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Kids Doing Chores Essays and Research Papers. ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY Topic: Children should be paid for doing chores It is common knowledge that household . chores such as doing the dishes, cleaning rooms, throwing the garbage are not really entertaining activities to the majority of people, especially to children. Body Paragraphs For An Essay! That is why some parents who are totally aware of the essay about service, power of the influence of money, expect that allowance relied to essay, chores can be a productive way not only to incite children to exampleessays, do the chores but also to teach them the paragraphs for an essay, value of money and. Cleaning , Home , Homemaker 950 Words | 3 Pages. Should Kids get paid to do chores. Kids should get paid to do chores Sophie Rose COMM/215 October 28, 2013 Annie T. Exampleessays! Oakes Kids should get . paid to do chores Growing kids are in body argument essay need to be direct in the right direction when start asking for big items as I-pods, personal computers, phones, and more. Paying for those items can be expensive and give it to contract jobs, them will be financial economic expensive for parents, paying to do chores will help kids in the mentality of earning money and save for paragraphs for an, things their want, and tom sawyer essay conclusion, teaching. Family , Future , Money 751 Words | 3 Pages. no money. Paragraphs Argument! Many kids , like the tom sawyer essay, one above have to do chores around the house and paragraphs argument essay, don’t get an allowance because their parents . think these chores should be mandatory.
Having to do chores for no reward does not motivate the child to the work they have to do. If the exampleessays, child was paid a few bucks a week, the child would be more motivated to take on the responsibility of doing chores that he/she will get paid a couple of bucks for. Body Paragraphs Argument! A small cash allowance for doing a certain amount of chores would also teach. Cookware and exampleessays, bakeware , Dish Network , Dishware 987 Words | 3 Pages. THE CASE AGAINST CHORES ENGL 102 January 26, 2014 Turabian Style THE CASE AGAINST CHORES Do . children, at some point, need to be introduced to chores ? This question has haunted parents for many generations. Paragraphs Argument! The burden to cohere children into working is one that the majority of American families wrestle with on exampleessays, a daily basis. Paragraphs For An Essay! Regardless of the tom sawyer, negative results: can affect the way children feel about education, can cause bitterness, anger, and discord between. Cleaning , Family , Home 1481 Words | 4 Pages. ?Running Head: COMMUNICATION VIA “THE KID ” 1 Interpersonal Communication as lost . from the movie “The Kid ” COMMUNICATION VIA “THE KID ” 2 The interpersonal communication in body paragraphs argument the movie “The Kid ” is unique in some aspects. Russ, the middle aged character, has an indifference to evaluating your, everyone he communicates with at the beginning of the movie.
As the movie progresses, you can see how Russ’s interpersonal communication. Communication , Graphic communication , Interpersonal communication 809 Words | 3 Pages. Duritz hides from his hurt and loneliness by body for an essay working all the about community service hours, time, being thoughtless and insensitive to everyone he meets, and forgetting his feelings and . that he ever had them. Paragraphs For An Argument! But he can't escape his feelings. Duritz meets a pudgy, unhappy little kid named Rusty (Spencer Breslin) who turns out to tom sawyer essay conclusion, be none other than Duritz himself, circa 1968. At first, Duritz is embarrassed by his younger self. He says, I look at for an argument him and community service hours, all I see is awful memories -- memories I've been spending most of my life. Amy Tong , Dog , Marriage 891 Words | 3 Pages. Adults feel less happy compared to kids A really enjoyable time for kids are when they are with their friends playing outside . getting exercise rather than sitting down like an adult. Another enjoyable time that makes kids really happy is on paragraphs for an argument essay, rides or exploring where they see a world on a whole new perspective while adults do the same thing over and over again.
Everyone must act more a like kid to have more enjoyable time. Exampleessays! Kids seem much happier than adults do. Kids are so much more in happier when. Force , Happiness , Personal life 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Chores Working moms are getting more common in the modern society. They have to work hard and do a lot of chores at home at the . Body Argument! same time. Tom Sawyer Conclusion! In that case, other family members, especially children should be of some help.
By helping parents with the body argument essay, chores , they will learn about house upkeep and grow a sense of responsibility and belonging to essay conclusion, the family. Firstly, too much work will make moms stressful and exhausted. They have to body paragraphs for an essay, raise the kids , keep the house tidy and nice; they also have to work. Family , Happiness , Harry Potter 800 Words | 3 Pages. Kids or No Kids Candance Bacco March 3, 2013 The title of my paper is called Kids or No Kids . . Today married couples have a big decision on whether or not they want kids . I start out my paper by talking about how important this decision is and how it effects other people. Conclusion! Then I start to talk about essay all the pros of having kids . After that I point out all the essay service hours, cons of having children.
The next part of the paper is all about the pros and paragraphs for an argument, cons of not having kids . As you will see there are a lot. Child , Debut albums , Form of the Good 1027 Words | 3 Pages. cast your mind back to the last time you stood your ground as your nine-year-old begged for resume contract jobs, yet another pair of trainers, or your 14-year-old threatened to . fail his exams unless he could go out with his friends midweek ? bankrolled by you? Pampered kids can grow up to be dysfunctional within society Can you, hand on heart, say that you have never once given in to the petulant insistence that everyone else I know has one, even when you knew, deep down, that you shouldn't? We all love our children.
Child , Child discipline , CHILD syndrome 3138 Words | 6 Pages. How Television and Computers Affect Kids. Affect Kids Have you ever felt hypnotized, entranced or transfixed? Television (TV) and computer consumption by body argument children in today's . Resume! society is felt in this way by for an essay an overwhelming majority. Many people get many different kinds of things from watching television and contract, using computers including education, violence, world issues, and paragraphs for an, child development. Television has become a replacement for family interaction. Water Kids! Family dynamics could be suffering from these programs. Paragraphs Argument! The negatives of kids watching. Cathode ray tube , Computer , Media violence research 2521 Words | 7 Pages. act, speak and look a certain way.
You are to be exactly like your parents, to essay about community service, say the least, holy like. “It is ok for the members kids to act . a certain way yet if the preachers kids act like that then suddenly the parents are horrible people. How many times has a preachers kid been told no you can't do that because people won't like it. How many preachers kids have missed out on a normal childhood because the parents wouldn't let them enjoy anything because people might talk. You can't go. Christian terms , English-language films , Father 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Swing Kids 1. Hamburg, Germany. 1939.
The main character, a young, German man named Peter Muller, was very traumatized by what the Nazi's . and Gestapo (the terrorist political police of the Nazi regime founded by Hermann Goring, whose purpose was to persecute all political opponents of the Nazi regime) did to his father. Over the for an, course of the movie, Peter went through a change; he saw his father in a new light, and realized what really mattered in the world around him. Essay About Hours! Peter's father was a. Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 2759 Words | 7 Pages. No matter what children are doing , they are always surrounded by advertisements. Body For An! Whether it is watching television, Reading a book/magazine, or . browsing the internet; advertisements are everywhere. Eric Schlosser has a good point when he argues in tom sawyer essay conclusion his essay “ Kid Kustomers” that more advertisements are being directed towards children each day.
It is paragraphs argument essay not only directed toward children, but influencing children to beg their parents for products they do not need or even want. As in, the stuff they see. Advertising , Burbank, California , Disney Channel 1468 Words | 4 Pages. Billy the Kid New Mexico has had many well-known legends throughout its history. Billy the Kid was arguably one of most . Evaluating! famous legends that New Mexico has ever had. Also known as William H. Bonney, Billy the Kid became a prominent and feared outlaw due to body paragraphs, his violent nature. His life is still a heated topic throughout America, due to his unnatural cruelness and pain. His disturbing acts of conclusion, cruelty caused many tragedies captured many lives, including his own, making his life one to remember.
Alexander McSween , Billy the essay, Kid , Boy 2295 Words | 6 Pages. Chores of water essays kids, Childhood: Building Strong Character. ? Chores of body for an, Childhood Building Strong Character Name Liberty University Abstract . Jobs! Chores as all things have a place in our society and in our homes. The very things we fight against often strengthen us. Building strong, moral, Christian character starts at the very essence of our being. Body Paragraphs For An Argument Essay! Being dedicated, determined, focused, goal orientated, adaptable, loyal, and tom sawyer essay conclusion, multitasking are all skills we each need at essay some point in our lifetime.
Whether it is raising. Family , Home , Homemaker 1224 Words | 6 Pages. more and forced into doing more chores than you have to. What you need to learn is to suck it up and tom sawyer essay, get done with the task at . Paragraphs Argument! hand. Videodrome! Household chores are training exercises for real life. Body For An! For kids , chores are more than helping out; they are lessons in basic life skills. By loading the essay, dishwasher, mowing the grass, or doing their laundry, kids learn how the world works. Body Paragraphs For An Essay! When kids do chores , they are learning responsibility.
They are learning that life requires work. Exampleessays! Chores not only teach children. A Great Way to paragraphs for an argument essay, Care , Cleaning , Home 511 Words | 2 Pages. “ Kid Kustomers” No matter where children are or what they are doing they’ll always find some sort of advertisements. Evaluating Your! It can be . when their casually watching television, reading a magazine or just playing games on their computer. Advertisements are different forms of argument, communication whose purpose is to make their product known to the public. Marketers aren’t partial to certain people; they target anyone and every age group, but recently there has been an upsurge of advertisements aimed towards children.
Advertising , Coca-Cola , Infomercial 1083 Words | 3 Pages. messages parents try to get across to exampleessays, their kids , why people view spanking as abuse, and for an, many more. Participants in this essay are going to resume contract jobs, be . reporters on this topic all over the US. Parents that have used spanking as discipline will as well be participants. Body For An Essay! Methods of water essays, spanking will be discussed. I believe that spanking is a good way to show that you care and love your kid (s) and are trying to essay, get them going in the right direction, instead of doing illegal or going against their parents rules. Aggression , Anger , Corporal punishment 1304 Words | 4 Pages. Problem “ Kids will be kids .” Time and time again, this phrase has been used to your, dismiss the countless cases of bullying that take . place in body schools across the country. Such a carefree attitude towards a violent and brutal problem like bullying is a disturbing trend to see. Every year thousands of tom sawyer, kids fall victim to schoolyard and online bulling.
A child who has suffered from bullying is “2 to 9 times more likely to commit or attempt suicide” (Teen Health) and body for an essay, more often then not, cruelty from peers. Abuse , Aggression , Bullying 881 Words | 3 Pages. Allen Eckles Mrs. Konczakowski 12 CP LA period 1 23 August 2012 “Token kid ” In school social circles, I always find myself becoming “The . About Community Service Hours! Token Black kid . Most people just naturally assume by the tan skin and curly hair that I must be half black. They mistakenly assume that many of the paragraphs argument, accomplishments I have made are due to the fact that I am mixed. It is resume true that I am mixed, but not with African American, but with the Latino culture.
My mother was born in the Dominican Republic, and my. African American , Black Hispanic and body paragraphs essay, Latino Americans , Black people 1337 Words | 4 Pages. Chore Wars, written by Ruth Davis Konigsberg shows that, despite the newfound data that males are putting in more housework and child care . than they have in the past, there still exists an water essays kids, inequality between men and women and their involvement in essay both the workforce and the home. The Difference Analysis of inequality by Saul states that women are discriminated simply due to evaluating thesis, their sex and its traditional attributed responsibilities of body essay, motherhood and home-making. Moreover, the resume, Dominance Analysis provided.
Childcare , Day care , Discrimination 2501 Words | 7 Pages. English 100BL Professor Cutler Rough Draft The Process of Doing the Laundry Several people, including me (and maybe you) procrastinate . until they are down to paragraphs for an essay, the last pair of socks or underwear to thesis, do their laundry. Even though the process of doing the laundry is argument essay composed of only a few simple steps, many people often avoid doing this task because it is too time consuming. Whenever I do the laundry, I would always separate the chore into four main procedures- sorting, washing, drying, and folding. Clothes dryer , Clothing , Fabric softener 983 Words | 3 Pages. Kids Need Sports Kids these days are stuck inside doors just playing video games, doing homework, watching . television, and that’s just wrong. Kids should be outside playing sports, getting some exercise while having fun. Essays Kids! There are many reasons nowadays why kids aren’t playing or end up quitting sports, such as their parents don’t want them to play and body argument essay, get hurt, kids feel that they can’t do the sport or won’t be any good at it. A other reason kids end up quitting sports because they don’t like to.
A Great Way to Care , Behavior , EBSCO Industries 981 Words | 3 Pages. COnsuming kids comparison and contrast. In the film Consuming Kids , it really shows the evaluating thesis, dark side of marketing to kids . Body Essay! Marketing to community service hours, kids gives them bad . study habits because they will always want to play with their cool new toy that they saw on TV instead of doing their schoolwork. When I was young, I know that’s all I would want to body paragraphs argument, do is play with my cool new toy. Your! I would just keep putting off doing my work and I would tell myself that “oh I’ll get to it later” and later came and body paragraphs argument essay, I never ended up getting to doing my work, because why do. Advertising , Anno Domini , Marketing 1177 Words | 3 Pages. Doing Gender At dinner: I was out at dinner one night and I took sometime to start observing the different ways men and women do . gender. As men and jobs, women came into body paragraphs for an argument the restaurant I began to notice how different we walk, the water kids, women seem to walk with their legs much closer together with a dainty tippy-toe gait the men however walk with the body paragraphs for an, legs further apart and much more of a slow dragging stroll. Watching the different groups of both sexes eating there were many similarities, the women have. Femininity , Gender , Gender role 1268 Words | 3 Pages. Spanking Your Kids: A Bad Way to Discipline.
Azzarello 1 English 102 Mr. Exampleessays! Wilson 28 April 2012 Spanking Your Kids Could Have Serve effects When a child acts out body argument essay, its often that a . Tom Sawyer Essay! parent chooses to hit their kid , which may show results in the short term, but in the long term the parent could be doing more harm than good. Spanking your kids is a bad way for parents to discipline their children because it may have some psychological effects on body paragraphs for an, the child. Furthermore, reprimanding your child in this manner also causes the child to be more. Caning , Corporal punishment , Corporal punishment in the home 2561 Words | 7 Pages. PROBLEM/OPPORTUNITY The most pressing issue facing Casablanca kids is your thesis a declining net income which has resulted from body for an argument essay, supply chain and tom sawyer essay, . production issues. Namely, manufacturing costs have remained stagnant while retailers such as WalMart have been forcing prices down. Casablanca Kids is argument confronted with the interesting opportunity of exampleessays, redesigning their distribution channels. Effective distribution channel restructuring will allow the company to overcome their issue of declining net sales and therefore. Big-box store , Competition , Distribution 1389 Words | 5 Pages.
old-fashioned spanking is for an argument still a beneficial form of punishment. What is a spanking? Dictionary.com defines spanking as an open handed swat to essay, the . buttocks as a form of punishment. Many parents are confused by the fine line of body paragraphs essay, spanking and abusing their kids . Abuse is when someone’s intent is videodrome harmful and injurious. Although I am for corporal punishment, I do not approve of children getting smacked with any foreign object or getting swatted any other place than the buttocks.
Anything other than a swat. Buttocks , Caning , Corporal punishment 1479 Words | 5 Pages. So Yesterday, I was out on my regular shopping and I came across this kid who looked like she was 6 or 7 years old and her mother in the same . aisle. Body Paragraphs Argument Essay! I was looking at stuff and all of a sudden the essay, kid sees something she likes, and then all of body for an argument, a sudden she says Mommy can I have this? The mother said no you cannot have that, the kid started to make a huge fuss and ask why?
I want it now, and treating the about, mother terribly, then the mother said no again and the child started to cry and scream out, I was. Cellular network , Childhood , Developmental psychology 1014 Words | 3 Pages. was thinking that I was going to have an paragraphs essay, easy report to write by writing about the way I felt and how society just simply ignored me as I was . Thesis! doing nothing because they’re use to seeing things like this and they rather not entertain the “weirdness”. Well, I was wrong. After a while people got nosey. People walked by and asked they’re company “what are they doing ?” (as if their company is supposed to body paragraphs, know). The funniest things I heard that day was “they must be in a cult” and Williams 2 “they‘re possessed. Debut albums , Feeling , New York City 833 Words | 3 Pages. Are Sports Hurting Kids ? Organized sports have a lot of effects on essays kids, children, whether they be positive or negative. Children are still . finding out who they are and what the world is like. I chose this topic because I wanted to body paragraphs for an argument essay, know childrens’ motives to do organized sports, and what effects the sports have on resume contract, the them.
I wanted to know the reasons kids start playing sports and, while it may be different for body paragraphs argument, every child, they all had to videodrome, have had some say in it. Every sport has skills that benefit. Baseball , Child , Childhood 2477 Words | 6 Pages. Swing Kids Before and during World War II was a tough time to live in Nazi Germany. Body Paragraphs Argument! The new laws and way of life during this period affected . society of all ages in essay community hours numerous different ways. Paragraphs For An! New political and social groups were formed both to exampleessays, support and oppose the Nazi and the Gestapo leaders. For An Argument Essay! One of these groups was known as the Swing Kids who listened to essay conclusion, Jewish and black swing music and danced at illegal clubs against the Nazis. The movie, “Swing Kids ”, explains this group of for an argument essay, teenagers.
The. Adolf Hitler , Germany , Hitler Youth 1076 Words | 3 Pages. child in America. With more guns showing up in essay service America, the more likely your child will be to find one. While most people think that children will not do . anything with a gun if they find one, there are still going to be those kids that will play around with it and body paragraphs for an argument essay, wind up doing something that they will regret. Gun safety is a bigger issue than most people would like to believe. They usually just turn a blind eye to accidental gun accidents involving children, but what are they going to do when it happens. Accident , Breech-loading weapon , Cannon 1317 Words | 3 Pages. Doing the Right Thing It Is Always Ok To Do The Right Thing Rachel Lake Liberty University Abstract American citizens, whether . children, college students or adults, should not be afraid to stand up for what is right. There are many reasons why a person might feel hesitant to report crimes. One reason is evaluating that it is easier to look the other way and to mind one’s own business.
Students and young people should be encouraged to be responsible and report any suspicious behavior. Preventative. Civil and body argument, political rights , Civil liberties , Conservatism 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Accounting For Kids AIU Online Abstract Many people hear accounting and think of an office full of file cabinets and cubicles, thus its . Water Essays Kids! far more complex. Accounting covers far more ground than the average person may imagine.
With a proper accounting process in place, a business will always be well informed of the company’s finances. Accounting is a business aspect that affects numerous corporation and individuals all around the world. In the business world today, companies use the accounting. Accountancy , Accountant , Business 783 Words | 3 Pages. Psychic Kids : Attention Seeking Children In the television series, Psychic Kids : Children of the paragraphs for an essay, Paranormal, directed by . Lisa Miller, psychic and about service, medium Chip Coffey alongside Dr. Lisa Miller, a clinical psychologist, help children and their families understand and cope with their child’s psychic abilities. Within this documentary, a group of “psychic children” and their parents come together with Coffey and body for an argument, Miller to grasp an resume, understanding as to how to handle their psychic abilities. The children.
Childhood , Clairvoyance , Family 990 Words | 3 Pages. Kids gain knowledge best by watching conducts of adults and replicating it is a contentious one. Many people think that this is the most . effective for the children to learn. However the paragraphs for an argument essay, opposites are not few in numbers. In this essay I’ll discuss some argument for and against of the water essays, given topic. Paragraphs For An Argument Essay! The behavior of the resume contract jobs, adults plays a significant role in shaping children’s inclination and character. For An Argument! After the exampleessays, baby is born the first and the nearest adults are his/her parents. Then the little baby starts. Childhood , Developmental psychology , Educational psychology 550 Words | 2 Pages. Kids Endorsement in body for an essay Advertisements. KIDS ENDORSEMENT IN ADVERTISEMENT : Children are like blooming buds.They are the mirror of our future.
It is the essay, duty of the parents to . guide their kids in for an argument every aspect of resume contract jobs, their lives whether academic or professional. The intense focus on child actors promoting various commercial products, services and ideas through the paragraphs for an, media is a modern phenomenon. But before hoisting a child into the spotlight, it's best to mull over the pros and essay service hours, cons of body paragraphs for an essay, child acting first. To begin, we'll start off with. Acting , Advertising , Childhood 1834 Words | 5 Pages. Happy Marriages, Happy Kids On a sunny day, a father wants his family to go mountain climbing, but the essay conclusion, mother prefers to go to for an argument, the . mall to conclusion, buy shoes for the kids . Body Essay! Even though it is a very normal conversation in a family, the way parents solve this conflict could make a big deal to the kids . Siegel, author of “7 Essential Lessons Your Kids Learn from tom sawyer, Your Marriage,” states that “how you and your husband talk to each other, how you listen, and how you work out body paragraphs for an, your differences shape the tom sawyer essay conclusion, beliefs. Alimony , Annulment , Divorce 1333 Words | 4 Pages. ? Diary of body paragraphs for an essay, Wimpy Kid Evaluative Essay San Diego Christian College Children’s Literature Abstract The Diary of resume contract jobs, a Wimpy . Body Paragraphs For An Essay! kid is a book about adolescence who have dealt with emotional struggles and social acceptance in tom sawyer middle school. The book highlighted areas of struggle which included: bullies, emotional responses in both positive and negative ways, friendship, and argument essay, family dynamics. The book was intended was readers of age seven and older but could be used a discussion book with children. Diary of a Wimpy Kid , Emotion , Friendship 1690 Words | 8 Pages.
Billy the Kid is my kind of Cowboy This issue of Living in essay the West explores the love affair we have with the body for an essay, great American Cowboy. Call . them cowhands, cowpoke, cowpuncher or buckaroos, billions of dollars have been spent chronicling their storied history. With his Stetson hat, sunburned face, weathered dungarees and boots of contract jobs, leather, the cowboy has gone from a ranch hand to a blue color icon. In fact, America’s love affair with the cowboy has been around longer than the for an argument essay, name “cowboy” itself. American films , American Old West , Billy the Kid 1021 Words | 3 Pages. on in this child mind that has caused them to act in such a way? Did his or her parents abuse them? Are they acting out for their friends?” The first . thing you want to know is, why do kids kill their parents. Well according to USA Today, there is an article from 2008 titled: “Experts: Abuse often behind kids killing parents” (Amanda Lee Myers, Associated Press Writer).
More than likely abuse could possibly be the number one reason of this kind of thing happening. The main question now is “why. Bullying , Child abuse , Child sexual abuse 1758 Words | 5 Pages. Nazi Germany declared war on the freedom of its youth in exampleessays Germany. But a group arose from the argument, battlefields of about service, war. They were called the for an argument, “Swing . Kids ”. This was a group of youth children that rebel toward the Nazi’s with their swing music that originated in America. With this new era of evaluating your thesis, swing music extra punishment was put toward the youth from the body argument essay, Nazi’s. Kids all over resume the world rebelled against this Nazi stand. In this movie Peter Thomas are two friends whose views of Nazi Germany change. Before.
Adolf Hitler , Aryan race , Fascism 906 Words | 3 Pages. Cartoons and Kids’ Behavioral Problems. ?Cartoons and Kids ’ Behavioral Problems One of the problems we face today with kids , is paragraphs for an argument essay their hyperactivity, swinging . modes, early maturity, using bad language, being stubborn, aggressive and violent. According to evaluating your thesis, lots of body, researches and from parental point of view it could be said that one of the main reasons of water essays kids, children’s psychological and for an argument, misbehavior is what they watch on TV. Kids! TV can glue kids for paragraphs, hours in videodrome front of essay, it, and it’s usually without supervision.
Cartoons are the most frequent and. Behavior , Cartoon , Consciousness 1079 Words | 3 Pages. Album Reviews Book Reviews Downloads Features Movie Reviews Music Video Reviews Single Reviews The Karate . Kid : Children’s own self-help Filed under: Movie Reviews — Leave a comment August 15, 2010 Starring Will Smith’s son, Jaden Smith, along Jackie Chan, bring to the big screen the exampleessays, remake of argument, 1984’s The Karate Kid , a cross cultural adaptation depiction and a vivid stand-up towards school bullying. Dre is exampleessays a 12 year old who just moved to China due to his. Bullying , Film , Jackie Chan 561 Words | 4 Pages. Article Review Household Chores for Children – a Guideline for Parents by Fred Provenzano, Ph.D., NCSP University of Washington, Seattle . http://familyshrink.com/areas-of-focus/parenting/household- chores -for-children/ 2011 For children to do or not do household chores ? A big problem in many households is children and their household duties. Essay! Most parents don't know whether or not to essay about service, push their children to body for an argument, do household chores or the essay community hours, positive effects that chores have on children. I thought. Age , Family , Home 727 Words | 2 Pages.
S Y M P O S I U M Arts Education from for an essay, Past to Present Kant for Kids Editor’s note: This article is the videodrome, ninth in an occasional series . on past treatments of major issues in arts education policy from antiquity through the twentieth century. For An Essay! Future essays will appear as occasion arises. Essay! A esthetics, we could say, is the body, philosophy of evaluating thesis, art (including poetry and literature), and philosophy can be defined as a way of reflecting and clarifying ordinary, everyday thoughts and feelings that. Aesthetics , Art , Critique of Judgement 2419 Words | 7 Pages. schoolers at stores like HM, Forever21, and PacSun. It has just now become “normal” seeing little kids dress up in clothes that are not age . appropriate. Sex is an body paragraphs for an, uprising problem we have within the youth today, and how can it not be if it is literally all they are exposed to. It is all over about community service the media, on T.V, in movies, music, magazines, ads, etc. We live in a hypersexualized society that is forcing kids to become older at a younger age. The media is play a crucial role in kid’s mental development.
Boy , Female , Girl 1721 Words | 4 Pages. My Wife and body, Kids Television ranks as one of the videodrome, most watched entertainment agents of all times throughout the world. It forms one of the most . crucial means of communication used in the world today. An average American uses more than 33 percent of his time watching television than any other leisure activity. In most incidences, the for an argument essay, television forms an important part of Americans’ life. Between the two genders, women form the largest television audience partly because of their affiliated gender roles. Family , Female , Gender 1777 Words | 5 Pages. Are Parents Really to Blame for Their Kids' Behavior?
Vanessa Olson Mrs. Novak September 17, 2012 Final Draft Are Parents Really to Blame for Their Kids ’ Behavior? Watching how children, or . even teenagers my age, act, I wonder how or why their parents let them get away with their behavior. What causes some kids to talk disrespectful to others or throw temper tantrums for the littlest reasons? My parents would tell me how, when they were my age, no one acted out like how children do today; that parents do not have the morals or values that the.
Child , Childhood , Parent 1366 Words | 4 Pages. school being a smaller learning environment. “I like the alternative school. It gives me an opportunity to pull my grades up,” said one student. Resume Jobs! Students . that have made poor choices have decided to take advantage of pulling up their grades. Doing an observation at an alternative high school has already given me insight on how inclusion works. Paragraphs For An Argument Essay! I have had the opportunity to water, experience inclusion first hand. This study shows me that there are several observations that can be made.
Depending. Education , Educational stages , Gang 2038 Words | 6 Pages. “What’s the Matter with Kids today? Do you think teenagers today always being on the internet will help develop them into body paragraphs argument essay becoming deeper . thinkers or better writers later on in life? According to water essays, Amy Goldwasser, author of the article, “What’s the Matter with Kids today?” she states that more teenagers today would rather sit and play around with their electronics than do homework for school and body paragraphs for an argument essay, that electronics seem to be taking over their lives (667). When teenagers seem to be more interested. Adolescence , Adolf Hitler , Internet 965 Words | 3 Pages. Media's Easy Accessibility to Kids. A Bloody Outrage, That’s What” by Katherine Ellison shows growing concern for the youth of today with the exampleessays, wide availability of the media. Katherine, a . mother of two boys ages 6 and 9, voices her opinion about media that is to easily accessible to kids . She recently found her 6-year-old son watching a cartoon on the internet called “Happy Tree Friends”. She was disgusted by body for an argument what she saw.
What she saw was a cute harmless bear all the sudden go berserk and rip off the head of a cougar splattering. Advertising , American football , Football helmet 1277 Words | 3 Pages. VIOLENT MEDIA IS GOOD FOR KIDS By Gerard Jones In our class book Practical Argument, I chose “Violent Media is Good for essay community service, Kids ” . by Gerard Joneson page 36. Argument! In this article Jones states and tries to thesis, prove that violent media is undeniably good for children. He challenges this by saying what he believes also how he grew up too passive because he was sheltered from the media. Body Essay! Upon hearing that the media has lofty messages of pacifism and tolerance (par.2), his mother had borrowed some comics for him. Argument , Domestic violence , Mass media 1070 Words | 3 Pages. WRITING ABOUT LITERATURE Class: VHVH 01 – Group: 4 Name: Le Kim Ha Anh Student ID: 0957010009 Writing Book Reports: DOING ENGLISH – A . GUIDE FOR LITERATURE STUDENTS (Robert Eaglestone) Ranked in the list of more than 700 thousands of the world's best-selling books, Doing English is really a good choice that needed for the study of English college students.
The author of the book – Robert Eaglestone, a lecturer in English at Royal Holloway, University of London, and Series Editor of Routledge. Critical thinking , Elizabeth I of England , English literature 1248 Words | 4 Pages. Why Kids Turn to Drugs There is no simple answer to why a young person might begin using alcohol or other drugs. Many times, it is a . combination of evaluating your, several factors, including society, family and peers. They may turn to drugs to escape stress or loneliness or to overcome shyness in social situations. They may want to be seen as grown up or as a risk taker. Paragraphs For An! Or, they may simply be curious. Resume! Teens often want to paragraphs for an argument, be like their role models as well. Exampleessays! So, if their favorite music group, older sibling, parents. Adolescence , Childhood , Drug 1524 Words | 5 Pages.
Kids Should Not Be Encouraged to Watch Tv. TV… Television and essay, the media. TV is bad for children. We all seem to know this. Like eating our daily fruits and exampleessays, vegetables, or cutting our sugar intake. . Body Argument Essay! But why? Can’t kids just learn as much from TV as they do from books? The problem here is essay about hours not what they watch, (be it good or bad) but it’s what the child is missing. Did you know that children who interact with parents rather than a TV show have faster learning abilities?
In fact, while interacting with parents, the child encounters words. Posttraumatic stress disorder , Psychology , Radio 904 Words | 3 Pages. amount of footage being played, shots, music, locations, what moments to show, etc. As a result, the movie comes out body argument, shaped, as the director wants it to. Exampleessays! . This allows the director not only to project his opinion, but also who he is as an artist. In “My Kid Could Paint That,” Bar-Lev, the director of the body for an essay, documentary uses hand-held shots, close-ups, found footage and resume jobs, open ended endings, which causes the viewer to change positively about Marla, to being more suspicious. This allows the for an argument essay, audience to see how. A Great Way to Care , History of painting , My Kid Could Paint That 2062 Words | 5 Pages. Analyzing a short story * Title: Kid Kill * Author: Ed McBain * Year: 1953 * Genre: Short story - crime story * . Description – a summary of the plot: The story takes place….. Conclusion! At the same time as it is written, It takes place on a very cold day in a smaller town in a police station and in the home of the family.
In the beginning of the story…. We are at the police station where we meet the body, detective Art Willis and his partner Ed Daley. Then…… The detective arrives. Constable , Criminal Investigation Department , Detective 775 Words | 3 Pages.
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essay on wwii About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.
And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. For An Argument Essay. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire.
The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on water essays, Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Body For An Argument Essay. Germany declared war on France on jobs, 3 August and invaded Belgium.
France was invaded on 4 August. Body For An Essay. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on evaluating, Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and for an argument essay debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in essay conclusion the outbreak of for an argument essay, war, only water essays kids, Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda.
The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in for an essay the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only essays kids, their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. For An Argument. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of essay about community service, events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and paragraphs for an argument essay Panslavism. Jobs. The Germans feared the body paragraphs for an essay consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia.
This it was imperative to defend. Tom Sawyer Conclusion. The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon paragraphs argument essay, events.
Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August. In the exampleessays following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on Austria-Hungary in pursuit of essay, territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Contract Jobs. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the for an essay Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the essay about community hours Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and for an argument essay decisive. Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Contract. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war.
It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. For An. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and tom sawyer essay conclusion resulted in a major war in the Middle East.
Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of body paragraphs for an argument essay, war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the exampleessays Western Front in France and Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous.
The first phase of the war in body for an essay the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an thesis enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the paragraphs for an essay German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. France was saved by essay the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Paragraphs Argument Essay. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at resume a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier.
Although the events of 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. For An Essay. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to contract, positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering. Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Body For An. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of about service, French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918.
It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and for an argument their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the exampleessays Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on body for an essay, the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Exampleessays. Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe.
The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the body paragraphs for an German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight.
The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to contract, achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and body paragraphs for an argument essay later to the north in front of Ypres.
No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the about community service German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July.
At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the paragraphs for an argument essay British struck the German army a severe blow. Water Kids. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the Eastern Front in Galicia and paragraphs essay Russian Poland the Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Exampleessays. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Body Paragraphs For An Argument. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively.
This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in evaluating your the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war.
They also established the paragraphs argument military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Resume Jobs. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in body essay the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength.
Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the essay war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on body for an argument essay, the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out essays kids, of the war.
This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is far from body paragraphs, certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in tom sawyer the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the paragraphs for an essay Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal. In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from conclusion, their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in paragraphs a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in kids the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and body paragraphs for an then into surrender.
In the Balkans the essay community Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. It struggled to have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and paragraphs argument declared Salonika to be the essay biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of for an argument, 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the exampleessays war was characterized by body for an the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and exampleessays disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out paragraphs argument, of the war with an attack on the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at videodrome Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself.
Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Germany's colonies in argument West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of jobs, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over paragraphs for an essay 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the essay community bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea.
The British generally had the better of paragraphs for an essay, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the water kids Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to body for an argument, unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side. The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. Exampleessays. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable.
The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in defence of the paragraphs rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of exampleessays, Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the paragraphs for an essay #145;war would be over by Christmas'.
This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for thesis, very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. Argument Essay. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it.
This was particularly true of the Prussians. Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Essays. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the Germans sought to replicate the success of argument, their Prussian predecessors. Exampleessays. They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on body paragraphs essay, the ability of the German army to essay, defeat France in for an argument essay the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows.
Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from essay conclusion, September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in body argument his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the exampleessays war by attrition at paragraphs argument essay Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to essay, his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government.
A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the paragraphs argument essay best form of videodrome essay, defence was attack. Paragraphs For An. They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of resume, their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the body paragraphs for an slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to evaluating your thesis, receive the first blow.
Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the paragraphs for an argument Russians six weeks to your thesis, put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the paragraphs for an argument first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for videodrome essay, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and paragraphs for an essay was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape.
This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the tom sawyer conclusion war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in body paragraphs the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led.
It had the political power to command the about community service resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to paragraphs, front. The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.
German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Exampleessays. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. For An. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement.
In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. Exampleessays. The Austrians depended on body paragraphs argument essay, German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.
The British were a naval rather than a military power. Evaluating. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. For An Argument. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the essay about community service British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the paragraphs for an argument economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the your thesis world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned.
London was the world's greatest money and body paragraphs for an commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the evaluating thesis 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into body for an argument essay the field on the outbreak of war. Essay. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Body For An. Germany was forced for tom sawyer essay, the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of body paragraphs, scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by essay community the German occupation of much of body paragraphs argument essay, northern France and videodrome essay most of Belgium. Argument Essay. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war.
During 1914 and community service hours 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. Body Paragraphs Argument. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. Essay Community Service. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Body Paragraphs Essay. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of videodrome essay, a small professional expeditionary force to help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the body paragraphs for an essay war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to essay, the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers.
And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on 5 August 1914. He doubted whether the French and body for an argument the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. Videodrome. There was an body for an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat.
They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the videodrome long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by essay Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the dominant power.
Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. Resume Contract. French animosity and body paragraphs resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians.
If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice. The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and videodrome essay be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of body for an argument, 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders.
Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from community, December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to argument, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to exampleessays, do this were inhibited by the need to body argument, keep France in the war. Exampleessays. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success.
Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and body for an December 1916 they determined to stretch the German army to exampleessays, its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and body for an essay Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and evaluating your was given the power to control Allied reserves. Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Body For An Argument Essay. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by water kids a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of body paragraphs argument essay, joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. Videodrome Essay. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult.
This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the body paragraphs lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and evaluating thesis provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time. Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the body argument essay telephone, the jobs typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Paragraphs For An Essay. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the essay range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of paragraphs argument, military firepower.
They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the evaluating your first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Paragraphs For An. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to the problems of the essay technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses. As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into argument battle by resume commanders of iron resolve.
The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for body for an argument, a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the jobs mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. Body Paragraphs For An Essay. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in conclusion order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive.
The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and argument reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on essays kids, telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the coordination of infantry and paragraphs artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Exampleessays. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and for an argument this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns.
Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to water essays kids, its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and body paragraphs essay concrete machine-gun emplacements which the tom sawyer essay conclusion infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the for an cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.
It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. Water. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on body paragraphs for an argument, attacking infantry and bring an essay about community service hours entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of body for an, 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Evaluating. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Paragraphs For An Argument Essay. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the videodrome essay enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. For An Argument Essay. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet.
In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and evaluating your preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the argument trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'.
The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Conclusion. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of argument essay, its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the jobs German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and argument essay well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to videodrome essay, disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to body for an argument, bypass points of resume jobs, resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear.
The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough. Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by paragraphs German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and evaluating your increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to body essay, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. About Community Service Hours. It depended on the ability of the body paragraphs for an armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of water essays, their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of body for an argument essay, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into contract jobs a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.
Some of the body argument demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of evaluating, all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in body argument the British army during the war. Essay About Service Hours. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and body essay a small number of exampleessays, Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in 1918. Truly the body paragraphs new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.
In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Essay Conclusion. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of body for an argument, Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only exampleessays, did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes.
The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to body paragraphs for an argument, explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to tom sawyer essay conclusion, maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia. Food was one of the for an argument Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries.
But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is jobs sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in Britain, and argument essay arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home.
And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the tom sawyer conclusion map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and paragraphs for an sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of resume jobs, a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Body Paragraphs For An Essay. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation.
France recovered the provinces of about community service, Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of for an argument, its military sacrifice. Essay Hours. This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. Body. The British maintained the integrity and thesis independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the essay security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership.
The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and hours a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in for an human terms was 8.5 million dead and contract jobs 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and argument pretension to videodrome essay, superior civilization. Paragraphs For An Argument. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.
From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.
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essaye tokio Welcome to Hyperion Records, an independent British classical label devoted to body for an argument essay, presenting high-quality recordings of music of exampleessays all styles and from all periods from the twelfth century to body paragraphs essay, the twenty-first. Hyperion offers both CDs, and downloads in about community hours, a number of formats. The site is also available in several languages. Please use the dropdown buttons to body argument essay, set your preferred options, or use the checkbox to accept the defaults. Schola Cantorum of Oxford, James Burton (conductor) Exeter College Chapel, Oxford, United Kingdom. Produced by evaluating thesis, Adrian Peacock. Engineered by Andrew Mellor. Release date: January 2010. Total duration: 72 minutes 8 seconds.
Private Collection / Bridgeman Art Library, London. Einojuhani Rautavaara’s reputation as one of the for an essay greatest living Finnish composers is assured. Essay! Once Sibelius’s protege, over his long career he has achieved success in body, a great number of musical genres, particularly that of opera. But it is his choral works that have made him a household name, both in his native country and internationally. Recorded here is a fascinating selection of works, including the Suite de Lorca —one of the most popular Finnish choral works of all time—and all demostrating the essay hours unique style forged by paragraphs for an argument, the composer on his travels through the about community service hours musical fashions of the twentieth century. His rich and sonorous neo-Romantic textures have a steely modernist edge and the resulting voice is one that is deeply attractive and approachable, yet endlessly captivating. He sets texts of great passion and complexity and paragraphs argument essay, does not hold back from expressing deep emotion. Rautavaara’s music is performed by the Schola Cantorum of Oxford, described in The Times as ‘Oxford’s classy intercollegiate choir’ and highly acclaimed for their two previous recordings for Hyperion.
The choir is conducted by James Burton. Describing the music is almost as difficult as describing the man. Rautavaara has an extensive output that covers nearly all genres: symphonies, concertos, operas, chamber music, solo songs, works for solo instruments, and tom sawyer essay conclusion, choral works. He began his career in the neoclassical style that was the mainstream in Finnish music after the Second World War. In the 1950s, he took up dodecaphony and even dabbled in total serialism before turning to a free-tonal, neo-Romantic style in the 1970s. Despite these apparently abrupt shifts, however, his idiom is always recognizable, and the style of his late period is a synthesis of everything that has gone before. It can be a surprise to realize that his rich and sonorous neo-Romantic textures are actually governed by paragraphs, twelve-tone rows, as we shall see later. It is impossible to be seriously involved in choral music in Finland and evaluating, not come across Rautavaara’s music. Paragraphs For An Argument Essay! Many of his pieces are choral household names, and not just in Finland—his Suite de Lorca is internationally one of the most popular Finnish choral works of all time.
Yet he never had any particular ambition to write choral music, and the motivation for writing many of these works was financial desperation. In his free-form autobiography, Omakuva (‘Self-portrait’, 1989), he remarks: ‘I never considered myself a choral composer in particular, nor did I try to tom sawyer conclusion, become one. But choirs were very active patrons of music in those days [the 1970s] and commissioned new works. My great choral works such as Vigilia and True False Unicorn would never have been written without a choir taking the initiative, and body paragraphs for an, many, ultimately innumerable choral works were written for a specific need, as competition pieces or for videodrome essay, a choir tour.’ Another great a cappella choral work we might mention is the expansive and demanding sixteen-minute Katedralen . Rautavaara has often compared composing to gardening. Both are about the observing and monitoring of paragraphs argument organic growth, not so much about constructing or assembling from pre-existing parts and tom sawyer essay, elements. Accordingly, in his output, pieces and genres feed on body essay, one another as he revisits and reshapes musical material from new aspects or for new purposes. A musical idea may emerge in essay, a choral work and end up dovetailed into a symphony or an opera, or vice versa. Body Paragraphs For An Essay! For example, some of resume jobs Rautavaara’s early piano music fed into his opera Aleksis Kivi , which in turn yielded the choral suite Halavan himmean alla (‘In the body for an shade of the willow’).
It is illustrative of Rautavaara’s stylistic progress that when he revised a quasi-aleatoric orchestral work whimsically titled Regular Sets of Elements in evaluating thesis, a Semi-Regular Situation (1971), he named the revised version Garden of Spaces (2003). The diminutive Suite de Lorca (1973) is a prime example of just how difficult it is to predict what will become a hit. Rautavaara wrote the piece as a companion to body, his Children’s Mass and entered both in a composition competition organized by his home city of Espoo. Rautavaara had no great expectations regarding the Suite. Essays! But while the Mass won first prize, it is body paragraphs argument essay rarely performed nowadays; the Suite won third prize yet is community hours today one of the most popular Finnish choral works of all time. This may have something to body for an, do with how the piece packs a considerable impact in its short duration. Consisting of four brief but intense pieces, it is essentially a study in the use of symmetrical scales (alternating tones and semitones). Cancion de jinete (‘Riding song’) is based on a monomaniac galloping rhythm, while El grito (‘The scream’) is based on, well, a scream.
La luna asoma (‘The moon rises’) features ‘moon music’ foreshadowing similar passages on similar texts in your thesis, Katedralen and Cancion de nuestro tiempo , while the parallel chords of Malaguena mimic the strumming of paragraphs essay a guitar. In the contract jobs early 1990s the Tokyo Philharmonic Chorus commissioned Rautavaara to write an extensive choral work, specifying that the text and argument essay, music were to ‘have a relationship to the world of today’. The result was the evaluating Cancion de nuestro tiempo (1993), for which Rautavaara chose poems by Federico Garcia Lorca which, though written in the 1920s and 1930s, he felt were still very relevant. The first of the work’s three movements, Fragmentos de agonia (‘Fragments of body for an agony’), shows the harsh, inhuman world of water essays industrial society and war through surrealist poetic images. For An! The mechanical ostinato progresses inexorably; the essay parallel with the opening of the Suite de Lorca , written two decades earlier to a text by the same poet, is clear. Finally, the moon rises (echoing another passage in the Suite de Lorca ). The musical material here is derived from the same twelve-tone row as Rautavaara’s Seventh Symphony and Die erste Elegie . Meditacion primera y ultima (‘First and last meditation’) is built on a recurring Rautavaara device: a mid-range sound field with superimposed melodies. The material here is adapted from a scene in the opera Thomas , and Rautavaara later orchestrated it for his Eighth Symphony. The sound-field device appears in more organized form in Canticum Mariae virginis , and also in paragraphs for an argument, the more extensive Katedralen . In Ciudad sin sueno (‘Sleepless city’), Rautavaara so strongly identified the powerful imagery of the poem with the then current situation in about community, world politics that he subtitled the movement Nocturno del Sarajevo . The opening of the movement, with piercing cries over a steady pulsation, is very similar to that of body paragraphs argument Die erste Elegie . The melodic material in the soprano part progresses largely in parallel fourths and is flavoured with small glissandos. Despite the ‘nocturno’ character, there are passionate outbursts and powerful emotions in the music. Though the beginning and end of Canticum Mariae virginis (1978) sound like an aleatoric sound field surrounded by soprano and bass melodies, the water kids music here is precisely notated.
Organized symmetrically in many ways, the paragraphs for an work opens with a strict ten-part canon for altos and tenors on essay conclusion, a melody which is in itself symmetrical—a palindrome. Body Paragraphs Argument! The soprano and contract jobs, bass melodies that appear above and below this field are mirror images of one another, and paragraphs argument essay, the finest example of symmetry in the work appears at the words ‘Beatam me dicent’, a section which is even graphically symmetric in the score, the high soprano and low bass utterances being symmetrically placed on tom sawyer, the page. In the canon sections, the initial harmony with semitone tensions eventually resolves into a calmer, pentatonic harmony. Argument Essay! Towards the end, this is joined by bell-like tones (come campani) in the bass part. Contract! The fragmented motifs in body paragraphs argument, parallel fourths, sung by the sopranos, as well as the overall principle of symmetric organization, reappear in the Magnificat and also in Katedralen . Closely related to Canticum Mariae virginis and to the non-ecclesiastical Nirvana Dharma (1979), the Magnificat (1979) is a five-movement setting of the Canticle of the Virgin Mary in Latin. As in the other two pieces, the main compositional principle is symmetry. Tom Sawyer Essay! In the body paragraphs for an essay first movement, ‘Magnificat’, the exampleessays altos and tenors sing pentatonic harmonies around which the sopranos and basses weave their melodies. The structure is twofold, the paragraphs transition highlighted by tom sawyer, a transformation of the harmonic material. ‘Quia respexit’ begins with a theme sung by soprano and body argument, alto soloists under which the women of the choir spin a diatonic field in parallel triads. The male voices sing a canon underneath this structure.
‘Fecit potentiam’ is a short, rhythmic piece based on a parallel minor triad motif with countersubjects. ‘Suscepit Israel’ opens with a speech choir out of which an E minor tonality emerges and concludes with a beautiful three-part canon in the women’s voices. The final ‘Gloria’ opens with a slow, part-aleatoric and water, almost chant-like structure. Body Essay! The music builds to a climax reminiscent of the bell music in Canticum Mariae virginis and conclusion, then goes into an almost martial declamation of the text ‘Sicut erat in principio’, with open parallel fifths creating a severe and archaic feel as the work progresses to a dynamic conclusion. Before Our joyful’st feast (2008), a recent addition to his catalogue, Rautavaara had written two Christmas hymns, both of them arrangements separated from their original context: Joulun virsi (‘Christmas hymn’), a brief partsong, was originally the final song of the solo song cycle Pyhia paivia (‘Holy days’, 1953); Marjatan jouluvirsi (‘Marjatta’s Christmas hymn’) was originally the final song of the body essay mystery play Marjatta matala neiti (‘Marjatta, lowly maiden’), a setting of the resume contract Nativity as told in a folk tale in the Finnish national epic, written for the Tapiola Choir in 1975. Rautavaara wrote in his programme notes: ‘When the for an argument essay Helsinki Chamber Choir and Nils Schweckendiek wished to commission me to write a choral work to be performed at the European Broadcasting Union (EBU) Christmas concert, I decided to set texts from two English Renaissance poets: two extracts from videodrome, Shakespeare’s plays and a section from an body for an essay, extensive Christmas poem by his contemporary George Wither.
These have a robust Renaissance joyfulness which I feel suits a European Christmas, even five hundred years later.’ Rautavaara has written several operas featuring a central character based on an actual historical person: Thomas (1985; a semi-mythical thirteenth-century Bishop of Finland); Vincent (1987; van Gogh); Aleksis Kivi (1996); and Rasputin (2003). Aleksis Kivi (1834– 1872) was a Finnish author who enjoyed some success in his lifetime but was driven to depression and an early death by devastating criticism of his Realist prose, which clashed with then current Romantic values. He was posthumously hailed as a genius, and his Seitseman veljesta (‘Seven brothers’) is the first novel written in Finnish. In Rautavaara’s opera Aleksis Kivi , poems by essays, Kivi are sung by the title character outside the stage action in a sort of body for an argument essay arioso format, with a steadily pulsing chordal background.
When Rautavaara was asked to write a new choral work for a festival of community service hours his music in Minnesota in 1999, he decided to body paragraphs, adapt extracts from the opera for choir, and titled the work Halavan himmean alla (‘In the shade of the willow’). The original baritone melody is jobs largely doubled in octaves, and the lugubrious orchestration is reproduced in paragraphs for an, a sonorous choral texture. The first song, Ikavyys (‘Melancholy’), sets a sombre tone with a string of minor chords, again governed by a twelve-tone row. The second, Laulu oravasta (‘Song of the squirrel’), appears to be in a more positive mood, but the videodrome essay poem is pure escapism and in its original setting (in the novel Seitseman veljesta ) represents a longing for a carefree life in the woods away from society. The third, Sydameni laulu (‘Song of my heart’), comes towards the end of the body for an opera.
It is an achingly poignant poem known to virtually all Finns and essay, best known musically in the setting by Sibelius, the popularity of which initially made Rautavaara hesitate to body paragraphs argument, set this text in his opera. ‘Ein jeder Engel ist schrecklich.’ (‘Every angel is terrible.’) This line in tom sawyer essay conclusion, Die erste Elegie of Rainer Maria Rilke (1875–1926)—the first of the Duino Elegies —summarizes how Rautavaara conceives angels to be: terrible to behold. A reading of Rilke’s complex and ambiguous verse prompts the idea that angels are terrible because they treat the living and the dead in the same way, and that the living cannot withstand this. Rautavaara had been familiar with Rilke’s elegies ever since he was a student in for an argument, Vienna in the 1950s, but it was not until he received a commission from Europa Cantat that he finally thought the time had come to set one of them to music. Following on from earlier instrumental ‘angel’ works, Die erste Elegie emerged together with, and related to, his Seventh Symphony, which acquired the sub-title ‘Angel of tom sawyer conclusion Light’. For all that it is a twelve-tone piece, Die erste Elegie is a sonorous and very accessible work. From its opening cries over a soft chord pulsation it progresses through textures both thick and paragraphs for an argument essay, thin, sometimes stopping to dwell on a solo voice or reducing the music to only two or three voice parts. Towards the end the exampleessays music becomes more static; but finally the third occurrence of a recurring harmonic motif over an F sharp pedal point, setting a section of the text relating the story of the birth of music in Greek myth, takes the work to an inspiring conclusion in a blaze of for an C major.
Jaakko Mantyjarvi © 2010. Exeter College Chapel, Oxford, United Kingdom. Produced by Adrian Peacock. Engineered by Andrew Mellor. Release date: January 2010. Total duration: 72 minutes 8 seconds.
Private Collection / Bridgeman Art Library, London.