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Edexcel mark schemes history coursework

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Edexcel mark schemes history coursework

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Edexcel history coursework mark schemes

Black Humor Essay Research Paper Langston Hughes. Langston Hughes Essay Research Paper Langston Hughes 9 . Langston Hughes Essay Research Paper LANGSTON HUGHESBibliographyIn 4 . Mark Schemes History. Langston Hughes Essay Research Paper 3 . Doorknobs By Langston Hughes Essay Research Paper 3 . Langston Hughes 12 . Langston Hughes And His Significance 2 . Gudule Resume. Langston Hughes A Poet Supreme Essay Research 15 . Black Humor Essay, Research Paper. Langston Hughes says, #8220;Humor is laughing at edexcel mark schemes history, what you haven#8217;t got when you ought to have it. Of course, you laugh by proxy. Gudule Resume. You#8217;re really laughing at the other guy lacks, not your own. That#8217;s what makes it funny-The fact that you don#8217;t know you are laughing at edexcel mark coursework, yourself.

Humor is when the joke is on you but hits the other fellow first-Because it boomerangs. Help. Humor is what you wish in mark schemes coursework, your secret heart were not funny, but it is, and you must laugh. Book. Humor is mark history your unconscious therapy#8221; Laughter for centuries has been the horse, medicine that ensured the mark schemes, survival of gudule resume, African Americans. #8220;Herded together with others with whom they shared only a common condition of schemes history coursework, servitude and some degree of cultural overlap, enslaved Africans were compelled to create a new language, a new religion, and a precarious new lifestyle.#8221; (1) As Africans were unloaded by boat and placed onto plantations, slave masters were completely enthralled by underline book titles the way they spoke, moved, and danced. Out of schemes, slavery emerged a culture that would influence America#8217;s mainstream culture for infinity. Slavery created bondage for Africans and of business manager, when it looked like they were going no where fast, they laughed, sang, and amused one another with riddles, jokes and animal tales from the homeland. Schemes. Slave masters could not conceive why slave in underline titles, such a miserable state were so joyous, what they did not know was many of the songs, jokes and schemes coursework, riddles were more than surface deep and many times about the master. Manager. The slaves made the best of the condition. by laughing at the way the slave master treated them and their reaction to this treatment. They were laughing at the slave master and at edexcel mark history, the same time laughing at themselves. However, it did not take long before slave masters made slave merry-making public. Many times slaves were called upon to entertain the help, master and schemes history, their guest.

Slave merry-making was also encouraged because it also increased the do you underline, price of the slaves. Edexcel Schemes. #8220;People took notice to the way slaves spoke and moved, out of do you underline book, slavery evolved Blackface Humor.#8221; (5) Blackface comedy was when a person (white) painted their face with black makeup and acted like a slave (sambo). Blackface humor gave whites the chance to lift African American Humor from its original context, transform it, then spotlight it for entertainment, amusement (for non-black audiences) and become popular for their supposed originality. Mark Schemes History Coursework. As blackface entertainment became more popular so did the actors. George Washington Dixion introduced #8220;Coal Black Rose#8221; (5) one song which was part of os homework, this act was #8220;Sambo and Cuffee#8221;, which was a comic song about history coursework, a black woman and maximum and dissertation, her lover. Dixion performed this act all over edexcel schemes history coursework the world, some would argue that Dixion was the first white blackface performer to establish a broad reputation. By the horse essay art contest, 1830#8217;s blackface, performers were every where and one of the most popular attractions of the American stage. Billy Whitlock, Frank Brower, Frank Pelham and Dan Emmett were also very popular blackface performer. Dixion created the one man, show but these. men created a troupe of blackface performers.

These men also firmly established the image of blacks as happy-go-lucky plantation darkies, outrageously dresses and ignorant. Although there were other blackface performers before them, these men were the only ones who could give a real show from the makeup to the costume. #8220;By the 1840#8217;s blackface performances had reached an unprecedented level of edexcel schemes, national popularity.#8221;(6) There were many performance troupes even professional juvenile troupes. Each followed a standard; they had a three-act presentation. The fist act opened up with a walkaround where the entire troupe came out made up in face paint and dressed in suits. From there, they gathered in a semicircle to alternate comic songs and jokes. Here is a common type of joke many used; it is called; Mr. Bones: Mr.

Tambo sir! Mr. Tambo: yes, Mr. Bones. Mr. Bones: Does us black folks go to hebbin? Does we go through dem golden gates? Mr. Horse Art Contest. Tambo: Mr. Bones, you know the golden gates is for white folks. Mr.

Bones: Well, who#8217;s gonna be dere to schemes history open demm gates for of business manager you white folks? For most white people watching the show the most funny and exciting part was the. joke telling. Schemes History. (2) In the second act-the olio or variety segment- was the stump speech speaker. This is when one of the members in the troupe performed a comic, black version of a topic. Topics would range from, emancipation, women#8217;s suffrage, education or some sort of other current political or scientific topic. Essay Manager. The point of this part of the show was to show how blacks could not comprehend nor interpret sophisticated ideas. The third and edexcel mark schemes history coursework, final part of the show was a slapstick plantation skit, featuring song and dance with costumed men and women slaves. After the Civil War blackface troupes hired on free black men and women to perform with them.

White audiences became upset and horse, angry at many troupes. After the war and emancipation during the reconstruction period when constitutional amendments were passed to assure civil rights and voting rights for former slaves and some blacks were elected members of the House and Senate; Whites wanted to be assured that blacks were still inferior and blackface troupes were not showing this by hiring them on. Therefore, audiences depleted, and troupes started to perform on circuits like the chitlen circuit, which hit most black owned theaters. Blacks who were part of the troupes started to branch off and start their own troupes. In doing this, they altered the usual blackface performance routine. First they altered the edexcel mark history coursework, song lyrics, instead of essay question mesopotamia, them singing songs that downgraded blacks; songsters would play on white fears and mock them. Many blacks took off the face paint and mark schemes history, introduced musical comedies. Black musical comedies created success for many black performers. White. already loved black music so the musical comedy fit right into the market.

Still. Essay Question Mesopotamia. many of these comedies were on the circuit, which were confined to edexcel mark black theaters. It was not until later that musical comedies were featured on Broadway. When they were on Broadway #8220;Lyles and Miller a very successful team created a whole new approach to the comedies.#8221;(7) They presented at the end of their acts a group of gudule resume, women who danced and sang with the stereotypical attitude many felt black urban women had. Edexcel Mark Schemes History. This simple addition astounded Broadway and critic raved. Eventually every black troupe had evolved to use this form. Black Musical Comedies took blacks to another level of gudule resume, comedy yet, they were unable to shake the sambo stereotypical image given to them by white blackface performers. #8220;Licensed radio was introduced in 1920, because of the low budget and inadequate facilities, news shows and music provided by local groups dominated the airwaves. By 1922 there were over 522 licensed stations and radio sales increased from $1million in 1920 to $400million in 1925. By 1929 one in every three homes owned radios ten years later their was a radio in almost every home. Radio was a medium where its listeners could hear concerts, comic monologues, sporting events and edexcel mark, political speeches as they happened.#8221;(4) Radio at first initially ignored blacks, as in the blackface performance days they were imitated by mesopotamia whites. In 1925, Freeman F. Gosden and Charles J. Correll were a small time duo who had debuted as musicians on edexcel schemes history a radio station in. Chicago.

They played at this radio station for gudule resume a while and coursework, later moved to a station owned by the Chicago Tribune. At. Mesopotamia. this station they were approached by management about edexcel schemes, doing a broadcast edition. to the comic strip #8220;The Gumps.#8221; The two refused the offer but suggested an alternative, a black dialect show. Gosden and Correll made a series based on two black names #8220;Sam #8216;N#8217; #8220;Henry#8221;, which would later become known as #8220;Amos #8216;N#8217; #8220;Andy#8221;. Sam #8216;N#8217; Henry debuted on January 12, 1926 (1)(6) The characters Sam and Henry still depended on the stereotypical images of blacks created during the blackface (minstrel) performance years. Blacks were superstitious, na?ve easily influenced, lazy, ignorant and conniving. March 19, 1928 three months after the #8220;Sam#8221; #8216;N#8217; #8220;Henry#8221; show had bee cancelled, #8220;Amos#8221; #8216;N#8217; #8220;Andy#8221; mysteriously appeared on maximum consulting a rival station in Chicago. Gosden and edexcel coursework, Correll had came up with the os homework help, idea presented it to the station and it was accepted. This show was far more successful than Sam And Henry; Amos N Andy was recorded and leased to edexcel schemes history coursework forty other radio stations. In August 1929, the show got a sponsor with Pepsodent being the first black comedy to receive a major sponsor.

Amos N Andy was the number one show in the country. Gudule Resume. By 1935 70 percent of American home (40 million) listeners tuned in each night. Also saying from the show hit the history coursework, streets like #8220;Ain#8217;t dat sumptin#8217;,#8221; #8220;Splain dat to me#8217;,#8221; and #8220;Holy Mackerel#8221;. Even with its popularity, the show had a down time. Radio stations modernized their broadcast methods, so comedians were no longer forced to work. without an audience. This is when variety shows begin to take the market. In 1943, Gosden and Correl returned to the air with a thoroughly revamped half an hour.

version of #8220;Amos#8221; #8216;N#8217; #8220;Andy#8221;. The show was performed before a live audience. and featured an orchestra and chorus. #8220;Amos#8221; #8216;N#8217; #8220;Andy#8221; represented a breakthrough for os homework black comedians on radio and television as well. Mark Schemes History. Although one-person acts were not popular during the variety show period, Moms Mabley set the stage for many comedians that would come after her. Jackie #8220;Moms#8221; Mabley. Born in North Carolina in 1897, Mabley grew up in Cleveland Ohio, by the time she was sixteen she had became a stage performer. She began as a dancer and singer and dabbled in do you, comedy.

During the 1920#8217;s she was performing on the chitlen circuit in edexcel mark schemes history coursework, Dallas, where another teams so her act and os homework, helped her get better bookings. Like many performers, she appeared in skits with other performers at first. However Mabley did not like this and she was one of the mark schemes history, first comics to turn to monologue humor. She appeared on the stage with oversized clodhoppers, tattered gingham dresses and oddball hats she acted like a typical down to earth older black woman. Mabley worked with many performers but she did her best when she was alone.

She was famous for her costume and her shuffle, she would sing some comical version of essay, a popular song, tell stories or just stand there and the audience loved it. Edexcel Schemes History Coursework. Mabley foreshadowed the shift to direct social commentary and stand up comic techniques that would dominate humor and comedians to come. Dick Gregory, Flip Wilson, Redd Foxx, Steve Allen, Richard Pryor, Whoopi Goldburg, Eddie Murphy, and many other popular black and white comedians have evolved from the maximum consulting and dissertation, history of comedy. It has been many years yet the mark schemes history, images that were passed on from slavery still thrive at the bud of jokes many comedians of os homework help, today tell. However black comedians have finally gotten away from the white interpretation of black humor and created original black humor from an African American Perspective to the world.

Black comedy has come to edexcel mark schemes coursework be the voice of the struggle, pain, and joy African American has gone through and are still going through.

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E. B. Mark Schemes Coursework! White, The Art of the Essay No. 1. E. B. White and his dog Minnie. If it happens that your parents concern themselves so little with the workings of boys’ minds as to christen you Elwyn Brooks White, no doubt you decide as early as possible to identify yourself as E.B. White. If it also happens that you attend Cornell, whose first president was Andrew D. White, then, following a variant of the principle that everybody named Rhodes winds up being nicknamed “Dusty,” you wind up being nicknamed “Andy.” And so it has come about that for do you underline book in essays, fifty of his seventy years Elwyn Brooks White has been known to his readers as E.B. White and to his friends as Andy. Andy White. Andy and Katharine White. The Whites.

Andy and Katharine have been married for forty years, and in that time they have been separated so rarely that I find it impossible to think of edexcel mark, one without the other. Os Homework! On the occasions when they have been obliged to be apart, Andy’s conversation is so likely to center on Katharine that she becomes all the more present for being absent. The Whites have shared everything, from professional association on coursework, the same magazine to preoccupation with a joint ill health that many of their friends have been inclined to regard as imaginary. Years ago, in a Christmas doggerel, Edmund Wilson saluted them for gudule resume, possessing “ mens sana in corpore insano, ” and it was always wonderful to behold the intuitive seesaw adjustments by which one of them got well in edexcel mark history coursework time for the other to get sick. What a mountain of do you underline titles in essays, good work they have accumulated in that fashion!

Certainly they have been the strongest and most productive unhealthy couple that I have ever encountered, but I no longer dare to make fun of their ailments. Now that age is mark schemes history, bestowing on them a natural infirmity, they must be sorely tempted to say to the rest of us, “You see? What did we tell you?” (“Sorely,” by the way, has been a favorite adverb of Andy’s- a word that brims with bodily woe and that yet hints at the heroic: back of horse essay art contest, Andy, some dying knight out of Malory lifts his gleaming sword against the dusk.) Andy White is mark schemes history coursework, small and wiry, with an unexpectedly large nose, speckled eyes, and maximum, an air of being just about to turn away, not on an errand of any importance but as a means of remaining free to cut and run without the nuisance of prolonged good-byes. Crossing the threshold of his eighth decade, his person is uncannily boyish-seeming. Though his hair is grey, I learn at this moment that I do not consent to the fact: away from him, I remember it as brown, therefore it is brown to me.

Andy can no more lose his youthfulness by the tiresome accident of growing old than he could ever have been Elwyn by the tiresome un-necessary accident of baptism; his youth and his “Andy”-ness are intrinsic and inexpungeable. Katharine White is mark schemes history coursework, a woman so good-looking that nobody has taken it amiss when her husband has described in print as beautiful, but her beauty has a touch of blue-eyed augustness in it, and essay, her manner is formal. It would never occur to me to go beyond calling her Katharine, and I have not found it surprising when her son, Roger Angell, an history editor of The New Yorker , refers to her within the gudule resume office precincts as “Mrs. White.” (Roger Angell is the edexcel mark schemes coursework son of her marriage to a distinguished New York attorney, Ernest Angell; she and Andy have a son, Joe, who is of business, a naval architect and edexcel mark, whose boatyard is underline book titles, a thriving enterprise in the Whites’ hometown of Brooklin, Maine.) At the mark schemes history risk of do you underline, reducing a man’s life to a sort of edexcel schemes history, Merck’s Manual, I may mention that Andy White’s personal physician, Dana Atchley- giving characteristically short shrift to essay question mesopotamia a psychosomatic view of edexcel, his old friend- has described him as having a Rolls Royce mind in a Model T body.

With Andy, this would pass for a compliment, because in the tyranny of his modesty he would always choose to be a Ford instead of a Rolls, but it would be closer to the truth to describe him as a Rolls Royce mind in a Rolls Royce body that unaccountably keeps bumping to a stop and os homework help, humming to itself, not without infinite pleasure to others along the way. What he achieves must cost him a considerable effort and appears to edexcel mark schemes coursework cost him very little. His speaking voice, like his writing voice, is clear, resonant, and invincibly debonair. He wanders over essay question mesopotamia the pastures of his Maine farm or, for that matter, along the labyrinthine corridors of The New Yorker offices on West Forty-Third Street with the off-hand grace of mark, a dancer making up a sequence of steps that the eye follows with delight and that defies any but his own notation. Clues to the bold and delicate nature of those steps are to gudule resume be discovered in history coursework every line he writes, but the man and his work are so nearly one that, try as we will, we cannot tell the dancer from the gudule resume dance. So many critics equate the success of a writer with an unhappy childhood. Mark Schemes History Coursework! Can you say something of of business, your own childhood in Mount Vernon? As a child, I was frightened but not unhappy.

My parents were loving and kind. We were a large family (six children) and were a small kingdom unto ourselves. Nobody ever came to dinner. My father was formal, conservative, successful, hardworking, and edexcel history, worried. My mother was loving, hardworking, and retiring. Horse! We lived in a large house in a leafy suburb, where there were backyards and history coursework, stables and essay mesopotamia, grape arbors. I lacked for nothing except confidence.

I suffered nothing except the mark schemes routine terrors of os homework, childhood: fear of the dark, fear of the future, fear of the schemes history return to school after a summer on a lake in Maine, fear of making an appearance on a platform, fear of the underline lavatory in mark history coursework the school basement where the slate urinals cascaded, fear that I was unknowing about things I should know about. I was, as a child, allergic to horse art contest pollens and history, dusts, and still am. I was allergic to essay platforms, and still am. It may be, as some critics suggest, that it helps to have an unhappy childhood. If so, I have no knowledge of history coursework, it. Perhaps it helps to have been scared or allergic to pollensI don’t know. At what age did you know you were going to os homework follow a literary profession? Was there a particular incident, or moment? I never knew for sure that I would follow a literary profession. I was twenty-seven or twenty-eight before anything happened that gave me any assurance that I could make a go of writing.

I had done a great deal of writing, but I lacked confidence in my ability to put it to good use. I went abroad one summer and on my return to edexcel schemes history New York found an accumulation of mail at gudule resume, my apartment. I took the letters, unopened, and went to a Childs restaurant on Fourteenth Street, where I ordered dinner and began opening my mail. From one envelope, two or three checks dropped out, from The New Yorker . Schemes! I suppose they totaled a little under a hundred dollars, but it looked like a fortune to me. I can still remember the feeling that “this was it”I was a pro at last. It was a good feeling and I enjoyed the meal. What were those first pieces accepted by The New Yorker ? Did you send them in consulting and dissertation with a covering letter, or through an schemes history agent? They were short sketcheswhat Ross called “casuals.” One, I think, was a piece called “The Swell Steerage,” about the then new college cabin class on transatlantic ships. I never submitted a manuscript with a covering letter or through an agent. I used to put my manuscript in the mail, along with a stamped envelope for the rejection. This was a matter of high principle with me: I believed in essay art contest the doctrine of immaculate rejection.

I never used an edexcel mark agent and os homework help, did not like the looks of a manuscript after an agent got through prettying it up and putting it between covers with brass clips. (I now have an agent for such mysteries as movie rights and foreign translations.) A large part of all early contributions to The New Yorker arrived uninvited and unexpected. They arrived in the mail or under the arm of people who walked in edexcel history coursework with them. O’Hara’s “Afternoon Delphians” is one example out of hundreds. For a number of years, The New Yorker published an average of fifty new writers a year. Magazines that refuse unsolicited manuscripts strike me as lazy, incurious, self-assured, and self-important.

I’m speaking of magazines of general circulation. There may be some justification for a technical journal to limit its list of contributors to persons who are known to be qualified. But if I were a publisher, I wouldn’t want to put out a magazine that failed to examine everything that turned up. But did The New Yorker ever try to question publish the emerging writers of the time: Hemingway, Faulkner, Dos Passos, Fitzgerald, Miller, Lawrence, Joyce, Wolfe, et al? The New Yorker had an interest in publishing any writer that could turn in a good piece. It read everything submitted. Hemingway, Faulkner, and the others were well established and well paid when The New Yorker came on the scene. The magazine would have been glad to mark schemes history publish them, but it didn’t have the money to pay them off, and for the most part they didn’t submit. They were selling to The Saturday Evening Post and underline book in essays, other well-heeled publications, and in general were not inclined to contribute to schemes history coursework the small, new, impecunious weekly. Also, some of them, I would guess, did not feel sympathetic to The New Yorker ’s frivolity.

Ross had no great urge to publish the big names; he was far more interested in turning up new and yet undiscovered talent, the essay question mesopotamia Helen Hokinsons and the James Thurbers. We did publish some things by Wolfe“Only the Dead Know Brooklyn” was one. I believe we published something by Fitzgerald. But Ross didn’t waste much time trying to schemes history corral “emerged” writers. He was looking for the ones that were found by essay of business manager turning over a stone. What were the procedures in turning down a manuscript by edexcel a New Yorker regular?

Was this done by gudule resume Ross? The manuscript of a New Yorker regular was turned down in the same manner as was the manuscript of edexcel mark schemes, a New Yorker irregular. It was simply rejected, usually by book in essays the subeditor who was handling the author in question. Ross did not deal directly with writers and artists, except in the case of a few old friends from an earlier day. He wouldn’t even take on Woollcottregarded him as too difficult and fussy. Ross disliked rejecting pieces, and schemes coursework, he disliked firing peoplehe ducked both tasks whenever he could. Did feuds threaten the magazine? Feuds did not threaten The New Yorker . The only feud I recall was the running battle between the editorial department and the advertising department. Question! This was largely a one-sided affair, with the editorial department lobbing an occasional grenade into the enemy’s lines just on general principles, to help them remember to stay out of sight. Ross was determined not to allow his magazine to edexcel schemes history be swayed, in the slightest degree, by horse essay the boys in advertising.

As far as I know, he succeeded. When did you first move to New York, and what were some of the things you did before joining The New Yorker ? Were you ever a part of the Algonquin group? After I got out of college, in edexcel schemes history 1921, I went to do you in essays work in New York but did not live in New York. I lived at home, with my father and mother in Mount Vernon, and edexcel mark schemes history, commuted to essay art contest work. I held three jobs in mark schemes about seven monthsfirst with the United Press, then with a public relations man named Wheat, then with the American Legion News Service. I disliked them all, and in the spring of 1922 I headed west in a Model T Ford with a college mate, Howard Cushman, to seek my fortune and as a way of getting away from what I disliked.

I landed in Seattle six months later, worked there as a reporter on the Times for consulting, a year, was fired, shipped to Alaska aboard a freighter, and edexcel history coursework, then returned to New York. It was on my return that I became an advertising manFrank Seaman Co., J. H. Newmark. In the mid-twenties, I moved into maximum consulting, a two-room apartment at edexcel coursework, 112 West Thirteenth Street with three other fellows, college mates of mine at Cornell: Burke Dowling Adams, Gustave Stubbs Lobrano, and Mitchell T. Galbreath. Question! The rent was $110 a month. Split four ways it came to $27.50, which I could afford. My friends in those days were the fellows already mentioned. Also, Peter Vischer, Russell Lord, Joel Sayre, Frank Sullivan (he was older and more advanced but I met him and edexcel mark history, liked him), James Thurber, and consulting and dissertation, others. I was never a part of the Algonquin group. After becoming connected with The New Yorker, I lunched once at the Round Table but didn’t care for mark, it and was embarrassed in the presence of the great. Os Homework Help! I never was well acquainted with Benchley or Broun or Dorothy Parker or Woollcott. Mark Schemes! I did not know Don Marquis or Ring Lardner, both of whom I greatly admired.

I was a younger man. Subscribe and save nearly 40%. Already a subscriber? Sign in below. Last / Next Article. These Anemones, Their Song Is Made Up As They Float Along.

Staff Picks: Fat Ladies, Flowers, and Faraway Lands. Staff Picks: Pranks, Prints, and Penises. We reached the car, and I held the door open for him, but he didn't climb in right away. He stood there rocking on his crutch, gazing off at the sky and the fields and of business, the fall trees starting to go the color of sherbet#133; Back when my son Harry was little, I’d take him out early in the morning, usually with Miss Otis in tow, and walk over to edexcel coursework Les Deux Gamins. One of those mornings, I got there around eight. Help! They were still setting up inside, but the morning was mil Eudora Welty, The Art of Fiction No. 47. I met Eudora Welty in her room at the Algonquin Hotel an hour or so after her train had arrived in Penn Station. She had given me the edexcel mark coursework wrong room number, so I first saw her peering out of her door as the elevator opened.

A tall, large-boned, gray-haired woman greeted me apologetically. Horse Art Contest! She was admittedly nervous about mark schemes coursework, being interviewed, particularly on a tape recorder. After describing her train rideshe won’t flyshe braced herself and asked if I wouldn’t begin the of business questioning. Once the interview got underway, she grew more at ease. As she herself might say, she was “not unforthcoming.” She speaks deliberately with a deep Southern drawl, measuring her words. She is edexcel schemes coursework, extremely private and won’t reveal anything personal about herself. You wrote somewhere that we should still tolerate Jane Austen’s kind of help, family novel. Is Austen a kindred spirit? Tolerate ? I should just think so!

I love and admire all she does, and profoundly, but I don’t read her or anyone else for “kindredness.” The piece you’re referring to was written on assignment for Brief Lives , an anthology Louis Kronenberger was editing. He did offer me either Jane Austen or Chekhov, and Chekhov I do dare to think is coursework, more “kindred.” I feel closer to him in spirit, but I couldn’t read Russian, which I felt whoever wrote about him should be able to do. Essay Mesopotamia! Chekhov is one of usso close to today’s world, to my mind, and very close to edexcel mark coursework the Southwhich Stark Young pointed out a long time ago. Why is Chekhov close to gudule resume today’s South? He loved the schemes singularity in people, the individuality. He took for granted the do you underline book in essays sense of family.

He had the sense of fate overtaking a way of life, and his Russian humor seems to schemes history coursework me kin to the humor of a Southerner. It’s the kind that lies mostly in character. You know, in Uncle Vanya and The Cherry Orchard , how people are always gathered together and talking and do you underline in essays, talking, no one’s really listening. Yet there’s a great love and understanding that prevails through it, and edexcel schemes coursework, a knowledge and acceptance of each other’s idiosyncrasies, a tolerance of them, and also an acute enjoyment of the maximum consulting dramatic. Like in The Three Sisters , when the fire is going on, how they talk right on through their exhaustion, and Vershinin says, “I feel a strange excitement in the air,” and laughs and sings and talks about the future. That kind of responsiveness to the world, to whatever happens, out of their own deeps of edexcel mark schemes history coursework, character seems very southern to gudule resume me. Anyway, I took a temperamental delight in mark schemes history Chekhov, and gradually the connection was borne in essay mesopotamia upon me. Do you ever return to Virginia Woolf?

Yes. She was the one who opened the door. When I read To the edexcel history coursework Lighthouse , I felt, Heavens, what is this? I was so excited by the experience I couldn’t sleep or eat. I’ve read it many times since, though more often these days I go back to gudule resume her diary. Any day you open it to will be tragic, and yet all the marvelous things she says about her work, about edexcel mark coursework, working, leave you filled with joy that’s stronger than your misery for her.

Remember“I’m not very far along, but I think I have my statues against the sky”?* Isn’t that beautiful? About your own work, are you surprised that Losing Battles was on the best-seller lista first for you, I believe? It occurred to me right at first it must be a flukethat whoever had that place on essay, the best-seller list had just got up and edexcel history, given me his seatlet the lady sit down, she’s tottering. Yet any reception would have surprised meor you could just as well say nothing would have surprised me, because I wasn’t thinking of how it would be received when I wrote it. Gudule Resume! I thought about the opinion of a handful of friends I would love to have love that book, but not about the edexcel mark public. Do you write for your friends? At the time of writing, I don’t write for my friends or myself, either; I write for it , for the pleasure of it . I believe if I stopped to wonder what So-and-so would think, or what I’d feel like if this were read by gudule resume a stranger, I would be paralyzed. I care what my friends think, very deeplyand it’s only after they’ve read the finished thing that I really can rest, deep down. But in the writing, I have to just keep going straight through with only the thing in mind and what it dictates. It’s so much an inward thing that reading the proofs later can be a real shock. When I received them for my first bookno, I guess it was for Delta Wedding I thought, I didn’t write this.

It was a page of edexcel mark schemes history coursework, dialogueI might as well have never seen it before. I wrote to my editor, John Woodburn, and told him something had happened to that page in the typesetting. He was kind, not even surprisedmaybe this happens to all writers. He called me up and read me from the manuscriptword for word what the proofs said. Proofs don’t shock me any longer, yet there’s still a strange moment with every book when I move from the position of writer to the position of reader, and I suddenly see my words with the eyes of the cold public. It gives me a terrible sense of exposure, as if I’d gotten sunburned. Do you make changes in galleys? I correct or change words, but I can’t rewrite a scene or make a major change because there’s a sense then of someone looking over my shoulder. It’s necessary, anyway, to question trust that moment when you were sure at last you had done all you could, done your best for that time. When it’s finally in edexcel mark coursework print, you’re deliveredyou don’t ever have to essay question mesopotamia look at it again.

It’s too late to worry about its failings. I’ll have to apply any lessons this book has taught me toward writing the next one. Is Losing Battles a departure from your previous fiction? I wanted to see if I could do something that was new for me: translating every thought and feeling into action and speech, speech being another form of actionto bring the whole life of it off through the completed gesture, so to speak. I felt that I’d been writing too much by way of description, of introspection on the part of schemes, my characters. I tried to help see if I could make everything shown, brought forth, without benefit of the mark schemes author’s telling any more about gudule resume, what was going on inside the characters’ minds and hearts. For me, this makes almost certainly for comedywhich I love to schemes history write best of all. Os Homework Help! Now I see it might be a transition toward writing a play.

Did you know what you were going to write before you put it on paper? Yes, it was there in my head, but events proliferated as I went along. Edexcel History! For instance, I thought all the action in essay of business the novel would be contained in one day and night, but a folder started to fill up with things marked “Next A.M.” I didn’t foresee the mark stories that grew out of the storiesthat was one of the consulting and dissertation joys of edexcel schemes history coursework, working the novel out. I thought the essay book would be short, and instead it was three or four times longer than my normal work. There’s no way of edexcel coursework, estimating its original length because I had great chunks of things in paper clips, which weren’t numbered until they went to the printer. Horse Art Contest! And I must have thrown away at mark schemes history, least as much as I kept in the book. Did you learn anything new about writing dialogue? I believe so. In its beginning, dialogue’s the easiest thing in the world to write when you have a good ear, which I think I have.

But as it goes on, it’s the most difficult, because it has so many ways to function. Horse Essay Art Contest! Sometimes I needed to make a speech do three or four or five things at oncereveal what the schemes history coursework character said but also what he thought he said, what he hid, what others were going to think he meant, and essay of business manager, what they misunderstood, and so forthall in his single speech. And the speech would have to keep the edexcel schemes essence of this one character, his whole particular outlook in concentrated form. This isn’t to essay say I succeeded. But I guess it explains why dialogue gives me my greatest pleasure in writing. I used to laugh out loud sometimes when I wrote itthe way P. G. Wodehouse is said to edexcel mark coursework do. I’d think of some things my characters would say, and even if I couldn’t use it, I would write the scene out just to let them loose on somethingmy private show. Sign up for the Paris Review newsletter and consulting, keep up with news, parties, readings, and more. Join the writers and edexcel mark schemes coursework, staff of The Paris Review at os homework help, our next event.

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paralegal coursework Take advantage of. our free job bank. The Listserv is a free, e-mail discussion group. It provides legal professionals with the chance to network and schemes history coursework ask profession-related questions. This long-running column examines ethics in the paralegal profession. Do you have an ethical dilemma or question? E-mail us today. Writing Paralegal Resumes.

Tips for experienced and new paralegals. By Linda T. Essay Mesopotamia? Chin. Many paralegal students who have just graduated from college or who have completed a paralegal studies program most likely are searching for history coursework their first paralegal jobs. Experienced paralegals also might be looking to change jobs. This article will assist both new and essay of business manager experienced paralegals in edexcel mark schemes history, drafting resumes and cover letters that will be concise but comprehensive, appealing but not overwhelming to prospective employers. Sample paralegal resumes and cover letters also are included. Resumes for New Paralegals. Let’s begin with some general pointers. Your name, home address, phone number and gudule resume e-mail address should be on top of the resume. Use more common computer fonts, such as 12-point Times New Roman.

Your name can be bold and a larger font than the edexcel mark schemes coursework rest of the content in the resume. Try to keep the do you titles resume to one page, if possible. Prospective employers receive numerous resumes so they might not read resumes beyond the first page. Edexcel? Many resumes usually contain four to five sections. Some resumes might include sections such as Honors and Awards or Achievements.

For the purpose of this article, I have concentrated on these sections: Career Objective, Education, Experience, Skills and Other Relevant Experience, if applicable. Career objective. This is important for several reasons. It’s the first paragraph after you provide your personal information and it immediately lets the prospective employers know what your career goal is, and encourages them to continue reading the essay manager resume. Coursework? You should express your career objective by writing a 1-sentence description of the job you are seeking. If you are unsure of the area of legal practice in which you want to os homework help, specialize, focus your objective to a general practice of law. Schemes History? Some examples of career objectives are: “To secure an entry-level position as a paralegal in a real estate law firm,” or “To secure a position in a law firm that can use a legal professional with outstanding research and writing skills.” Education. This section is an do you book titles in essays important part of the edexcel mark schemes coursework resume for those new paralegals who have just completed their education.

If you are a new paralegal with limited or no work experience, this is the os homework help section on which you should focus. Edexcel Coursework? Indicate your degree or the paralegal certificate you completed, your major, the college from manager, which you graduated, and the date of your graduation. List the edexcel mark history courses that are relevant to the jobs for which you are applying. In general, law firms seek prospective employees who have skills in areas of legal research and writing, litigation and law office management. You also should expand on your leadership and do you underline book titles academic activities in this section.

List your membership in all student and academic organizations. Emphasize your leadership positions and highlight your respective duties and achievements while serving in those leadership roles. Edexcel Mark Schemes? If you were a member of the os homework organization but didn’t hold a leadership position, specify your contributions to the organizations. For example, you might have arranged for a speaker, publicized an event or coordinated a social event for schemes history coursework the organization. Os Homework? Did you write for a college newspaper, or contribute or edit an article for a newsletter or the college yearbook? If so, these activities should be included in your resume since they show initiative and leadership qualities — characteristics that all employers seek in a prospective employee. Finally, if you have received academic achievements such as being on the dean’s list or graduating with various honors, emphasize these awards and honors in your resume. Experience. Edexcel Mark Schemes History Coursework? This section is the meat of a resume. While your work history as a new paralegal is minimal, there are other areas besides employment that can be classified as experience.

Serving in an internship program is an and dissertation excellent way to highlight your duties and responsibilities as well as the skills you obtained. Schemes? Under this section, list the duties you performed, as well as the skills that were enhanced during this internship. Maximum Consulting And Dissertation? If you have participated in edexcel, more than one internship, list the essay of business most recent internship first with the relevant dates. Another type of experience is the Academic Service Learning component that many colleges have incorporated into their academic curriculum. St. John’s University in New York, for edexcel schemes history example, defines Academic Service Learning as a teaching method in gudule resume, which students learn and develop through organized service that reinforces course content. This organized service takes place in mark history coursework, nonprofit organizations such as bar associations, senior citizen centers, Legal Aid offices or other organizations that provide legal services at gudule resume reduced fees or at mark coursework no cost to the clients.

If you have participated in an Academic Service Learning program, you should indicate the organization in which you served, and consulting your duties while serving in that capacity. For example, if you helped draft health planning documents in an Elder Law Clinic as part of the Elder Law course you took, you should incorporate these duties in the Experience section of your resume. Skills. This section of the edexcel coursework resume focuses on special skills you have that you might not have highlighted in other sections of the resume. Are you familiar with Microsoft Word?

Do you have skills in other software applications such as Microsoft PowerPoint or Excel? Are you an expert in using Westlaw and/or Lexis as a research tool? Are you proficient in a foreign language? If you have any of these skills, include them in the skills section of the resume. However, be honest in assessing your proficiency. For example, don’t indicate fluency in horse art contest, Spanish if you can only read it, but not speak it. Other relevant experience. The last section of the resume is for other relevant experience that you might have but was not addressed in the other sections of the resume. For example, if you demonstrated leadership skills while serving in a civic or community project or activity, then certainly include this experience. The Cover Letter From New Paralegals. The cover letter should have the following information: your name, address, and the date, name and title of the person to edexcel history coursework, whom you are writing, the company or organization and do you underline in essays the relevant salutation.

Try to get the exact name of the person to mark history coursework, whom you are writing since this will be more personal. The first paragraph of the question cover letter should explain why you are writing and indicate how you found out about the available position. For example, “I am writing to apply for the position of paralegal as advertised in mark schemes coursework, the June 20 New York Times,” or “We met last month at the paralegal conference and I am following up on maximum consulting and dissertation, my interest to obtain a paralegal position in edexcel schemes, your law firm.” The next few paragraphs are where you want to do you underline book in essays, highlight and discuss your qualifications, achievements and history coursework experience. Underline Book Titles In Essays? Summarize your experience rather than repeat what already is in the resume.

Discuss why your qualifications and experience are a good fit with the company and what you can contribute to that company. The final paragraph closes the edexcel schemes letter by thanking the employers for their consideration of your application and notifying them where they can contact you for gudule resume an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request. Resumes for edexcel mark coursework Experienced Paralegals. Many of my recommendations for in essays resumes for experienced paralegals are similar to resumes for schemes coursework new paralegals.

Your name, home address, phone number and e-mail address should be on the top of the resume and it should be limited to one page, if possible. Resumes for experienced paralegals should contain the following or similar sections: Career Objective, Professional Experience, Skills, Other Relevant Experience and essay art contest Education. Career objective. This is important for experienced paralegals. It signals to the prospective employer whether the applicant is seeking a career change, a position with greater responsibility or a lateral move to a different company. Schemes History? For example: “To secure a senior level paralegal position with supervisory responsibilities” indicates to the employers that the applicant has prior paralegal experience and is seeking further professional growth. Education. The experienced paralegal should indicate the relevant information under the Education section.

You should provide your degree or the maximum certificate completed as well as your major, the college from where you graduated and edexcel schemes history the date of your graduation. List any awards and honors you received upon graduation. Since prospective employers will focus more on the work history of experienced paralegals, the maximum and dissertation education information can be included either at the beginning or at the end of the resume. Experience. For the experienced paralegal, this section of the resume is the most important information provided by the applicant in schemes history coursework, engaging the interest of the prospective employers. The most common form of presentation is to list jobs in reverse chronological order; therefore, you should list your most recent job first. Essay Art Contest? Indicate the company’s or law firm’s name, list your job titles and dates of employment. Use active verbs to describe your duties and responsibilities, and be consistent in the use of the verb tense.

For examples: “Developed systems for billing clients,” “Conducted extensive research for class action lawsuit” and “Maintained and updated court dates.” Skills. This section is where you can highlight your technological skills. At a minimum, employers expect their experienced paralegals to be proficient in mark history, word processing, and to be able to gudule resume, navigate e-mails and prepare spreadsheets using Excel. Do you have computer-assisted research skills using Westlaw or Lexis? Are you proficient in other software applications such as CaseMap, LiveNote or Abacus Law?

If so, don’t hesitate to list them. Prospective employers always are seeking applicants who are technologically savvy to help make their law offices become more efficient. Other relevant experience. If you have had relevant experience other than work experience, you can describe it under this section. Were you an edexcel schemes coursework active member of gudule resume, a national or state paralegal organization? Did you volunteer to participate in edexcel schemes history coursework, your firm’s pro bono program in providing legal service to those who could not afford to hire a legal professional? Perhaps you volunteered in events related to law that were sponsored by maximum consulting your community or civic groups. These all are activities to stress in your resume. They demonstrate initiative, leadership and commitment to the legal profession. The Cover Letter from Experienced Paralegals.

The cover letter is your initial introduction to the prospective employer. The purpose of the history coursework cover letter is to encourage the employer to os homework help, read your resume and mark invite you for an interview. Therefore, like the resume, it has to be error-proof, neat and do you underline titles in essays well-written. The first paragraph of the edexcel coursework cover letter should explain why you are writing and what position you seek. For example: “I am writing to apply for the position of maximum consulting, Senior Paralegal that was advertised on your Web site.” Also explain why you are interested in the position, such as seeking greater and/or more diverse responsibilities. In the next few paragraphs, summarize your qualifications, experience and achievements. Mark Schemes History? For example: “As the question mesopotamia enclosed resume indicates, I have had over 10 years of paralegal experience in employment law” or “My 10 years of experience include working with cases involving bankruptcy law.” Follow up as to schemes, why this experience will benefit the law firm. You also can highlight specific skills, such as the ability to use computer-assisted research or software applications that help with the gudule resume management of a law office. The final paragraph closes the letter by thanking the mark history coursework employers for their consideration of your application and notifying the employers where they can contact you for an interview. Also indicate that your resume is enclosed and that references are available upon request.

SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to and dissertation, apply for the position of Paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in edexcel mark schemes history coursework, the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. Essay? I have just completed the ABA Approved-paralegal program at Gainsville State University . My coursework and my internship experience have given me the skills to qualify for this position. As you can see from edexcel mark schemes history coursework, my resume, in horse art contest, addition to coursework in the areas of edexcel mark schemes history, civil litigation and trial practice, I have enhanced my skills in the practice of mesopotamia, litigation through my internship experiences. I have had practical experience in legal research, writing complaints and legal memoranda, and edexcel schemes history coursework filing pleadings. I am highly proficient and comfortable in essay question, the use of technology.

I am proficient in using Westlaw to perform research. I am also skilled in using Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel and Outlook. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications for this position. Enclosed in my resume and schemes history coursework I will be happy to provide you with references upon request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR NEW PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. To secure a position as a paralegal in do you titles, a law firm that specializes in litigation. June 2008: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , New Jersey. Paralegal Certificate Program, ABA Approved.

Coursework: Introduction to Law, Civil Litigation, Legal Research and Writing, Tort Law, Family Law, Elder Law, Real Estate Law, Trial Practice. Leadership and Academic Acitivities: President of Legal Society (2007-2008) – Organized activities for. students in the Paralegal Program; arranged for speakers on legal issues; coordinated visits to courts. Feb. Edexcel Mark Schemes? 2008-May 2008: Paralegal Intern, Smith Smith, Smithtown , New Jersey. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Helped with filing pleadings.

Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda. Prepared demand letters. Sept. 2007-Jan. 2008: Academic Service Learning in conjunction with Elder Law course, Senior Legal Clinic, Newtown , New Jersey. Assisted in drafting advance health planning documents. Interviewed clients for case intake.

Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted in drafting health proxies and essay manager living wills. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw. Coordinated Annual Fund-Raising Event for the Homeless since 2000. SAMPLE COVER LETTER FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS.

345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. Tobin and Dempf, LLP. I am writing to apply for the position of supervising paralegal in your litigation department as advertised in the New Jersey Times , dated June 25, 2008. Schemes? After more than 10 years of experience as a litigation paralegal, I am seeking a new position that can provide me with additional responsibilities and an opportunity to os homework help, use my supervisory skills. As you can see from my resume, I have had extensive experience as a litigation paralegal and mark my responsibilities have increased over the years. Recently, I was given the additional responsibility of os homework, supervising and training secretarial staff and schemes student interns.

In that capacity, I have developed my mentoring and os homework supervisory skills. I am highly proficient and comfortable in the use of technology. I am proficient in using Westlaw and Lexis to perform research. I have assisted the attorneys in history, my firm in making presentations using Microsoft PowerPoint and have created spreadsheets using Microsoft Excel. Essay Of Business Manager? I have become skilled in the use of software applications to assist with the management of complex litigation cases. As a result, I can offer your firm a high level of expertise in edexcel history coursework, using Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. I believe I can contribute much to your firm. Thank you for taking time from gudule resume, your schedule to mark coursework, consider me for this position. I look forward to speaking with you further regarding my qualifications.

Enclosed is my resume and I will be happy to provide you with references upon os homework request. SAMPLE RESUME FOR EXPERIENCED PARALEGALS. 345 Highway Street. Lakeview, NJ 10671. To secure a position as a senior-level paralegal with supervisory responsibilities. July 2000-Present: Paralegal, Kleinsmith Associates, Newark , N.J. Provide legal and administrative support for civil litigation firm. Supervise and train secretarial staff and student interns. Implement an online billing system for edexcel schemes clients. Draft legal memoranda and essay mesopotamia client correspondence.

Conduct research employing online resources such as Westlaw and Lexis. Assist with document production and trial preparation. July 1998-June 2000: Paralegal, Smith Smith, Smithtown , N.J. Assisted with scheduling meetings with clients. Assisted with filing pleadings. Performed legal research using Westlaw and in the library. Wrote legal memoranda.

Prepared billings for clients. Feb. 1998-June 1998: Paralegal Intern, Legal Aid of mark coursework, New Jersey , Newtown , N.J. Interviewed clients for case intake. Assisted with drafting complaints. Assisted with document production. Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, Excel, Outlook, Westlaw, Lexis, Concordance, Summation and CaseMap. Member of the American Alliance of Paralegals and the Legal Assistants Association of New Jersey; organized workshops on technology for paralegals. Participated in consulting, the pro edexcel mark schemes history coursework bono program initiated by Kleinsmith Associates. June 1998: Gainsville State University , Smithtown , N.J.

Bachelor of horse essay, Arts, Legal Studies, ABA-Approved Paralegal Program. Linda T. Chin is an assistant professor at St. History? John’s University in New York City. Mesopotamia? She teaches in the American Bar Association-approved legal studies program, which prepares students to work as paralegals in the legal profession. Professor Chin’s field of expertise is edexcel mark employment and elder law.

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Essay: Jazz, Gender and edexcel history coursework, American Film. by Kristin McGee (2012) During the first decades of the twentieth century, new forms of mass media directly impacted the cultural and racial landscape of horse America’s rapidly expanding cities. The emergence of a generalized mass culture depended upon the introduction of a number of technological developments supporting a nationally organized and edexcel history, interrelated network of media and entertainment including radio, film, recordings and various forms of help theater, most notably vaudeville and musical theater. Patronizing cultural events provided a potent forum within which American’s encountered each other in public spaces. Yet because metropolitan neighborhoods remained largely segregated, even after the great northern and western migrations, the panoply of races and ethnicities populating American cities were often separated within public entertainment venues. It was within the decadent but affordable vaudeville theaters and picture palaces of the 1910s and 1920s that Americans of a variety of ethnic backgrounds, male and female, first socialized and interacted in ways previously prohibited. While the edexcel mark history coursework convenience and uniformity of underline titles in essays these media ensured Americans a nationalized popular culture industry intimately invested in the distribution of mass commodities, it was the heavily racialized subject material of radio, recordings and coursework, films that most appealed to do you titles an expanding middle class. Ideas of race, blackness and popular music had been at mark history the center of do you titles in essays popular culture since the 1850s and especially as articulated and performed by edexcel schemes history, the nationally organized minstrelsy groups traveling throughout the territories and to the metropolitan centers of the United States.

Blackface performances sometimes adopted the musical and comedic styles of minstrelsy and were later incorporated into vaudeville and radio programs like the highly popular radio show Amos and Andy . Indeed articulations of underline book titles race, gender and sexuality, and mark, especially when reconfigured from black expressive cultural forms, became one of the os homework help most prevalent subjects for coursework musical films upon gudule resume the introduction of sound to film in the mid-1920s. Ironically, this fascination with blackness positioned within American mass cultural texts, simultaneously betrayed the exclusion of African Americans from prominent positions within the music and edexcel mark schemes, film industry. Moreover, sensationalized cultural stereotypes favored by essay question mesopotamia, the industry further disavowed their continued inequitable and unjust treatment in American society. However, black actors, directors, producers and schemes history, especially black musicians and dancers frequently contributed to sound films during the 1920s and 1930s despite the difficulties in obtaining these roles. Yet the more profitable roles performed by “star” white artists such as Ann Pennington frequently appropriated and borrowed black musical styles in their performances in essay of business, vaudeville and film. 1920s examples include “coon” shouter and theatrical singer Sophie Tucker who honed her trade by schemes coursework, imitating blues singers Bessie Smith and Ma Rainey, or blackface vaudevillian Al Jolson who frequently proclaimed his investment in horse essay art contest, black styles of singing and dancing. Indeed, the popularity of these media was heavily dependent upon the contributions of black, white and edexcel mark schemes history, mixed-raced, -ethnic entrepreneurs, albeit in ways that perpetuated racial stereotypes and continued to exploit black creativity, resources and participation. The ability to simultaneously project images and sounds forever changed the gudule resume narrative structures of film drama, as well as the narrative relationship of music to film, which until the late 1920s was provided by live musicians in theater pit orchestras.

During the transition from silent film to sound film, many theater musicians feared that “canned” sound would ultimately replace live musicians. In 1928, one Variety story estimated that of 175,000 union musicians, over 75,000 drew salaries from the schemes coursework theaters alone. The same article speculated that in 150 U.S. Maximum Consulting? towns with theaters recently wired for sound, over 50,000 musicians would be unemployed within the next two years. Ultimately, many lesser-known union bands did lose full-time theater engagements during the 1920s and 1930s. As professional classical musicians performed less frequently in film houses, popular musicians and jazz instrumentalists became more active, providing opening sets and variety style “stage acts” in combination with the new feature-length sound films. As talkies were first introduced in the late 1920s and early 1930s, film companies began rewiring movie house and leasing vaudeville theaters for showing privileges of feature-length films (Snyder 1989). The decline of vaudeville, not surprisingly, roughly corresponded with the history coursework addition of sound to films in the late 1920s. In an effort to compete with the new sound films, most big time vaudeville houses reintroduced the film/vaudeville combinations, which predated the picture palace phenomena be several decades.

During the 1930s, however, only the larger movie palaces in cities like New York and manager, Los Angeles managed to continue financing the elaborate live entertainment presentations that began in the 1910s and peaked during the 1920s. During the Jazz Age (1920s), in edexcel mark schemes, an attempt to profit from the growing public taste for big band music, many Hollywood productions recruited the most popular jazz bands to record soundtracks for their “talking,” “singing,” and “dancing” films (Stowe 1998: 94-140). Horse? As the plushest theaters and cinema palaces were rewired with “talkie” sound equipment, they continued to accommodate live music performances of edexcel mark schemes history popular music. Thus these new “talking” films not only afforded more complex narrative and dialogue structures but also featured soundtracks of popular bands and cameo appearances by celebrated jazz personalities. One way to promote popular jazz bands entailed recording arrangements for a film’s soundtrack and then contracting these same bands to provide opening and intermittent music sets to these films. Initially sound film was exploited more for mesopotamia its potential in the short subject market than in edexcel coursework, the feature film industry, in part because these films presented fewer risks financially and were better suited to all types of abbreviated theatrical genres from music to comedy and gudule resume, dance. Thus, the initial creators of these short subject films explored a wide variety of material for edexcel mark schemes their experimental works. Jazz, encompassing both popular song as well as cosmopolitan instrumental music, was ideally suited for essay sound film and could be cheaply produced by simply recording a song and then later filming the band pretending to schemes history coursework play its own performance. Because popular music could be simultaneously marketed via recordings, radio and film, it was a natural progression that jazz and other forms of popular music became one of the first subject matters for these early sound films.

Filmed performances of popular music and jazz in do you in essays, early sound film implied the growing prominence of a middle class consciousness dependent upon the shared experiences afforded by mass culture. Filmed representations of jazz culture further positioned both normative and mark schemes, radical presentations of gender and sexuality as independent women entered the public sphere with growing prominence from the 1920s on. Early sound film directors cultivated the visual aesthetics of film and particularly exploited female performers as well as presentations proffering the spectacle of race and sexuality. Four highly symbolic films: Al Jolson’s A Jazz Singer (1927), Bessie Smith’s St. Louis Blues (1929), Paul Whiteman’s King of Jazz (1930) and horse art contest, the Betty Boop cartoon series (1932-1939) uniquely mediated the modernist and utopian fantasies of assimilation and mass consumption while also formulating contemporary notions of femininity, masculinity and sexuality, each variously predicated upon the experiences of urban immigration and industrialization, the transformation of gender roles, and increased racial and cultural contact. Both Duke Ellington’s Black and Tan (1935) featuring a range of African American musical and edexcel schemes, dance stars including Freddie Washington and comedy duo Edgar Connor and Alex Lovejoy, and the Paramount Betty Boop episode “I’ll Be Glad When You’re Dead You Rascal You” (1932) with Louis Armstrong and his orchestra, similarly perpetuated stratified gendered subjectivities, as well as essentialist images of African Americans while also highlighting the sheer verve, creativity and ingenuity of African American jazz age musicians, dancers and os homework help, singers. During the 1910s and edexcel schemes coursework, 1920s, prominent producers of girl acts constructed blackface numbers for their dancing women to link the increasingly mass produced and modern sexual spectacles of variety revues to the largely white, working-class and ‘autonomous’ male-culture of horse essay nineteenth century minstrelsy (Kibler). Further, the casting of similarly typed and largely nameless girls reinforced the patriarchy of modern vaudeville’s producers over their docile and feminized subjects (Latham), much in the same way that blackface caricatures objectified black artists as primitive, emotive and edexcel mark, inherently rhythmic beings. As chorus dancers and theatrical stars, African American performing women similarly responded to emerging and vital trends drawing from the synergy of music and dance. As black musical theater became an international sensation, black performing stars like Josephine Baker and Valaida Snow, negotiated both modernist fantasies which mapped colonial desires for hyper-sexualized female subjects onto black women’s bodies, yet these same women ingeniously constructed complex on and off-stage personas to profit from an expanding attraction for black expressive culture (Brown).

The reception of os homework these early chorus girl acts, black, white and mixed, critically informed the ways that all-girl bands later exploited racialized musical and physical signifiers to gain popularity and recognition on the nationally organized vaudeville circuits. From the late 1920s on, women increasingly contributed to the expanding mass culture industry in a variety of media including film, theater and edexcel mark, eventually radio and gudule resume, television. During the Jazz Age, the edexcel mark history appearance of all-girl bands in vaudeville and soundfilms significantly contributed to the popularity of book in essays new media such as film, which gained currency in part because of the widely successful and coursework, highly sexualized spectacles of ‘girl acts’ featured in vaudeville and variety revues. During the 1920s and 1930s, all-girl bands, more often than not, were promoted as the question mesopotamia featured attraction of a picture house’s stage show. These vaudeville-style stage shows typically provided one to two hours of live entertainment before the showing of feature-length films. Although rarely mentioned in contemporary culture, jazz or film histories, there were dozens (if not hundreds) of extremely popular all-girl jazz bands, female singers, dancers and soloists active during the 1920s and 1930s including Ina Ray Hutton and Her Melodears, Hazel Scott, The Harlem Playgirls, The Dixie Sweethearts, Peggy Gilbert’s All-Girl Band and edexcel mark history coursework, many more. Os Homework? Those all-girl bands satisfying the racist dictates of the entertainment market were embraced by big time promoters including Irving Mills, Florence Ziegfeld and William Morris to headline stage shows and variety revues.

When given the edexcel chance, prodigious performing women, as instrumentalists, dancers and all-around entertainers enthusiastically contributed to some of these first experimental short subject sound films. For example, during the 1920s and gudule resume, 30s, all-girl bands Ina Ray Hutton and her Melodears and edexcel history coursework, the Ingenues appeared in Vitaphone, Pictoreels and Fox Movietone music shorts. The Jazz Age cultivated the careers of multi-versatile African American theatrical women, many who made names for themselves as blues, jazz and os homework help, ragtime singers or dancers. Celebrated performers including Josephine Baker, Bessie Smith, Valaida Snow, Ethel Waters and schemes, Billie Holiday, however, suffered promotional representations, which exaggerated an overtly sexualized “otherness” and tacitly implicated one’s social position as constitutive of the emotive and creative performative voice. The image of the hyper-sexualized, African American theatrical woman (as blues singers, jezebels, the tragic mulatto, jungle dancers, etc.) had so saturated public discourse, that by the 1940s, African American women responded in a number of ways including supporting increased censorship of racial stereotypes in Hollywood films, to os homework help policing African American performing women’s bodies in public leisure spaces (Carby), to participating in civic projects promoting race pride and “racial uplift.”

While there were dozens of prominent touring African American “girl” bands including the Harlem Playgirls and the Dixie Sweethearts, the International Sweethearts of Rhythm was the only predominantly black all-girl band to record short subject films during the 1940s. During the war independent black cast films and soundies including Harlem Jam Session (1946) were introduced to mark coursework entertain and boost the gudule resume morale of black war workers and edexcel history, military personnel. These black entrepreneurial films provided important opportunities for and dissertation African American’s to denounce stereotypical roles promoted in Hollywood films. Through their film appearances and live performances, the Sweethearts clearly mitigated prior gendered and racialized characterizations by edexcel schemes history coursework, adopting a number of performative strategies, including formulating a repertoire built upon swing and blues in order to counter dominant white all-girl band aesthetics, which promoted feminized genres such as “sweet” and consulting, light classical. Public and popular support of mass-produced female sexual spectacles were later supported and edexcel mark coursework, reinforced during the 1940s by the massive success and appeal of wartime pin-ups and sexy female bandleaders like the former burlesque and strip-tease artist Ada Leonard (Tucker). Popular representations of gudule resume bandleaders and jazz singers as morally suspect and sexualized beings in edexcel mark schemes history coursework, feature-length Hollywood films such as Orchestra Wives (1942) and essay, Ever Since Venus (1944) inspired and nourished such newly organized public, modern, and popular cultural performances.

The war effort also motivated contemporary myths regarding feminine musicianship by mark schemes history, presenting female bands as wartime substitutes or collegiate groups (rather than professional touring musicians). When Johnny Comes Marching Home (1942) featuring Phil Spitalny’s All-Girl Orchestra is representative. In the context of os homework mass-mediated filmic representations, producers of popular culture demanded heavily streamlined representations of female sexuality in the service of mark schemes history public affirmations of male desire. Essay Art Contest? These mass mediated gendered images did much to destabilize canonized jazz acts, such as the jam session, a site once dedicated almost exclusively to a masculinized conception of musical artistry, practice and edexcel mark schemes coursework, sociality. Jazz’s post-war fall-out signified the general hardships incurred by jazz musicians who maintained successful performance and mesopotamia, recording careers during the history coursework 1930s and 1940s, but struggled during the more conservative McCarthy Era.

New domestic pastimes such as television watching, perpetuated old-fashioned strategies for promoting gendered musicalities. Television’s multi-generational presentational format and single sponsorship advertisements ultimately facilitated the continued assimilation and increased homogeneity of American popular culture. In particular, the highly popular ‘vaudeo’ format from the essay mesopotamia post-war years through the late 1950s provided a forum for reinventing theatrical and film material from vaudeville and variety (MacDonald). The newly televised variety revue genre reinforced the star system, albeit with preferences for edexcel schemes mature Hollywood performers, whose televised images demanded informalized, domestic personas (Mann). Os Homework Help? These musical programs provided some of the only opportunities for female jazz women after the mark coursework war. Gudule Resume? Indeed it was often those women including Hazel Scott, Lena Horne, Peggy Lee and Ina Ray Hutton, who had successfully navigated the changing landscape of mass culture and of jazz and edexcel schemes coursework, popular music before and during the war, who were frequently selected as guests or hosts of variety television programs during the late 1940s and 1950s. The resurgence of vaudeville and help, variety formats and mark history, their penchant for mixing musical, generational and gendered genres provided one strategy for television’s mass and do you book in essays, largely middle class audiences.

These jazz women’s prior experience with other mass mediated forms including short subjects and feature-length films endowed them with a variety of techniques for successfully navigating television’s expanding mass audiences. The brief resurgence of all-girl bands and female jazz hosts during the mark history coursework 1950s suggested similar processes at consulting work as those during the edexcel history early 1940s, where women performed as all-girl spectacles in a variety review contexts favoring feminine glamour, swing, and “wholesome” vaudeville style acts. The short lived re-entry of all-girl bands into do you underline book titles in essays, the public sphere through the heavily-mediated and visually-attuned medium of television spoke to women’s continued peripheralization as visual objects and feminine spectacles over creative musical subjects. Edexcel Schemes History Coursework? Yet their continued success also suggested the skill, ingenuity, and rugged expertise of these performers. In all of their mediated forms, jazz women of the 1920s through the 1950s both resisted masculinist and sexist ideologies yet also reinforced heavily gendered stratifications in the most dominate media.

They resisted masculinist and sexist ideologies by horse, asserting personal and musical agency; acting as creative subjects through their particular improvised performances and history coursework, increased public presence, and developing their musical professionalism during national and essay, international tours. Further, their expanded wage earning capabilities entitled them to assert their professional personas against those of their male colleagues. Yet they also and edexcel mark, necessarily promoted newly emerging and constrictive gendered ideologies from the gudule resume pejorative “triple threat” female persona to widely circulated publicity campaigns depicting the “novelty of feminine uniformity”, residual Victorian representations evoking the “cult of white womanhood” or conversely, re-enacting the supposed “primitivist” sexual dispositions of urban blues women and coursework, jazz dancers. In a sense, black musical women became cultural referees, negotiating musical, racial, and gudule resume, gender boundaries to create a musical genre both prodigious and accessible within the dominant culture as well as the African American community. These women clearly recognized the values of the media industry, and in turn understood on a deeper level, how their unique modes of performing and creating were frequently appropriated, misunderstood, misrepresented or ignored all together in favor of imagined stereotypes, which facilitated their exclusion from the more financially profitable mass mediated forums. In the edexcel mark climate of a profoundly and consistently racist and segregated American culture, women re-enacted these highly popular and carefully constructed spectacles of femininity, sexuality and os homework, musical eroticism.

Clearly, jazz women of these decades consciously and sometimes reluctantly cooperated with media producers, bandleaders and history, music managers to ensure that their performances remained financially and commercially profitable. Do You Underline In Essays? These heavily mediated gendered performances also ensured that all-girl bands successfully competed with the popular male jazz bands of the day and more importantly with the highly fetishized “all-girl” spectacles presented in film, variety revues, and vaudeville. It is no coincidence that the theme of mark coursework Some Liked it Hot adopts visual mediums as its point of departure for examining women’s jazz. Indeed, the number of visual texts and especially films and televised variety programs featuring female jazz artists remains striking in contrast to the relatively few audio recordings produced of such groups and star performers. By emphasizing mass mediums like film and help, eventually television, which provided a significant structure for reifying, refashioning, and transforming public enactments of gender, race, and sexuality staged through American popular music and particularly jazz, one gains a broader picture of how women contributed to the expansion of mass culture and to a uniquely American form of cultural identification in these four important decades. Bogle, Donald. 1980. Brown Sugar: Eighty Years of America’s Black Female Superstars. New York: Da Capo Press . Bohlman, Philip V. and schemes, Ronald Radano.

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Some Liked It Hot - Jazz Women in Film and Television, 1928-1959.