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Literary genre essay

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c net resume next Get via App Store Read this post in our app! What is the best alternative On Error Resume Next for C#? If I put empty catch blocks for my C# code, is it going to be an equivalent for VB.NET's On Error Resume Next statement. The reason I am asking this is because I have to literary genre, convert a VB.NET code to C#, and the old code has. 200 On Error Resume Next statements although I am using a proper try catch in my new code, but is there is a better alternative?

I've found that VB programmers often littered code with many On Error Resume Next statements out of (bad) habit. My suggestion would be to in rhetoric, start with no suppressed exceptions, and see what actually breaks. There may not be as many issues as you think. Conversely, the more regression testing you can do, the better; there may be some edge cases that only work when errors are ignored. Ultimately, you need to decide on an error handling strategy, whether it is graceful unwinding inside many try/catch blocks, or letting errors percolate to a top-level handler (both strategies have their uses). If you end up having to suppress some exceptions to meet a deadline, at the very least log those exceptions so that the next developer working on your code doesn't get burnt by an empty try/catch . Although sometimes this is acceptable, generally it indicates a code smell.

If you're 100% sure you want to essay, swallow the exception that has occurred you can do it the antithesis in rhetoric, way you have, but generally if an exception is thrown you should do something . Generally you can achieve the literary essay, same outcome with well designed code. If you're currently experiencing a specific error, add it to your question, but if you're asking just out of curiosity, no there isn't an equivalent, and that is a good thing. You need to analyze the On Error Resume Next statements one by one and see what their purpose is. Some may be just sloppy code, but there are valid reasons for On Error Resume Next in Visual Basic 6.0 code. Some examples of why to use On Error Resume Next in for med Visual Basic 6.0 code: To check if a given key exists in literary essay a Visual Basic 6.0 collection. For Med School. The only way to do this is to literary essay, access the element by key, and handle the error that is raised if the key does not exist. When converting to .NET, you can replace this by a check for the existence of the key. Parsing a string to an integer. In .NET you can use TryParse.

No, it's not the same. When using On Error Resume Next, VB would skip to the next line if an error occurs. With try/catch, execution jumps to the catch block if an essayer de faire un bГ©bГ© sims, error (exception) occurs. Although On Error Resume Next is genre, certainly abused more than it's used legitimately, there are places where it would be helpful even in VB.NET. Consider a program which assigns values to a large number of Excel properties, such as defaults to all printer parameters -- there are a zillion printer parameters in Excel. Later versions of as essayist, Excel might have properties which earlier versions don't support, and literary essay it isn't trivial to figure out which ones are supported in each version. The program should assign a value if the property exists but ignore the property if an best canadian 2013, older version of Excel is used.

The right way to literary, do this with VB.NET would be to determine which printer properties are supported by un bГ©bГ© sims 2, each version of Excel, read the version in use, and only assign to properties that are implemented in genre that version. That would require a lot of research and some code, all for little benefit. On Error Resume Next would be a more practical solution. And, unfortunately, I'm faced with precisely this problem now. The workaround I'm going to try is to write a subroutine which just assigns one value to another, ignoring errors.

I'll call this subrouting in as essayist place of each assignment statement. Not too terible, but not so great either. Using On Error Resume Next is not a good idea for error handling (of course, this is my personal opinion, but seems that most of the developers agree with me though). Literary Essay. As other guys advised you in emerson as essayist previous posts, use Try. Catch. Finally (whether in VB.NET or C#). Literary. This is a very smart option for error handling, but it will also allow you to do nothing with the error (an empty catch block) :) I would suggest you to put every line of thesis of international, code (which may cause error) in separate Try. Catch Block , so that you would have the literary essay, opportunity to do whatever you want if an error occurs. Happy Coding guys :) I happen to think those people who invented On Error Resume Next did have something in mind when they created it.

The answer to your question would be no, there's nothing equivalent to this construct in C#. We have in best essays 2013 C# and .Net a lot of functions that are so hungry for care and attention it gets tiring after a while to cater to literary, everybody's exceptional behavior. When almost everything can throw an exception the word itself looses it's meaning somewhat. You're inside an iteration and what should you do if few thousands of the best essays 2013, million items happen to be exceptional ? Resume Next could be one of the handy answers. On Error Resume Next allows for Inline Error Handling, which is the expert level error handling in essay VB. The concept is to un bГ©bГ©, handle errors line by genre essay, line, either performing an action based on the error or ignoring the error when beneficial - but running code in canadian the sequence in which it is written and not using code jumps. Unfortunately, many novices used On Error Resume Next to hide either their lack of ability or out of laziness from genre essay those using their applications by ignoring all errors. Best Canadian Essays 2013. Try/catch is block level error handling, which in the pre-.NET world was intermediate by genre essay, design and implementation. The problem with On Error Resume Next in of international VB.NET is that it loads the err object on every line of essay, executing code and is, therefore, slower than try/catch . I'm somewhat alarmed that this forum checked and promoted an inane answer that claimed using On Error Resume Next is a bad habit and code litter. This is relations, a C# forum; should it really be used for C# programmers to take shots at literary, another language that they aren't well versed in?

It being said that intermediate C# programmers with no real VB experience shouldn't try to keep C# dumbed down and feature limited because of their weird disdain for essay another Microsoft Net language, Consider the following code: If the literary, xml usually has a value for Field3 but sometimes not; I'm going to get an in rhetoric, annoying error that the table doesn't contain the field. I could care a less if it doesn't because it's not required data. In this case, ON Error Resume Next would allow me to just ignore the error and I wouldn't have to code around each line of code setting the variables checking for the existence of the genre, table, row and in rhetoric column combination with Contains methods. Literary Genre. This is a small example; I might pull in thousands of table, column, row combinations from large files. Also, assume here that the thesis of international relations, string variables must be populated this way. This is unhandled code and there will be trouble. Consider a VB.NET and ON Error Resume Next Implementation: In the above code, it was only necessary to handle one possible error condition; even though there were two errors before the third one was handled. RAD development needs On Error Resume Next. C# is my choice of languages but it isn't as much a RAD language as VB for many reasons. I hope all programmers realize that several major languages (i.e.

C) just run and don't halt execution on unhandled errors; it's the developers job to check for them where they think necessary. On Error Resume Next is the closest thing to literary, that paradigm in the Microsoft world. Luckily, .NET does give many advanced choices to handle these situations; I eluded to the Contains. So, in for med school C#, you have to beef up your knowledge level of the language and you properly, according to the C# language specification, work around such issues. Consider a solution for genre essay handling a large block of essayer sims 2, repetitive lines of code that could contain an annoying throw away error: Although in a try/catch block, the essay, lambda function is emerson, checking for the existence of genre essay, every table, row, column combination that is emerson, being pulled from the dataset that was populated dynamically by the xml.

This could be checked line by line but would require a lot of excess code (here we have the same amount of executing code but far less written code to maintain). This unfortunately might be considered another bad practice of One Line Functions. I break that rule in literary genre the case of lambdas and anonymous functions. Since .NET offers so many ways to statement, check the status of genre essay, objects; On Error Resume Next isn't as vital to for med school, VB experts as it was prior to .NET but still nice to have around; especially when you're coding something that would be a waste of time to genre essay, not code fast and dirty. To you Java converts to C#; join the Microsoft world and stop pretending that if 10000 intermediate Java and C# programmers say it, than it must be true because if one top level Microsoft Guru (such as any one of statement, those who created the VB language and .NET) obviously contradicts you in genre essay their development of .NET itself, it is argument thesis, false and genre essay you look foolish.

I want all the functionality I can get in in rhetoric C# and VB and F# and any other language I need to use. C# is elegant but VB is more evolved due it's much longer tenure but they both do the Same Thing and use the literary genre essay, same objects. Learn them both well or please resist commenting on either in comparison conversations; it's nauseating for argument essay thesis those of us who have been around since the mid nineties using Microsoft technologies at a high level. As been said by @Tim Medora, you have to essay, make an effort to avoid using such approach when coding. However, in some cases it is useful, and it is possible to emulate such behavior. Here is a function and an example of antithesis in rhetoric, using it. (Note that some code elements were written using C#6)

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marc ott resume Bulldog Background Investigation Comes as. by Ken Martin and Rebecca LaFlure. The Austin Bulldog 2012. Posted Wednesday August 1, 2012, 12:15am. A ustin City Manager Marc Ott is scheduled to walk into a closed-door meeting on Thursday, August 2, with a City Council that can praise him, raise his pay, or invite him to find another job . If he’s shown the door, Ott will walk away with a little more than $430,000, based on the compensation and literary essay, benefits package council members approved last August. However Ott fares in his annual job evaluation, there will never be a discoverable written record of it. The Austin Bulldog submitted an open records request for copies of Ott’s performance reviews conducted in previous years. The city of Austin responded that all evaluations are conducted verbally in closed session, and as essayist, no written job evaluations exist.

Written job evaluations of public employees are often included in genre, the employee’s personnel file, which is considered public record under the Texas Public Information Act. Council Member Bill Spelmanas well as former Mayor Gus Garcia and former Council Member Brewster McCracken, who between the thesis of international, three of them served for more than two decades on the councilconfirmed that city council members do not conduct written evaluations of any employees who report to genre essay, the council. So in order to educate the public on Marc Ott’s professional background and his more than four years as Austin’s top manager, The Austin Bulldog gathered available public records on Ottincluding his written evaluations from previous jobsand interviewed community leaders about their thoughts on his performance. Community leaders’ reviews were mixed. While some praised Ott’s ability to in rhetoric, successfully guide Austin through a shaky economy, others said Ott has not made an adequate effort to genre, build relationships with or understand the concerns of Austin’s environmental community. Ott, through a city spokeswoman, declined to answer preliminary questions e-mailed to him for of international this article or to grant an interview.

In February 2008, Ott left his post as assistant city manager of Fort Worth to become city manager of Austin. His current annual base salary is nearly $250,000 and literary genre, he draws additional compensation of more than $50,000. He got a 3 percent pay raise last August after his annual reviewthe only raise since he took the essay school, job. Ott has set high standards for himself and the city. Literary Genre. He was featured in de faire un bГ©bГ© sims, the winter 2012 issue of Public Sector Digest , an literary, international publication focusing on in-depth analysis of government-related issues. In that article Ott took credit for creating a city transportation department that did not exist when he became city manager, an thesis relations, innovative car-sharing program, and for participating in literary genre, a regional approach to transportation planning. He also noted his efforts to emerson, create a more transparent budget process and continuing the city’s leadership in “financial planning, performance measurement, and budgeting.” “When I arrived, the City Council had a vision for literary Austin to best essays, be the literary genre, most livable city in the country. In support of that vision, my intent is to best canadian essays, have Austin known as the best-managed city in the country,” he said in the article. Essay. “We will be leaders in green technology, government transparency and accountability.”

But Ott must deal with mounting criticism on several fronts, including citizen discontent over electric rate hikes, the looming possibility of in rhetoric, higher water rates, and genre, growing concern that he is tone-deaf to the environmental values of the community. Some neighborhood leaders and residents are incensed over a proposal that would, in sims 2, their opinion, allow an invasion of commercial short-term rental houses to erode the character of neighborhoods. Then there’s the ongoing struggle to deal with the city’s rising cost of living, and literary essay, the upcoming 2013 legislative session, which some people fear will hammer the essay for med school, city over its management of Austin Energy’s electric rates. Mayor Lee Leffingwell has said he strongly supports Ott, who, along with other city executives, traveled with the mayor to literary, England in July to see how a Formula One race is managed. Austin is set to host its first F1 race in November. Ott has faced criticism from some council members in the past. In April 2010, Council Member Mike Martinez called Ott and Assistant City Manager Michael McDonald “jokes” in one of many highly-publicized e-mails The Austin Bulldog uncovered last year through open records requests. Martinez later apologized for the statement. Bill Spelman Spelman was the only council member who responded to our written request for comments about Ott’s performance, stating that, Over the next few years, Austin will have to deal with two basic challenges: A million more people will be moving to town and will need services; and the cost of best canadian, providing these services has gone up. Literary. I think we’ve been limited and reactive in our response to both of these issues, and that needs to for med school, change.

“The manager needs to genre essay, tell us how he proposes to continue to provide high-level services at a reasonable cost to an increasing population. Solving Austin’s problems will require innovative thinking, and we need to canadian essays, know how he plans to stimulate and literary, reward innovation among city staff, and solicit and use innovative ideas from the public.” Ott’s lone written evaluation in Austin. Randi Shade The only written record of Ott’s performance The Austin Bulldog located is in an e-mail sent by antithesis in rhetoric, former Council Member Randi Shade. The Austin Bulldog obtained that messageand hundreds of other e-mails about city business exchanged by the mayor and council members using personal e-mail accountsby filing a lawsuit in March 2011, after the mayor and council members failed to literary, release these e-mails in response to an open records request. In an un bГ©bГ© sims 2, attached document Shade sent to literary genre essay, Ott on his personal e-mail account on argument essay thesis statement, June 27, 2010, Shade summarized her take on literary, the council’s discussion during Ott’s annual review held the month before. “While the un bГ©bГ© sims, city is for the most part running well, frustrations exist that is largely caused by the communication break-downs between council and the city manager,” Shade wrote. “Council members shared examples of when they felt you were defensive and/or unwilling to take their input, and literary genre, you shared examples of when you felt you did not have clear direction from the council as a body versus the council as individual members and/or factions.” Shade also noted that, “When people disagree with you, you seem to take it as a challenge or an affront rather than as an opportunity to get useful facts and thesis of international, gain valuable perspective.” These traits are a perceived flaw in Ott’s management style, according to some sources interviewed for this article.

Ott was notably upset when Roger Duncan, who after retiring as general manager of Austin Energy, e-mailed Ott and council members while Ott was in the process of filling that position. Duncan’s June 20, 2010, e-mail informed Ott of the fact that Juan Garza, a respected former Austin Energy general manager, was available for Ott’s consideration. “I am shocked and surprised to receive such a message from you,” Ott replied. “The fact that you choose to copy the Mayor and Council members makes me think that your intent is to place pressure on me to consider your request.” Public perception of Ott’s performance mixed. Council Member Shade stressed the genre essay, need for of international relations solid working relationships in her June 27, 2010 e-mail, and literary genre, environmental activist Robin Rather expressed a similar sentiment in a February 19, 2008, Austin American-Statesman article about de faire un bГ©bГ© sims Ott’s first day on literary, the job. “You can't get things done without establishing good working relationships,” Rather said in the article. In Rhetoric. “You need to literary genre, give him (Ott) time to understand the people here and build teamwork inside City Hall and with the rest of the community.” Asked to comment on Ott’s performance for this article more than four years later, Rather said, “Marc Ott is canadian 2013, a smart and competent executive, and I think he takes his job very seriously and I respect him.

However, on his watch, our energy strategy is essay, a mess, our water strategy is a mess, our transportation strategy is a mess, and our public education, while not directly under his purview, is essay statement, a total catastrophe.” Rather went on to say that, “While all of essay, those problems aren't entirely his fault, the concern that I hear is there is just no leadership coming from his office on the way forward.” Roy Waley, vice chair of the Sierra Club’s Austin Regional Group, told The Austin Bulldog that Ott has remained focused on essay for med, business issues, but has made very little effort to establish relationships with environmentalists. “You can tell communication is literary, taking place with business, but I don’t talk to essay statement, any true green environmental folks who have a real relationship with Marc Ott,” Waley said. “You know, he goes to genre, talk to the chamber, to RECA (Real Estate Council of Austin), to the Board of Realtorsof which I'm a memberbut he has never shown up at a Sierra Club meeting, and they’re open to the public.” Bill Bunch, executive director of the Save Our Springs Alliance, faults Ott for not backing publicly stated goals with measurable means of determining whether these goals have been achieved. Bunch noted that Ott has said publicly that “Austin will be the best managed city in the country.” But in a meeting with Ott in the early summer of 2009, “I asked him twice about measurements: What are your benchmarks and measurements and best canadian essays, how will you track them to have that statement have any meaning at all beyond being an literary essay, empty slogan?”

Ott’s reaction, Bunch said: “He just stared at me like he didn't understand what I was saying.” Despite some criticisms in the environmental community, Ott still has many strong supporters in best canadian essays 2013, Austin. Mike Rollins, president of the Greater Austin Chamber of Commerce, said the “fiscal soundness of Austin through the great recession is literary, a testament to the city’s strong leadership team.” “We think that how Austin came through the recession speaks to his strong leadership skills. Essay Thesis Statement. When most cities had layoffs, Austin was able to manage without layoffs,” Rollins said. “We would be disappointed if there were a change in the city leadership at this time of a still unstable economy in the world and in the United States.” Nelson Linder, president of the essay, Austin NAACP, echoed a similar sentiment, saying, “I give the city manager very good grades because he has managed the economy very well, doing quite well despite the recession, holding the budget, and been very fiscally sound.” “He's had a steady hand,” Nelson continued. “He's avoided some of the political problems that other city managers had in de faire sims, the city of Austin. For the most part he's focused on managing the city and letting the mayor and city council run the city of Austin politically.” Linder noted only one shortcoming in Ott’s leadership: While more African American nonprofits have had the opportunity to work with the city on social services under Ott’s leadership, Linder does not think Ott has been as successful in genre essay, his handling of canadian, Hispanic issues. Susana Almanza Susana Almanza, president of the Montopolis Neighborhood Association and literary, director of People Organized in Defense of the Earth and her Resources (PODER), also gave Ott high marks, saying he acted on best, many of Montopolis residents’ recommendations for genre essay changes or additions after touring their neighborhood. “There were some immediate changes made,” she said, noting that Ott has kept his promise that money for construction of a new Montopolis Recreation Center would be included in the recommended November bond package. “There is so much that’s needed for residents in essayer de faire un bГ©bГ© 2, Montopolis, but I can say since Marc Ott’s visit there have been some changes, and Montopolis is getting some much needed attention.” Michael Wilt, director of government relations for the Real Estate Council of Austin, and Harry Savio, executive vice president of the Homebuilders Association of Greater Austin, said their organizations had no comment regarding Ott’s performance.

Early challenges as Austin city manager. As the Austin American-Statesman reported on February 19, 2008, Ott faced a number of major tasks from the beginning of his tenure as city manager, including negotiating labor contracts with public safety unions, filling several high-profile city jobs, and literary, the upcoming annual budget process. He wasted no time in of international relations, asserting his authority, forcing out Fire Chief J.J. Adame in early May 2008 and literary essay, Gene Acuna, director of communications and public information, in mid-June of that year. Acuna, who previously served as deputy press secretary for Governor Rick Perry, got the boot largely for 2013 failing to genre essay, notify Ott of the fire at the governor’s mansion June 8. Ott had missed the major news coverage and found out about the inferno when the as essayist, mayor asked about it the next day. In August 2008, the Statesman reported that 10 Hispanic leaders went to see Ott about, among other things, the very public firings of Adame and Acuna. They left even more incensed over what they claimed was Ott’s rude and combative manner. Former Mayor Gus Garcia, who attended the meeting, told The Austin Bulldog , “The issue was (Ott) didn’t like getting together with a large number of Hispanics.” Another “issue wasand still isthat Hispanics don’t have enough presence in hiring in the city manager’s office.” In later years City Attorney David Smith exited over the city’s failure to make public the KeyPoint Government Solutions investigation of the police shooting death of literary genre essay, Nathaniel Sanders II. The report was withheld for eight months and wasn’t released until the Statesman reported that a similar independent investigation of thesis, a police shooting in literary, 2002 had been publicly released.

The belated release of the Sanders report drew heavy criticism from council members, including Mike Martinez, who was quoted as saying “There is no doubt . We need to improve our transparency.” Contentious relationships in Kalamazoo. Our background investigation found that Ott hit some potholes on the road to success, but earned his spurs while working for argument thesis five different city governments before getting to Austin, four of them in Michigan. His career took a temporary setback when he was pressured to resign from his first city manager’s job in Kalamazoo, Michigan, in 1997 amid strained relationships with some city commissioners, according to essay, public records and news reports. After serving as assistant city manager and deputy city manager, Ott was promoted to city manager of 2013, Kalamazoo in literary genre essay, March 1993his first city manager position.

The Kalamazoo Gazette published a positive editorial about essayer de faire Ott’s performance during his first year on the job. However, city commissioners’ performance evaluations of Ott conducted in genre essay, January 1995 revealed concerns about his management style. While some gave Ott positive reviews, four of the seven commissioners indicated they felt Ott managed staff with excessive authority. One commissioner attributed this “to the learning curve for a new manager. I sense there is a need to over-exert authority to thesis, assure there is control.”

Some commissioners also gave Ott low marks in genre, communicating clearly and timely with the commission and relations, responding to inquiries, according to evaluations obtained through a Freedom of Information Act request. In a statement following the evaluation, Ott stated he would establish a time to regularly meet one-on-one with each commissioner in an effort to enhance communication. Most of the commissioners declined his invitation. He also elaborated his views on employee discipline, stating that he believed in allowing an “employee several opportunities to essay, succeed by clarifying expectations, coaching and the like.” However, five of the city’s six labor unions echoed similar concerns in 1996 when they charged that Ott managed “like a dictator” and used “fear and intimidation to thesis of international relations, control employees,” according to the Kalamazoo Gazette . The Kalamazoo Black Police Officers Association came to Ott’s defense, and literary essay, accused the local newspaper and city commissioners of argument essay thesis, conspiring against him. In December 1996, the city commission voted to pay a consultant nearly $10,000 to investigate the union’s complaints against literary genre essay, Ott, the Gazette reported.

Ott told the antithesis, Gazette that he felt the unions’ criticisms were tied to literary essay, anxiety over his cost-reduction program that cut the city’s work force through early retirements and of international relations, eliminating positions without layoffs. Still, Ott had some supporters on the commission throughout his time as city manager. Then Commissioner Lance Ferraro wrote a January 24, 1996, recommendation letter for genre essay Ott stating that he engaged employees in adopting common values and pride in their work. The letter noted Ott’s success in reducing government costs and improving economic development in Kalamazoo. But Ott continued to face criticism.

According to the Gazette , he resigned in canadian essays 2013, January 1997, just hours after receiving a memo from the mayor and vice mayor accusing Ott of literary, trying to antithesis in rhetoric, intimidate them and literary genre, having a “fundamental misunderstanding” of his role as city manager. Ott and commissioners quickly agreed upon a separation package. Of International Relations. The Gazette reported that as a part of the agreement, the city paid Ott about $141,000 over the course of the following year. In the essay, months following his resignation, Ott faced allegations that he failed to register a handgun as required by essay for med school, Michigan state law. A prosecutor later concluded that Ott’s failure to register was an oversight without criminal intent, according to reports in the Kalamazoo Gazette . Michigan court records show that in July 1998 Ott filed a lawsuit against former Commissioner Zadie Jackson, the essay, City of Kalamazoo, and the commission, alleging that Jackson spread false negative statements about him following his resignation. Ott pointed to his separation agreement with Kalamazoo that barred commissioners from thesis disparaging him. Federal Judge Robert Bell ruled in June 1999 that Ott failed to prove two of the five charges outlined in the suit, but gave him the opportunity to re-file in Kalamazoo County Circuit Court regarding the literary, other three. Essayer Un BГ©bГ© 2. Ott refiled the literary genre essay, suit, but eventually dropped the school, charges, according to court records and the Gazette . Ott was unemployed for 15 months after his resignation from Kalamazoo, but in time recovered, and his career resumed a steady and literary essay, uninterrupted upward arc. In 1998, Ott was hired to be a city administrator and argument thesis statement, assistant to the mayor of Rochester Hills, with a starting annual salary of $76,000$20,000 less than he was making as Kalamazoo city manager.

The City of Rochester Hills has not yet released Ott’s personnel file in response to The Austin Bulldog ’s FOIA request. Ott stayed in that position until April 2002, when he was hired as an assistant city manager of literary, Fort Worth with a starting salary of un bГ©bГ©, $132,000. Ott earned high marks on all of genre, his performance evaluations throughout his time at Fort Worth. Emerson As Essayist. In his first evaluation, his supervisor noted that Ott is a “great addition to the city management team.” According to genre, Ott’s resume, he oversaw the city’s water and wastewater utility, transportation, public works, engineering and statement, aviation. Among his special projects was a $975 million Southwest Parkway Toll road. In February 2008, Ott took over Austin’s top city position. Current position : Austin City Manager. Compensation : Totals $299,388, consisting of: Additional Compensation : $50,620, including $22,000 deferred compensation, executive allowance of $7,200, automobile allowance of $8,400, cell phone allowance of $1,620, $6,621 for literary essay OASDI (Old Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance, i.e., Social Security tax), $4,279 for for med school Medicare tax (equal to 1.45 percent of annual salary plus allowances), reimbursement of $500 per year for out-of-pocket expenses for one physical examination annually.

Severance package : $282,168. Based on entitlement in City Council Resolution 20110825-078. In the event of involuntary separation, forced resignation, or change in the form of literary, government, consisting of one annual gross increment for salary, deferred compensation contribution, OASDI tax, and Medicare tax. Additional severance : The resolution also grants Ott 23 hours of paid personal leave per essays, month with no maximum accumulation. That equates to annual paid vacation reimbursement of $33,079 per year. Ott has served as city manager four and a half years.

Thus he would be entitled to literary, a maximum reimbursement for paid personal leave $148,856. Total severance possible if terminated now : Approximately $431,024. E-mail address : This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. Essayer 2. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. Office telephone : 512-974-2200. Office location : City Hall, 301 W. 2nd, 3rd Floor, Austin. Business records : Ott is listed as a registered agent of the Austin Regeneration Fund, according to the Secretary of State: Education : Bachelor’s degree in genre, management and master’s degree in public administration from Oakland University in Michigan. Marriage : Ott is married to Pamela Ott, a surgical nurse at Seton Medical Center. Municipal Court record : Ott only 2013 has one violation on his local driving record: A traffic ticket issued May 9, 2008, for speeding in a school zone.

Ott took a driver safety course, paid a $136 fine, and the case was closed. Personnel records and employee evaluations. City of Austin (personnel records only) 22 pages. City of genre essay, Rochester Hills, Michigan 90 pages ( Pending response to FOIA request ) (Added Thursday, August 9, 2012, 1:11pm) Property records : Ott owns one house, located in Southwest Austin and worth $441,637. Tarrant County Grantee Records (property bought ) Voting record : Ott voted in city elections in as essayist, 2009, 2011 and literary essay, 2012. Emerson. He voted in the March 2010 Democratic primary. Links to major Marc Ott stories : Links to stories (most recent first). Note: Many of the Austin American-Statesman articles are linked here through the Austin Public Library online databases. Access is free but requires a library card number to view. You must log in on the library site for genre essay these links to essay for med school, work.

Or, alternatively, Statesman articles can be accessed by searching the literary genre, newspaper’s online archives and creating a user account. QA With Marc Ott, February 3, 2012, Austin Business Journal. Ott's imprint, June 27, 2008 Statesman archive. This report was made possible by contributions to The Austin Bulldog , which operates as a 501(c)(3) nonprofit to canadian essays 2013, provide investigative reporting in genre, the public interest. You can help sustain our reporting by making a tax-deductible contribution.

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Specifications for Thesis Preparation. This entire document can be read from beginning to end or particular sections can be quickly referenced by using the table of contents. This guide has been prepared by the MIT Libraries, as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs, to assist students and faculty in the preparation of theses. The Institute is committed to the preservation of each student's thesis because it is both a requirement for literary genre the MIT degree and a record of emerson original research that contains information of lasting value. The requirements in this guide apply to all theses and have been specified both to facilitate the essay, care and dissemination of the thesis and to assure the preservation of the archival paper copy. De Faire Un BГ©bГ© Sims 2? Individual departments may dictate more stringent requirements. Questions not answered in this guide should be referred to the appropriate department officer or to the MIT Libraries (14N-118, mit-theses@mit.edu, 617-253-5136). The academic department is essay, required to deliver the proper number of copies of the thesis to the MIT Libraries within one month after the last day of the term in which the thesis was submitted (Faculty Regulation 2.72). One copy is kept as part of the thesis, permanent archival collection, and the other copy is reserved for future disposition.

An online catalog record, which includes the literary, thesis abstract, is prepared for all theses deposited in the MIT Libraries. This information appears in argument essay thesis statement Barton, our online catalog, which is genre essay, accessible to researchers at other institutions through the Internet, as well as in the OCLC database WorldCat, an online international bibliographic system available to libraries and thesis of international, individuals worldwide. PhD and literary essay, ScD theses are also listed (with abstract) in ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ) and thesis, Dissertation Abstracts International ( DAI ). For each thesis received by the Libraries, a digital version is created and made publicly available in DSpace@MIT (http://libraries.mit.edu/mit-theses). Copies of theses may be obtained through the MIT Libraries' Document Services (14-0551, 617-253-5668; docs@mit.edu; http://libraries.mit.edu/docs/). Students may choose to submit a born-digital PDF of the thesis via the Libraries voluntary submission portal (http://thesis-dropbox.mit.edu/vireo/start). However, the electronic version is not considered to be the official copy. Degree candidates must submit the required copies of their theses to the appropriate office of the department or program in which they are registered on the dates specified in the Academic Calendar. The Academic Calendar may be found in genre the MIT Bulletin and at http://web.mit.edu/registrar/www/calendar.html. September, February, and June are the only months in which degrees are awarded. Additional copies of the thesis may be required by the department.

All theses should be turned in to the appropriate departmental office; the office will deliver the theses to the MIT Libraries within a month after the last day of term. In this guide, the copy that remains in the Archives is called the first copy . Additional copies required for the divisional libraries (see following section) are referred to as the second and (possibly) third copies . The department may ask for copies in addition to those required for in rhetoric the Libraries. The student may, of course, keep personal copies. Not all departments send bachelor's theses to the Archives. If your department does, only one copy should be submitted to the Archives. Please check the requirements of your department. Undergraduate students do not pay a library processing fee.

Number of copies: Normally, two copies are required for literary the Libraries Ђ“ one for the Archives and a second for the appropriate divisional library. A third copy is required only emerson as essayist when a student is submitting the same thesis to departments or programs from two separate MIT schools (e.g., Management and essay, Engineering). If the departments are in the same school (e.g., Engineering Systems and Mechanical Engineering), only two copies are required. Doctoral theses only: A completed UMI/ProQuest form (see section below) with an additional copy of the thesis relations, title page and abstract stapled to it is also required. Most MIT theses are written by a single author. In those cases where two or more students are responsible, only a single copy (for undergraduates) or set of copies (for graduate students) should be submitted to the Archives. Literary Essay? The title page of the thesis should bear the signatures of all authors and essay school, thesis supervisors. (Permission to undertake collaborative thesis research must be obtained in advance from the Dean of Graduate Education [3-138, 617-253-4860, http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/joint-theses). Submission of literary genre Doctoral Thesis Abstract to International Database: UMI/ ProQuest Dissertations Theses Database. Abstracts of all doctoral theses (PhD and ScD) will be submitted for thesis of international relations inclusion in ProQuest Dissertations Theses , an online database used by researchers around the world. PQDT can be searched by author name, subject terms, and all words in the title and abstract.

All MIT abstracts will contain a note stating that copies of the full text are available from DSpace@MIT or the MIT Libraries' Document Services. Abstracts should be no longer than 350 words; longer abstracts will be edited by UMI/ProQuest. Please complete the UMI/ProQuest form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/umi-proquest-form.pdf, staple it to a copy of your title page and abstract, and submit it with your thesis. The form may printed and completed by hand or opened and filled out in Acrobat Reader, then printed. When filling out the literary essay, form, choose the appropriate subject categories from the list provided with the form. Please take care both in choosing terms and writing them (if filling out the form by hand). Subject-based access to your thesis will depend on the accuracy of the essay, information you provide and the precision with which it is transcribed by UMI/ProQuest.

It is especially important that your name appear on this form exactly as it does on essay, the title page and abstract of your thesis. CHANGES AFTER SUBMISSION OF THESIS. All change made to a thesis, after the thesis has been submitted to the MIT Libraries by the student's department, must have prior approval from the Dean of Graduate or Undergraduate Education. When the essayer de faire, purpose is to correct significant errors in content, the student should create an essay errata sheet using the form and instructions at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/errata-sheet.pdf and obtain approval from both thesis supervisor or program chair and essay for med, the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. If the purpose of change is to excise classified, proprietary, or confidential information, the student should fill out the application form at http://libraries.mit.edu/archives/thesis-specs/images/page-substitution.pdf and have the literary essay, request approved by the thesis supervisor or program chair and the Dean for Graduate or Undergraduate Education. Students and supervisors should vet thesis content carefully before submission to avoid both scenarios whenever possible. Students receiving advanced degrees from MIT are required to pay a library processing fee: $115.00 for school a doctoral thesis ($50 for genre essay processing and $65 for the UMI/ProQuest abstract fee) and $50.00 for antithesis in rhetoric all other advanced-degree theses. Undergraduate students do not pay a processing fee. Thesis charges are billed to the studentЂ™s account when the thesis title is entered on the degree application. Please refer to the academic calendar on literary essay, the RegistrarЂ™s website to review relevant deadline dates.

All copies must be submitted to the studentЂ™s department unbound between cardboard covers; the thesis and relations, covers should be clipped or tied together, NOT stapled or punched. Genre? Recycled temporary covers and binder clips are available in a cabinet in the first floor stairwell of best 2013 Hayden Library, near the circulation desk. The front cover should be labeled with the following information: author's name, thesis title, course, month and literary genre essay, year of graduation, and which copy it is (first, second, or third). The MIT Libraries pay for essayer un bГ©bГ© 2 the binding of theses retained in their collection. Personal copies may be bound in literary essay hard or soft cover at MIT CopyTech or many commercial binderies in the Boston area. The Institute's policy concerning ownership of thesis statement thesis copyright is covered in Rules and genre, Regulations of the Faculty , 2.73. (http://web.mit.edu/faculty/governance/rules/2.70.html) and MIT Policies and Procedures 13.1.3 (http://web.mit.edu/policies/13/13.1.html#sub3). Un BГ©bГ©? The following are guidelines to assist the literary essay, student in determining who holds ownership of the 2013, thesis copyright: The Institute will hold ownership of the copyrights to genre essay theses if: the thesis research is as essayist, performed in whole or in genre essay part by the student with financial support in the form of wages, salary, stipend, or grant from funds administered by the Institute.

the thesis research is performed in whole or in part utilizing equipment or facilities provided to the Institute under conditions that impose copyright restrictions.. In general, students may retain ownership of un bГ©bГ© sims 2 thesis copyrights when the literary, only form of support is (a) teaching assistantships (the duties of for med which do not include research activities) and (b) NSF and NIH traineeships and fellowships (although the trainee or fellow may be required to grant certain publishing rights to NSF or NIH). Actual determination of a student's status is made by reference to the account from essay which the student receives support. Questions regarding restrictions imposed on essay for med, any of the Institute's facilities or equipment may be addressed to the administrative officer of the laboratory or department or to the appropriate contract administrator in literary genre the Office of Sponsored Programs (http://osp.mit.edu/). Specific questions on permission to copyright should be referred to un bГ©bГ© the Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, tlo@mit.edu). When copyright ownership is held by the student, the student must, as condition of a degree award, grant royalty-free permission to the Institute to literary genre reproduce and publicly distribute copies of the thesis relations, thesis, and must place the literary genre, following legend on the thesis title page: The author hereby grants to MIT permission to reproduce and to distribute publicly paper and electronic copies of emerson this thesis document in whole or in part in any medium now known or hereafter created. For such theses, requests for permission to literary genre use portions of the thesis in third-party publications must be addressed to essayer de faire un bГ©bГ© 2 and granted by the student author. When copyright is held by the Institute, students and literary genre essay, third parties should contact the MIT Technology Licensing Office (617-253-6966, tlo@mit.edu) to thesis obtain permission to reuse thesis content in other publications.

However, the literary, student is essays 2013, authorized to post electronic versions of the studentЂ™s own thesis, in genre essay whole or in argument thesis statement part, on the World Wide Web. Any further publication of the thesis in essay whole or in part shall be made only with the authorization of the Technology Licensing Office, in consultation with the argument essay thesis statement, head of the department or course in which the student was registered when the thesis was accepted. Regardless of whether copyright is held by the student or the Institute, the MIT Libraries publish the thesis electronically in DSpace@MIT (http://dspace.mit.edu) allowing open access viewing and limited downloading/ printing. Students may request a waiver of Institute copyright by written application to the Institute's Technology Licensing Office (http://tlo.mit.edu/). The waiver shall be granted only if the retained rights of the literary genre essay, student as described in this guide are inadequate for the studentЂ™s needs and if a license from the Institute to the student would also be inadequate. Any such waiver of the thesis, InstituteЂ™s copyright shall be subject to a royalty-free grant from the student to the Institute to publicly distribute copies of the thesis, in whole or in part. The student must also place the legend above on the thesis title page. Implementation: How to Copyright a Thesis.

Each student should place the literary essay, appropriate copyright notice on the thesis. Copyright notice consists of four elements: the symbol c with a circle around it © and/or the word copyright, the best canadian essays 2013, year of publication (the year in genre essay which the degree is to be awarded), the essay for med school, name of the literary, copyright owner, and the words All rights reserved. These four elements should appear together on the title page (or verso of the best, title page). student is literary genre essay, copyright owner: © 2008 Jane Doe. All rights reserved. Institute is of international relations, copyright owner: © 2008 Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Literary? All rights reserved. See sample title pages. A copyright notice should also appear on any non-paper material (e.g., DVD or CD) included with a thesis. Use of Previously Published Material in a Thesis.

Each student is for med school, responsible for obtaining permission, if necessary, to include previously published material in the thesis. Literary Essay? This applies to most third-party materials (i.e., those created and published by someone else); it may also apply to the studentЂ™s own previous work. If, for example, a student has already published part of the thesis as a journal article and, as a condition of publication, has assigned title to the journal's publisher, the best canadian 2013, student has no further rights in the article. Written permission must be obtained from the publisher to include the article, or any portion of it, in the thesis. Similarly, permission must be obtained to essay include papers written while the student was employed by a commercial company or non-profit organization if title belongs to the company or organization. A sample permission letter can be obtained from the Office of the General Counsel (https://ogc.mit.edu/frequently-asked-questions). If the thesis of international, student knows, prior to publication or employment, that such material will be included in a thesis, he or she may wish to genre essay retain title to the material or to reserve sufficient rights to use the material.

Further information is available at Scholarly Publishing @MIT Libraries (http://libraries.mit.edu/scholarly/) or by contacting copyright-lib@mit.edu for more information. POLICY FOR TEMPORARY RESTRICTIONS ON THE DISTRIBUTION OF THESES. Thesis research should be undertaken in relations light of MIT's policy of open research and the free interchange of genre essay information. Written notification of patent holds and other restrictions must reach the Institute Archives before the thesis in question is received, since under normal circumstances all theses are open and available for public inspection once they have been received by the Archives. When there is good reason for delaying the for med, distribution of essay a thesis, the procedures below should be followed. For additional details on procedures for temporary restrictions, please see Graduate Policies and Procedures at http://odge.mit.edu/gpp/degrees/thesis/restrictions-on-thesis-publication/. When MIT holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in thesis statement a thesis, students and their supervisors must work with the MIT Technology Licensing Office (http://web.mit.edu/tlo/www/) to determine if a patent application is to be filed. Essay? If so, the Technology Licensing Office will notify the Institute Archives, and the thesis will be withheld from essayer un bГ©bГ© sims distribution for up to three months. If an extension is required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research, who will inform the literary genre, Archives if an extension is approved. When a student holds the rights to any intellectual property contained in his or her thesis, application for permission to withhold a thesis must be made to the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses. If the argument essay, hold is granted, the dean will inform the literary, Archives, and the thesis will be withheld for a period of three months.

If an extension is emerson as essayist, required, application must be made to the Vice President for Research. A student should not embark without prior approval on essay, a thesis that requires government restrictions. The Institute recognizes that certain government agencies which sponsor research may require that theses be submitted for security review before they can be placed in the Libraries or published. Occasionally, on completing a thesis, a student may believe that its distribution will jeopardize the privacy or safety of the author, other individuals, or organizations. If the thesis cannot be rewritten to remove the problematic material, the author and supervisor should submit the thesis to the director of the program, who will prepare a recommendation for the Dean for Graduate Education for graduate theses or the Dean for Undergraduate Education for undergraduate theses, who will then consult with the Vice President for Research.

The appropriate office will advise the for med school, Institute Archives of the restricted period. In all cases the restricted period should be kept to genre essay a minimum. The title page is always considered to be page 1, and every page must be included in the count regardless of de faire whether a number is physically printed on a page. The entire thesis (including title page, prefatory material, illustrations, and essay, all text and appendices) must be paginated in school one consecutive numbering sequence. Theses should be prepared double-sided whenever possible. In a double-sided thesis, both sides of every page (starting with the title page and including any pages that have been left blank) must be accounted for in the numbering sequence.

Therefore, in a double-sided thesis, odd-numbered pages are always on the right and even-numbered pages on the left. Pages with illustrations may be single-sided, but both sides should be counted. Single-sided theses should be numbered only on the front of every sheet. When using thesis templates on Athena, use caution and verify that the pagination requirements are being met. Your work will be a more valuable research tool for other scholars if it can be located easily. Search engines use the words in the title, and sometimes other descriptive words, to locate works.

Therefore, be sure to select a title that is a meaningful description of the content of literary essay your manuscript; and when possible, use word substitutes for formulas, symbols, superscripts, Greek letters, etc., which do not appear on most computer keyboards and would make your title more difficult to search. The Effects of Ion Implantation and Annealing on the Properties of Titanium Silicide [not TiSi 2 ] Films on Silicon Substrates Radiative Decays of the J/Psi [not J/ ψ] to Two Pseudoscalar Final States The title page of the first copy must bear the original signatures of the author, supervisor, and chairman; a photocopy of the canadian 2013, signed title page is acceptable for the second copy. The title page should contain the genre, title, name of the author, previous degrees, the degree(s) to be awarded at MIT, the date the degree(s) will be conferred (June, September, or February only), copyright notice, and emerson, appropriate names and signatures. For candidates receiving two degrees, both degrees to be awarded should appear on the title page. For candidates receiving degrees across departments or programs, all degrees and departments or programs should appear on the title page and the signatures of both department heads/committee chairmen are required. Whenever there are co-supervisors, both signatures are required. Each thesis offered for a graduate degree must include an abstract, preferably one single-spaced page, but never more than two pages (generally less than 350 words). The abstract should be thought of as a brief descriptive summary rather than a lengthy introduction to the thesis.

Doctoral abstracts are submitted for inclusion in UMI/ProQuestЂ™s Dissertation Abstracts International and ProQuest Dissertations Theses database ( PQDT ). Doctoral candidates should keep their abstracts under 350 words. Genre Essay? Longer abstracts will be edited and shortened by UMI/ProQuest . Essayer De Faire? Databases such as PQDT provide full-text searching of abstracts, so the presence of significant key words in literary genre a short abstract will facilitate access. The abstract should immediately follow the title page. Biographical Note and Acknowledgment. Although not a requirement, each thesis may contain a short biography of the candidate, including institutions attended and dates of attendance, degrees and honors, titles of publications, teaching and professional experience, and other matters that may be pertinent. An acknowledgment page may also be included. Thesis Of International? These sections may be single-spaced. Please note that your thesis will be publicly available online at DSpace@MIT, which is regularly crawled and indexed by Google and other search-engine providers.. The style of quotations, footnotes, and bibliographic references may be prescribed by your department. Genre Essay? If your department does not prescribe a style or specify a style manual, choose one and be consistent.

Further information is available on the web site of the canadian essays 2013, MIT Writing Center (http://cmsw.mit.edu/writing-and-communication-center/citation-formats/). NOTES AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES. Whenever possible, notes should be placed at the bottom of the appropriate page or in the body of the literary genre, text. Notes should conform to the style appropriate to the discipline. If notes appear at the bottom of the page, they should be single-spaced and sims, included within the literary genre, specified margins (see section below). It may be appropriate to place bibliographic references either at the end of the chapter in which they occur or at the end of the thesis of international relations, thesis.. The same paper size and quality, pagination, margins, notes, and illustration requirements apply to appendices. Genre Essay? They support the research in de faire un bГ©bГ© sims your thesis and should be as readable and reproducible as the rest of your work.

Page numbering should continue the consecutive pagination of the thesis. For the main body of the text, including appendices and front matter, font size should be at least 11-point and should not be script or italic. Italics may, however, be used for literary genre essay short quotations or to highlight variables in an equation, for example. Notes and the text in tables, etc., should not be smaller than 10-point. Top, bottom, and both side margins must be at least an inch wide (1) to allow for binding and trimming.

All information (text headings, notes, and illustrations), excluding page numbers , must be within the text area. Theses should be prepared using both sides of the paper (double-sided) whenever possible. Oversize sheets must be folded to come within the antithesis, text area so the literary, folds will not be trimmed off or bound in best 2013 during the binding procedure. The text of the essay, thesis may be single- double- or one-and-a-half-spaced. Antithesis In Rhetoric? The abstract, biography, notes, bibliography, and acknowledgment should be single-spaced. If you are writing your thesis on Athena, follow the formatting and typeface instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers on any Athena workstation. If you are preparing your thesis on Athena, follow the instructions under the LATEX or FRAME olc stock answer topics by typing the command olc_answers. When using Athena templates, be sure the format conforms to genre the required specifications, especially for the title page and pagination. Final copies should be printed on the printer Thesis (11-004), which is best essays, stocked with acid-neutral, Libraries-approved thesis paper.

First copy: For the first copy the paper must be chosen for literary genre essay its permanence and durability. This is the copy that should bear the original signatures. The paper must be (a) acidЂ‘neutral or acid-free, (b) watermarked, (c) at argument thesis, least 20-lb. weight, and (d) contain at least 25% cotton. Literary Genre Essay? It may contain some post-consumer waste (pcw) recycled material. The following 20Ђ‘lb. watermarked acidЂ‘neutral papers are examples of those that are acceptable. Mohawk Via Bright White (available at CopyTech, 11-004) Xerox Image Elite Crane's Thesis Paper Hammermill Bond Strathmore Bond. Second copy: The paper for the second copy should be (a) acid-neutral or acid-free, (b) at least 20-lb. weight, and thesis, (c) contain 25% cotton. It need not be watermarked.

The following are not acceptable for literary genre essay either copy: MIT bond, erasable paper, or regular paper from photocopy machines. The paper used should be sufficiently opaque so that text and illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other. If there are any questions about the acceptability of paper, contact the Institute Archives (mit-theses@mit.edu, 617-253-5136). The standard size for theses is 8Ѕ by 11 inches (see section on oversized pages). DOUBLE-SIDED OR SINGLE-SIDED PRINTING. Double-sided printing is strongly recommended. However, the paper should be sufficiently opaque so that text and antithesis, illustrations on one side do not impair readability on the other side. A single-sided illustration page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on essay, both sides. When creating a double-sided copy, be sure that the page numbers are either in the center or on the outside edge of essays 2013 each page.

Charts, graphs, tables, etc., should be reduced whenever possible to literary genre an 8Ѕ-by-11-inch format. If material is statement, not reducible, oversize sheets must be folded to come within the text area so the folds will not be trimmed off or bound in literary essay during the binding procedure. Acceptable 11-by-17-inch watermarked paper can be requested at CopyTech (11-004). Students may print their theses in full color. Best Essays 2013? Theses containing color figures, illustrations, and photos will be scanned in color and converted to color PDFs for inclusion in DSpace@MIT. Please be aware that heavily saturated color graphics may Ђњbleed throughЂќ and compromise legibility for double-sided pages. In such cases, use of single-sided printing or heavier, less transparent paper stock is advised.. Pages containing photographs should be numbered as regular pages. A single-sided photograph page in a double-sided thesis should be numbered on both sides.

All graphics must respect the 1Ђќ margins. Digital and literary genre, magnetic materials such as cassette tapes, CDs, and DVDs may accompany the written text of the thesis; one should accompany each copy of the thesis submitted . No guarantee can be given that the Libraries can preserve, reproduce, or make this information available in the future. Therefore, when feasible, the information that is in these forms should also be represented in the written text of the thesis. A label containing the as essayist, author's name, the date of the thesis, and the copyright notice must be applied to all material in non-paper format. The label should also include any relevant technical information, such as software or hardware specifications. Is the authorЂ™s full name on the title page and literary genre, the abstract? (See sections on title page and abstract.)

Before submitting to your department. Are all necessary signatures on the title page of each copy? (See section on title page ) Institute Archives and Special Collections. Technology Licensing Office. One Cambridge Center. Cambridge, MA 02142. Office of the General Counsel.

Office of the Dean for emerson as essayist Graduate Education. Dean for Undergraduate Education. Office of the Vice President for Research. Prepared by the MIT Libraries. as prescribed by the Committee on Graduate Programs.

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column how to write Teaching by Asking Instead of by Telling. The following is a transcript of a teaching experiment, using the Socratic method, with a regular third grade class in literary essay a suburban elementary school. I present my perspective and argument statement views on the session, and on literary, the Socratic method as a teaching tool, following the emerson as essayist transcript. The class was conducted on a Friday afternoon beginning at 1:30, late in May, with about genre essay, two weeks left in the school year. This time was purposely chosen as one of the most difficult times to entice and hold these children's concentration about a somewhat complex intellectual matter. Emerson. The point was to demonstrate the power of the Socratic method for literary genre, both teaching and also for getting students involved and for med excited about the material being taught. There were 22 students in essay the class. I was told ahead of time by two different teachers (not the classroom teacher) that only a couple of students would be able to essay for med, understand and follow what I would be presenting. When the class period ended, I and the classroom teacher believed that at genre essay least 19 of the for med 22 students had fully and excitedly participated and literary absorbed the entire material.

The three other students' eyes were glazed over from the very beginning, and they did not seem to be involved in canadian essays the class at all. The students' answers below are in capital letters. The experiment was to see whether I could teach these students binary arithmetic (arithmetic using only two numbers, 0 and 1) only by asking them questions . None of them had been introduced to binary arithmetic before. Though the ostensible subject matter was binary arithmetic, my primary interest was to give a demonstration to the teacher of the literary essay power and benefit of the canadian Socratic method where it is genre applicable. That is my interest here as well. I chose binary arithmetic as the essayer sims 2 vehicle for literary genre, that because it is as essayist something very difficult for children, or anyone, to understand when it is literary taught normally; and I believe that a demonstration of a method that can teach such a difficult subject easily to children and also capture their enthusiasm about that subject is a very convincing demonstration of the value of the method. Antithesis. (As you will see below, understanding binary arithmetic is also about understanding place-value in general. For those who seek a much more detailed explanation about place-value, visit the long paper on literary, The Concept and Teaching of Place-Value.) This was to be the Socratic method in antithesis what I consider its purest form, where questions (and only literary genre essay questions) are used to for med school, arouse curiosity and at the same time serve as a logical, incremental, step-wise guide that enables students to literary essay, figure out about a complex topic or issue with their own thinking and insights. In a less pure form, which is essayer sims normally the literary essay way it occurs, students tend to get stuck at some point and essay need a teacher's explanation of some aspect, or the teacher gets stuck and cannot figure out a question that will get the kind of answer or point desired, or it just becomes more efficient to tell what you want to get across. If telling does occur, hopefully by that time, the essay students have been aroused by the questions to a state of curious receptivity to absorb an explanation that might otherwise have been meaningless to them.

Many of the questions are decided before the class; but depending on canadian, what answers are given, some questions have to be thought up extemporaneously. Sometimes this is very difficult to do, depending on how far from genre, what is anticipated or expected some of the for med school students' answers are. This particular attempt went better than my best possible expectation, and I had much higher expectations than any of the teachers I discussed it with prior to doing it. I had one prior relationship with this class. Genre Essay. About two weeks earlier I had shown three of the third grade classes together how to best 2013, throw a boomerang and had let each student try it once.

They had really enjoyed that. Genre. One girl and one boy from the 65 to 70 students had each actually caught their returning boomerang on their throws. That seemed to add to everyone's enjoyment. I had therefore already established a certain rapport with the thesis relations students, rapport being something that I feel is important for getting them to comfortably and literary enthusiastically participate in an intellectually uninhibited manner in class and without being psychologically paralyzed by fear of messing up. When I got to statement, the classroom for the binary math experiment, students were giving reports on famous people and were dressed up like the people they were describing. The student I came in on was reporting on John Glenn, but he had not mentioned the literary genre essay dramatic and scary problem of that first American trip in orbit. I asked whether anyone knew what really scary thing had happened on John Glenn's flight, and whether they knew what the flight was. Many said a trip to the moon, one thought Mars. I told them it was the first full earth orbit in space for an American. Emerson. Then someone remembered hearing about something wrong with the genre essay heat shield, but didn't remember what.

By now they were listening intently. In Rhetoric. I explained about how a light had come on that indicated the genre essay heat shield was loose or defective and that if so, Glenn would be incinerated coming back to earth. But he could not stay up there alive forever and they had nothing to send up to get him with. The engineers finally determined, or hoped, the problem was not with the thesis relations heat shield, but with the warning light. They thought it was what was defective. Literary Genre Essay. Glenn came down. The shield was ok; it had been just the light. Argument Thesis. They thought that was neat. But what I am really here for genre, today is to try an in rhetoric experiment with you.

I am the subject of the experiment, not you. I want to see whether I can teach you a whole new kind of arithmetic only by essay, asking you questions. I won't be allowed to tell you anything about it, just ask you things. Essay Thesis. When you think you know an essay answer, just call it out. You won't need to essays 2013, raise your hands and wait for me to literary essay, call on you; that takes too long. [This took them a while to adapt to. They kept raising their hands; though after a while they simply called out the thesis answers while raising their hands.] Here we go. 1) How many is this? [I held up ten fingers.]

2) Who can write that on the board? [virtually all hands up; I toss the chalk to literary genre, one kid and indicate for her to come up and do it]. She writes. 3) Who can write ten another way? [They hesitate than some hands go up. I toss the for med school chalk to another kid.] 2 x 5 [inspired by literary genre, the last idea] 6) That's very good, but there are lots of things that equal ten, right? [student nods agreement], so I'd rather not get into de faire 2, combinations that equal ten, but just things that represent or sort of mean ten. Genre. That will keep us from having a whole bunch of the same kind of thing. Anybody else?

8) [I point to the word ten]. Thesis. What is this? 9) What are written words made up of? 10) How many letters are there in the English alphabet? 11) How many words can you make out of them? 12) [Pointing to the number 10] What is genre essay this way of writing numbers made up of? 13) How many numerals are there?

14) Which, nine or ten? 15) Starting with zero, what are they? [They call out, I write them in the following way.] 16) How many numbers can you make out of these numerals? MEGA-ZILLIONS, INFINITE, LOTS. 17) How come we have ten numerals? Could it be because we have 10 fingers? 18) What if we were aliens with only essay for med school two fingers?

How many numerals might we have? 19) How many numbers could we write out of genre, 2 numerals? [one kid:] THERE WOULD BE A PROBLEM. THEY COULDN'T DO THIS [he holds up seven fingers] 21) [This strikes me as a very quick, intelligent insight I did not expect so suddenly.] But how can you do fifty five? [he flashes five fingers for de faire, an instant and then flashes them again] 22) How does someone know that is not ten? [I am not really happy with my question here but I don't want to get side-tracked by how to logically try to sign numbers without an established convention. I like that he sees the problem and literary has announced it, though he did it with fingers instead of words, which complicates the issue in a way.

When he ponders my question for a second with a hmmm , I think he sees the problem and of international I move on, saying. Literary Genre Essay. ] 23) Well, let's see what they could do. Here's the numerals you wrote down [pointing to the column from essay school, 0 to 9] for our ten numerals. If we only literary have two numerals and do it like this, what numerals would we have. 24) Okay, what can we write as we count? [I write as they call out answers.] 25) Is that it? What do we do on this planet when we run out of numerals at 9? WRITE DOWN ONE, ZERO [almost in unison] I DON'T KNOW; THAT'S JUST THE WAY YOU WRITE TEN 27) You have more than one numeral here and you have already used these numerals; how can you use them again? WE PUT THE 1 IN A DIFFERENT COLUMN. 28) What do you call that column you put it in? 29) Why do you call it that?

30) Well, what does this 1 and this 0 mean when written in these columns? 1 TEN AND NO ONES. 31) But why is this a ten? Why is this [pointing] the ten's column? DON'T KNOW; IT JUST IS!

32) I'll bet there's a reason. Essayer De Faire Un BГ©bГ© 2. What was the genre first number that needed a new column for you to be able to write it? 33) Could that be why it is called the ten's column?! What is the first number that needs the best 2013 next column? 34) And what column is that?

35) After you write 19, what do you have to literary essay, change to write down 20? 9 to a 0 and 1 to best 2013, a 2. 36) Meaning then 2 tens and no ones, right, because 2 tens are ___? 37) First number that needs a fourth column? 38) What column is that? 39) Okay, let's go back to our two-fingered aliens arithmetic.

We have. What would we do to write two if we did the same thing we do over here [tens] to write the next number after you run out of numerals? START ANOTHER COLUMN. 40) What should we call it? 41) Right! Because the literary genre essay first number we need it for is ___? 42) So what do we put in the two's column? How many two's are there in two? 43) And how many one's extra? 44) So then two looks like this: [pointing to 10], right?

RIGHT, BUT THAT SURE LOOKS LIKE TEN. 45) No, only to you guys, because you were taught it wrong [grin] -- to the aliens it is two. Antithesis. They learn it that way in pre-school just as you learn to call one, zero [pointing to genre essay, 10] ten. But it's not really ten, right? It's two -- if you only had two fingers. How long does it take a little kid in pre-school to learn to read numbers, especially numbers with more than one numeral or column? 46) Is there anything obvious about in rhetoric, calling one, zero ten or do you have to literary essay, be taught to essay for med school, call it ten instead of literary genre, one, zero?

HAVE TO BE TAUGHT IT. 47) Ok, I'm teaching you different. What is 1, 0 here? 48) Hard to see it that way, though, right? 49) Try to get used to it; the alien children do. What number comes next? 50) How do we write it with our numerals? We need one TWO and essayer un bГ©bГ© a ONE [I write down 11 for literary, them] So we have. 51) Uh oh, now we're out of numerals again. In Rhetoric. How do we get to four? START A NEW COLUMN!

53) Call it out to me; what do I write? [I write 100 four under the other numbers] 55) Now let's add one more to it to get six. But be careful. [I point to the 1 in the one's column and ask] If we add 1 to 1, we can't write 2, we can only write zero in this column, so we need to carry ____? 57) Why is this six? What is it made of? [I point to columns, which I had been labeling at the top with the word one, two, and four as they had called out the names of them.] 60) Out of numerals again. Eight?

NEW COLUMN; ONE, ZERO, ZERO, ZERO. [We do a couple more and I continue to write them one under the other with the word next to each number, so we have:] 61) So now, how many numbers do you think you can write with a one and a zero? MEGA-ZILLIONS ALSO/ ALL OF THEM. 62) Now, let's look at something. Literary Genre. [Point to Roman numeral X that one kid had written on thesis relations, the board.] Could you easily multiply Roman numerals?

Like MCXVII times LXXV? 63) Let's see what happens if we try to literary genre essay, multiply in alien here. Let's try two times three and you multiply just like you do in tens [in the traditional American style of writing out multiplication]. They call out the argument one, zero for just below the literary genre essay line, and one, zero, zero for just below that and so I write: 64) Ok, look on the list of numbers, up here [pointing to as essayist, the chart where I have written down the literary numbers in essayer 2 numeral and literary genre word form] what is 110? 65) And how much is two times three in real life?

66) So alien arithmetic works just as well as your arithmetic, huh? 67) Even easier, right, because you just have to multiply or add zeroes and ones, which is easy, right? 68) There, now you know how to do it. Of course, until you get used to of international, reading numbers this way, you need your chart, because it is hard to read something like 10011001011 in alien, right? 69) So who uses this stuff? 70) No, I think you guys use this stuff every day. Genre Essay. When do you use it? 71) Yes you do. Any ideas where? 72) [I walk over to the light switch and, pointing to emerson, it, ask:] What is this? 73) [I flip it off and on literary, a few times.] How many positions does it have?

74) What could you call these positions? ON AND OFF/ UP AND DOWN. 75) If you were going to un bГ©bГ©, give them numbers what would you call them? [one student] OH!! ZERO AND ONE! [other kids then:] OH, YEAH!

76) You got that right. I am going to literary genre essay, end my experiment part here and emerson just tell you this last part. Computers and calculators have lots of genre, circuits through essentially on/off switches, where one way represents 0 and the other way, 1. Electricity can go through these switches really fast and flip them on or off, depending on the calculation you are doing. Then, at the end, it translates the strings of zeroes and ones back into best, numbers or letters, so we humans, who can't read long strings of zeroes and ones very well can know what the answers are. [at this point one of the kid's in literary the back yelled out, OH! NEEEAT!! ] I don't know exactly how these circuits work; so if your teacher ever gets some electronics engineer to come into talk to you, I want you to ask him what kind of circuit makes multiplication or alphabetical order, and so on. And I want you to invite me to sit in on the class with you. Now, I have to tell you guys, I think you were leading me on about not knowing any of this stuff.

You knew it all before we started, because I didn't tell you anything about un bГ©bГ© sims 2, this -- which by the way is called binary arithmetic, bi meaning two like in bicycle. I just asked you questions and literary you knew all the essayer un bГ©bГ© 2 answers. You've studied this before, haven't you? Then how did you do this? You must be amazing. By the way, some of you may want to try it with other sets of numerals. You might try three numerals 0, 1, and 2. Or five numerals. Or you might even try twelve 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, , and ^ -- see, you have to literary, make up two new numerals to do twelve, because we are used to only ten. Then you can check your system by doing multiplication or addition, etc.

Good luck. After the part about of international, John Glenn, the essay whole class took only 25 minutes. Their teacher told me later that after I left the children talked about it until it was time to go home. My Views About This Whole Episode. Students do not get bored or lose concentration if they are actively participating. Almost all of these children participated the whole time; often calling out in unison or one after another. If necessary, I could have asked if anyone thought some answer might be wrong, or if anyone agreed with a particular answer. You get extra mileage out of a given question that way. I did not have to do that here. Their answers were almost all immediate and essay statement very good.

If necessary, you can also call on particular students; if they don't know, other students will bail them out. Essay. Calling on someone in a non-threatening way tends to activate others who might otherwise remain silent. That was not a problem with these kids. Remember, this was not a gifted class. It was a normal suburban third grade of whom two teachers had said only a few students would be able to emerson as essayist, understand the ideas. The topic was twos, but I think they learned just as much about the literary genre essay tens they had been using and not really understanding.

This method takes a lot of energy and concentration when you are doing it fast, the way I like to do it when beginning a new topic. A teacher cannot do this for every topic or all day long, at least not the first time one teaches particular topics this way. It takes a lot of preparation, and a lot of thought. When it goes well, as this did, it is so exciting for essays, both the students and the teacher that it is difficult to stay at literary genre essay that peak and pace or to change gears or topics. When it does not go as well, it is canadian essays very taxing trying to figure out what you need to genre, modify or what you need to say. I practiced this particular sequence of questioning a little bit one time with a first grade teacher. I found a flaw in my sequence of questions. I had to figure out how to de faire un bГ©bГ© sims, correct that.

I had time to literary essay, prepare this particular lesson; I am not a teacher but a volunteer; and canadian essays 2013 I am not a mathematician. Literary. I came to essay, the school just to do this topic that one period. I did this fast. I personally like to do new topics fast originally and then re-visit them periodically at a more leisurely pace as you get to other ideas or circumstances that apply to, or make use of, them. As you re-visit, you fine tune. The chief benefits of this method are that it excites students' curiosity and arouses their thinking, rather than stifling it. It also makes teaching more interesting, because most of the time, you learn more from the students -- or by what they make you think of -- than what you knew going into the class. Each group of students is just enough different, that it makes it stimulating. It is literary genre essay a very efficient teaching method, because the first time through tends to cover the topic very thoroughly, in terms of their understanding it.

It is more efficient for of international, their learning then lecturing to them is, though, of course, a teacher can lecture in essay less time. It gives constant feed-back and thus allows monitoring of the students' understanding as you go. So you know what problems and misunderstandings or lack of understandings you need to address as you are presenting the material. You do not need to wait to give a quiz or exam; the whole thing is emerson as essayist one big quiz as you go, though a quiz whose point is essay teaching, not grading. Though, to antithesis in rhetoric, repeat, this is teaching by stimulating students' thinking in literary certain focused areas, in essay order to draw ideas out of literary essay, them; it is not teaching by pushing ideas into students that they may or may not be able to as essayist, absorb or assimilate. Further, by literary genre essay, quizzing and best canadian monitoring their understanding as you go along, you have the time and opportunity to correct misunderstandings or someone's being lost at the immediate time, not at the end of six weeks when it is usually too late to try to go back over the material. And in some cases their ideas will jump ahead to new material so that you can meaningfully talk about some of it out of (your!) order (but in an order relevant to them). Genre. Or you can tell them you will get to exactly that in a little while, and will answer their question then.

Or suggest they might want to think about best, it between now and then to see whether they can figure it out for themselves first. There are all kinds of options, but at least you know the literary essay material is live for them, which it is not always when you are lecturing or just telling them things or they are passively and dutifully reading or doing worksheets or listening without thinking. If you can get the right questions in argument thesis the right sequence, kids in the whole intellectual spectrum in genre a normal class can go at antithesis about the literary genre same pace without being bored; and they can feed off each others' answers. Gifted kids may have additional insights they may or may not share at the time, but will tend to reflect on as essayist, later. This brings up the essay issue of teacher expectations. From what I have read about the supposed sin of tracking, one of the main complaints is thesis that the students who are not in the top group have lower expectations of themselves and they get teachers who expect little of them, and who teach them in boring ways because of it. So tracking becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy about a kid's educability; it becomes dooming. That is a problem, not with tracking as such, but with teacher expectations of literary genre, students (and their ability to teach).

These kids were not tracked, and thesis of international yet they would never have been exposed to anything like this by most of the teachers in that school, because most felt the way the two did whose expectations I reported. Most felt the kids would not be capable enough and certainly not in the afternoon, on a Friday near the end of the school year yet. One of the problems with not tracking is that many teachers have almost as low expectations of, and plans for, students grouped heterogeneously as they do with non-high-end tracked students. The point is to try to literary genre, stimulate and challenge all students as much as possible. The Socratic method is an excellent way to do that.

It works for argument essay, any topics or any parts of genre essay, topics that have any logical natures at all. It does not work for unrelated facts or for explaining conventions, such as the sounds of thesis, letters or the capitals of states whose capitals are more the literary genre essay result of historical accident than logical selection. Of course, you will notice these questions are very specific, and as logically leading as possible. That is essayer de faire 2 part of the point of the method. Not just any question will do, particularly not broad, very open ended questions, like What is arithmetic? or How would you design an arithmetic with only genre two numbers? (or if you are trying to teach them about why tall trees do not fall over when the wind blows what is a tree?). Students have nothing in in rhetoric particular to literary essay, focus on relations, when you ask such questions, and few come up with any sort of interesting answer. And it forces the teacher to genre, think about the logic of a topic, and how to for med, make it most easily assimilated.

In tandem with that, the essay teacher has to try to understand at relations what level the students are, and genre essay what prior knowledge they may have that will help them assimilate what the teacher wants them to learn. It emphasizes student understanding, rather than teacher presentation; student intake, interpretation, and construction, rather than teacher output. Canadian Essays 2013. And the point of education is genre essay that the students are helped most efficiently to as essayist, learn by a teacher, not that a teacher make the finest apparent presentation, regardless of what students might be learning, or not learning. I was fortunate in essay this class that students already understood the argument statement difference between numbers and numerals, or I would have had to teach that by questions also. And it was an essay added help that they had already learned Roman numerals. It was also most fortunate that these students did not take very many, if any, wrong turns or have any firmly entrenched erroneous ideas that would have taken much effort to show to essay, be mistaken. I took a shortcut in question 15 although I did not have to; but I did it because I thought their answers to questions 13 and 14 showed an understanding that 0 was a numeral, and I didn't want to spend time in this particular lesson trying to get them to see where 0 best fit with regard to order. Genre Essay. If they had said there were only nine numerals and said they were 1-9, then you could ask how they could write ten numerically using only those nine, and they would quickly come to argument essay, see they needed to add 0 to literary genre essay, their list of canadian 2013, numerals. These are the four critical points about the questions: 1) they must be interesting or intriguing to the students; they must lead by 2) incremental and 3) logical steps (from the essay students' prior knowledge or understanding) in order to be readily answered and, at some point, seen to be evidence toward a conclusion, not just individual, isolated points; and 4) they must be designed to get the student to see particular points.

You are essentially trying to get students to use their own logic and in rhetoric therefore see, by their own reflections on literary, your questions, either the good new ideas or the emerson obviously erroneous ideas that are the literary consequences of their established ideas, knowledge, or beliefs. Therefore you have to thesis, know or to be able to find out what the students' ideas and beliefs are. You cannot ask just any question or start just anywhere. It is crucial to essay, understand the argument essay thesis statement difference between logically leading questions and psychologically leading questions. Essay. Logically leading questions require understanding of the concepts and principles involved in thesis order to be answered correctly; psychologically leading questions can be answered by students' keying in on clues other than the logic of the content.

Question 39 above is psychologically leading, since I did not want to cover in this lesson the concept of value-representation but just wanted to use columnar-place value, so I psychologically led them into saying Start another column rather than getting them to see the reasoning behind columnar-place as merely one form of value representation. I wanted them to see how to use columnar-place value logically without trying here to get them to totally understand its logic. Genre Essay. (A common form of value-representation that is not place value is color value in argument thesis poker chips, where colors determine the value of the individual chips in genre essay ways similar to how columnar place does it in writing. For example if white chips are worth one unit and blue chips are worth ten units, 4 blue chips and 3 white chips is the same value as a 4 written in the tens column and a 3 written in the ones column for almost the same reasons.) For the in rhetoric Socratic method to work as a teaching tool and not just as a magic trick to get kids to give right answers with no real understanding, it is crucial that the important questions in the sequence must be logically leading rather than psychologically leading. There is no magic formula for doing this, but one of the tests for determining whether you have likely done it is to try to see whether leaving out essay, some key steps still allows people to give correct answers to things they are not likely to really understand. Further, in the case of binary numbers, I found that when you used this sequence of questions with impatient or math-phobic adults who didn't want to have to think but just wanted you to get to the point, they could not correctly answer very far into even the above sequence. That leads me to believe that answering most of these questions correctly, requires understandingof the emerson as essayist topic rather than picking up some external sorts of literary, clues in order to just guess correctly. Plus, generally when one uses the Socratic method, it tends to become pretty clear when people get lost and are either mistaken or just guessing. Their demeanor tends to change when they are guessing, and they answer with a questioning tone in their voice. Further, when they are logically understanding as they go, they tend to say out loud insights they have or reasons they have for essay thesis, their answers. When they are just guessing, they tend to just give short answers with almost no comment or enthusiasm.

They don't tend to want to sustain the activity. Finally, two of the interesting, perhaps side, benefits of using the Socratic method are that it gives the students a chance to experience the attendant joy and excitement of genre essay, discovering (often complex) ideas on their own. And it gives teachers a chance to learn how much more inventive and bright a great many more students are than usually appear to be when they are primarily passive. [Some additional comments about the best Socratic method of teaching are in a letter, Using the Socratic Method.] [For a more general approach to teaching, of which the Socratic Method is just one specific.