to serve the country well.
Repeatedly, journalists have broken significant news stories that government officials hoped would never be revealed, from de lessay accounts of Americans torturing terror suspects to revelations of the statement writing, systematic mistreatment of veterans at Walter Reed Hospital; from accounts of the de lessay, government's eavesdropping programs to descriptions of biography best its vast, post-9/11 intelligence apparatus. The major journalistic revelations of the last decade altered the de lessay, country's image of itself. They mattered. And society has benefited in less tangible ways, too. “How would this look on the front page of The Washington Post ?” has been a question asked in offices in Washington ever since the time of essay Watergate, to good effect. Of course this deterrent to abbaye illegal, unethical, or embarrassing behavior is unevenly effective; many miscreant public officials have ignored it, and will in the future, whether or not there continues to be a front page of The Washington Post . Biography Best? But this sense of accountability has had a salutary effect. The best journalism has most often been produced by those news organizations that have both the resources and abbaye de lessay the courage to graphic organizer writing defend their best work when it offends or alarms powerful institutions and de lessay individuals. The public may perceive journalism as an individualistic enterprise carried out by lone rangers of rectitude, but this is rarely the case. The best work is usually done by a team that has the essay organizer, backing of an organization committed to maintaining the highest standards of seriousness and integrity, and to nurturing talented reporters and editors. In the de lessay, trickiest realms of investigative reporting on matters that touch on “national security,” the statement writing, team—including the writers and editors as well as the lawyers and often the publisher too—can be critically important. News organizations that can afford to support such teams are now at risk. A healthy democratic society requires referees—authority figures with whistles they can blow when they perceive infringements of the rules.
Prosecutors and abbaye de lessay judges fulfill this role in matters of law enforcement, but their writ is limited by the scope of the exampleessays, law. “I am not a crook,” insisted Richard Nixon, and perhaps he wasn't, but he was a kind of political criminal nevertheless, and he was first called to account by journalists. Will such whistle blowers be on the job to de lessay confront the next Nixon? Paul Starr, the distinguished Princeton scholar, has put the matter succinctly: “By undermining the economic basis of professional reporting and by fragmenting the exampleessays, public, [the digital revolution] has weakened the ability of the press to act as an effective agent of public accountability. De Lessay? If we take seriously the idea that an independent press serves an essential democratic function, its institutional distress may weaken democracy itself. And that is the danger that confronts us.” Bill O'Reilly vs. Jon Stewart 2012: The Rumble In The Air-Conditioned Auditorium at George Washington University on October 6, 2012. Jamie McCarthy/Getty Images for The Rumble 2012.
I f today's providers of the best journalism—often referred to these days, somewhat ominously, as “legacy media,” meaning the old stuff—cannot survive their continuing tribulations, what will take their place? Predicting the future is exampleessays a fool's errand, but some trends are clear. De Lessay? The Internet promotes fragmentation by encouraging the development of like-minded communities, from you and your Facebook friends to avid Tea Party supporters who love Breitbart News, a highly readable, relentlessly ideological right-wing news site. Surveys by the Pew Research Center for the People the exampleessays, Press show that increasing numbers of American get their “news” from abbaye de lessay ideologically congenial sources. Graphic Organizer? The news media are fragmenting just as American society is fragmenting—by class, by de lessay, region, by religious inclination, by generation, by ethnic identity, by exampleessays, politics and more.
The rise of the fragmented news media is de lessay quite a recent phenomenon. It really became significant after the inauguration of Barack Obama in January 2009. President Obama came into the White House in the midst of the worst economic crisis since the Great Depression. Dante? He had run as a unifier who would bring a new era of bipartisan collaboration: “Yes we can!” But no, he couldn't. Republicans in Congress decided at the outset of his administration that they would try to abbaye deny the new president any victories. Obama's early legislative successes, based on in paradise part, the big Democratic majorities in the House and Senate produced by the 2008 election, disguised the fact that partisan gridlock lay just around the corner. After 2010, when Republicans regained control of the House, the gridlock set in. The politicians made an uneasy peace with the idea of perpetual partisan warfare. Voters also took increasingly ideological positions, and looked with increasing suspicion on abbaye, those who disagreed with them. Today's politicians, especially on the right, communicate to “their” voters through “their” media, most notably, of course, Fox News.
Similarly, liberal Democrats like to appear on decisions in paradise part 3 essays, MSNBC. More ideological politicians like a world without Cronkites—without recognized gatekeepers and arbiters. So “the news” that once helped unify the de lessay, country is now just another source of division. Daniel Patrick Moynihan used to writing argue that “everyone is entitled to his own opinion, but not to his own facts.” No longer. Abbaye De Lessay? Politicians and commentators now seem perfectly happy inventing their own reality when it suits their political or ideological purposes. Exampleessays? Fox News's determination to ridicule the Affordable Care Act—”Obamacare”—had nothing to do with traditional journalistic truth-seeking. Rather, it was part of a propaganda campaign.
The MSNBC cable network, part of NBC, which used to be a serious news organization, saw a business opportunity in making itself a liberal alternative to Fox, the abbaye, most profitable cable news network, and now unabashedly propagates a liberal view of the news. Narrative Friendships? Fox and de lessay MSNBC have both decided to cater to narrative essay their audiences not with original reporting of the news (which is expensive), but with commentary on the news interspersed with broadcasts of abbaye set-piece events like presidential news conferences. Curiously, or revealingly, there is little outrage in exampleessays, the culture about these developments. Abbaye? We seem to have adapted to the demise of the old expectations about accuracy, fairness, and reporting without much of a fight. Some of the new online products produce interesting and informative journalism, but none has the ambitions or the sense of statement writing ucas responsibility of the de lessay, best publications. They couldn't afford those luxuries. Narrative Essay Friendships? A great news organization is expensive. The newsroom of abbaye de lessay The New York Times costs about $230 million a year.
The news operation of exampleessays The Washington Post , already substantially diminished from the height of its profitability and influence, still costs more than $90 million a year. Without the revenues to support them, newsrooms all over the country have been decimated. Newspapers employed 59,000 journalists in abbaye de lessay, 1989, and 36,000 in 2012 (and fewer since then). Once-formidable institutions including The Baltimore Sun , Chicago Tribune , Los Angeles Times , and Miami Herald are vastly diminished. Others have gone out of business altogether. The significant news organizations that have survived are under terrific pressure now. A revealing document emerged this spring from The New York Times , a 96-page report written by statement ucas, a committee of Times employees on de lessay, the digital future. Reading it makes clear the extent to which even Times reporters and biography best editors now see the demands of the digital age as incompatible with their traditional pursuits.
The committee argues that The New York Times must become a “digital first” organization. “That means aggressively questioning many of our print-based traditions and their demands on our time, and determining which can be abandoned to free up resources for digital work.” One example cited in the report: “Packaging, promoting and sharing our journalism” on the Internet—three activities that have nothing to abbaye do with reporting and writing news stories—must become a priority for the newsroom. Even when journalists are allowed to pursue traditional reporting, the requirements of online journalism limit their opportunities to do so. Essay Graphic? Before the big papers had websites, a reporter could take all day to cover an event, talk to sources to get background information, consider the implications of the new developments, and write a story for abbaye, the next day's paper. Today the same reporter has to file multiple versions of the biography best, same story as the day progresses, adding new tidbits as she acquires them. There is much less time available to dig into a story and discover its ramifications. The quantity of original reporting has surely declined as the importance of the Internet has grown.
One immediate effect of all these changes and cutbacks is that there's no paper in America today that can offer the same coverage of its city, suburbs, and abbaye state that it provided 20 or even 10 years ago, and scores of city halls and state legislatures get virtually no coverage by any substantive news organizations. Television remains the primary source of news for dante alighieri, most Americans, but local stations have dramatically reduced their reporting staffs, and abbaye de lessay the networks no longer try to cover the world and the country as they once did. It’s true that the federal government in Washington still gets a lot of attention from reporters. But one large category of dante alighieri Washington coverage has virtually disappeared: journalism about members of de lessay Congress by narrative essay friendships, news organizations “back home.” A generation ago scores of local newspapers and television stations employed Washington correspondents who kept an de lessay eye on the members of the House and Senate from narrative essay friendships their cities and states. Senator Christopher Dodd recalls that in his early years in the Senate, in the 1980s, a dozen reporters from Connecticut outlets were based in Washington and reported regularly on his activities. By the time he retired in 2010, that number had fallen to zero.
No Connecticut newspaper or television station had a reporter in the nation's capital. Facade of The Newseum, incorporating the text of the First Amendment to the United States Constitution. David Monack/Wikimedia Commons. A re there no grounds for optimism, or even hope? Of course there are. In this age of creative destruction, the destruction is more obvious than the creativity, but some of the new, online providers of abbaye news are doing interesting work that helps compensate for the shrinkage of traditional outlets' reporting staffs. For example, in Connecticut there are now several bloggers reporting on the state's members of Congress, and CT Mirror, a non-profit news site, has a full-time Washington reporter.
Around the country dozens of news websites have sprung up to provide some local coverage, many of them employing their own reporters, and a few of them are quite good. There are also several web-based operations that sometimes break important national stories. The very best of dante alighieri essay them is ProPublica, a non-profit organization founded by Paul Steiger, the former managing editor of The Wall Street Journal , that is devoted to investigative reporting, an expensive specialty that has suffered in the era of disappearing newspaper profits. ProPublica provides pro bono journalism of the highest quality, as good as the abbaye, investigative projects of the major newspapers. Its budget of $12 million a year, nearly all raised from donors, funds a staff of 45 reporters and editors. But as its journalists acknowledge, the ProPublica stories that have the greatest impact are those done in collaboration with legacy news media that publish or broadcast them. Its own excellent website has a relatively small audience. AP Photo/Jason DeCrow. Other non-profit organizations are also providing reporting at alighieri essay a level that only the major news organizations used to offer. De Lessay? The winner of the 2014 Pulitzer Prize for biography best, investigative reporting was Chris Hamby of the Center for Public Integrity in Washington, a non-profit watchdog organization that maintains vast electronic files tracing the abbaye de lessay, flow of money into personal statement our politics.
Marcus Brauchli, who has served as the senior editor of both The Wall Street Journal and The Washington Post , observed recently that thanks to Internet offerings, the abbaye, quantity of American journalism has never been greater. It used to be the case that newspapers like the graphic organizer, Times and Post offered their readers what was usually the very best coverage available in a wide range of news categories—there were no serious competitors. Today there are competitors in every one: ESPN in sports, Politico in abbaye de lessay, Washington coverage, BuzzFeed in narrative essay, the world of popular culture, and so on. We at the Post used to have a corner on the market in de lessay, Washington—no competitor could challenge us in any of our major categories. No corners are available now. New York Times Building. Jleon/ Wikimedia Commons. I f there is essay some good news, it's hardly enough to be reassuring. Something more substantial has to happen to sustain the kind of journalistic excellence that a democracy requires. De Lessay? Of course there can be technological surprises. A group of young people could be working in a Silicon Valley garage right now on an idea that could re-establish a healthy revenue stream for major news organizations.
I certainly hope so. Efforts to save serious journalism enjoy one natural advantage: smart people playing influential roles in society know that they need good information about dante alighieri essay, many subjects. It is conceivable that these citizens, who are a significant audience albeit a small fraction of the abbaye, total population, will be willing to pay the full cost of the dante essay, journalism they consume. Abbaye De Lessay? At first blush this may sound painfully obvious. Personal Statement Writing? Don't people usually pay for the services they use?
Not the news. Before websites, readers paid a pittance for their news in newspapers that were deliberately priced below the abbaye, cost of a cup of coffee to graphic organizer try to maximize circulation (and therefore advertising dollars). Abbaye De Lessay? And then for biography best, the better part of two decades—the first decades of the abbaye de lessay, World Wide Web—online consumers got used to the idea that news was not just cheap but free. In the essay graphic organizer writing, United States The Wall Street Journal was the only major publication that charged for online access to its journalism. Everyone else gave their work away on de lessay, the theory—or hope—that this was the way to biography best build the audiences that advertisers would eventually pay to reach.
Then in March 2011, The New York Times announced a paywall that required regular online readers to pay for its journalism, a risky gambit that has proven remarkably successful. At the beginning of April the Times had 800,000 “digital subscribers,” people paying to read the paper on electronic devices only. (The daily ink-on-paper Times is bought by 680,000 people, and 1.2 million on Sundays.) Digital subscriptions currently bring in more than $150 million a year, money that has saved the company from the grave financial crisis caused by declining revenues for the print edition. The Washington Post and most other large newspapers followed the Times , if they were not already charging for online access. Though none of the others has had as much success signing up digital subscribers as the Times , the newspaper’s ability to persuade online readers to pay is heartening. It suggests at least the possibility that over time, consumers of abbaye news might follow the path of television viewers, who once thought—before the alighieri, arrival of cable television—that TV was free, but eventually got used to paying substantial monthly cable bills. Some version of that transition could save the traditional news business—if some clever inventor can figure out de lessay, how to make it happen. Until now no one has, and organizer writing even the Times 's encouraging numbers fall short of a solution that could save its $235 million-a-year newsroom. A morning edition of the Washington Post- August 6, 2013. Amazon.com Inc founder Jeff Bezos bought the newspaper in a surprise deal that ended the Graham family's 80 years of ownership. “Design the electronic classifieds now.” see the abbaye, full memo.
L ast fall, when he met the narrative friendships, staff of de lessay The Washington Post soon after buying the paper, Jeff Bezos of alighieri Amazon spoke about the de lessay, importance of “the bundle,” as he called the variety of news, opinion, useful information, and dante essay entertainment that the abbaye, Post offers each day. The goal in the digital age, Bezos said, had to biography best be to make the bundle attractive to a lot of people—so attractive that they would be willing to pay for it. The average age of the readers of the printed paper, Bezos noted, goes up “about one year every year.” It's no secret where that leads, he quipped. Now that he owns the money-losing Post , Bezos faces the challenge of how to sell that bundle. Michael Moritz of Sequoia Capital, one of the country's most successful venture capitalists, summarized the problem: “How [can] an Internet property, dedicated to broad-based news and information, ever generate a lot of money? Without solving that riddle, there is no path to abbaye prosperity.” Of course, a large organization offering “broad-based news and information” is graphic organizer writing not the only conceivable model. Personally I am convinced that our society will be best served by the survival of a few distinguished news organizations committed to abbaye holding powerful people accountable for the ways they use their power. This view is certainly a product of my lifetime's service in biography best, one such organization.
But there are other possibilities. Abbaye De Lessay? The news supermarkets we are used to may not survive, but “disaggregated” news organizations specializing in specific subjects might, over in paradise part 3 essays time, provide the accountability journalism we need. One interesting example is the SCOTUS blog, which provides excellent coverage of the Supreme Court. Abbaye? It makes no profit, but is supported by 3 essays, Bloomberg. De Lessay? Politico's coverage of Washington and politics, though uneven, is biography best better than that of any but the very best news organizations.
And Politico, thanks to revenue from de lessay its Capitol Hill newspaper edition, actually makes money. It is also possible that “prosperity” won't be necessary. Personal Writing? The $250 million Bezos paid for The Washington Post was a tiny sliver of his $30 billion net worth. Abbaye? For him to cover the Post 's losses now costs the equivalent of essay lunch money for abbaye de lessay, an ordinary mortal—something Bezos could easily afford for decades to come, if he chooses to play the exampleessays, angel's role indefinitely. The money-losing Boston Globe , sold at abbaye a huge loss by The New York Times in 2013, has a deep-pocketed new owner in John Henry, principal owner of the exampleessays, Boston Red Sox, who similarly could keep the paper afloat indefinitely if he wants to. There might be comparable angels in the futures of other news organizations. New Yorkers have speculated for years that their former mayor, Michael Bloomberg, worth $34 billion, might play that role some day for The New York Times . The wealthiest giants in this brave new world are companies that did not exist 20 years ago, inventive outfits that have capitalized on digital technologies most effectively. Facebook and Google, for example, bestride the globe like modern-day King Kongs, catering to billions of people and earning scores of billions of dollars. Both exploit the work of abbaye traditional providers of news that create information useful to Facebook friends and Google searchers. They lead large numbers of readers to the journalism of the essay graphic organizer writing, legacy media.
But they contribute relatively little to the survival of those providers. These firms were created by de lessay, a new generation of narrative young people whose self-interest may lead them either to abbaye realize the importance of the legacy institutions, or figure out how to create new ways to do what the old news organizations did in the past. Financially, it would be easy for dante alighieri essay, Google to rescue The New York Times . Abbaye? The annual cost of the Times 's newsroom represents less than 2 percent of Google's 2013 profits. Essay Graphic Organizer? Google, or someone else, could also create new news organizations dedicated to excellent coverage of narrow fields. The future, in abbaye, Mort Sahl's wise words, lies ahead—but remains invisible. News as we know it is at risk. So is democratic governance, which depends on an effective watchdog news media.
Both have been undermined by changes in society wrought by digital technologies—among the most powerful forces ever unleashed by mankind. Statement Service Ucas? We have barely begun the Digital Age, and there is de lessay no point in trying to predict just where it will take us. News certainly has a future, but what that will be is unclear. All that we know for certain is that we are lighting out for new territory. Join the conversation on Twitter using #BrookingsEssay or share this on Facebook . This Essay is also available as an eBook from these online retailers: Amazon Kindle, Barnes Noble, Apple iTunes, Google Play, and on Kobo. Like other products of the Institution, The Brookings Essay is intended to contribute to discussion and writing stimulate debate on important issues. Abbaye? The views are solely those of the author. Graphic Design: Marcia Underwood and Jessica Pavone. Research: Fred Dews, Thomas Young, Jessica Pavone, Kevin Hawkins. Editorial: Beth Rashbaum and decisions part Fred Dews. Web Development: Marcia Underwood.
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