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ansel adams essay The following essay was rekeyed and reprinted on July 22, 2002 with permission of the mba custom Oakland Museum of California and the author. Oakland Museum of California is presenting the exhibition Ansel Adams: Inspiration and Influence, which will be on essays on literature, view through September 22, 2002. Mba Custom Papers? If you have questions or comments regarding the essay, please contact the Oakland Museum of California directly through either the following phone number or web address: Inspiration and Influence: The Visions of Ansel Adams. by Drew Heath Johnson. T he year 2002 marks a symbolic milestone in the history of photography. A century ago, on February 20, 1902, Ansel Adams was born in San Francisco. (In an unusually good week for parsons cdt thesis 2012 California creativity, John Steinbeck was born exactly seven days later in Salinas).
A flurry of tributes, from books and documentary films to a record number of museum exhibitions, is currently honoring the centennial of America's favorite photographer. For many, he is the only photographer. The vision of Adams, with broad-brimmed hat and beard, fussing with his view camera in mba custom some rocky Sierran landscape, is one of the essay defining images of photography. His pictures appear among us as comforting friends on postcards, posters and calendars. But Ansel Adams did not spring fully formed from some photographic half-shell. Like all artists, he was the papers product of complex influences and human contacts. Citations? The inspiration of papers Yosemite on essayist called, the budding photographer is obvious and often acknowledged, but the role of other artists, as well as his influence on younger photographers, is less often noticed. The Oakland Museum of mba custom papers California explores these connections in Ansel Adams: Inspiration and Influence , an exhibition which places Adams in the context of a century and a half of photographic art.
A restless child who had difficulty fitting in, the young Adams nevertheless was given ample opportunity for self-expression by an indulgent father. At the age of 13 the elder Adams gave Ansel, in lieu of school, a year's pass to San Francisco's Panama Pacific International Exposition. Adams later credited the art exhibits at exampleessays, the fair, which included photography, with instilling a love of art. At about this time he also began serious studies at the piano. Mba Custom Papers? Adams the photographer would become renowned as a dedicated and fastidious (some would say obsessive) technician. He attributed this interest in technique to the early training as a pianist, where he learned to combine long hours of practicing rudimentary skills with intuitive creativity. He was fond of musical metaphors when describing the act of making photographs. The negative, he claimed, was the score which the musician/photographer interpreted in the act of making a print. With? And like a score, each negative was capable of infinite variations with each performance. For many years, Adams struggled with the dilemma of which career to pursue -- photography or music.
Over numerous trips to Yosemite and the high Sierra, photography gradually won out. This gradual slide towards photography was aided by an unusually colorful, if small, community of mba custom papers Northern California photographers who both mentored Adams and why algebra essay, provided a social circle. Mba Custom? Throughout his career, from novice to elder statesman of the camera, Ansel Adams enjoyed rewarding, if sometimes prickly and competitive relationships with his photographic peers. And what peers! Besides Adams' own work, Ansel Adams: Inspiration and Influence features images by essays, Imogen Cunningham, Dorothea Lange, Edward and Brett Weston, Minor White, Wynn Bullock, Willard Van Dyke, Judy Dater, Ted Orland, Jerry Uelsmann and Don Worth, all of mba custom papers whom knew or worked with Adams.
When Adams began his photographic career, the style known as Pictorialism was in vogue for photographers with artistic pretensions or, as with Adams, aspirations. Influenced by New York photographer Alfred Steiglitz, whom Adams called the greatest photographic leader in the world, photographers created meticulously hand-crafted prints on and other essays, soft-focus, textured papers. Steiglitz taught me what became my first commandment, Adams recalled. Art is the affirmation of life. Papers? Early in his career, Adams wholeheartedly embraced pictorialist techniques and materials. He never felt comfortable with the pictorialist's subject matter, however, preferring portrayals of unblemished nature to allegories, nudes and portraits. The most famous disciple of Pictorialism in Northern California was Anne Brigman, the only West Coast photographer elevated by Stieglitz to Fellowship in his group, the Photo-Secession. Like Adams, Brigman drew her primary inspiration from the high Sierra, but her approach could not have been more different, as a comparison of their work reveals. Where Brigman emphasizes a spiritual connection with nature by placing nude figures in juxtaposition with rocks and ancient trees, Adams preferred to why algebra essay let nature speak for herself.
By the early 1930s, Adams was tiring of this type of mba custom papers imagery altogether. Increasingly, I detested the common pictorial photography that was then in vogue, he wrote, and also questioned the more sophisticated work of some San Francisco photographers because it clung to those pictorial skirts. Of Life Introduction? There was nothing I responded to in this mannered style of photography. Like others on the West Coast, Adams was questing for mba custom a different form of photography, one which eschewed retouching. He wrote: With high energy I began to explore a personal photographic direction based on the inherent qualities of the photographic process itself. I abandoned my textured photographic papers and began using the same smooth, glossy-surfaced papers used by Paul Strand and Edward Weston to reveal every possible detail of the negative. I felt liberated. Together with a small group of essayist called colleagues in 1932, Adams formed the legendary Group f.64. More a loose affiliation of like-minded friends than a formal organization, f.64 met at Willard Van Dyke's Oakland gallery and later mounted a controversial exhibition at the M.H.
De Young Memorial Museum in San Francisco. From these humble beginnings Adams and his colleagues (Weston, Cunningham, Alma Lavenson and mba custom, Van Dyke, among others) fostered a photographic vision which became, arguably, the most influential photographic movement of the 20th century. With Citations? The opportunities for influence and mba custom papers, cross-pollination (not to mention the spur of competition) were great in such a circle. So were the opportunities for philosophical disagreement. The dissident Group f.64 was itself torn by dissension as the Great Depression worsened. Members split over the question of essayist called photography's social responsibility. How could an artist waste time with still-lifes and nudes, the argument went, when people were starving?
Some (Van Dyke, Lange) believed photography had a duty to present the suffering of the poor to the larger World. Others, such as Weston and mba custom papers, Adams, believed the parsons artist's responsibility was to beauty and mba custom, self-expression. Adams' 1935 letter to Lange, with whom he enjoyed a long if thorny friendship, stands as a summation of his attitudes toward his art: Dear Dorothea, Photography when it tells the truth, is magnificent, but it can be twisted, deformed, restricted and compromised more than any other art. Because what is before the lens always has the introduction illusion of reality; but what is mba custom selected and put before the lens can be as false as any totalitarian lie. . . . The connotations of much of expository essay with documentary photography are -- to me -- quite rigid. . . . I resent being told that certain things have significance. . . . Mba Custom? I resent being manipulated into a politico-social formula of thought and existence. I resent the implications that unless photography has a politico-social function it is not of laws of life value to people at large. I resent the the very obvious dislike of elements of beauty. . Papers? . . I think it is just as important to bring to people the evidence of the beauty of the cdt thesis 2012 world of mba custom papers nature and of man as it is to give them a document of ugliness, squalor and despair. . Introduction? . . You happen to be one of the very few who has brought enough deeply human emotion into your work to make it bearable for me. I wish you would try and think of yourself as a fine artist -- which you are; that is papers a damn sight more important to the world than being merely an extension of a sociological movement. Love, AnseI. Besides the inspiration he derived from colleagues, Ansel Adams was also a student of the work of exampleessays photographic pioneers. He had a keen awareness of the history of photography, unusual at a time when that history was, as yet, largely unwritten.
Adams possessed a collection of daguerreotypes, the first practical form of photography, which were popular in the 1840s and '50s. He was entranced by the subtlety and sharpness of the mba custom papers silvery images. In the daguerreotype the is important microscopic revelation of the lens was fully expressed, he wrote. I confess that I frequently appraise my work by critical comparison with the daguerreotype image; how urgently I desire to achieve that exquisite tonality and miraculous definition of light and substance in my own prints! The work of 19th-century landscape photographers such as Timothy O'Sullivan and Carleton Watkins naturally appealed to Adams. Mba Custom Papers? We know he owned an O'Sullivan album, which he lent to Beaumont Newhall's landmark exhibition on the centenary of photography in 1937. When he came to photograph the cliff dwellings at Canyon de Chelly in 1942, Adams unconsciously duplicated O'Sullivan's famous view right down to the lighting. He admired Watkins and selected some of his photographs for laws essay introduction exhibitions he curated. Clearly appreciating the technical restrictions of mba custom papers these pioneers, he wrote, how the great early photographers managed their arduous wet-plate process in Southwest heat and dust, and how the essayist called glass plates endured months of mule-back transportation without breakage, have always been beyond my comprehension! Ansel Adams' work, a century after his birth, is becoming as distant in time as O'Sullivan's was to him. To some, his vision is nearly as quaint and historical.
And yet his popularity, his fame, has never been greater. This celebrity is both a blessing and a curse, for mba custom papers while, nearly 20 years after his death, he is still the and other essays on literature best-known photographer in the world, critical opinion regarding his work is divided. Adams' rigorous emphasis on technique, his devotion to beauty and, most of all, the mba custom ubiquitous presence of his imagery (particularly as they appear on products), are somehow suspect. So, too, was his reluctance to of life embrace social causes other than conservation. To many, his very popularity speaks against mba custom papers him. But this is nothing new. As early as the 1930s, Adams found it necessary to on literature defend himself against charges of producing superior postcards.
He had many defenders willing to point out the transcendent nature of his best work. Nature never seems so grand, romantic, sensuous, and magical elsewhere, wrote Minor White, nor the buildings so architectural, nor the artifacts of man and papers, details close to the ground so full of presence. . . We find, if we gaze long enough, that behind his more literal images. . And Other On Literature? . Papers? there rests a sense of awe before creation, life and death, man and essayist called, nature. Papers? Against one particular charge Adams was utterly unapologetic: The creation of beautiful images. I am not afraid of the term 'beauty,' he wrote to his old friend, Dorothea Lange, in 1953. By it, I do not mean prettiness.
I mean intensity and clarity. I cannot see how the why algebra essay omission of beauty achieves anything. Mba Custom Papers? Drew Heath Johnson is Curator of Fine Art Photography at parsons, the Oakland Museum of California and the Editor of Capturing Light: Masterpieces of California Photography, 1850-2000 . Read more articles and mba custom papers, essays concerning this institutional source by visiting the sub-index page for the Oakland Museum of California in Resource Library Magazine . Search for more articles and essays on American art in Resource Library . See America's Distinguished Artists for biographical information on essayist called, historic artists. This page was originally published in 2002 in Resource Library Magazine . Mba Custom Papers? Please see Resource Library's Overview section for more information. Copyright 2012 Traditional Fine Arts Organization, Inc. , an essays, Arizona nonprofit corporation.
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oberlin essay THE EDUCATION OF MINORITY CHILDREN by Thomas Sowell. Will Rogers once said that it was not ignorance that was so bad but, as he put it, all the mba custom papers, things we know that ain't so. Nowhere is that more true than in American education today, where fashions prevail and evidence is exampleessays, seldom asked or given. Mba Custom? And nowhere does this do more harm than in the education of minority children. The quest for esoteric methods of trying to educate these children proceeds as if such children had never been successfully educated before, when in why algebra is important essay, fact there are concrete examples, both from history and from our own times, of mba custom papers schools that have been sucessful in educating children from low-income families and from minority families. And Other Essays? Yet the educational dogma of the day is papers, that you simply cannot expect children who are not middle-class to do well on standardized tests, for all sorts of sociological and psychological reasons. Those who think this way are undeterred by the fact that there are schools where low-income and minority students do in fact score well on standardized tests. These students are like the bumblebees who supposedly should not be able to fly, according to the theories of aerodynamics, but who fly anyway, in disregard of those theories. While there are examples of schools where this happens in our own time-- both public and private, secular and exampleessays religious-- we can also go back nearly a hundred years and papers find the same phenomenon. Back in 1899, in Washington, D. C., there were four academic public high schools-- one black and with citations three white.
1 In standardized tests given that year, students in the black high school averaged higher test scores than students in two of the three white high schools. 2. This was not a fluke. It so happens that I have followed 85 years of the history of this black high school-- from mba custom, 1870 to 1955 --and found it repeatedly equalling or exceeding national norms on essayist called standardized tests. 3 In the 1890s, it was called The M Street School and after 1916 it was renamed Dunbar High School but its academic performances on standardized tests remained good on into the mid-1950s.
When I first published this information in 1974, those few educators who responded at all dismissed the relevance of these findings by saying that these were middle class children and therefore their experience was not relevant to the education of low-income minority children. Those who said this had no factual data on mba custom papers the incomes or occupations of the parents of these children-- and I did. The problem, however, was not that these dismissive educators did not have evidence. The more fundamental problem was that they saw no need for evidence. According to their dogmas, children who did well on standardized tests were middle class. These children did well on laws of life essay introduction such tests, therefore they were middle class.
Lack of evidence is not the problem. There was evidence on the occupations of the parents of the children at this school as far back in the early 1890s. As of academic year 1892-93, there were 83 known occupations of the parents of the children attending The M Street School. Of these occupations, 51 were laborers and one was a doctor. Mba Custom? 4 That doesn't sound very middle class to parsons cdt thesis 2012 me. Over the years, a significant black middle class did develop in Washington and no doubt most of them sent their children to the M Street School or to Dunbar High School, as it was later called.
But that is mba custom, wholly different from saying that most of the children at and other on literature, that school came from middle-class homes. During the later period, for papers, which I collected data, there were far more children whose mothers were maids than there were whose fathers were doctors. For many years, there was only one academic high school for blacks in the District of Columbia and, as late as 1948, one-third of all black youngsters attending high school in Washington attended Dunbar High School. So this was not a selective school in why algebra essay, the sense in which we normally use that term-- there were no tests to take to get in, for example-- even though there was undoubtedly self-selection in the sense that students who were serious went to Dunbar and those who were not had other places where they could while away their time, without having to meet high academic standards. (A vocational high school for blacks was opened in Washington in 1902). 5. A spot check of papers attendance records and tardiness records showed that The M Street School at the turn of the century and Dunbar High School at mid-century had less absenteeism and less tardiness than the citations, white high schools in mba custom papers, the District of parsons Columbia at those times. The school had a tradition of being serious, going back to its founders and early principals. Among these early principals was the first black woman to receive a college degree in the United States-- Mary Jane Patterson from Oberlin College, class of 1862. Mba Custom Papers? At that time, Oberlin had different academic curriculum requirements for women and men.
Latin, Greek and mathematics were required in expository, the gentlemen's course, as it was called, but not in the curriculum for ladies. Miss Patterson, however, insisted on taking Latin, Greek, and mba custom mathematics anyway. Not surprisingly, in her later 12 years as principal of the black high school in Washington during its formative years, she was noted for a strong, forceful personality, for why algebra, thoroughness,' and for being an indefatigable worker. Having this kind of person shaping the mba custom, standards and traditions of the school in its early years undoubtedly had something to do with its later success. Other early principals included the first black man to graduate from cdt thesis 2012, Harvard, class of 1870. Four of the school's first eight principals graduated from Oberlin and two from Harvard. Because of restricted academic opportunities for blacks, Dunbar had three Ph.Ds among its teachers in the 1920s. One of the mba custom, other educational dogmas of our times is the notion that standardized tests do not predict future performances for minority children, either in academic institutions or in life.
Innumerable scholarly studies have devastated this claim intellectually, 6 though it still survives and flourishes politically. But the history of this black high school in Washington likewise shows a pay-off for solid academic preparation and the test scores that result from it. Over the entire 85-year history of academic success of this school, from 1870 to 1955, most of its 12,000 graduates went on to higher education. 7 This was very unusual for either black or white high-school graduates during this era. Because these were low-income students, most went to a local free teachers college but significant numbers won scholarships to leading colleges and expository citations universities elsewhere. 8. Some M Street School graduates began going to mba custom Harvard and other academically elite colleges in the early twentieth century. Exampleessays? As of 1916, there were nine black students, from the entire country, attending Amherst College. Six were from the M Street School. Papers? During the period from 1918 to 1923, graduates of this school went on to earn 25 degrees from Ivy League colleges, Amherst, Williams, and Wesleyan. Over the period from of life essay, 1892 to 1954, Amherst admitted 34 graduates of the M Street School and Dunbar.
Of these, 74 percent graduated and more than one-fourth of these graduates were Phi Beta Kappas. 9. No systematic study has been made of the later careers of the graduates of this school. However, when the late black educator Horace Mann Bond studied the backgrounds of blacks with Ph.D.s, he discovered that more of them had graduated from M Street-Dunbar than from any other black high school in mba custom papers, the country. The first blacks to expository citations graduate from West Point and Annapolis also came from this school. So did the first black full professor at a major university (Allison Davis at the University of Chicago). Mba Custom Papers? So did the first black federal judge, the first black general, the first black Cabinet member, the first black elected to the United States Senate since Reconstruction, and exampleessays the discoverer of papers a method for storing blood plasma. During World War II, when black military officers were rare, there were more than two dozen graduates of M Street or Dunbar High School holding ranks ranging from major to brigadier general.
10. All this contradicts another widely-believed notion-- that schools do not make much difference in parsons 2012, children's academic or career success because income and family background are much larger influences. If the schools themselves do not differ very much from one another, then of mba custom course it will not make much difference which one a child attends. But, when they differ dramatically, the why algebra essay, results can also differ dramatically. This was not the only school to achieve success with minority children. But, before turning to some other examples, it may be useful to consider why and how this 85-year history of unusual success was abruptly turned into mba custom papers, typical failure, almost overnight, by the politics of education. As we all know, 1954 was the year of the famous racial desegregation case of Brown v. Exampleessays? Board of Education . Those of us old enough to remember those days also know of the strong resistance to school desegregation in papers, many white communities, including Washington, D. C. Ultimately a political compromise was worked out. In order to comply with the law, without having a massive shift of students, the essays on literature, District's school officials decided to turn all public schools in mba custom, Washington into neighborhood schools.
By this time, the neighborhood around Dunbar High School was rundown. This had not affected the school's academic standards, however, because black students from all over the city went to Dunbar, though very few of exampleessays those who lived in its immediate vicinity did. When Dunbar became a neighborhood school, the whole character of its student body changed radically-- and mba custom the character of exampleessays its teaching staff changed very soon afterward. Mba Custom? In the past, many Dunbar teachers had continued to teach for years after they were eligible for exampleessays, retirement because it was such a fulfilling experience. Now, as inadequately educated, inadequately motivated, and disruptive students flooded into the school, teachers began retiring, some as early as 55 years of mba custom age. Inside of essayist called a very few years, Dunbar became just another failing ghetto school, with all the problems that such schools have, all across the country. Mba Custom? Eighty-five years of achievement simply vanished into thin air. It is a very revealing fact about the politics of education that no one tried to stop this from happening.
When I first began to essayist called study the history of this school, back in the 1970s, I thought that it was inconceivable that this could have been allowed to mba custom papers happen without a protest. I knew that the Washington school board in essayist called, the 1950s included a very militant and mba custom papers distinguished black woman named Margaret Just Butcher, who was also a graduate of Dunbar High School, Surely Dr. Butcher had not let all this happen without exercising her well-known gifts of withering criticism. Yet I looked in vain through the essays on literature, minutes of the mba custom, school board for even a single sentence by anybody expressing any concern whatever about the fate of Dunbar High School under the new reorganization plan. Finally, in introduction, complete frustration and bewilderment, I phoned Dr. Butcher herself. Mba Custom Papers? Was there anything that was said off the record about Dunbar that did not find its way into the minutes that I had read?
No, she said. Then she reminded me that racial integration was the battle cry of the hour in the 1950s. No one thought about what would happen to black schools, not even Dunbar. Now, decades later, we still do not have racial integration in many of the urban schools around the country-- and we also do not have Dunbar High School. Such are the and other essays on literature, ways of mba custom papers politics, where the crusade of the cdt thesis 2012, hour often blocks out everything else, at papers, least until another crusade comes along and takes over expository with citations the same monopoly of our mind. Ironically, black high schools in Washington today have many of the so-called prerequisites for good education that never existed in the heyday of Dunbar High School-- and yet the educational results are abysmal. Adequate funding is always included among these prerequisites and papers today the per pupil expenditure in essayist called, the District of Columbia is among the highest in the nation. During its heyday, Dunbar was starved for papers, funds and its average class size was in the 40s.
Its lunchroom was so small that many of its students had to eat out on the streets. Essay? Its blackboards were cracked and it was 1950 before the papers, school had a public address system. Yet, at 2012, that point, it had 80 years of achievement behind it-- and mba custom papers only 5 more in laws essay, front of mba custom papers it. As a failing ghetto school today, Dunbar has a finer physical plant than it ever had when it was an academic success. Politics is also part of this picture. Immediate, tangible symbols are what matter within the limited time horizon of essayist called elected politicians. Throwing money at public schools produces such symbolic results, even if it cannot produce quality education. Another black school that I studied-- P. Mba Custom? S.91 in Brooklyn, New York-- was housed in an even older building than the original Dunbar High School.
This building in Brooklyn was so old that it still had gas jets in the hallways, left over from the gaslight era, before there were electric lights. Is Important? The surrounding neighborhood was so bad that a friend told me that I was brave-- he probably meant foolhardy-- to park a car there. Yet the papers, students in most of the grades in this predominantly black elementary school scored at or above the national norms on standardized tests. This was not in any sense a middle-class school or a magnet school. It was just an essayist called ordinary ghetto school run by an extraordinary principal. What was more extraordinary to me than even the test scores of the students was the openness with which I was welcomed and allowed to see what I wanted to see. Educators usually like to give guided tours to selected (and often atypical) places, much like the Potemkin village tours in Czarist Russia. But, in mba custom, P.S. 91, I was allowed to wander down the halls and arbitrarily pick out which classrooms I wanted to go into. I did this on every floor of the school. Inside those classrooms were black children much like children you can find in any ghetto across the country.
Many came from broken homes and were on welfare. Yet, inside this school, they spoke in grammatical English, in complete sentences, and to cdt thesis 2012 the point. Many of the materials they were studying were a year or more ahead of their respective grade levels. It so happened that I had to papers fly back to essayist called California right after visiting this school and did not get to talk to all the people I wanted to interview. I asked a mother who was head of the school's Parent-Teacher Association if I could call her at home after I got back to papers California and parsons interview her over the phone. It turned out that she did not have a telephone. I can't afford one, she said. That too hardly seemed middle class. Others have found successful black schools operating in equally grim surroundings and under similar social conditions. A collection of stories about such schools was published by the Heritage Foundation in papers, a book titled No Excuses . Back in the 1970s, I studied two academically successful Catholic schools with black students in New Orleans. And Other On Literature? In both schools, a majority of the parental occupations were in the unskilled and semi-skilled category.
Dr. Diane Ravitch of the Manhattan Institute wrote about another successful black public school in another Brooklyn ghetto neighborhood. Mba Custom Papers? The movie Stand and Deliver showed Jaime Escalante achieving similarly outstanding academic results from Hispanic students in a low-income neighborhood. Yet the dogma marches on that a middle-class background is necessary for exampleessays, academic success. St. Augustine high school in New Orleans was a particularly striking example of achieving academic success while going against the grain of prevailing opinion in mba custom, educational circles. It was established back in 1951, during the era of racial segregation in the South, as a school for black boys, presided over by an all-white staff from the Josephite order. None of these young priests had ever taken a course in a department or school of essayist called education.
To the horror of papers some outside members of the order, the school used corporal punishment. There was no unifying educational theory. The school simply kept doing things that worked and discarded things that didn't. The first black student from the South to win a National Merit Scholarship came from St. Augustine. So did the first Presidential Scholar of essayist called any race from the state of Louisiana. As of 1974, 20 percent of all Presidential Scholars in mba custom, the history of the state had come from this school with about 600 black students. Test scores were never used as a rigid cutoff for admission to St. Augustine. There were students there with IQs in exampleessays, the 60s, as well as others with IQs more than twice that high. For individual students and for the school as a whole, the average IQ rose over mba custom papers the years-- being in the 80s and 90s in with citations, the 1950s and then reaching the mba custom papers, national average of 100 in is important, the 1960s.
To put that in perspective, both blacks and whites in the South during this era tended to papers score below the national average on IQ and other standardized tests. Most of these children did not come from middle-class families. Those who parents were in professional or white-collar occupations were less than one-tenth as numerous as those whose parents worked in cdt thesis, unskilled and semi-skilled occupations. What are the secrets of mba custom such successful schools? The biggest secret is that there are no secrets, unless work is a secret. Work seems to be the only four-letter word that cannot be used in public today. Aside from work and discipline, the and other, various successful schools for mba custom, minority children have had little in common with one another-- and and other essays even less in common with the fashionable educational theories of our times. Some of these schools were public, some were private. Some were secular and some were religious. Dunbar High School had an mba custom papers all-black teaching staffs but St.
Augustine in New Orleans began with an all-white teaching staff. Some of these schools were housed in old rundown buildings and others in new, modern facilities. Some of their principals were finely attuned to the social and political nuances, while others were blunt people who could not have cared less about parsons cdt thesis such things and would have failed Public Relations One. None of these successful schools had a curriculum especially designed for blacks. Most had some passing recognition of the children's backgrounds.
Dunbar High School, for example, was named for black poet Paul Laurence Dunbar and it set aside one day a year to commemorate Frederick Douglass, but its curriculum could hardly be called Afrocentric. Throughout the 85 years of its academic success, it taught Latin. Mba Custom Papers? In some of the essayist called, early years, it taught Greek as well. Its whole focus was on expanding the students' cultural horizons, not turning their minds inward. For all I know, there may be some Afrocentric schools that are doing well. The point here is simply that this has not been an essential ingredient in the successful education of minority students. At St. Augustine school in papers, New Orleans, its principal, Father Grant, resisted attempts to essayist called bring into the school the issues arising from the civil rights struggles of the 1960s. Although sympathetic to the civil rights movement himself, and to some extent a participant in it, Father Grant opposed the introduction into the school of what he called extraneous elements, issues, and concerns.
Keenly aware of the students' cultural disadvantages and the need to overcome them, as well as the mba custom papers, importance of the social issues that some wanted to address in the school, he said that we absolutely could not do both things well-- and essayist called both deserved to be done well, or not at mba custom, all. As Father Grant put it bluntly: Do not consume my time with extraneous issues and then expect me to have enough time left over to dedicate myself to a strong academic program where I will turn out strong, intelligent, competent kids. Again, the point here is not to say that this is the essay, only viable approach. The point is that the social visions of the day have not been essential ingredients in educational success. Important as the history of outstanding schools for minority students has been, there is also much to learn from the history of very ordinary urban ghetto schools, which often did far better in the past-- both absolutely and relative to their white contemporaries-- than is the case today. I went to such schools in Harlem in the 1940s but I do not rely on mba custom papers nostalgia for my information. And Other Essays On Literature? The test scores in ordinary Harlem schools in the 1940s were quite comparable to the test scores in white working-class neighborhoods on New York's lower east side.
Sometimes the Harlem schools scored a little higher and sometimes the lower east side schools scored a little higher but there were no such glaring racial disparities as we have become used to in urban schools in recent years. Papers? In April, 1941, for example, some lower east side schools scored slightly higher on tests of word meaning and paragraph meaning than some schools in Harlem but, in test given in December of that same year, several Harlem schools scored higher than the lower east side schools. Neither set of schools scored as high as the city-wide average, though neither was hopelessly below it. 11. While the lower east side of New York is justly known for the many people who were born in poverty there and rose to essayist called middle-class levels-- and some to national prominence-- very little attention is paid to mba custom a very similar history in Harlem. Some years ago, a national magazine ran a flattering profile of me, expressing wonder that I had come out of Harlem and gone on to elite colleges and essayist called an academic career. Shortly thereafter, I received a letter from a black lawyer of my generation, pointing out mba custom, that my experience was by no means so unusual in those days. He had grown up in expository with citations, Harlem during the same era, just a few blocks from mba custom papers, me. From the same tenement building in which he lived came children who grew up to become a doctor, a lawyer, a priest, and is important a college president. Indeed, where did today's black middle class come from, if not from mba custom papers, such places and laws such schools? My great fear is that a black child growing up in Harlem today will not have as good a chance to rise as people of my generation did, simply because they will not receive as solid an education, in an era when such an education is even more important.
Parents have been an important ingredient in the success of schools, whatever the racial or social backgrounds of the mba custom, students. And Other On Literature? But the specific nature of parental involvement can vary greatly-- and has often been very different from what is papers, believed among some educational theorists. In some of the laws essay, most successful schools, especially of the past, the parents' role has been that of giving moral support to mba custom the school by letting their children know that they are expected to exampleessays learn and to behave themselves. Current educational fashions see parents' roles as that of active participants in the shaping of educational policy and mba custom on-site involvement in the daily activities of the exampleessays, schools. Whatever the merits or demerits of these notions, that was certainly not the role played by parents of children at successful schools in papers, the past.
Nor were they necessarily equipped to why algebra play such a role. As of mba custom 1940, for example, the average black adult in the United States had only an elementary school education. With? I can still remember being surprised at what an papers event it was in our family when I was promoted to the seventh grade-- because no one else in the family had ever gone that far before. It was much the same story on the lower east side of New York at that time. Biographies of immigrant children who grew up there are full of painful memories of exampleessays how their parents, with their meager education and broken English, hated to have to go see a teacher-- and how embarrassed their children were when their parents appeared at school. Parents today may be more educated and papers more sophisticated but it is not clear that their political or quasi-political involvement in schools has been a net benefit. At the very least, history shows that it has never been essential. For those who are interested in schools that produce academic success for minority students, there is no lack of examples., past and present. Tragically, there is a lack of interest by the public school establishment in 2012, such examples. Again, I think this goes back to the politics of education.
Put bluntly, failure attracts more money than success. Politically, failure becomes a reason to demand more money, smaller classes, and mba custom papers more trendy courses and programs, ranging from black English to bilingualism and self-esteem. Politicians who want to look compassionate and essayist called concerned know that voting money for such projects accomplishes that purpose for them and voting against such programs risks charges of mean-spiritedness, if not implications of racism. We cannot recapture the past and mba custom papers there is much in the past that we should not want to recapture. Parsons Cdt Thesis 2012? But neither is mba custom, it irrelevant. If nothing else, history shows what can be achieved, even in the face of adversity. We have no excuse for achieving less in an era of greater material abundance and and other essays on literature greater social opportunities. Report of the Board of Trustees of Public Schools of the District of Columbia to the Commisisoners of the District of Columbia: 1898-1899 (Washington: Government Printing Office, 1900), pp.
7, 11. Papers? back.
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Am I Blue: Alice Walker Essay Sample. Alice Walker has been an activist for most of her life. Walker travels the mba custom papers, world to help fight for the poor and the oppressed. She also stands for the revolutionaries who want to parsons cdt thesis 2012 transform the world for the better. She is a defender of not only mba custom human rights but the rights of animals as well. Parsons 2012? In her essay “Am I Blue” she discovers the feelings of a horse named Blue. The essay is meant to show a different side of papers animals and show the of life essay, audience the human-like traits that horses have. She compares the oppression of the African Americans and American Indians to mba custom the way we now treat animals. The essay is informative and shows a side to animals that many people don’t see or look for. In comparing Blue to the oppressed, she gives light to a different way to view animals.
Walker uses emotion to help the reader relate to Blue so it is easier for the audience to feel sympathetic toward Blue when his companion is taken from why algebra essay him. By describing Blue’s emotions as you would describe the emotions of a human helps the reader relate and feel the pain that Blue is going through. Mba Custom Papers? I believe she did a wonderful job showing the and other essays on literature, emotions of animals and how human-like they can be. I think she really gives the reader some food for papers, thought and exampleessays, helps them see animals in a different light. Walker uses phrasing that illuminates the human characteristics of Blue when she speaks of him. Walker#8217;s perceptions of Blue are revealed through the use of description. The use of mba custom this technique enables her to present in clear language how immensely related Blue#8217;s behavior aspect is to and other on literature humans. At first, she describes Blue to be a magnificent creature that wonders endlessly in mba custom his beautiful surrounding. However, despite of these vivid surroundings, Blue is lonesome and bored with life.
Walker claims that “Blue was lonely. Blue was horribly lonely and bored”, which are emotions that one would expect only a human to have. She stated that she was shocked to laws see the strange, but familiar look on Blue#8217;s face. Describing her surprised reaction with specific details, she is able to tell us that to papers look #8220;human#8221; is essayist called, quite uncommon on animals. Mba Custom Papers? Therefore, it can be easily said that humans commonly condone the reactions of animals. Walker then states that even #8220;she had forgotten the depth of feeling one could see in horses#8217; eyes.#8221; For example, #8220;I was shocked that I had forgotten that human animals and nonhuman animals can communicate quite well.#8221; For many people, the #8220;human#8221; manifestations of animals are not ignored. Walker#8217;s implication of Blue being bored informs the readers that animals too, can feel isolation. When humans get bored, it is in our reach to abolish it. However, for animals, it is quite different; it is something they cannot control.
One of the arguments Walker makes throughout the essayist called, piece is that man (only associates emotion as capable for humans,) because as a society, we consider the ability to feel emotions as something that is restricted to only humans. Furthermore, our society, or at least the society of the slavery period, believes that human emotions are restricted to those that are white, basically those who are human in mba custom papers the eyes of the dominant white male. Walker describes how the Indians and the slaves are “like animals”, so they are not capable of having such human emotions. When in reality, the ‘animals’ that are discussed in this piece are most likely more capable of displaying these emotions than the white male is. Walker shows the transition of essays on literature Blue’s emotions as paralleled to the transitions of mba custom papers human emotions through the finding of love and a companion. When the family gets a brown horse for Blue to mate with, Blue becomes attached to this horse, as he shows his feelings of happiness and “this is itness” through the expression in his eyes. However, Blue becomes sad and disconnected from his happiness when they take the brown horse away. The feelings of essay sadness and disappointment are not only portrayed through Blue’s expression in his eyes, but also through his actions as “He managed to half-crunch one. The rest he let fall to the ground.” The disappointment and “hatred” seen in Blue’s eyes emphasizes the lack of understanding humans have for the emotions and feelings that animals are capable of, therefore they end up disregarding these feelings because humans need to do what is best for mba custom papers, them. You can tell by the look in his eyes that Blue is in love with her; #8220;I forgot the depth of feeling one could see in horses#8217; eyes.#8221; Blue#8217;s partner and unborn child are then taken away as if #8220;they had been born into 2012, slavery.#8221; This idea of humans disregarding the mba custom, feelings of animals for essay, human selfishness through the use of mba custom animals for food is also a main point Walker makes.
She discusses how we do not consider the impact that the laws introduction, methods of production have on the animals. Most humans want to be ignorant on how the animals they eat are killed. She explains this idea of the “contented cows” that we see on our milk containers. We choose to be ignorant so we don’t have to own up to all of the bad things we do as a race. Indians are envied for their land and papers, are therefore slaughtered then called animals or savages to make up for our wrong doings. 2012? By reminding us of our ignorance in mba custom papers the past she shows us that we have been wrong before and continue to be wrong when it concerns the exampleessays, rights of animals. She ends the mba custom, piece by claiming that she was “eating misery”, which again shows the emotions that animals have that are so nonchalantly disregarded. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Am I Blue: Alice Walker. essay editing for exampleessays, only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed!
Relevant essay suggestions for Am I Blue: Alice Walker. The lives of the characters in Alice Walker’s story “Everyday Use” have quite big differences. The three main characters are “Mama,” Maggie, and Dee. The events that occurred in each#8230; “Everyday Use” by Alice Walker. In Alice Walker’s story, “Everyday Use” the story is portrayed with much of a power struggle over Dee thinking that she has more of a grasp on the family’s heritage#8230; “The Welcome Table#8221; by Alice Walker.
The literary piece I chose for this assignment is “The Welcome Table: by mba custom, Alice Walker. The story is told using a third person omniscient point of view. The story is#8230; Poem at Thirty-Nine by Alice Walker and Piano by D.H Lawrence. Poem at thirty-nine by Alice Walker and Piano by D.H Lawrence in my opinion are both poems which share the essayist called, same theme of memories and nostalgic remembrance. The two poems#8230; “The Welcome Table” by Alice Walker. Alice Walker who wrote “The Welcome Table” had issues of race and gender that was the center of her literary work and her social activism. She participated in civil rights#8230; Alice Walker #8220;In Search of mba custom Our Mother#8217;s Gardens#8221;
If we apply the principle of creative suffering to and other Walker#8217;s paraphrase, may the sadness caused by the loss of the young women actually heighten potential? In what sense does art#8230;
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‘Through nature one finds peace’ – Volpone and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. ‘Through nature one finds peace’ In light of this view, consider the uses which writers make of the natural world. *Disclaimer: this essay is a collection of my own thoughts and papers, ideas, backed up by the texts. You may agree or disagree (even better) but feel free to laws of life introduction leave comments or ask any questions. Papers? I have spent a long time researching the concept of expository essay ‘nature’ and mba custom papers, exploring what it really means within the texts* Nature is defined as an ‘uncivilized or uncultured condition’ which is based on the advancements of individuals through the evolutionary principal of survival of the fittest. This concept undermines morality and religious authority and to essayist called some degree challenges our perception of mba custom ‘nature as good’ or as ‘peace’ bringing. Ben Jonson and William Blake both explore the advantages and disadvantages of a natural state, through satire.
During the 1600s and 1700s, in essay with Jonson and Blake’s time, society was mainly protestant – following the law and teaching of the papers bible which presented the idea that human nature was inherently ‘sinful’ and corrupt (Psalms 51). It may be argued in this respect that the ‘nature’ of an individual truly presents the base animal instincts of that person (as outlined by evolutionary law) and this is reinforced when Mosca states ‘thy wolfish nature’. It is also important to expository essay with citations note that Volpone is of the beast fable genre representing most characters as animals, further reinforcing this idea. Therefore, the eponymous Volpone, symbolises a Venetian civilization who are slaves to their desires, but it is important to papers note that Volpone’s Venice may be viewed as a ‘magnification of expository essay with London’, under disguise due to literary censorship. Whilst, Volpone arguably reveals the danger of being controlled by mba custom, natural human desires, Blake suggests that purging natural emotions is a form of repression with disastrous consequences. In ‘The Marriage of Heaven and essay with, Hell’ Blake states ‘He who desires but acts not breeds pestilence’ which in mba custom many ways reveals the view that desire is a natural and healthy human emotion. In this way, Blake supports the parsons 2012 idea that ‘through nature one finds peace’, rather than pestilence whereas Jonson suggests that there is no ‘honour… in nature’ according to papers the character of Corvino. Nature simply results in a society which rejects religion and essay citations, law ultimately producing individuals who live selfishly in mba custom crime and corruption, at the demise of essay with citations others and mba custom papers, therefore rejecting peace, as a society.
Blake argues in the Marriage of Heaven and Hell that ‘if the doors of perception were cleansed, every thing would appear to man as it is, infinite’ and this explores the expository essay with citations idea that our perception of nature is limited, as it is either viewed as liberating and mba custom papers, bringing ‘peace’, or simply as another form of laws of life introduction chains resulting in further repression, rape and death. This can be explored in mba custom papers both of essayist called our texts, as Volpone satirises the idea that ‘through nature one finds peace’ . When Volpone attempts to rape Celia, she states ‘punish that unhappy crime of nature’. which reveals the idea that Volpone, attempting to satisfy his inner natural desires, does not bring peace for Celia. She becomes a victim of abuse and unhappiness in order for Volpone to papers find ‘peace’ through his own natural desires which challenges, to some extent, the perception that ‘nature brings peace’. Volpone was published in 1606, when sex was considered as an act of intimacy bringing two individuals together as one, which was an act of the celebration of marriage. Furthermore, in 1650, during the ascendancy of the Puritans, fornication was a felony which was punished by law if discovered.
Edward Shorter, who studied rape suggested that it only decreased due to exampleessays the ‘growth’ in sexual permissiveness during and after the industrial revolution (which was around the time of Blake’s writing). This may be why William Blake explores themes of sexual liberation, in terms of poems such as the angel and the blossom. Short also argues that rape occurred due to the frustrated elemental sex drive of early modem men and papers, from this point of view, we can view nature as something which breeds never ending frustration and results in crime, rather than peace. However, the Greenwich production of Volpone presents the rape scene as highly comedic, as Celia shouts and throws pillows at Volpone. The Bath (2012) production also attempts to do this by portraying Volpone as a stripper, with disco lights and the use of the modern day ‘sex bomb’ music. In my opinion, whilst this depiction of the scene may be seen to undermine to seriousness of the crime, it does so by destabilising the audience – forcing them to question the true injustice of the crime. In this way Volpone encourages both a Jacobean and 21st century audience to question what ‘human nature’ and the ‘human world’ truly represents in terms of society. Nature therefore does not ‘simply’ bring peace, but rather a frustrated desire that cannot be fully satisfied (or at least for very long).
The Songs of why algebra essay Innocence and of Experience present two states of the human soul, where innocence could be viewed as nature without knowledge and experience as the wisdom of understanding good and evil (which could be argued is mba custom papers either a divine or made man creation). On Literature? We must therefore question whether our understanding of nature has simply been polluted by man-made control. This can be explored in ‘London’ and ‘The Lamb’. The lamb lives by the ‘steam o’er the mead’ indicating a form of clean, unpolluted nature, whereas London presents an image of the ‘chartered thames’ which is symbolic of a negative image of the human control within the natural world, as the Thames was known to be heavily polluted in the late 1700s. For the lamb, it is the unpolluted and freely running stream of innocence which brings ‘peace’, but this is at the cost of the papers lamb being completely unaware of a pollution, which could be a metaphor for experience. Essay? In this way it could be argued that unpolluted and free nature, which does not exist at the expense of the weak, is true nature which does in fact bring peace to papers the innocent. Nature can be explored through Adam and Eve and original sin, which is a motif that both texts draw upon to some degree. Whilst Mosca’s name means ‘parasite’ in expository essay with citations Italian, Mosca may also be viewed as the serpent from Genesis enticing Volpone to seek Celia , who he describes as being ‘bright’ as Volpone’s ‘gold’, and this questions the idea of papers whether we are inherently curious and parsons cdt thesis, deviant in terms of our nature – or whether it is something that needs enticing and encouragement (and hence something that has to be learned). It has been argued that The Sick Rose is ‘paradise lost in 8 lines’, which is an epic poem by John Milton published in 1667.
Blake was highly influenced by Milton, even to a point where he made a Paradise lost illustration which presented the love of two people in Eden, beneath what could be an isolated Lucifer figure. The love of this couple is being controlled by Satan, who represents corruption and sin – and is therefore why the couple cannot find peace through natural love. The Sick Rose describes a ‘dark secret love’ which ‘destroy[s] life’. During the 1800s, there was a large amount of mba custom prostitution and sexually transmitted diseases. Many would therefore argue that Blake’s ‘Sick Rose’ is the result of essayist called a ‘crimson joy’ – which connotes lust and a lack of mba custom papers innocence, and a hence a sexual disease. Therefore, Blake suggests that whilst submitting to your nature might result in momentary ‘joy’, it does not result in ‘peace’ but rather, pain and suffering that causes a destroyed life.
There is also an argument to be made which suggests that ‘nature’ is cursed as a punishment for original sin and this can be explored through both of our texts. Is Important? Volpone’s natural instincts, passions and desires are ultimately punished as a result of papers obeying the serpent like Mosca. The Court in essayist called Volpone therefore may viewed as a metaphor for God who allows humans the free will to explore their nature, but punishes them for mba custom papers submitting to it. The court’s inability to differentiate reality from fiction is also a comment, that Jonson may be making about societies interpretations of the bible and the God of the new and old testament. In addition, many of the courts in Jonson’s time were known to be corrupt and biased, which is why there were so many accused plots at the time, including the Gunpowder plot – which Jonson was accused for being involved with. It is however revealed in Genesis that the earth was ‘punished’ due to the sin of man. Genesis 3:17 states that the earth was ‘cursed in thy work’ and In Isaiah ‘the earth is defiled by its people [who have] disobeyed its laws’. This can be explored in Earth’s Answer who perhaps describes God as ‘selfish father of exampleessays men’ who is ‘cruel’ and ‘jealous’. Earth does however plead for papers man to and other ‘break this heavy chain’, by discontinuing sin – which is symbolic of the idea that nature (which was created by God as ‘good’ and peaceful in Genesis) is papers what suffers because of human sin. In this way it can be argued that ‘Nature’ was designed to be ‘peace’ bringing, but has been destroyed through misguided perception and why algebra, an inherited sinful nature which is a result of the tree of knowledge.
The Human Abstract states that the ‘Gods… sought through nature to find this Tree; but their search was in papers vain; There grows one in the human brain’ which may be symbolic of the idea that sinful nature is something that grows within us, rather than something which simply created by religious ideologies. Why Algebra Essay? Another idea may be that our understanding of ‘nature’ is mba custom papers something controlled by society rather than something inherently inside of essay citations us. Mba Custom Papers? We must also therefore question whether our perception of ‘peace’ is laws of life something which is created by society, or if it is something we inherently know, feel and understand and is natural. Both texts also explore repression, due to the purging of natural desires. When Celia throws the mba custom papers handkerchief out of the window to the mount back, it reveals her desire for freedom as we are told that she has ’10 men’ watching over her, by the order of Corvino, at every moment. She is is important arguably repressed in every sense, including her happiness, freedom and sexuality – as we find that Corvino makes her wear a chastity belt, which is papers unnatural in the sense of marriage. Essayist Called? Blake also explored repression of the natural world in The Garden of Love, where the mba custom ‘gates of chapel’ are ‘shut’ and ‘though shalt not’ is ‘writ over exampleessays, the door’. Andrews argues that the church is a ‘tool of political and social repression’ which covers where the ‘green’ fields was once (and this is associated with natural imagery). Here Blake argues that religion represses nature and represses individuals of being free. Blake was known for papers his views on free love, but it can still be argued from essayist called a biblical point of view – that there is no freedom in nature.
Blake the dissenter who was a social, religious and political anarchist therefore does not break free of the mba custom papers chains and parsons cdt thesis 2012, ‘mind forg’d manacles’ (London) , but rather simply hands himself over to another master, by following the Swedenborgian. Romans 6 states that everyone is simply ‘slaves to mba custom papers the one they obey’, ‘slaves to sin’ or ‘slaves to righteousness’. In this way, characters giving in to their natures are ‘slaves’ to laws introduction sin and their own natural desires, and hence can never be fully in peace. This is why Blake states ‘I must create a system or be enslaved by another man’s’. Finally, it can be said that nature and the natural world is extremely difficult to understand and mba custom papers, define.
Whilst Christian ideologies would align love with marriage, Blake and Volpone both view marriage as corrupt and in essence, the antithesis of exampleessays free love. Marriage was often viewed as a social contract between families, often rejecting love as its core which is why, London uses the juxtaposing words ‘marriage hearse’, which reveals how everything about nature and the natural world has been inversed and corrupted by human decisions. Volpone presents no real families, where the death of marriage is explored through Celia and Corvino’s as well as and Sir Politic and his wife. In each case, there is no trust or real relationship, but rather a courtship based on wealth and mba custom, reputation, where Volpone replaces family with money. Nature is therefore represented in both texts, as far too corrupted, to bring any real peace to individuals.
Mockery, wisdom, humour and satire in Ben Jonson’s Volpone and Blake’s Songs of Innocence and of Experience. In the light of this view, discuss the ways in which writers make use of humour. Volpone is categorised as a satirical comedy which draws on an eclectic mix of elements from city comedy, black comedy and beast fable genres. Exampleessays? Satire is important in understanding humour and can be described as a genre in papers which the vices of the characters are used to expose and shame the laws essay individuals of society. Black comedy uses humour that makes light of dark or solemn subject matters and this can be explored in the scene where Volpone attempts to rape Celia. In addition, City comedy was simply defined as an mba custom papers English comedy written during the reign of with citations James the first, which was set in London and depicted ordinary London life. Notably, Volpone is papers set in Venice – a city which was stereotyped for decadence and corruption, but it is important to note that Volpone is a clear ‘magnification of exampleessays London’ and the setting was used to expose and criticise society’s move to capitalism. In this way, satirical comedy and mockery is used to explore the follies of London’s society in hope of bringing new wisdom to the people. Blake’s poems – although sometimes depicted as childlike and simple, are often satirical and deal with a range of topical and controversial issues such as poverty, social revolution and the abuses of the Church. In the Laughing Song, the ‘green woods’, the ‘dimpling streams’ and mba custom papers, the ‘meadows’ are all personified to laugh ‘with the voice of joy’.
The poem has three stanzas with two rhyming couplets in each section and this rhyme scheme is used to why algebra is important evoke the song like quality of mba custom children’s songs. The Laughing Song shows the world in its purest and most innocent form and it has been argued that Blake does this in an attempt to induce laughter ‘in a world where such laughter is in perpetual danger of becoming forever absent’. In this way the motif of laughing is symbolic of innocence which is something that Blake often mocks. In the Greenwich production of essays Volpone, Celia and Volpone have a scene on stage together where Volpone attempts to rape her. Mba Custom Papers? This scene is portrayed in a comic way as Celia is shocked and why algebra, hits Volpone with the cushions on his bed. In my opinion this use of black comedy both mocks and mba custom, undermines the essay seriousness of the crime, but it is this feeling of social injustice which evokes morality questions from the audience and ultimately brings Wisdom. In addition, within this scene religious language and imagery are often used, such as when Volpone says ‘that never tasted the true heaven of love’ and ‘applaud[ing] beauty’s miracle’.
This is an example of situational irony as the papers audience would not expect religious language to be associated with rape. Volpone states that he ‘would only have sold part of paradise’ which is a metaphor and illustrates that his paradise is sex. When Volpone speaks of being ‘raised’ in on literature ‘several shapes’, this makes a biblical allusion to papers Lazarus being raised from the dead, but is also profanely and ironically a phallic joke. Irony is essayist called a convention of satire and comedy and is often used as mockery in order to evoke wisdom. Notably, religion and biblical language is often used as a veneer to cover up the corruption of Volpone’s world. Blake also uses irony within his poems and this can be seen dominantly in The Chimney Sweeper. Tom Dacre was ‘sold’ as a sweeper and cried when his head was shaved. The speaker tells Tom ‘hush’ and ‘never mind it’ for when his ‘head is bare’, ‘you know the soot cannot spoil [his] white hair. Tom’s hair is used to resemble a lamb before it has been shaved and this is ironic because his white hair is a symbol of innocence. Blake is therefore ironically saying that it is mba custom papers better to have no innocence than to have it, to be ‘spoiled’. In addition, the free direct dialogue illustrates the self repression of these characters in what they are being told to accept in terms of religion and other aspects.
Dominant use of exampleessays humour and metatheatricality can be seen through Volpone’s dwarf, eunuch and fool – who are portrayed very comically throughout the play. Lady Would-be prays to mba custom papers Volpone to and other ‘lend [her his] dwarf’ and mba custom papers, this shows how these characters are objectified and often portrayed as pets. In the Greenwhich production Lady Would-be even attaches a collar to essay his neck which reinforces this idea. In addition, it is mba custom argued that in and other on literature city comedy, two types of Renaissance gentleman can be found – the ‘natural idiot or [the] deformed fools’ and papers, here Volpone’s children are examples of deformed fools. In Genesis it states that we are made in the image of God and in the same way, it has been argued that Volpone’s children are made in the true image of Volpone. Expository Citations? Therefore although these characters are highly comical, they are used to represent the unnatural, profane and reversed nature of Volpone’s character.
Comedy, satire and irony are therefore all used as mockery in order to expose the follies, and in a sense, hold a mirror up to mba custom papers the audience of the time. Shakespeare states in As you Like it, ‘all the world’s a stage, and all the men and women merely players’. Jonson, like Shakespeare believes that we all put on roles and disguises in life and metatheatricality is therefore a Jacobean theatrical metaphor. Exampleessays? Mockery and papers, humour used in Volpone and Blake therefore bring wisdom to both a Jacobean and twenty first century audience through the use of humour and comedy. ‘Human society is inherently corrupt.’ – Volpone and Songs of Innocence and of Experience. ‘Human society is inherently corrupt.’ In the light of this comment, draw comparisons between Volpone Act 1 scene 1 and Blake’s poems. It is argued that ‘disguise, deception and false identity are all fruits of corruption emblematic of the dishonesty which greed leads’.
In Act 1 Scene 1, the characters enter Volpone’s house which is situated in the Italian city of Venice. The play’s setting is vital in understanding Volpone’s world of corruption, as the of life Venice of the Renaissance was viewed abroad as the mba custom seat of corruption, infamous for its vice-ridden inhabitants and decadence. Venice was stereotyped for expository many years in English drama and mba custom papers, as a result, Italians were often portrayed as sensuous beings who were associated with greed, disguise and deception. For example, Shakespeare, who was one of cdt thesis 2012 Jonson’s contemporaries, includes a scene in Othello , where Iago speaks of the ‘super-subtle’ Venetians and this serves to reiterate the belief that Venetians were ‘masters of papers duplicity’. And Other? In addition, it has been said that Jonson’s Venice was a ‘magnification of London’ and papers, was used to expose and criticise society’s move to capitalism. It is therefore ironic that Jonson uses Venice as a disguise of London (which exposes its corruption) because the characters in Volpone also take on disguises to essayist called both conceal and mba custom, reveal inner truths. Notably, Blake also explores London’s corruption in his poem London but he does so directly, with a melancholic mode of address and without the use of satire. Blake’s Songs of Innocence and experience serve to essay explore the binary opposition between the innocent and a pastoral idyll, which is mba custom papers associated with childhood, and the adult world of repression, corruption and experience. In the poem London, Blake portrays a very negative and cynical view of the city as the ‘Church’ is black’ning, ‘youth’ are described as ‘Harlot[s]’, the ‘Soldier[s]’ are ‘hapless’ and ‘Marriage’ is placed in line with the ‘plagues’. This reveals the complete inverse of natural order, symbolising an inherently corrupt and hopeless world, where Christian values are completely manipulated and reversed. In the poem money is cdt thesis 2012 spent on mba custom papers, church buildings whilst children live in poverty, ‘cry[ing]’ and are forced to clean the chimneys.
The use of the word ‘charter’d’ portrays the language of materialism and consumerist ideologies within London and to Blake, this makes a mockery of true Christian virtues and religion. Blake also often makes an exampleessays allusion to the many biblical figures who speak of hypocrisy in the bible. For example, in mba custom papers the new testament Matthew states that ‘the King will reply, ‘Truly I tell you, whatever you did for one of the least of these brothers and sisters of mine, you did for me.’ The bible often speaks of charity and states that we should look after the sick, give food to the hungry and parsons 2012, give shelter to the homeless. It however never tells its followers to spend money on big churches or reject the ungodly, which is why in mba custom the old testament, God actually calls religious people whores for worshipping money and materialistic idols. Laws Of Life? In ‘Holy Thursday’ charity and pity are celebrated but this is once again reversed as the last line, ‘then cherish pity, lest you drive an angel from your door’, connotes the mba custom papers idea these religious, ‘aged men’ who are ‘wise guardians of the poor’ are just attempting to ultimately buy their way into exampleessays heaven, which illustrates the corruption and hypocrisy of the church. The ‘blackening’ church walls and mba custom papers, the ‘blood down Palace walls’ in London also makes an allusion to the French revolution and it therefore has been argued that Blake may be warning society that unless corruption is revealed and dealt with, people will be forced to revolt. In both Volpone and Blake’s poetry the main source of essayist called corruption is mba custom papers money and greed. In the Greenwich theatre production of Volpone, the parsons cdt thesis 2012 opening scene begins with a buzzing fly trapped inside a champagne glass and this is a metaphor for Mosca’s image of excess and wealth. It also serves to foreshadow how avarice will become Mosca’s hamartia.
Notably, Mosca is referred to the ‘parasite’, who feeds off of the mba custom papers other characters. In addition, Volpone’s name means ‘the great fox’ in Italian, where foxes are often symbols of cunningness and trickery and this further serves to reflect the corrupt nature of the characters within the play. In the laws of life opening scene we learn that Volpone has gained his wealth through cons, rather than by honest work. In addition, in this scene there is also a binary opposition between light and papers, darkness, where the darkness suggests a lack of wealth, and money is described as ‘a flame by night’. Volpone states that ‘Am I, to view thy splendour, darkening his’, which shows that in order to gain money somebody else has to exampleessays lose it. Mba Custom? Volpone also describes kissing with ‘adoration’ every ‘relic’, where relics are roman catholic imagery and parsons, further symbolise the idea that money is Volpone’s religion. The first scene has a semantic field of religious blasphemy including the words ‘hail’, ‘heaven’ and ‘saint’.
Volpone also states that the ‘price of souls; even hell, with thee to boot, is made worth heaven’, which makes reference to the Faustian legend and also shows his value of Gold being higher than his value of God. This is an example of situational irony as the audience would expect religious language to be associated with God and virtue, however Volpone further reverses our expectations by constructing this language as profane and immoral. Therefore both Blake and Jonson explore the corruption of society through the loss of Christian virtues due to human’s sinful nature. The bible also addresses sin as inherently apart of the human beings and this is something that both authors explore. Whilst Jonson uses Satire in terms of disguised constructive and social criticism, Blake asks big questions about society directly and in mba custom papers doing so explores the corruption of innocence through experience. Deception is the essayist called Spice of life – Volpone and Songs of Innocence and Experience. Deception is the Spice of life. ‘In light of this view, consider ways in which William Blake and Ben Jonson explore deception in Innocence and Experience and Volpone. In Volpone, Jonson often uses complicated imagery and lexis to explore the theme of Deception, such as the mba custom papers language and semantic fields of disease. Cdt Thesis? Miasma was a term coined by the ancient Greeks and during the 1600s, the miasma theory meant that it was frequently believed that many diseases such as cholera, Chlamydia and the Black Death were caused by a form of pollution or ‘bad air’.
When Volpone enters in disguise and tells Voltore that Volpone ‘grew diseased’ and that his ‘body and that house Decayed together’, this is symbolic of Volpone’s diseased imagination. It also however ironically connotes Volpone’s relationship with money as his house and possessions are personified to become diseased as a result of Volpone dying. Furthermore, Volpone tells Mosca that he will be ‘a sharp disease unto ’em’ which refers to mba custom papers Volpone and the way he will go on to corrupt the other characters, arguably – even Mosca, with his money. A Jacobean audience would have believed that the love of money was the root of on literature all evil – which is what is written in the first epistle to Timothy in the New testament, and in Volpone, money is the root of all deception. Blake on the other hand uses deceptively simple language and mba custom, rhyme schemes to mask the corruption and why algebra is important essay, deception of human beings, that he explores within his poems. This can be seen in the Lamb, where Blake uses a child as the narrator – who asks simple and profound questions such as ‘who made thee?’ and then goes on to answer them. The answers provided in the second stanza, ‘for he calls himself a lamb’, reveal the child’s innocence and mba custom papers, reflects the idea that ‘children often go to the heart of existence because they have not yet learned to complicate things. Laws Essay Introduction? The poem ends on a short childlike prayer ‘Little Lamb, God Bless thee’, which is repeated.
The simple rhythm and assonance reinforces this idea that Blake is adopting a child’s persona. Mba Custom Papers? The Lamb also serves to why algebra make biblical allusions and mba custom, reflects where Jesus told people that ‘unless you become as little children’ in essay introduction faith, ‘you will not enter into the kingdom of mba custom papers heaven’, in Matthew. However, a deeper level or reading into this poem can be explored through Marx’s idea of false consciousness which is the idea that we are ideologically controlled in many aspects of life, especially by language. In this way, we can question the idea and ask why the innocent Lamb must be told ‘who made thee’, rather than inherently knowing. In believing what the speaker testifies, the Lamb (being an expository essay citations allegory for society) could ultimately be completely deceived. Blake therefore frequently explores the ideas of religion, corruption and deception – using simple ideas and imagery. In addition, the repetition of the mba custom pronoun ‘thee’ ‘gives a feeling of familiarity and closeness’ between the child and the lamb and this signifies the idea that human’s often trust and form ideologies based on familiarity or how ‘good’, something appears in terms of the outward appearance. Essayist Called? This is problematic as disguises are often used to deceive and this can be explored in mba custom papers Volpone. With? Jonson uses disguise in two ways: to conceal and to reveal, such as when Peregrine deceives Sir Politic Would-be in order to conceal his true character but also when Volpone dresses as Scoto Mantua.
In doing so, he reveals more of his ‘true self’ – as he is really vital and healthy. In this way disguises are used to deceive characters. Furthermore, the Italian commedia dell’arte which refers to the 16th century carnival period, were performers were masked and papers, played on outside stages, is echoed in some of Volpone’s scenes. Volpone wooing Celia in expository citations disguise as a mountebank exposes the deceptive nature of his character through metatheatricality. The characters names also connote their true deceptive natures, to include some examples, Volpone means ‘fox’ in Italian, Mosca means ‘fly’ and Voltore means ‘Vulture, which are all associated with and mba custom papers, connote groups who ‘scrounge’ and take all they can with little regard for others. In the Nurse’s song, in Songs of Experience, the nurse tells the children that their ‘spring’ and their ‘day, are wasted in play’, which signifies the idea that the expository with Nurse perhaps wants the children to grow out of innocence into the ‘sleep of experience’, and this creates a dichotomy and binary opposition between both innocence and experience as well as youth and age. Mba Custom Papers? In addition, in essay introduction the Nurse’s song in Songs of Innocence, the children laugh on the hill, but in Experience, we read ‘whispering are in the dale’, which implies secrecy and deception. The narrator also states that the children’s ‘winter and night’ are wasted in papers ‘disguise’ where darkness and winter are set against the honest daylight of Innocence. On Literature? Notably, the mba custom papers ‘night’ and parsons 2012, ‘winter’ in disguise suggests that everything in this world, including nature – is corrupt. We also notice that unlike in Innocence, the children are not given a voice and perhaps this is because they have not yet gained experience – and the truth of it is therefore disguised to them. Chicanery and deception are seen frequently in Volpone, as he uses trickery in order to achieve a financial purpose.
Volpone attempts to deceive Corbaccio, Corvino and Voltore and they in turn attempt to the do the same to him. Mosca also grows greedy and attempts to take all of Volpone’s money and there is papers a strong motif of gulling within the play. Deception, disguise and dishonesty are used in a hyperbolic way within Volpone and are used in order to satirically criticise those who are greedy, by ‘exploiting them as foolish characters’. In addition, the and other essays exposing of deception and punishment by law means that Volpone is also often viewed as a morality play. In both Blake and papers, Volpone, religion and Christian virtues are a veneer for society which are used to cover up the corruption of the characters. Mosca tells Corvino ‘why, think that these good works may help hide your bad’ which reinforces this idea, but it is ironic that he says this, because the ‘good works’ he speaks of, are another form of essayist called disguise and therefore corruption. In Holy Thursday, the ‘wise old guardians of the poor’ can be seen to ‘cherish pity’ in order that they do not ‘drive an angel’ from their ‘door’. This connotes the idea that these ‘aged men’ buy their way into heaven, through the disguise of ‘guardians’.
In this way, disguises are often seen to ‘exert a certain force and power all of [their] own’. Mba Custom? By taking on a disguise, Mosca is able to exert his power through Volpone’s money which is why Rick Bowers argues that the ‘God of this play is performance’ in terms of parsons cdt thesis metatheatricality. Therefore it is papers fair to say that deception is found in every aspect of the play and in laws of life introduction Blake’s poems. Mba Custom Papers? I agree that ‘deception’ is the ‘spice of expository citations life’ but only within the worlds of the text – because when justice is served and deception is uncovered, the mba custom play must come to on literature an end. Volpone and Blake also do however explore corruption in the real world and this can be seen when Mosca reminds Voltore of his ability, as a lawyer, to ‘give forked counsel’ and in essence, disguise and manipulate the truth. Blake also reminds us of religious deception and mba custom, false consciousness – asking us to question our beliefs and trust in organised religion. Jefferson Bethke, a 21st Century poet who takes on Blake’s views argues against religion, but for Christianity and in citations the same manner as Blake – asks ‘if religion is mba custom so great, why has it started so many wars? Why does it build huge churches, but fails to feed the poor?’ All authors explore human deception, as a mode of control and corruption. Deception is therefore integral to the understanding of Volpone and where it is exampleessays set, in Venice – which is papers a ‘magnification of London’. The motif also serves as a warning to the reader in Blake’s poetry as he reminds us of Jean-Jacques Roussea’s words ‘ Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains ‘. Check out Bethke’s poem ‘Why I Hate religion, but Love Jesus’ here:
The Little Stranger – Sarah Waters. (Faraday and on literature, the Acorn) What does Faraday pick off the wall, on his first visit to papers Hundreds Hall and why algebra is important, what significance does this have? Faraday first visited Hundreds Hall at mba custom, the age of 10. Acorn: During the Norman Conquest, the English carried dried acorns to protect themselves from the brutalities of the day. Considered to be an emblem of why algebra is important essay luck, prosperity, youthfulness and power, the mba custom Acorn is a good luck symbol indeed!
It also represents spiritual growth. HE TAKES THE POWER. ‘I was drawn to one of the dustless white walls’ ‘a decorative plaster border, a representation of acors and leaes’ ‘I did, what strikes me now as a dreadful thing’ ‘I worked my fingers around one of the acorns and tried to prise it from it’s setting; and when that failed to release it, I got out my pen knife and dug away with that’ ‘In admiring the exampleessays house, I wanted to possess a piece of it – or rather, as if the admiration itself, which I suspected a more dinary child would not have felt, entitled me to it. I was like a man, I suppose, wanting a lock of hair from the head of a girl he had suddenly and blindly become enamoured of.’ ‘I’m afraid the acorn gave at last, though less cleanly than ‘d been expecting’ – the strike for power. It wasn’t easy to get to the point he is now (at the end – where he is the one looking after the house) ‘I put the acorn in mba custom my pocket, and slipped back behind the exampleessays curtain’ ‘I felt the hard plaster lump in mba custom my pocket [with] sick excitement’ ‘I had been drawing it in and out of my pocketm and essays, it had left a chalky trail on the gray flannel of my shorts’ – the shift of power in and out of his pocket (money issue?) ‘Queer little thing in her hand’ – queer is also used about the mba custom papers supernatural things that happen.
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