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book report 47 ronin CHÛSHINGURA IN THE 1980S. Henry D. Smith II. Prepared for the Modern Japan Seminar, Columbia University, April 13, 1990. Structural. Please do not cite or reproduce without permission. Copyright 1990 Henry D. Smith II. Research Cover Page. All rights reserved. My curiosity about Chûshingura was first piqued in structural December 1981, by a remark of and other essays Tsurumi Shunsuke at structural, a conference in London to the effect that if you study Chûshingura long enough, you will understand everything about the Japanese. My respect for Tsurumi as a pioneer scholar of modern Japanese popular culture helped convince me that perhaps I should some day learn more about what I had always felt to essay nursing as a profession be a distasteful chapter in Japanese cultural history. Thesis. For myself, whose acquaintance with Japan began only in essay on why nursing 1962 (the year of the last full-scale feature film production of Chûshingura and thesis the end of an era in the mass popularity of the legend), Chûshingura was a thing of the past, indelibly linked with feudal values and prewar militarism. Of course, I loved the original joruri version of paper page Kanadehon Chûshingura as I knew it through Donald Keene's translation, which I had used in undergraduate courses, but that seemed something apart from the larger and vaguer Chûshingura that I associated with prewar Japan. The chance to thesis rethink the story of the 47 Ronin came last year, when I had the prospect of teaching a graduate seminar at Columbia that I knew would include students in both history and literature, both modern and premodern: Chûshingura seemed a good way to bring these various interests into common focus.

This report stems from that seminar, and and other I am indebted in countless ways to the six graduate students who helped me work through some of the structural issues treated in this paper--as well as many other issues that I will not have space to mention. (1) As part of my preparations for the seminar, I stopped by Kinokuniya bookstore in Shinjuku during a trip to on why nursing as a Japan last summer, looking for recent writings about Chûshingura. I discovered not just one book or two, as I had expected, but a dozen and more volumes on Chûshingura, all of them recent. Most were non-fiction (it was, after all, the history section), but some were novels. And of course Kinokuniya did not have everything: in the 1980s alone, I would now estimate, about forty new books on Chûshingura appeared, both fiction and thesis non-fiction (see Appendix for a list of semiconductor thirty). What was going on? Why this number and variety of books on what I considered to be safely history? Some of the books of thesis structural course purported to be real history, revealing the truth of the original Akô Incident, but a number were historical fiction, while still others analyzed the meaning of Chûshingura in Japanese culture as a whole. Somehow I had not expected much vitality from Chûshingura in the 1980s. As it turns out, the legend seems to remain as durable and versatile as ever, and it remains quite simply the most widely known and frequently re-presented story in Japan. It seems a good time to try to and other place the entire phenomenon of structural Chûshingura in broader historical perspective. A good place to start is with the question posed by the title of the single most provocative book of the 1980's, Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? (Chûshingura to wa nanika, 1984).

I have more simple-minded intentions than Maruya (to whose ideas I shall return at the end of this report) in research posing this preliminary question. It is thesis structural, simply a problem of definition: to what do we refer today when we use the term Chûshingura? Stop and ask yourself the same question, or better yet, ask it of any Japanese who (like most) has never considered the matter. The inevitable hesitation will bring home the dimensions of the problem: what in fact do we mean by essay on why i chose nursing profession Chûshingura? The actual word, of course, comes from the joruri Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748, and purists continue to thesis use it in this restricted way. (2) In actual usage, however, the term has been constantly expanding over the years. In the late Edo period, it came to be used in the titles of variant kabuki versions of the story, and increasingly so in Meiji.

In late Meiji, as we shall see, there occurred a radical conflation of the previous genealogy of the Akô Incident, by which not only the different lineages of stage and story-telling, but also the historical incident itself , were all gathered within Chûshingura as an umbrella term. Ultimately, the only sensible definition of Chûshingura is as an cover page all-encompassing term for thesis, the entire body of cultural production that ultimately stems from the Akô Incident of 1701-03. All parts of this body have in common an intention either to tell the story, or to attempt to explain its telling--which becomes simply one more form of re-telling. In this sense, I am merely adding to the vast thing that is between essay writing, Chûshingura in producing this paper. Dealing with Chûshingura is somewhat like dealing with the Tar Baby: when you try to stand apart and structural assault it, you willy-nilly become part of it. This is precisely why Chûshingura is format, so tantalizing, and thesis ultimately so frustrating for the historian. Let me nevertheless make my own effort to stand apart, and to see Chûshingura as something that does in fact have a history--a history in which the very notion of history performs a central function. In so doing, I have ended up strongly opposed to precisely what lured me to mla style the topic in the first place, Tsurumi's proposal that Chûshingura has come to encompass all of the cultural proclivities of the Japanese people. This type of thesis structural argument is essentially a type of essay on why profession Japanese exceptionalism, whether claiming that Chûshingura must be understood as part of the thesis structural basic Japanese preference for failed heroes ( hangan biiki ), or in terms of the difference between writing Japanese tendency to act in groups, or as a reflection of the hierarchal organization of structural Japanese society--and so on. Of course it is good, all this, in varying degrees, but such an approach begs the question of Chûshingura's durability, since various other legends that are in these obvious ways Japanese have come and gone.

I propose, then, that the popularity and durability of Chûshingura deserve historical rather than cultural explanations, and that all those who interpret it as a peculiarly Japanese phenomenon are misleading us. The power of structural Chûshingura can ultimately be explained, I would argue, only by essay on why i chose as a the particular nature of the original historical incident of 1701-03, and by thesis structural the particular historical circumstances through which its retelling has evolved in the almost two centuries since. Rather than universally Japanese, I would argue, Chûshingura is particularly historical. Report Format. The problem begins with giving a name to thesis structural the incident that began it all. In Edo times, no one would have called it an incident, but would have referred to the forty-six--or forty-seven--samurai or the Akô gishi (or gijin). In Meiji times, it became more common to between essay writing paragraph writing call it the structural Genroku incident. Resume Semiconductor. Among historians today, however, consensus seems to favor Akô incident, avoiding the problems of whether Terasaka Kichiemon really should be counted as one of the group, or whether the Akô retainers were in fact righteous, or whether all Genroku need be subsumed by the affair. (3) A quick reminder of the essentials of the incident, or rather of the series of incidents involved in the Akô affair: it began on the 14th day of the Third Month of Genroku 14 [April 21, 1701], when the lord of Akô, Asano Naganori, drew his sword in a corridor of Edo Castle and thesis slashed at the senior bakufu protocol official, Kira Yoshinaka. (4) It was the last day of the visit to good report format Edo of envoys from the imperial court in Kyoto, whose reception had been placed in the hands of thesis structural Asano and another daimyo. Asano only wounded Kira slightly before he was restrained, and research paper mla style cover was immediately taken into custody and ordered to commit seppuku later the same day. Thesis Structural. Twenty-one months later, forty-seven of the former retainers of Asano, having signed an format research paper oath vowing to complete the deed at which their lord had failed, attacked the Edo mansion of Kira, took his head, and marched across the city to the temple of Sengakuji, where they offered the trophy before the grave of their master. Structural. After fully seven weeks of debate, the bakufu ordered the format research paper seppuku of the forty-six of the ronin who had surrendered themselves at Sengakuji.

The order was carried out the same day, on Genroku 16/2/2 [March 20, 1703], and the ashes of the ronin were interred at Sengakuji. The power of survival of the Akô Incident in later imagination lies less in the drama implicit in this outline sketch than in the complexity and ambiguity of motivation involved both in the initial palace incident and in thesis structural the night attack. The historical record, for example, does not explain why Asano attacked Kira in the first place, only that he cried as he struck, This is for that grudge I've had against you! (Kono aida no ikon oboetaru ka). This obscurity of motive, and the rather limited and contradictory information that we have about the personalities of the two men involved, have made it possible to notecard research paper engage in a wide range of speculation, particularly among amateur historians. Thesis. To be sure, the traditional type of explanation, that Kira had offended Asano by haughty behavior of some sort, remains the most plausible. Still, there is no hard evidence for essay writing writing, it, and the fact that the ronin in their voluminous correspondence never touched on the reason for Asano's grudge suggests that even they did not really know. The even greater ambiguity lies in the motivation and action of the ronin.

They justified the attack as a vendetta ( katakiuchi ) on structural, behalf of their lord, but in no way did the case fit either the legal or the customary definition of research mla style katakiuchi . Kira, after all, was not their master's murderer: on the contrary, Asano had tried to murder Kira. Structural. Nor was there any justification for avenging the death of one's lord, only that of a family member: the ronin even had to call on a Confucian scholar to come up with a textual basis for their action. Resume. Legalities aside, what was the underlying spirit of their act? Was it indeed personal loyalty to their lord, as the mainstream of the Chûshingura tradition would have it? Or was it a protest against the bakufu's lenient treatment of thesis Kira for his involvement in the incident? Or was it a simple matter of personal honor to carry out their master's unfinished task? Or, as one school of interpretation would have it, were they impoverished samurai desperate for a new job and and other essays trying to prove their credentials? Whatever the truth of the matter, the ambiguities and complexities of the event itself provided plenty of leeway for a variety of widely differing interpretations. This would prove essential to structural the modern survival of Chûshingura. The Popular Response: Kanadehon Chûshingura. The nature of the immediate public response to the attack on Kira also presents difficult interpretive problems.

Consider what our own basic texts tell us: that the public was thrilled, (5) and that there was a spontaneous outpouring of resume semiconductor admiration for this brave and selfless act. (6) Within Edo, of course, the news must have traveled swiftly, and public interest was surely high, but was there mass public sympathy for the act? One member of the seminar attempted to look at the contemporary documentation of the incident, and structural found it to be a mass of contradictory and ambiguous evidence. (7) It is difficult to say whether the public was either thrilled or shocked: given the divisions that would soon emerge among samurai leaders on this issue, it seems at least reasonable to question the essay profession assumption that the public response was uniformly positive. Interesting new evidence on this score has recently been offered by Kôsaka Jirô in his best-selling book on the diary of a Nagoya samurai in thesis the Genroku era. The diarist, Asahi Bunzaemon, was alert to resume every bit of gossip that passed his way, and he reported such incidents as love suicides in long and consuming detail. The vendetta of the Akô ronin, however, was reported in one utterly non-committal line, and their seppuku was not even mentioned. Kôsaka suggests that if the incident had been such a big stir in Edo, Bunzaemon would clearly have heard much more about thesis structural, it through his many sources and would have reported it in greater detail. (8) The conventional evidence of on literature public interest that has been cited in the past is a kabuki performance in Edo just twelve days after the seppuku of the ronin, which was ostensibly about the thesis Soga brothers but clearly modelled on difference between writing, the Akô Incident.

The evidence for thesis structural, this and another account of early theatrical reenactments in Edo, however, is highly problematic and now discredited by many scholars. (9) It was rather in Kyoto and profession Osaka that one finds the more sustained response. Of course, the stricter censorship in Edo is thesis, doubtless the key factor, but it remains a fact that the Chûshingura legend was created in Kamigata, where it was easier to fantasize about the historical event. Particular revealing is the earliest known piece of fiction based on the incident, an ukiyozôshi of 1705 entitled Keisei budôzakura , by the prolific Osaka writer Nishizawa Ippû. (10) The entire incident is transposed to the pleasure quarters, with Asano (Asamanosuke) as a chonin playboy skilled in good format the martial arts and Kira (Kichikô) as the pompous son of a nouveau riche merchant. The two conflict over a rivalry for the affections of the courtesan Kurahashi, and it is actually Kichikô who attacks Asamanosuke, reversing the historical order of aggression. Both are wounded, but Asamanosuke dies. Thesis. The revenge is plotted by Densuke, a follower of Asamanosuke, in cahoots with Kurahashi and a band of other courtesans whom Asamanosuke had favored when alive. Densuke and fourteen courtesans attack Kichikô when he lets down his guard and visits the research paper mla style cover pleasure quarters, and then all commit suicide before Asama's grave.

Nowhere to be found in all of this is any trace of interest in structural samurai valor or loyalty: the semiconductor real point of the story, argued Aoki Sentei, lay in the contrast of the sui style of Asama and the stingy, boorish style of Kichikô. We are already at a long parodic remove from the event. The subsequent road to structural Kanadehon Chûshingura of 1748 has been carefully traced by scholars of notecard format Edo theater. (11) The pivotal year, it is now agreed, was 1710, the year after Tsunayoshi's death, when there appeared a cluster of thesis plays that drew on essay nursing as a profession, the Akô Incident in thesis structural elaborate and only thinly disguised detail. Other plays followed over research paper cover, the succeeding decades. Had it not been for structural, the masterful work of synthesis performed by the team that wrote Kanadehon Chûshingura , however, one wonders whether the Akô vendetta would have survived as any more than one of many lesser themes in the joruri and kabuki traditions. Not only resume did Kanadehon Chûshingura provide the word Chûshingura, but its tremendous popularity assured that the theme would be imitated on a far more extended and imaginative scale than ever before. Fujino Yoshio has compiled a list of 70 such dramatic variants of the structural legend from 1748 until mid-Meiji. Between Essay Writing Writing. (12) Certain interesting trends appear from structural, this data. First, the overwhelming number of new productions until the mid-1810s were created in Kamigata: 24 in Osaka and 4 in Kyoto, versus only 6 in Edo. In this same period, the number of joruri (15) remained about the same as kabuki (19). After this, however, the pattern is reversed, with 30 new works in research paper Edo-Tokyo in the period 1818-1892, and only 6 in structural Osaka; of these, only one was joruri. As a growing tradition, in other words, one sees a clear shift from Osaka, where Chûshingura originated, to Edo-Tokyo.

It seems possible that this shift from west to east was paralleled by a change of emphasis within the tradition as a whole, from the difference between essay writing paragraph writing erotic to the political. The theme of loyalty with which Kanadehon Chûshingura opens and closes, one might argue, is merely a veneer to thesis structural make the authorities happy, and serves to divert attention from the real concerns of the Kamigata audiences, the and other on literature erotic and romantic themes that run throughout the thesis structural play. In Edo-Tokyo, by contrast, with its greater traditional emphasis on formalism and on the macho bluster of the aragoto style, the theme of loyalty and political struggle is taken more seriously. It is revealing, for example, that in Kamigata performances, Kô no Moronao is depicted as above all lascivious, while Tokyo actors emphasize rather his haughtiness towards subordinates. (13) Given the richness and complexity of the original joruri text, it is in difference between essay writing writing fact possible to thesis structural get quite different emphases from the play. Essay Paragraph. Even in structural Edo, however, Chûshingura was not always taken seriously, as demonstrated by the rich parodic tradition that emerged in the later eighteenth century. The earliest of these appears to be Hoseidô Kisanji's kibyôshi parody of 1779, Anadehon tsûjingura (roughly, A Treasury of Those In the Know, A Guide to the Pitfalls of Life). (14) In the preface, Kisanji writes that the loyalty of Ôboshi and the others was grand, but the real cause of the format whole affair was En'ya Hangan's utter lack of thesis structural sophistication ( tsû ) in failing to realize that his bribe was too small. Thus having subverted the i chose nursing as a basic moral order of Chûshingura, Kisanji proceeds to his own version, in which everyone is utterly preoccupied with worldliness and with whether others are being too stingy or not. This was followed by thesis structural numerous other kibyôshi parodies, as well as such similar subversions of the legend as Shikitei Sanba's Chûshingura Henchikiron (1812), a perverse argument that diametrically opposes the received wisdom on Chûshingura, and Tsuruya Nanboku's kabuki Tôkaidô Yotsuya kaidan (1825), a tale of one of the disloyal retainers who did not participate in the vendetta. On Why. The Popular Response: The Kôdan Retellings. The late Edo period meanwhile saw the development of a new and rather different lineage of Chûshingura, in the genre of oral story-telling known as kôshaku (later kôdan ) that flourished on well into thesis, the Meiji period. Although these variants derived in many ways from the stage traditions, they differed in claiming to research mla style cover be real stories of real people, so-called jitsuroku , and structural hence used the actual names of the historical participants in difference the Akô Incident, rather than the thesis pseudonyms of essay writing paragraph writing Kanadehon Chûshingura . As analyzed by Satô Tadao, the kôdan versions tended to emphasize the thesis structural impetuous, heroic male aspects of the legend, minimizing the romantic and domestic complications that were an important part of joruri and kabuki.

Thus the kôdan versions almost completely omit the story of the romance of paper mla style page Kanpei and Okaru that came to be so popular in the kabuki tradition. Satô sees in this a contrast in the social class of the audiences, with kabuki appealing to upper-class merchants firmly embedded in the feudal social order, and kôdan to lower-class artisans who live by thesis structural their individual skills. (15) Another feature of the kôdan version was the elaboration of the heroic exploits of individual members of the band of forty-seven, thus developing the genre of gishi meimeiden , separate biographies of the loyal retainers. This feature reminds us how important it was that such a large number of individuals were involved in the historical Akô Incident--far more than had been involved in almost any of the other great vendettas in Japanese history. Some have interpreted this as a mark of group-oriented behavior, but it is revealing that in the kôdan tradition it allowed rather for the proliferation of individualistic heroes, each with his own story. (16) In a sense, this division replicates the basic tension in good report format the history of samurai values, between self-centered honor and self-negating loyalty. In the Meiji period, the kôdan versions--known by such titles as The 47 Samurai of Akô (Akô shijûshichi-shi) or Biographies of the Loyal Retainers (Gishiden)--were carried over into the genre of rôkyoku ( naniwa-bushi ), which began in Osaka in the late Edo period and in which oral narration was provided with samisen accompaniment.

The great popularity of the rôkyoku version of the structural Akô gishi in the late Meiji period, emerging directly from the kôdan tradition, provided the matrix for the modern emergence of Chûshingura as a cornerstone of emperor-system patriotism. The Revival of History and the Meiji Synthesis. For the first half of the Meiji period, Chûshingura survived with no major change in the two great Edo-period lineages of kabuki stage productions and kôdan story-telling. To be sure, the new regime seems to have appreciated the political uses of the 47 Ronin as early as 1868, when the Meiji emperor, not long after arriving in his new capital of Tokyo, sent an emissary to Sengakuji to between paragraph writing place offerings before the graves of the Akô ronin, together with a proclamation addressed to Ôishi and praising him for structural, upholding the principle of the master-follower bond. Yet this did not lead to any particular official manipulation of the profession legend to foster imperial loyalty: Chûshingura remained in the possession of the people. Structural. The modern transformation of Chûshingura into on why i chose nursing as a, what amounted to a piece of propaganda on thesis, behalf of research paper cover page martial values and selfless sacrifice to the state came, revealingly, only after the way had been paved by the first modern historical studies of the Akô incident. (17) This process began in 1889 with the appearance of The True Story of the Akô Gishi (Akô gishi jitsuwa), an thesis account by Shigeno Yasutsugu (1827-1910), a pioneer of the modern critical method in history.

Shigeno insisted on the need to separate out the many counterfeits among the surviving documents of the incident, in an effort to tell the true story. The form of the on why profession book (which was related orally to a newspaper reporter) was an act-by-act analysis of Kanadehon Chûshingura , indicating what was true and thesis structural what not. This marks the beginning of a new element in the Chûshingura phenomenon, the perception that the historical event constituted a different kind of story to be told, with different tools and essay on why i chose nursing profession methods. The way to a greater historicity may have been paved by the kôdan tradition and its stronger sense of the actual event--particularly in thesis structural the use of the historical names of the participants--but the line between history and fiction remained one that was never openly contested. The pivotal work in the modernization of Chûshingura was Fukumoto Nichinan's Genroku kaikyo roku (Record of the good report Valiant Vendetta of Genroku), published in thesis structural late 1909. The use of the word Genroku signals Nichinan's consciousness of the historical event, and his work continued the writing paragraph writing spirit established by Shigeno of trying to recover the original story. Still, Nichinan was a journalist not a historian, and still retained many elements of traditional kôdan-style embellishment.

Less than a year after the publication of Genroku kaikyo roku , however, the historiography of the Akô Incident entered a new era with the structural publication of the difference essay writing paragraph documentary collection Akô gijin sansho (3 vols.), which had first been assembled by Nabeta Shôsan, a samurai antiquarian from Iwaki in the late Edo period. Impressed by the need to establish his story on a firmer documentary basis, Nichinan rewrote his earlier version and thesis structural published it in 1914 as Record of the Truth of the Valiant Vendetta of Genroku (Genroku kaikyo shinsô roku). Although a less readable work, the effort to difference essay reach the truth of the event marks an thesis entirely new attitude towards the Chûshingura legacy. Nichinan's two works, especially the first, were wildly popular in the patriotic climate of Japan following the Russo-Japanese war of 1904-05, and lay the foundations for the understanding of the story as one of martial valor and devotion to superiors. Although more conscious of the truth of the historical incident, Nichinan in no way compromised the and other essential emphasis on loyalty and valor. In this way, a more modern consciousness of the history of the Akô Incident was fused with the latent historicity of the kôdan tradition to yield a new rendering of the Chûshingura tradition, one particularly well suited to thesis the times. The importance of historicity is revealed in comparing the fate of Chûshingura with that of the research paper mla style cover legend of the vendetta of the Soga brothers, which was a far longer and deeper tradition in many ways than Chûshingura, but which did not survive as a major theme in popular culture after the end of Meiji. The great liability of the Soga brothers is that they were almost impossible to recover for history, dating from structural, a much earlier period and paper mla style page with virtually no documentary support. The late Meiji period also marks the beginning of the entirely new Chûshingura genre of structural film, which by the time it had run its course in the mid-1960s would have brought the story of the 47 Ronin to far more Japanese than ever in the past, and with a new level of good power and immediacy.

The film historian Misono Kyôhei has counted a total of sixty Chûshingura films in late Meiji and Taisho (1907-26), an average of three per year. (18) . Thesis. The number would rapidly multiply in the years that followed. In general, the research paper mla style film tradition followed in the pattern set by the kôdan-rôkyoku tradition, of treating the Akô incident as a historical event rather than using the Taiheiki sekai of the stage tradition. The mounting nationalism of the 1930s tended to leave the mainstream of thesis structural Chûshingura locked into the mode that took shape in the 1910s, although some literary efforts subversive of that mainstream were already beginning to emerge among a small minority of intellectual writers, as we shall shortly see. The mainstream itself took a turn in essay on why nursing a more intellectual direction with the epic new kabuki version of Mayama Seika, Genroku Chûshingura , begun in 1934 as a piece for Sadanji II, and continuing through nine more installments until 1941 (by which time Sadanji had died). Mayama's pretensions as a historian are evident in the long and pedantic explanations he provides in the printed text, alleging his concern for period correctness.

Yet his work is every bit as much a product of the ideology of its own time, notably in his depiction of the anxiety of Ôishi over whether Asano's act might be interpreted as insulting to the emperor; this introduction of imperial loyalism into the minds of the 47 Ronin seems to be Mayama's innovation, with no historical justification. (19) The war interrupted the modern film mainstream of Chûshingura, but did not radically alter its course. Both stage and film versions of the story were prohibited under the early years of the Occupation for intimate associations with feudal values and structural wartime patriotism. From 1949, however, the ban on resume semiconductor, Chûshingura was lifted, and productions of both kabuki and film proceeded apace. This is by no means to say that the ideological emphasis remained unchanged. Gregory Barrett has suggested that the major shift was to play down the emphasis on abject loyalty to one's superior, and thesis structural rather to stress Ôishi Kuranosuke's personal affection for his lord. (20) In a sense, the research abstraction of loyalty that had allowed its modern transference from daimyo to thesis structural emperor now reverted to a more direct and personal sort of loyalty. But the theme of loyalty itself remained central. The postwar survival of Chûshingura, however, was not simply a product of this kind of re-direction. I Chose Nursing As A Profession. As Satô Tadao notes, Chûshingura was the only one of the Three Great Vendettas of the thesis structural Edo period that did in fact survive the paper mla style war: nothing more was to be seen of the Soga Brothers or Araki Bunzaemon, names that are today virtually unknown to the majority of Japanese. (21) The advantage of Chûshingura lay once again in the ambiguities and complexities offered by the historical incident itself. From even before the war, Chûshingura had already entered a second phase of modernization, one which endowed it with distinctively anti-authoritarian overtones.

The Democratization of Chûshingura. In its very essence, the structural Akô Incident was politically multivalent. Although carried out in the name of i chose loyalty to their feudal lord, the vendetta of the 47 Ronin was explicitly in defiance of the bakufu, as recognized by their death sentence. Given the essentially contradictory demands of loyalty under the structural bakuhan system, their action could be interpreted in two wholly different ways, either as confirming loyalty in difference between paragraph writing the abstract or as negating loyalty not directed to thesis structural the shogunate. Where the notion of public hung in the balance between bakufu and i chose nursing han, things could go either way. And so in the twentieth century, when public was again defined in ambiguous ways, either as personal loyalty to thesis the emperor or as abstract loyalty to the state, the Akô Incident was perfectly placed to satisfy both. And even after the democratizing reforms of the Occupation period, the report Akô story could still be reoriented to thesis adapt to new times, by conceiving of the actions of the ronin as directed against the autocratic actions of the bakufu. This new democratic phase in the history of Chûshingura actually had its beginnings before the war, among the liberal and modernist intellectuals of the Taisho and early Showa era. The earliest sign was perhaps Akutagawa Ryûnosuke's short story One Day in the Life of Ôishi Kuranosuke (Aru hi no Ôishi Kuranosuke, Chûô kôron , Oct. 1917), a sketch of the leader of the 47 Ronin as he awaited the judgment of the bakufu following the vendetta. (22) It was modern in two senses. First, Akutagawa turned to the primary sources of the historical incident, in particular the between writing paragraph account of Horikawa Den'emon, who was in structural charge of guarding the group at the Hosokawa mansion in which Ôishi had been placed.

Secondly, Akutagawa was interested in the human psychology of Ôishi as an individual with both strengths and weaknesses, rather than the stereotypical hero that had appeared in all earlier renditions. This interest in probing the more complex and human side of the participants in the Akô affair set into motion a strand of Chûshingura rendition that remains strong to this day. The modern turn also took a radical twist in the early Showa period with the first appearance of interpretations that openly challenged the black-and-white idealism of the older Chûshingura tradition. First seems to essays on literature have been a March 1928 essay by structural Hani Gorô seeking to reevaluate Ôishi, but I have not yet located a copy. (23) Another materialist interpretation of the motives of the 47 Ronin was put forth first in i chose profession May 1931, in thesis structural a Chûô kôron article by the liberal Hasegawa Nyozekan entitled The Akô Gishi in Light of Historical Materialism, in which the essays motives of the structural ronin in seeking revenge were attributed not to their loyalty but to their poverty and need for a new job. A similar line of thought was pursued by notecard format paper the Marxist historian Tamura Eitarô in a series of books and articles on the Akô event extending from Chûshingura monogatari in 1934 on to Akô rôshi in 1964.

Doggedly pressing his argument that the ronin were simply in search of a new master and never expected to sacrifice their lives, Tamura set a tone of structural iconoclasm that opened a new chapter of revisionist thinking in the history of the Akô Incident. To be sure, there had been distinguished earlier critics of the ronin's actions, such as Satô Naokata two years after the good format event and thesis structural Fukuzawa Yukichi in the Meiji period, but these had been in largely legal grounds. Tamura was the first to notecard impute economic motives. Thesis Structural. The most important work for the postwar revival of and other on literature Chûshingura, however, was the first long modern historical novel on structural, the theme of the Akô Incident, Osaragi Jirô's Akô rôshi of 1928 (serialized the previous year in on literature the Mainichi newspapers). Thesis Structural. The use of rôshi rather than gishi hints at the diversion of and other emphasis away from the theme of loyalty, and in the direction of a conception of the thesis structural attack on Kira as a protest against the corrupt and difference essay venal government of the bakufu under Tsunayoshi. This element was in fact already part of prewar orthodoxy. Thesis. The biography of Ôishi that appeared in the old elementary school textbooks, for example, opened on precisely this theme, stressing the looseness of Genroku politics and the decadence of Tsunayoshi and his animal-protection laws. (24) The rônin could thus easily be resurrected after the on why war as paragons not of loyalty, but of justice and honesty in politics. Osaragi's text played a key role in the 1960s transition from film to television as the basic medium for the mass propagation of Chûshingura.

The year 1962 saw the last great feature-film production, Inagaki Hiroshi's Chûshingura , bringing to a close a half-century era. The new era began in 1964, when NHK chose the Chûshingura theme for the second of its year-long saga-dramas ( taiga dorama ), of which a one-hour installment was shown every Sunday evening. Entitled Akô rôshi , it was based in Osaragi's 1927 novel. The power of thesis television, authorized by the government network, brought the images of the essay on why i chose nursing 47 Ronin directly into the homes of millions of Japanese over a sustained period of time, reviving the legend just at the point that it was faltering. The production was accompanied by a new outpouring of books about the structural Akô Incident. It is surely not without significance that 1964 was also the year of the difference between essay paragraph Tokyo Olympics: the triumphal return to the international scene of thesis a democratized Japan was accompanied by resume a revival of the nation's greatest legend, now itself democratized. In the years following, NHK has continued to play the central role in the survival of Chûshingura in mass culture by selecting it twice more for the taiga dorama series, in 1975 and 1982. In both cases, it was occasion for the publication of new books about Chûshingura, the reissue of old ones, and renewed speculation by intellectuals about the perpetual appeal of the theme to the Japanese people.

That things were changing, however, was revealed in the approaches of the two series, neither of structural which approached the Akô Incident head-on. The 1975 drama was Genroku Taiheiki , a title that revealingly suggests a return to the indirection of Kanadehon Chûshingura , which used the world of the Taiheiki as a setting. The series offered a panorama of Genroku society and politics that included the Akô Incident, but focused as much on Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu, chamberlain under Tsunayoshi, and on the politics of shogunal succession. The 1982 NHK series was given the abstruse title Tôge no gunzô , translatable as something like group portrait at the divide, implying that the Genroku period was a kind of historical watershed. Resume. The Akô Incident here appeared less as the structural main theme than as the backdrop to the depiction of the lives of a group of ordinary citizens of Edo. Difference Between Essay Paragraph Writing. According to the analysis of Gregory Barrett, sentimentality was used to fashion a contemporary message of patriotism through the treatment everyone receives, as reflected in the lenient treatment of Kira, of the Akô retainers who were not loyal, and even of the notorious shogun Tsunayoshi himself. Thus, Barrett argues, NHK's Chûshingura bears a remarkable resemblance to the Japanese family drama in thesis which no one is to blame for arguments resulting from misunderstandings that are ironed out in the final reconciliation scene. (25) By this process of notecard format research watering down and deflection of emphasis away from the theme of either loyalty or protest, the Chûshingura legend has been further adapted to postwar needs. The kind of thesis lenient treatment of old villains that Barrett detects in the 1982 NHK series, however, reflects more than just a pious wish to show Japan as one big happy family.

Rather it emerges from an on-going process of critically reexamining the paper cover page legend and challenging some of thesis its central verities by turning back to the historical event. In a sense, this is in the spirit of discovering the real Akô Incident pioneered earlier in the century by Fukumoto Nichinan, and carried forth in a more explicit mode of debunking by Tamura Eitarô in his argument of the good report 1930s that the Akô vendetta was no more than a campaign to thesis win new employment. What has changed since the war is a widening of the field of debunking activity, and the emergence of a virtual industry of amateur history-writing aimed at essay nursing as a, revealing the thesis structural truth of the Akô Incident in ways that often amount to the most fantastic speculation. The best example, perhaps, is the notecard format research paper problem of the cause of the incident that began it all, the attack by Asano in the Matsu-no-rôka of Edo Castle. The way was first cleared by the demonstration of respectable historians--notably Matsushima Eiichi in his judicious 1964 Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai in the Iwanami shinsho series--that the surviving documentation gave very few clues as to the real reasons for Asano's grudge against thesis structural, Kira. This means that it is anybody's guess, and as a result a great many theories have been put forward.

Take, for example, the episode on the Matsu-no-rôka incident that appeared in NHK's Invitation to History (Rekishi e no shôtai) series, in which academic historians, amateur historians, and writers of historical fiction are all happily mixed together to debate a particular issue. One major topic of discussion in this particular program was the so-called salt-farm theory, deriving from the fact that both Akô and Kira Yoshinaka's own domain of and other essays on literature Kira-chô, located 40 km southeast of Nagoya on Atsumi Bay, just happened to be producers of structural salt. Essay As A. It was the structural novelist Ozaki Shirô--a native of Kira-chô--who first proposed in 1949 that the incident had its origins in a salt rivalry between Asano, whose Akô salt was of superior quality, and Kira, who had easier access to the Edo market. Of the several versions of the salt-farm theory, the most common envisions Kira sending spies to Akô to steal the between essay writing secrets of superior salt technology, thereby provoking Asano and eventually the Matsu-no-rôka attack. Never mind that there is thesis, not a shred of evidence for the theory: the NHK show made a virtue of mla style this by featuring a lengthy discussion by structural a leading expert of research Edo salt production, who conclusively demonstrated that the thesis industrial spy theory was in and other essays fact implausible, since the geological and labor conditions in Kira-chô would have made Akô's techniques useless anyway.

Also offered on the same show was a novel theory centering on the abnormal psychology of Asano, proposed by Anzai Norio, a specialist in the psychology of history from structural, Oitemon Gakuin University in Osaka and the author of such works as A Psychological Walking Tour of Kyoto and The Psychology of the Tea Ceremony . Professor Anzai diagnoses Asano as a clear case of an obsessive-compulsive personality type ( nenchaku kishitsu ), characterized by exaggerated attachment to form and ceremony, extreme preoccupation with cleanliness, and a revulsion against money--naturally extending to the offering of bribes. What actually happened in the Matsu-no-rôka, however, was a kind of epileptic fit to which this type of personality is susceptible and which allegedly ran in the Asano family. The immediate provocation of the attack, Anzai speculates, was a sudden burst of light that struck Asano's eye, triggering what is known as an illuminant seizure ( kôgensei hossa ). Anzai admits that the sun was high and the sky cloudy at the time of the attack, but proposes that the contrasting pattern of light and dark on the floor would have been sufficient. Without going into the five other theories discussed on the NHK show, this should be enough to format suggest the amount of thesis ingenuity that has been devoted to explaining the twists and turns of the Akô Incident. These have been put forth in a steady outpouring of books claiming to tell, once again, the truth of the Akô Incident. In effect, the incident has become much like a mystery story, to be figured out by clever detectives; any concern with the deeper moral and political implications of the event recedes into the background. In these ways, the historicity of the Akô Incident has served to keep the Chûshingura legend alive even when those political implications no longer seem compelling. Symptomatic of this trend is Izawa Motohiko's Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku (Shinchôsha, 1988), described on the cover as a historical detective story. It involves a young contemporary playwright who is asked to write a play about Chûshingura and becomes entangled in the mysteries of the and other historical event itself. In this way, Chûshingura as history is made palatable to a new generation.

In the entire body of debunking and revisionism about the structural Akô Incident, the semiconductor two themes that stand out are the reevaluation of Kira Yoshinaka and of the disloyal retainers who failed to participate in the attack. Each of these themes has a considerable history. In particular, the rescue of Kira from his villainous fate, emphasizing his role as a model lord in his own domain, has been pressed since the 1930s, and has become especially active in the postwar period. The town of Kira-chô itself has predictably made much of this theme, and the temple with Kira's grave has become a popular tourist site, attracting some 10,000 visitors a year. (26) Various recent books have been devoted entirely to telling the Kira story, such as Fumidate Teruko's non-fiction Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura or Morimura Seiichi's two-volume historical novel, Kira Chûshingura , both published in 1988. Thesis. The writer of the difference paragraph 1980s who has made the most imaginative use of what might be called anti-Chûshingura themes is Inoue Hisashi, a virtuoso parodist who looks back to Edo gesaku for inspiration.

This began with his Fuchûshingura , serialized irregularly in Subaru from May 1980 to December 1984, and published as a single volume in 1985. It is, the title tells us, a Treasury of thesis structural Disloyal Retainers, a series of nineteen portraits of those retainers of Asano who did not participate in the vendetta. Inoue's takes as point of departure the argument that the 47 Ronin accounted for fewer than one in six of the 308 former retainers of Asano, and that it would clearly be a mistake to see this minority as in any way typical. (27) For a real model of Japanese behavior, one needs rather to turn to the disloyal retainers. His resulting portraits are diverse, humorous and essay on why imaginative, presenting a wide range of motivation and giving an effective sense of life in Genroku Edo. Inoue followed the disloyal retainers with a new characterization of thesis structural Kira in the play Inu no adauchi , written for a performance at the Komatsuza in Tokyo in September 1988. (28) The play recreates the research page final two hours of Kira's life in real time, from the point at which he goes to hide in structural a charcoal shed when the Akô band attacks. Hiding in the shed with him are a dog that had been a personal gift from semiconductor, Tsunayoshi, various personal retainers and maids, and a thief who just happens to have snuck into the mansion on thesis structural, the night of the attack. In the final scene, Kira wakes up to the fact that he has been little more than a victim of Tsunayoshi's regime, and grasps Ôishi's true intent as rebellion against notecard research, the shogun. Kira realizes that although he himself will be despised as a villain for the rest of time, he will play a key role in the survival of the thesis structural valiant story of Ôishi and his band. Sensing that he and Ôishi thus share a common glorious destiny, Kira in triumph leaves the charcoal shed to meet his fate, declaring that Now Kôsuke-no-suke goes forth to live! Maruya Saiichi's What is Chûshingura? Even more than Inoue Hisashi, the writer who has done most to revive Chûshingura in the 1980s has been Maruya Saiichi, whose Chûshingura to wa nanika became a bestseller after its appearance in 1984 and has continued to inspire new writings in good report format and about the legend.

It is difficult in structural brief compass to do justice to the complexity of Maruya's various arguments, or to the sheer interest of the book, with its wealth of fascinating and difference between writing writing arcane detail about the Akô Incident and Edo culture in general. Some of his major emphases, however, can be quickly outlined. Structural. Maruya, it must be remembered, is a novelist and literary critic, and on why as a profession these callings do much to fashion his conception of Chûshingura. His basic approach is structural, seen most clearly in his explicit use of Chûshingura to refer to good both to the historical event and to Kanadehon Chûshingura , distinguishing the two as jiken to shite no Chûshingura and shibai to structural shite no Chûshingura. This in turn reflects his central theme, that the historical Akô vendetta was literally a dramatic incident (gekiteki na jiken), in the sense that the 47 Ronin were reenacting the on why nursing vendetta of the Soga Brothers as it had been understood through Edo kabuki performances. In short, Maruya proposes, the thesis historical Akô Incident was essentially a literary event--a new and semiconductor daring conflation of the role of history and structural literature in the Chûshingura legend as a whole.

The various specific arguments advanced by Maruya tend to be drawn from folklore and anthropology, thus tying in with a generally popular intellectual trend in Japan of the 1980s. He argues that the vendettas of the and other Soga Brothers and thesis the 47 Ronin were both attempts to appease the vengeful spirits ( onryô ) of their dead masters (or father in the Soga case), drawing on Japanese folklore research on onryô . Maruya's arguments here bear a strong resemblance to the those of Umehara Takeshi in Kakusareta jûjika (1972), in difference which it is argued that the rebuilding of Hôryûji after the fire of 672 was intended in many complicated ways as an effort to thesis structural ward off the avenging spirit of Shôtoku Taishi, angry at paper, the termination of his line. Indeed, Maruya's entire approach shares much with that of Umehara: both are contemptuous of established academic theories, both drawn to thesis structural riddles and mysteries, both prone to difference essay writing seek explanations in thesis structural hidden spiritual forces, and both are compelling writers. Not content with seeing the force of onryô in the vendetta of the Akô ronin, Maruya asserts a hidden element of hostility to the bakufu in the act, tracing it back to an alleged anti-Yoritomo motif in the revenge of the Soga brothers. In this way, Maruya continues an older tradition of seeing the Akô vendetta as essentially directed against the bakufu, but he now gives it an format even more sinister and seditious sense. Thesis Structural. In Maruya's most controversial allegation, he carried this theme of between writing writing a disguised rebellion over to Kanadehon Chûshingura , which he interprets as a kind of carnival in structural the European manner, a springtime festival involving the resume semiconductor ritual killing of the king of winter--in this case, Moronao, but by implication, the shogun Tsunayoshi as well. The first reviews of Maruya's book were uniformly enthusiastic, but in March 1985, a lengthy and highly critical review by thesis structural Suwa Haruo, a historian of Edo theater, appeared in the journal Shingeki . Suwa systematically argued against most of Maruya's arguments about the meaning of the Soga drama and its impact on the Akô affair.

Maruya answered Suwa in a scathing counter-attack in Gunzô in May 1985, leading to a counter-reply by good format Suwa and then a counter-counter-reply by Maruya. Meanwhile, Maruya was attacked on thesis structural, another front, by resume semiconductor the anthropologist Yamaguchi Masao, who accused him of both misunderstanding and misapplying western anthropological theory in his notion of Chûshingura as carnival. (29) Without going into the many complexities of all the structural arguments involved, let me simply say that on strictly historical grounds, I tend to side with Suwa Haruo, who claims that Maruya's theories simply cannot be proved. Maruya himself recognized this in one of his responses to Suwa, claiming that since he was dealing with deep, hidden motivations, one could not expect to find any direct evidence. Time and and other again, Maruya claims to have a special sense of the superstitious and magical ( jujutsuteki , one of his favorite words) beliefs of the common people of Edo, enabling him to see through to the true motivations of the structural Akô ronin, which have been misrepresented over the centuries by Confucian scholars. Semiconductor. Here, as in his reliance on the findings of folklorists, Maruya clearly sees himself at practicing a kind of minshûshi , or people's history. In the end, Maruya has succeeded in using history to thesis structural further the cause of Chûshingura as literature. Yamaguchi Masao, at the end of his hostile review of Maruya's book, quotes approvingly the remark of a science fiction writer who wondered why Maruya, with that much knowledge, didn't just go ahead and write a novel. And in resume the end, that is probably the best way to read Chûshingura to wa nanika --as a novel. Or more accurately, we must realized that we have reached a point in the history of Chûshingura that any systematic effort to thesis structural separate history from fiction is doomed to essays frustration. What the Hell is Chûshingura?

Chûshingura has shown remarkable resilience throughout its history of almost two centuries, and seems alive and thesis well today. Indeed, mass media even declared a Chûshingura boom in 1986, beginning with New Year's Eve when a Nihon Television production of Chûshingura achieved an audience share of 17 per cent when competing against NHK's venerable song contest, Kôhaku uta-gassen. Report. It was followed by a February performance at the Kabuki-za, and a complete performance of the original puppet play at the National Theater in the fall. In addition, Chûshingura went international with the European tour of The Kabuki, a French adaptation of the Chûshingura theme performed by the Tokyo Ballet. In the same year, Inoue Hisashi's Fuchûshingura appeared and the first volume of Morimura Seiichi's new epic historical novel of structural Chûshingura was published in October. (30) But is it possible that we are reaching the end of Chûshingura as a living tradition? The possibility is as a, raised by a consideration of the age of the thesis authors responsible for nursing as a, the recent spate of structural books listed in the Appendix below.

Out of fourteen for whom birth years could be ascertained, five were born in the 1920s, eight in the years 1931-34, and one (Izawa Motohiko, the as a profession author of the historical detective story mentioned earlier) in 1954. The concentration among older writers, particularly those born in the early 1930s, is thesis structural, striking. Paper Mla Style Page. In other words, Chûshingura is being kept alive by a generation that could still read the account of Ôishi Yoshio in the prewar elementary school textbooks, and thesis who reached maturity during the great postwar era of Chûshingura film popularity, from 1949 to 1962. Does this mean that Chûshingura will in fact begin to disappear as this older generation and and other its readers disappear? One small piece of evidence to the contrary is thesis, one of the most curious books of the 1980s, a 1988 work by the implausible author Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan with the equally implausible title 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu . The orthography of the title is so expressive and difficult to capture in romanization that I here provide a reproduction of the cover that also reveals the shocking pink color--hardly what one would expect from a conventional explication of Chûshingura. The title is similarly difficult to translate in a way that captures the sense of resume contemporary Tokyo slang, but the authors themselves provide a good stab at it in an English table of contents provided as an appendix (itself a revealing mark of structural contemporary youth culture): What the hell is Chûshingura? As the title suggests, the book is clearly intended for a generation that did not grow up with Chûshingura but somehow feels responsible for knowing about it.

The main text, although written in the characteristic jargon of teenage girls and illustrated with cheery cartoons, actually provides a serious and responsible account of good format all the details of the historical Akô Incident. In a mark of contemporary egalitarianism, all honorifics are dropped, and Lord Asano becomes Asano-kun, while Kira is referred to as Kira no jisama. It is hard to know exactly what to make of thesis structural a book like this, but at the very least it proves that there is on why i chose as a profession, clearly an audience for Chûshingura in the younger generation, if only to overcome its embarrassment at not really knowing anything about structural, it. Even if Chûshingura does not ultimately win over the younger generation in Japan, however, history lies in wait to provide one more grand opportunity for a new lease on life. I refer to the tricentennial of the Akô Incident, which will begin in just eleven years and (thanks again to the particular nature of the event) will last for good report format, almost two years.

It is hard to believe that there are not publishers, producers, and thesis politicians in Japan who are already beginning to plan for the event: if Chûshingura is lively in the 1980s, it boggles the essays on literature mind to think what it might be in 2001-2003. Appendix: CHUSHINGURA BOOKS IN THE '80s (A Partial List) 1980.3: NHK, ed. Chûshingura . Thesis Structural. Rekishi e no shôtai, vol. 5. NHK. (Reissued as vol. 15 in Nov. 1988.) 1980.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Fukushû--Moo hitotsu no Akô rôshi den . Between Essay Writing. Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. 1981.11: Watanabe Tamotsu. Chûshingura: Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku . Hakusuisha. 1981.11: Ozaki Hideki, comp.

Chûshingura meimeiden--Monogatari to thesis shiseki o tazunete . Seibidô. 1981.12: Kumashiro Teruo. Chûshingura igaishi . Tokyo shinbun shuppankyoku. Sequel to 1980.12 volume above. 1981.12: Kuwata Tadachika.

Akô rôshi shidan . Shiode shuppan. 1981.12: Horikawa Toyohiro. Kira Kôzuke-no-suke zuidan . Meigen shobô. 1981.12: Shioda Michio. Genroku Bushidô--Chûshingura to ningenzô . 1981.12: Tamiya Yukio. Jitsuroku Yonezawa Chûshingura--Akô rôshi to Uesugi-ke . Yonezawa: Fubô shuppan. 1982.01: Suwa Haruo, Chûshingura no sekai: Nihonjin no shinjô no genryû , 1982. 1982.06: Iio Kuwashi. Igaishi Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha. 1982.08: Muramatsu Shunkichi.

Akô jiken no kyozô to mla style page nazo--Ura kara kaita sugao no Chûshingura . Nihon bungeisha. 1983.11: Tsurumi Shunsuke and Yasuda Takeshi, Chûshingura to Yotsuya kaidan: Nihonjin no communication . Asahi shinbunsha. 1984.10: Maruya Saiichi. Chûshingura to wa nanika . Kôdansha. 1985.06: Iio Kuwashi, Za Chûshingura . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1985.12: Komuro Kinnosuke. Chûshingura no jikenbo . Structural. Tokyo shoseki. 1985.12: Inoue Hisashi. I Chose Nursing. Fuchûshingura . Shûeisha. Serialized irregularly in Subaru May 1980 to December 1984. 1986.10: Morimura Seiichi, Chûshingura . Vol. Thesis Structural. I. 1986.12: Fujita Hiroshi.

Issatsu marugoto Chûshingura no hon . Longsellers. Resume Semiconductor. 1987.11: Imao Tetsuya. Thesis. Kira no kubi--Chûshingura to imajineeshon . Heibonsha. 1988.04: Iio Kuwashi. Chûshingura no shinsô . Shin jinbutsu ôrai sha.

1988: Inoue Hisashi. Inu no adauchi . Bungei shunjû sha. 1988.11: Kobayashi Nobuhiko. Ura-omote Chûshingura . Shinchôsha. 1988.11: Akita to Ikumi to Tamiko-chan. Essays. 'Heh, Chûshinguraa, nanda sore?' to iu kata ni pittari no Chûshingura desu. Gogatsu shobô. 1988.12: Shimura Takeshi. Chûshingura no jinseikun . Mikasa shobô. 1988.12: Izawa Motohiko.

Chûshingura Genroku jûgonen no hangyaku . Thesis. Shinchôsha. 1988.12: Fumidate Teruko. Kira Kôzukenosuke no Chûshingura . PHP Kenkyûjo. 1988: Morimura Seiichi. Kira Chûshingura . Notecard Research. 2 vols. 1989.01: Kôdo Suisei. Chûshingura nante nakatta . Banseisha. January 1989 [Nuclear Age Year 44]. 1. The students and the topics they studied were: Michael Ainge (short stories about Ôishi Kuranosuke by Akutagawa Ryûnosuke and Nogami Yaeko), Andy Cane (Utamaro parody prints [ mitate-e ] on Chûshingura), John Carpenter (early uki-e Chûshingura prints), Iori Joko ( kibyôshi parodies of Chûshingura), Sue Kawashima (the case for Kira Kôzuke-no-suke), Jordan Sand (reporting the Akô Incident in Edo), and Keiko Takahashi (Hiroshige's Chûshingura prints).

2. In actual fact, the term Chûshingura seems to have been used prior to Kanadehon , in an illustrated kurohon chapbook of structural 1746. Few, however, are aware of this. 3. The regular use of Akô jiken seems to date from the 1960s. The one-volume Nihonshi jiten of 1954, edited by the Kokushi kenkyûshitsu of Kyoto University, describes the incident under Akô gishi, while the first volume of the Iwanami Kokushi daijiten (Yoshikawa kôbunkan, 1979 ff), uses rather Akô jiken. 4. Kira's name is read by some as Yoshihisa. 5. Fairbank, Reischauer, and on literature Craig, East Asia: Tradition and Transformation , p. 411.

6. Paul Varley, Japanese Culture , 3rd ed. (University of Hawaii Press, 1984), p. 184. 7. Jordan Sand, Chûshingura as a Media Event: Reporting and Documentation of the Akô Incident. 8. Kôsaka Jirô, Genroku o-tatami bugyô no nikki--Owari hanshi no mita ukiyo (Chûkô shinsho, 1984), pp. Thesis. 180-183. 9. Resume Semiconductor. See Donald Shively, Tokugawa Plays on Forbidden Topics, in James Brandon, ed., Chûshingura--Studies in Kabuki and the Puppet Theater (Univ. of thesis Hawaii Press, 1982), p. Paper. 35. In Japanese, the most recent discussion of the problem is Watanabe Tamotsu, Chûshingura--Moo hitotsu no rekishi kankaku (Hakusuisha, 1981), pp. Structural. 34-39.

10. I rely here on the description of Aoki Sentei, Keiseika serareta gishi shôsetsu, Aoi , nos. 2-4 (June-Aug, 1910), pp. 13-17, 10-12, 14-18. 11. Shively, op.cit. , gives a detailed summary in English. The seminal work in good this area was Yuda Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura seiritsushi, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô , December 1967, reprinted in thesis structural Yuda, Jôruri shi ronkô (Chûô kôronsha, 1975), pp.

359-370. 12. Fujino Yoshio, Kanadehon Chûshingura: Kaishaku to kenkyû (3 vols., Ofûsha, 1974), I/80-144. 13. Nakayama Mikio, Chûshingura monogatari , Ukiyoe kabuki shiriizu 3 (Gakugei shorin, 1988), p. Paper Mla Style Cover. 17. 14. This and thesis three other kibyôshi parodies were the topic of the seminar paper by Iori Joko, Chûshingura Parodies in Kibyôshi.

Anatehon Chûshingura appears in an annotated edition in Koike Masatane, et al. , eds., Edo no gesaku ehon , zokkan 1 (Gendai kyôyô bunko, Shakai shisôsha, 1984). 15. Satô Tadao, Chûshingura--Iji no keifu (Asahi sensho, 1976), p. On Literature. 88. 16. Thesis. It might be argued that the two words Kanadehon and Chûshingura imply two different vectors in the interpretation of the Akô vendetta, with the former emphasizing the individuality and sense of honor of each the 47 separate retainers, and the latter implying their unity as a band loyal to a single lord. In the writing variants of Kanadehon Chûshingura listed by Fujino, op.cit. Structural. , words referring to the kana number (particularly iroha and shijûshichi ) are just about good report, twice as common in the kabuki tradition as words relating to loyalty ( chûshin , gishin , chûgi , etc.) up until Meiji, when terms of loyalty become dominant.

17. I am indebted in structural the following account to Matsushima Eiichi, Chûshingura--Sono seiritsu to tenkai (Iwanami shinsho, 1964), pp. 213 ff. 18. As cited by Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. 96, from report, a privately published work, Eiga Chûshingura. 19. Mayama's work is discussed in detail in Donald Keene, Variations on thesis structural, a Theme: Chûshingura , in James Brandon, op.cit. , pp. 13-21. Satô Tadao, op.cit. , p. 108, quotes Mayama's daughter as claiming that her father really wanted to depict the research paper mla style cover page Akô ronin as opponents of tyrannical shogunal rule, but was prevented by the militarism of the times.

Mayama's Genroku Chûshingura served as the basis for thesis structural, Mizoguchi Kenji's two-part film of the same name, 1941-42. 20. Gregory Barrett, Archetypes in Japanese Film: The Sociopolitical and Religious Significance of the Principal Heroes and Heroines (Associated University Presses, 1989), p. 30. 22. Akutagawa's story was translated and analyzed in the seminar paper by notecard format paper Michael Ainge, Nogami Yaeko and Akutagawa Ryûnosuke: Two More Voices Join the Chûshingura Legend. Thesis Structural. 23. The work is research paper cover page, mentioned in structural Matsushima, op.cit. And Other. , p. 223, as having appeared in Shinkô kagaku no hata no moto ni , under the thesis penname Ôkawa Hyônosuke, entitled Ôishi Yoshio no bawai. 24.

Quoted in Satô Tadao, op.cit. , pp. 102-3. 26. Kira was studied in a seminar paper by Sue Kawashima, Kira Yoshihisa, A Tragic Hero: A Neglected Perspective. 27. Inoue made these points in a taidan with Morimura Seiichi, Shûkan Asahi , May 21, 1982. 28. Format Research Paper. I rely here on the description of the play in Nawata Kazuo, 'Chûshingura' sakuhin arekore--kinsaku to ippin, Taishû bungaku kenkyû , v. Structural. 87 (January 1989), pp.

8-9. 29.Yamaguchi Masao, Chûshingura to ôken no ronri, Kokubungaku: Kaishaku to kanshô 31/15 (December 1986), pp. 38-41. Paper Mla Style Cover. 30. These details come from Asahi kiiwaado , 1987, p. 28.

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Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots. By Resume Genius / September 29, 2014. Here’s an structural experience you’ve probably had: You write a solid resume for the perfect position at a big-name company, and send it off with an earnest cover letter. Unfortunately, besides an automated email reply, you hear absolutely nothing back. You feel crushed — you think some hiring manager on the other end actually read through the good format entirety of structural, your resume and concluded that you weren’t qualified for the job.

But here’s the twist — chances are, no human has even laid eyes on your application. The truth? You were probably rejected by essay on why i chose nursing, resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). You were probably rejected by resume reading robot called an Applicant Tracking System (ATS). Welcome to the 21st century. Structural? Large and even medium sized firms are using ATS to format research, deal with the hundreds, if not thousands of applicants who are applying to the same positions every day.

This resume reading software allows these companies to to automate, streamline, and thesis, manage the hiring process. Why are companies allowing robots to make human resource decisions? Going through resumes to screen applicants is tedious work. But the ATS speeds up this process by identifying candidates whose resumes contain key experiences and skill sets that match the qualifications employers are seeking. According to a popular study conducted by search services provider Preptel, as many as 75% of the candidates don’t make it past the ATS screening. It may seem brutal, but this screening process does the format job of whittling down a cumbersome applicant pool into structural, just a handful of applicants that the human hiring managers can review more closely. Here’s the takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is essay on why i chose nursing, absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Here’s the takeaway for living in the age of resume reading robots — a well-crafted, ATS friendly resume is absolutely critical to a successful job hunt. Qualified candidates that fail to thesis, make an ATS friendly resume will get rejected, period. Here are 4 reasons that even the on why as a most qualified candidates can fail to thesis structural, After combing the difference between essay paragraph web and consulting some of our in-house experts at Resume Genius, we zero in on the most common reasons why resumes of even the most qualified candidates fail to pass screening.

Reason #1: The ATS can’t actually process your resume. Warning: The ATS will fail to thesis structural, read your artistic additions to format paper, your resume . Although a human hiring manager might appreciate a little flair, the resume robot will simply incinerate your resume without a second thought. It would be a shame for your resume to get screen out thesis structural, because the ATS is essay on why profession, unable to read it. Basic rule of structural, thumb: keep your fonts and formatting simple. Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Sometimes the difference between essay paragraph writing ATS will use a built-in optical character recognition (OCR) software to processes your digital resume. It scans your file, converts it into a text format, then extracts your information and experiences from there.

While the thesis structural ATS is getting better at reading PDF files, it’s still safer to feed the system a Word or Text file. Do away with any adjusted spacing, newsletter formatting, lines. Go with the clean, standard fonts like Arial, Verdana, and essays on literature, Times New Roman. Thesis Structural? Scrap inventive layouts, graphics, or artifacts that affect the readability of your resume. Reason #2: The ATS doesn’t recognize the headings you used. Applicant Tracking System software is built to and other on literature, sort your experiences based on the resume’s section headings. If you’ve written a different heading than normal — say “Major Abilities” instead of “Skills,” it will skip over that section if it is unable to determine what your heading stands for, the CIO reports. People like to get creative with headings, thinking that it will help their resume stand out. Unfortunately, unconventional headings can actually hurt it. Help the software do its job. Use the standard headings “Work Experience”, “Skills”, “Publications” so you don’t stand the risk of the resume bot placing your qualifications under the wrong categories, or misreading your headings altogether.

Reason #3: Your resume lacks targeted keywords. By now, you’ve formatted your resume properly, and used normal headings. Here’s the meat of how an ATS actually reads your resume. It’s looking for targeted keywords. First, the hiring manager will input certain keywords and key phrases into the software, each relevant to structural, the role they need filled. For example, an software company hiring manager might use these keywords: Next, the good ATS software will read through each resume, and determine whether the it has enough keywords and key phrases to pass through the screening. If the thesis structural percentage is high enough, your resume will successfully be reviewed by an actual human. Your ability to use the right keywords depends on essay on why i chose, two things:

Do you actually have the relevant skills, abilities, education, and work experiences? If you do have all or some from #1, doing good research and giving your resume a hard look-over will get you through the ATS. The best place to begin is to read the thesis structural hiring manager’s very own job description. From that job description, you can see what keywords and key phrases they emphasize a potential applicant should have. Between Essay Writing Writing? If they include them in the job description, it’s highly likely they’ve also input them into the ATS. The image below contains a real example of a librarian job description, and the image next to it reflects what we believe are important keywords a librarian applicant should include on their resumes: Normal Job Description. Job Description with ATS Keywords Highlighted. GREEN HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that are CRITICAL to getting past the ATS. YELLOW HIGHLIGHT: Keywords that will please the human hiring manager, or are ATS keywords of lower importance.

The job post gives you good clues about keywords and experiences employers are seeking. It’ll serve you well to read those job descriptions closely, and identify important competencies and skill sets. Thesis Structural? Place emphasis on these matched experiences in your resume. It’s also helpful include both specific and general keywords in the mix. ATS uses all of these keywords into certain job functions. For your previous position as “team leader”, include job-specific buzzwords such as “coordinate”, “manage”, but having the essays general keyword “project coordinator”, “project manager” will help to strengthen your resume. Be sure to try out our ATS-friendly resume building software that comes with over thesis 50,000 professionally-written phrases and essay writing, job-specific keywords. Reason #4: Your resume has too many nonspecific keywords. Some have suggested “hacking” the resume bot by submitting two or three-page long resumes that exhaust all keywords that are relevant to the job. That’s not a good idea — even if it did work (it doesn’t), it certainly won’t impress the structural human hiring manager. you can’t stuff your resume with an research paper exhaustive list of experiences and thesis structural, hope to between writing paragraph writing, game the thesis structural system into essay on why i chose nursing as a, thinking you’re a perfect match.

According to a report from The Ladders, ATS software ranks your candidacy based on how specifically your resume matches keywords and phrases in thesis structural, a job description. Some software even looks for how uniquely the work experiences you listed match the job requirements. Here’s the rub — you can’t stuff your resume with an exhaustive list of experiences and hope to game the system into thinking you’re a perfect match. Having off-target keywords can score your resume down on relevancy. Use the instruction from #3 to research relevant keywords and ensure that your resume is concise and targeted. To the greatest extent possible, your resume should uniquely match the requirements in between paragraph writing, the job description. To sum it up: the bots are getting better at contextualizing resumes, and recruiters are always aiming to interview candidates whose experiences adhere the most closely to positions they’re seeking to fill.

Therefore, having targeted, job-specific keywords throughout your resume is more important than ever. Reason #5: Your resume lacks industry and thesis structural, company jargon or abbreviations. Experts suggest that adopting industry jargon or even including a company’s corporate lingo within your resume is a smart choice. If you think about it, it’s only logical for the hiring manager to input industry jargon and abbreviations into an ATS. Therefore, you will need to optimize your resume to include these terms wherever possible.

Fortunately, this is between essay writing, very simple to do. Weave relevant jargon and terminology into your resume, and thesis structural, spell out the on why nursing as a profession abbreviations and acronyms. DO NOT ever simply include an structural acronym or abbreviation by itself on a resume. You should always spell them out completely, followed by good, their abbreviation or acronym. Acronyms with Spelled out thesis, Examples. Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) agent with 10+ years of experience. Optimized and difference essay writing paragraph writing, purchased Pay Per Click (PPC) ads for a major software company Maintained plant operation’s perfect record of zero Operation Safety Health Administration (OSHA) recordables. If you’re unfamiliar with a certain industry’s lingo, you can research jargon and abbreviations specific to thesis, the field, sector, or industry in which you’re seeking employment. To sum it up: a resume with clean formatting and clear, targeted language gets you through ATS screening.

Once you land that interview, however, it would be advisable to have a more descriptive and eye-pleasing version of your resume ready for your human recruiters. Thanks… this really was useful. Thanks for your comment Rasana! Glad we could help! Feel free to ask us any questions. I have found that in order to get your resume even considered, you must really target each position for the relevant key words. Also, do the same for your cover letter or add those that were missed in difference paragraph writing, the resume. You are absolutely correct about targeting each position for thesis structural, relevant key words.

One of the best places to paper mla style, pinpoint relevant key words is in thesis structural, the position’s job description. Great comment Jamie! I’ve been reading articles on cracking the resume semiconductor ATS for structural, a couple months now, just confounded at what I was doing wrong, or what I could do differently. Essay On Why Nursing As A Profession? this article has been more helpful than ALL the others! Thanks for that. Structural? Bookmarked!

Thanks for your comment Pert! Glad that you found our article useful. Good luck on essay on why nursing as a profession, the job hunt! This is very useful information, thanks for sharing. Glad you found it helpful.

Be sure to structural, share it with your friends and get the word out. Thanks for the comment. High Quality Candidates: If a company doesn’t care enough about essay on why i chose nursing profession, you and your far superior talents, capabilities and experience that they throw an ATS software program in your way DON’T reward them with an application! ATS software and all similar crap will be avoided by companies IF there’s a large enough movement among the highly qualified and most talented employee pool. Thesis? Concentrate on those companies that treat you like a real human and avoid the automated people processors whenever possible!

Companies will catch on to the detrimental nature of this “time and cost saving software” and research paper cover, realize it’s costing them everything! Many already have. Imagine, as with myself, you work in a totally “visual” industry where picture representations of your work tell virtually your whole story! Applying for a graphic design, art director or illustrator job has been rendered orders of structural, magnitude more difficult with the advent of ATS processing! The situation is about as insane as trying to get a singing job with no recordings of your voice being allowed and no chance for a personal audition! Companies with H.R. people who have virtually no expertise in the commercial art field are already at a huge disadvantage in making any kind of qualified decisions regarding such applicants. Add to that a totally intrusive, opaque and good, “dumb” software program placed strategically as a final barrier to any chance of actually communicating your amazing talents and, well, you have the structural “perfect storm” of employment failure – both for on literature, the employer and potential employee.

Agreed. However, my line of thesis structural, work is not with the between essay writing paragraph smaller companies that seem to actually read a resume but within the larger corporations and they ALL use ATS! Buzz words (key words) are definitely the structural secret and one must learn this and use the job description in the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to email address! Definitely, if your are in the design and arts profession, ATS is surely the Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on research paper, staff, and the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on a multitude of different accounts with all kinds of thesis structural, varying calendar timing through an ATS and expect it to spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the difference between fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the thesis structural ATS to be their ultimate challenge in the job search, the paper “sheeple” continue to thesis, just follow the guidelines to gaming the good format system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS.

Unfortunately for the likes of you and me, we don’t really have the structural luxury to semiconductor, NOT play along at structural, least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to say if you have a job. But if you are unemployed, you have little choice. This software should be outlawed. No wonder the nitwits in HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out beforehand. Woww. Having the right information at the tip of your finger can actually ease the endless pain of essays on literature, job seeking and resume submission without consideration. Thanks, your article is encompassing and indeed rich. Thesis Structural? Keep it up. Glad we could help! Thanks for you comment.

While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on the state of corporate hiring today. We are being dehumanized and reduced to automatons in the new world order system. This article is so very. useful. It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong. Good Report? Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to mold my resume to match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the structural required. skills of a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation?

Ignore the job post, and notecard paper, move. to the next one? Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to the specific job post. Thesis Structural? As far as skills go, check out difference essay paragraph, this page for more advice: Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of thesis structural, our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill.

On top of that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and and other essays, lamentation. In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is still such an outrageously resource wasting game of hide and seek. Structural? Resumes and job postings are still crafted as for a single pieces of research paper mla style cover page, paper formatted to communicate all pertinent information in the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. While an ATS attempts to tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing.

I’m considering starting a company that would provide the mirror analog of an thesis ATS to report format, job seekers for structural, free, with the ultimate goal of steering development of the cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the on literature inevitable war between the two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to thesis structural, the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to format research paper, kick the thesis structural mule). Notecard Format Research Paper? Who’s with me? How should I handle the resume I post on job boards (e.g. Monster, Dice)? That resume can’t be tailored to a specific job description. Should I use keywords common to thesis structural, many of the job descriptions for my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for a specific job? BINGO! Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of i chose nursing profession, luck!

Thanks for your help and for the great article. Structural? Cheers! Thanks for the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to create a resume that both gets through the ATS and writing writing, appeals to thesis structural, hiring managers once it lands in their hands. Share Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. On Why As A Profession? We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the thesis One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

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Disadvantages Of Cross Training Essays and thesis Research Papers. Cross - training your employees: Boosting flexibility, fostering teamwork Getting your office staff proficient in multiple tasks . can make for an even smoother-running practice -- if you take the resume time to do the training right. By LARRY STEVENS, amednews correspondent. Sept. 4, 2006. PRINT| E-MAIL| RESPOND| REPRINTS| SHARE There are no office positions called receptionist, billing clerk or scheduler in medical practice heaven. Instead there is thesis structural only one nonclinical job: office. Boston Legal , David E. Resume! Kelley , Employment 1637 Words | 5 Pages. Importance of Cross-Cultural Training for thesis structural Expatriates.

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By cross training employees a company would save on labor and productivity, this would be because their employees would have a higher morale, and will not be bored with their jobs. As your business is open, you want your employees to get their jobs done as while as help. Churn Creek , Cross-training , Drive-through 1303 Words | 4 Pages. | Action Plan | Cross -Cultural Management | Submitted By – Ashish Arora Submitted To – Dr. Ruchi Sharma (Module Tutor)Submitted On – 16th . November 2012 | | | | Analysis on Cross -Cultural Training by Organizations Article 1 – Simulation training methods to thesis develop cultural awareness This paper aims to review stimulation methods which are available for the training to develop cultural awareness for business people. The paper reviews the research methods of thesis training available and cites. Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 1194 Words | 5 Pages. ? Training can. Help ensure that employees have skills to essay i chose nursing profession work with new technology.

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The goal of difference writing training is to create an thesis, impact. Apprenticeship , Employment , Learning 1678 Words | 5 Pages. project I am going to look at importance of training and development in organizations. Firstly, different company attitudes to research paper page . training and development and cost and benefits associated with it are going to be discussed. Thesis! Secondly, the stages in training and development process are going to essay profession be identified with a specific focus on different training and development methods and consideration of thesis its advantages and disadvantages . Finally, the good format literature on training and development use as a motivation and. Employment , Human resource management , Learning 2596 Words | 7 Pages.

develop a training system that is streamed-lined, effective, and efficient and gives your new employees the structural skills needed to notecard format research be a good . employee without overburdening them with too much information. Finding the balance between too much and too little information is the key to designing the most effective training system for your company. Step One: Determine what training is needed. The first step in designing a training system for your company is to determine what kinds of training is thesis structural needed. Employment , Learning , Skill 2415 Words | 7 Pages. CROSS CULTURAL RELATIONSHIPS As the world becomes more and more internationally connected, the need to understand people from different . cultures and how to interact appropriately with them also increases. Managers and leaders need to develop intercultural competences that can help them be more aware of resume semiconductor their own culturally-based perceptions, norms, and patterns of thesis thinking, and resume semiconductor consequently adapt their behaviors according to specific cultural contexts. Managing people across cultures offers solid. Communication , Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication 1113 Words | 4 Pages. TRAINING METHODS :- All training methods can be grouped into thesis structural two categories :- a] Training methods for . operatives and b] Training methods for managers a] Training Methods for Operatives :- Under these methods the new employee is assigned to research mla style a specific job at a machine or workshop or laboratory.

He is instructed by an experienced employee or by a special supervisor who explains to him the method of handling tools, operating the machines etc. Thesis! Vestibule Training :- This method involves the. Apprenticeship , Knowledge , Practice 1147 Words | 4 Pages. Q1.)How does training differ from development amp; education? What is the role of training amp; development in learning? . 1. Good Format! Training Training tends to be job or skill specific. Besides being specific to a particular job, training is also more likely to be a physical endeavor than education. Training entails the practical application of thesis structural education, and thus requires actual movement and motion. For example, a medical student will obtain knowledge from classroom education, but will ultimately. Employment , Human resource management , Labour economics 2145 Words | 6 Pages. in toto merely because the prosecution chose to treat him as hostile and cross -examined him.

The evidence of such witnesses cannot be treated . as effaced or washed off the record altogether, but the same can be accepted to the extent their version is found to report format be dependable on thesis structural a careful scrutiny thereof 2. Rabinder Kumar Dey v. State of research paper cover page Orissa, [1976] 4 SCC 233 The fact that the court gave permission to the Prosecutor to cross -examine his own witness, thus characterising him as, what is described as. Circumstantial evidence , Credibility , Evidence law 2109 Words | 9 Pages. 1. Indian companies, which used to focus mainly on sales training programs for their own sales force, are now extending these initiatives to . their business partners. Structural! What are the major reasons behind the increasing prominence of such initiatives among Indian companies? Also throw light on the advantages and disadvantages of outsourcing the training activities to third parties. Ans: The reason for extending sales training program initiatives to business partners is due the research paper cover fact that consumers perceive. Business , Marketing , Sales 778 Words | 3 Pages. Benefitsof Cross Training in thesis structural an Organization. Abstract Cross training plays a major part in the success of an organization in today's businesses. Cross . training is notecard format research paper a way of thesis structural developing employees in all the skills necessary to research complete many different tasks that must be performed to enhance the performance of the company or organization.

This also helps the thesis structural business work more as a team and less on an individual scale. Resume Semiconductor! Therefore, it makes the business run more smoothly and increases productivity from the employees. Many companies use cross training. Christian cross , Cross-training , Employment 2849 Words | 8 Pages. Four Approaches to International Staffing- Microsoft and Red Cross. Four approaches to thesis international staffing, advantages and between essay writing paragraph disadvantages . The globalisation of the world’s business economy has been . particularly significant, resulting in an increase in the importance of, and interest in, international human resourcing. Structural! The international company is a type of multi-unit business organisation, which has a corporate centre in its home and its business units located in semiconductor various host countries. Structural! International HRM distinguishes itself from domestic HRM primarily by having. Ethnocentrism , Geert Hofstede , International Committee of the Red Cross 1350 Words | 4 Pages. I. INTERCULTURAL TRAINING Today, many organizations realize the importance of intercultural management and therefore increase the use of . cross -cultural training programs offered by specialized companies or provided by internal departments within multinational corporations. For example, Fortune 500 companies, including Microsoft, Wal-Mart, Apple, Exxon Mobil, Procter amp; Gamble, Coca Cola, etc. regularly purchase seminars or provide other forms of research mla style cover page cross -cultural training . Multinational companies.

Corporation , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 766 Words | 3 Pages. Employee Training and Career Development. Employee Training and Career Development Paper HRM 300 Employee Training and thesis Career Development Paper Every organization . needs well trained and knowledgeable employees to perform the daily tasks needed to achieve company goals. An organizations success depends greatly on mla style the training and development of its employees and thesis structural the development of the organization itself. An organization has a large responsibility for difference between writing paragraph writing their success which is why training , development, and career development is imperative.

Employment , Human resource management , Learning 940 Words | 3 Pages. A PAPER ON “ CROSS CULTURAL TRAINING ” -Ms. Sarika Kale INTRODUCTION: . Globalization of business has led to thesis structural cross border flows of physical, financial and human resources. It has resulted in both a large number of people working abroad, as well as an increasingly multi cultural domestic work environment. To face the ever growing competition, organizations are expanding their businesses, outsourcing and even establishing offices overseas. Organizations. Anthropology , Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication 4604 Words | 16 Pages.

Cross -Cultural Psychology Roberta Menlove Psy/450 January 29, 2013 Jacquie Nelson Cross -Cultural Psychology Culture exist . everywhere, it performs a significant function throughout life. Culture expresses itself in every individual’s life. These expressions come in multiple forms such as behavior, appearance, and language. The importance of culture and its influence is demonstrated in the relationship between different cultures and cross -cultures, how individuals use critical thinking as well. Anthropology , Behavior , Culture 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Abstract Virtual training is a rapidly expanding concept among today’s employers. However, it is really better than traditional methods that . have been used for years, or is it just a fad that companies will quickly outgrow? Like most things, virtual training has advantages and disadvantages associated with its use, and companies must judge for themselves if it is appropriate in their unique work setting. Through the use a thorough needs assessment, a company can make this determination and decide.

1916 , 1925 , Blended learning 1247 Words | 4 Pages. In-basket was created at AIR University in the 1950s to evaluate training , and was further developed by Fredericksen (1960) of Educational . Testing Service. Since the method in-basket exist, they have been widely used in format many aspects of management training , especially in industry, company, educational administration, and government. In-basket training also called as in-tray training . Thesis Structural! That was a psychological testing and training method. In this method, knowledge, skills and attitude of trainees. Management , Problem , Problem solving 1495 Words | 5 Pages. Issues Relating Diverse and essay on why i chose nursing as a profession Cross Cultural Management. Issues relating diverse and thesis structural cross cultural workforce | | | | | R.RAAKESH(12608013) | 5/14/2013 | | INTRODUCTION . Resume! The diverse workforce has become a reality today. Thesis! The impact of cultural diversity varies with the type of environment and firm’s overall strategy.

As more and more number of firms move from domestic, multidomestic, multinational strategies to resume operating as a truly global firm, the significance and impact of thesis structural cultural diversity increase markedly. Format Research! Management of. Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Cultural anthropology 1326 Words | 5 Pages. The Red Cross By Kevin Smith The Red Cross is an structural, international organization that thrives on donations and the kindness of . others to succeed. And Other Essays On Literature! This Red Cross supports military families, disaster relief, health and safety training along with education, and blood drives that save thousands of thesis structural lives yearly. The Red Cross started in good format the year 1881 and was mainly used to help wounded soldiers from the battlefield. “The global Red Cross has evolved into the world’s largest humanitarian network -. Blood , International Committee of the thesis structural Red Cross , International organizations 860 Words | 3 Pages. | Context The British Red Cross helps people in resume semiconductor crisis, whoever and wherever they are. We are part of a global voluntary . network, responding to thesis structural conflicts, natural disasters and paper individual emergencies. Structural! We enable vulnerable people in the UK and abroad to resume prepare for and withstand emergencies in their own communities. And when the crisis is over, we help them to thesis structural recover and difference essay writing writing move on with their lives.

Within the UK, the British Red Cross operates through about 3000 staff and over thesis, 30. First aid , Occupational safety and health 551 Words | 4 Pages. Cross -cultural communication has been an integral component of business in recent decades, as globalisation has created a situation where . countries depend more and more on each other (Asgary Walle 2002). Format Research Paper! Achieving this has been through the use of both verbal and thesis non-verbal communication. Both these forms of communication have their advantages as well as their shortcomings, but are necessary in order to communicate in the current globalised world. Achieving successful, effective cross -cultural communication. Communication , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 1027 Words | 4 Pages. ?PART A : Cross Docking: The term cross docking refers to moving product from report format a manufacturing plant and delivers . it directly to the customer with little or no material handling in between. Structural! Cross docking not only reduces material handling, but also reduces the on why i chose nursing as a need to store the products in the warehouse. In most cases the products sent from the thesis manufacturing area to the loading dock has been allocated for outbound deliveries. In some instances the products will not arrive at research paper mla style page the loading.

Department store , Inventory , Logistics 1791 Words | 6 Pages. Disadvantages of in-House Training. the disadvantages as well to help you be aware of these and take action to reduce the impact. The Advantages and Benefits of In-House . Training include: * Training Cost saving – the cost per delegate is typically less when compared to thesis structural sending the same number on to public training courses. * Travel Cost saving – no need for employees to research paper page travel any further than their offices and incur extra costs. Structural! * More specific – generally running a course for a single client allows the training to focus. Best practice , Employment , Expense 689 Words | 2 Pages. Job Enlargement, Job Rotation, Cross Training.

Human Behavior in format research Organizations: An Introduction My academic training didn't really prepare me for my biggest job challenge-understanding and . Structural! motivating people. a recent Northeastern Graduate INTRODUCTION For most of us, our career success will be largely a function of our skills in understanding and influencing human behavior. This is because most of what you will be doing is notecard shaping the behavior of others. As you can see in the chart below, a typical manager spends little of thesis structural his or her. Behavior , Human behavior , Learning 715 Words | 3 Pages. Jury Advantages Disadvantages And Reforms. ?Assignment brief In 1956 Lord Devlin professed that juries are ‘the lamp that shows that freedom lives’. Evaluate the accuracy of this statement with regard . to the advantages and disadvantages of trial by jury, the resume semiconductor alternatives available and any reforms that have been introduced or recommended.

You are to thesis produce an essay as follows Critically evaluate pros and between essay cons the arguments for and against trial by thesis structural, jury Discuss any reforms that have been proposed or introduced and evaluate these reforms pros. Common law , Court , Judge 1657 Words | 4 Pages. Ranked as the i chose nursing profession fifth most successful non-profit organization of 2012, the American Red Cross saves the lives of people every single day all . across the globe (“Top”). They provide services such as disaster relief, support for America’s military families, health and safety training and certification, lifesaving blood, and international services. Supplying over 40% of blood and the blood products in the U.S., the Red Cross plays a critical role in structural the nation’s healthcare system. Without their incredible. American Red Cross , Clara Barton , Employment 2221 Words | 7 Pages. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Group Work. With reference to academic work on groups and teams provide a review of 500 words which outlines the advantages and disadvantages of working in . a group The aim of this essay is to show how group work can be very useful with many benefits; however, it does have downfalls which can prove individual work to be more satisfying. The dictionary definition of essay on why as a profession a group is a number of persons belonging or classed together, they come about in a psychological sense because people realize they are in the same.

Allyn Bacon , Group Emotion , Modular arithmetic 750 Words | 3 Pages. Cross cultural negotiation is one of many specialized areas within the wider field of thesis cross cultural communications. By taking . cross cultural negotiation training , negotiators and sales personnel give themselves an advantage over competitors. There is an cover, argument that proposes that culture is thesis inconsequential to cross cultural negotiation. It maintains that as long as a proposal is financially attractive it will succeed. However, this is between essay paragraph writing a naive way of thesis approaching international business. Notecard Format Paper! Let.

Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 941 Words | 4 Pages. of ' Cross Culture' The interaction of people from different backgrounds in the business world. Thesis! Cross culture is a vital issue . in international business, as the success of between essay paragraph writing international trade depends upon the smooth interaction of thesis structural employees from different cultures and report format regions. A growing number of companies are consequently devoting substantial resources toward training their employees to interact effectively with those of thesis structural companies in notecard format paper other cultures in an effort to foment a positive cross -cultural. Cross-cultural communication , Culture , Economics 1139 Words | 5 Pages. Development and Training Paper For this assignment, JP Morgan Chase (JP Morgan) will revamp its training and development . Structural! program. JP Morgan is a very large company, so any new training material will go through many guidelines to ensure the adequate amount of changes are done. Essay I Chose Nursing Profession! JP Morgan will assess what the training needs are. Once the training needs are identified, the training materials can be created.

JP Morgan being the large company that it is, will most likely use an internal medium to train. Cross-selling , Human resource management , JPMorgan Chase 1769 Words | 5 Pages. Cross Cultural Diversity Proposal. become cross -cultural or global. Going cross -cultural for Superior Widget Corporation is the only next step to thesis take since they . are a young company growing vigorously. The growth of the company is the reason why it is necessary to become a cross -cultural company. This is research paper why the training is thesis necessary. This training will be different than any other training that has been given. This is going to be different because becoming a cross cultural business is something different. Normal training doesn’t.

Corporation , Cross-cultural , Culture 2630 Words | 7 Pages. Training and development CH 11 – 15 Chapter 11 * Experimental design - Comparison is format made to an untrained group; assignment of people is . random. * Quasi Experimental Design - Comparison is made to an untrained group; assignment of people is not random. * Non-Experimental Design – Each trained person to an absolute standard. When the comparison does not involve another group of untrained people. * Training evaluation – A process to assess the value- the worthiness of training programs. Cost , Cost-benefit analysis , Costs 1068 Words | 5 Pages. recommendations on establishing training and development departments in businesses large and small and structural improving existing . training and development departments. Companies may feel that they are able to hire experienced employees through the candidate pool that is currently available and that having a specialized department for this purpose will be too expensive, but training and development provide benefits to the company and employees alike. According to Noe (2013): The goal of training is for employees to. Better , Company , Development aid 1645 Words | 5 Pages. The Influences of Cross Cultural Training on the Organisation and Staffs.

The influences of notecard format cross cultural training on the organisation and staffs Cross -cultural efficiency is very . Thesis! fundamental in notecard format international organisations and even in domestic organizations that have suppliers, customers and partners in other countries. We need to firm understanding of it into everything we do, when working across cultures becomes our normal way of working. Therefore, cross cultural training becomes an important part of training employees because organisations want to push their performance. Anthropology , Cross-cultural , Cross-cultural communication 2539 Words | 8 Pages. ?Running head: THE AMERICAN RED CROSS The American Red Cross Dr. Thesis Structural! Victor Oladapo Ethics and Advocacy for HR . Professional The American Red Cross 1. Research Paper Page! Determine impact of this event on ARC’s “benefits of business ethics” (employee commitment, investor loyalty, customer satisfaction the, and bottom line). Ferrell and structural Fraedrich (2011) states that, “business ethics relates to rules, standards, and moral principles regarding what is right or wrong in research paper page specific. American Red Cross , Business ethics , Corporate governance 1179 Words | 4 Pages. “When starting a business a cultural analysis needs to be done if the thesis business targets a range of audience from several locations” Globalization is an . And Other Essays On Literature! inevitable process in the 21st Century, and thesis so is the cross – culturalization. The world is becoming more and more homogeneous, and distinctions between national markets are not only fading but for some products its disappearing. Notecard Paper! This means that marketing is now becoming a world common discipline.

However, on the other hand, the differences among. Anthropology , Culture , India 1425 Words | 5 Pages. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAME IN RAMIND COLD FORGE PVT. LTD INTRODUCTION TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT . Training is the thesis formal and systematic modification of behaviors through learning which occurs as a results of education, instruction, development and planed experience Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future ,needs rather than present needs and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. NATURE OF TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT. Assessment , Better , Evaluation 1401 Words | 5 Pages. What Are the Advantages, Disadvantages and Structure of an good, International Joint Venture (Ijv) ? International joint ventures (IJVs), the thesis second type of equity based cross -border alliance, have experienced tremendous growth . during the last two decades as well. They will continue to resume semiconductor represent a major means of global expansion for MNEs.

In emerging economies such as China they represent the dominating operation mode for MNEs’ market entry. According to structural a well-known definition by Shenkar and Zeira an IJV. Culture , Expatriate , Expatriates 1112 Words | 4 Pages. Training and Development University of Phoenix HCS/341 Training and Development Training and development in paper mla style cover page . today’s health care setting is an imperative process that must be engrained within an structural, organizational structure. And Other! The organization’s Human Resource (HR) department must ensure that every employee in thesis the organization is format correctly trained to perform the thesis structural job duties that are assigned. Managers must accurately measure each employee’s competencies in order to strategically plan and and other implement.

Bureau of Labor Statistics , Health , Health care 1282 Words | 4 Pages. Employee Training and thesis structural Career Development Training and notecard paper Development is thesis structural important in research paper page an organization. Thesis! It helps employees develop . their personal and resume semiconductor organizational skills, knowledge, and abilities. Companies depend on human resources to help them develop superior employees so that the company as well as individual employees can accomplish his or her career goals, and structural it increases employee job satisfaction. Training employees increases morale and performance because employees feel confident in their. Employment , Human resource management , Management 1208 Words | 4 Pages.

Impact of Cross Culture of essay writing paragraph writing a International Company. CROSS CULTURAL SOLUTIONS FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS Globalisation, the structural expansion of intercontinental trade, technological advances and the . increase in the number of nursing as a profession companies dealing on the international stage have brought about a dramatic change in the frequency, context and means by which people from different cultural backgrounds interact. Cross cultural solutions to international business demands are increasingly being viewed as a valid and necessary method in thesis structural enhancing communication and. Communication , Consultant , Cross-cultural 778 Words | 3 Pages. Training Plan Proposal: First Aid and Cpr Training. In order to discover the strengths and semiconductor weaknesses of thesis structural first aid and CPR training in our office, a needs assessment was conducted during a . period of several months prior to the development of this training program. Difference Writing Writing! The needs assessment revealed that the current staff is unfamiliar with the concepts and skills needed to properly assess and administer first aid. Structural! A pre- training assessment administered by the American Red Cross revealed that the potential trainees displayed competency in only 1 of the. American Red Cross , Artificial respiration , Cardiac arrest 1440 Words | 4 Pages.

Please find the training and as a development program for the issue of structural high AHT (Average Handling Time) iOS Tier 2 UK/IRE department in AppleCare, . Apple Inc. This training is designed for Luisa Costello’s team of 15 Advisors who are employed 16 months+, age range 35-42. Difference Between Essay Writing Writing! Training Needs Analysis: The average AHT is 14.19 minutes instead of the target 11 minutes. Structural! I have taken this figure from an internal tool called “Matrix” (appendix 1); this shows the teams averages for stats such as AHT, sales and. App Store , Apple Inc. I Chose As A! , Installation 2036 Words | 7 Pages. Traditional Training Methods Bus: 375 Traditional Training Methods While today’s organizations have a variety of . training methods to choose from, the thesis structural traditional training methods are holding strong and true. Technological advances have changed the way training occurs in many organizations.

With the use of technology, employers have begun to charge into new frontiers in the training arena. A study on notecard format research paper this topic still shows that “with 203 usable responses obtained. The results suggest that. Practice , Skill , Training 756 Words | 3 Pages. Calculate the firm’s 2006 financial ratios, and then fill in the preceding table. Thesis Structural! (Assume a 365-day year.) b. Analyze the notecard format firm’s current financial position . from structural both a cross -sectional and a time-series viewpoint. Break your analysis into evaluations of the firm’s liquidity, activity, debt, profitability, and market.

A: From a cross -sectional series I summarized this based upon my findings. The company's P/E ration is very low, implying that consumers and investors and thinking that the company. Corporate finance , Debt , Equity securities 766 Words | 3 Pages. Federico Alcocer January 18, 2013 Mrs. Rivera 3B The Red Cross It was during 1919 in research paper mla style cover page Paris after World War 1 had just finished, . when the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies was founded (IFRC). The idea of having such a symbol as a Red Cross came from Henry Dunant in 1859. It all started when Dunant witnessed a bloody battle scene in Solferino, Italy. Over 40,000 men laid dead or wounded in the battlefield without any medical help. It was from there and. American Red Cross , Battle of Solferino , Geneva 902 Words | 3 Pages.

DIVERSITY TRAINING Diversity training is training intended to increase cultural awareness, knowledge and skills, . and increase the inclusion of identity groups. This ultimately is designed to assist an organization promote a more diverse corporate culture, protect against civil rights issues, and promote better teamwork. This is accomplished through training in communications to thesis structural all levels of an organization, reinforcement of semiconductor policies and procedures to structural be more inclusive, design and implementation. Employment , Inclusion , Sociology 1767 Words | 7 Pages. Strategies to Improve Cross-Cultural Relations. trategies to improve cross -cultural relations: Here we take a systematic look at approaches people can use on their own along with . Resume! training programs designed to improve cross -cultural relations. A. Develop Cultural Sensitivity B. Focus on Individuals Rather than Groups C. Respect all Workers and Cultures D. Structural! Value Cultural Differences E. Minimize Cultural Bloopers/embarrassments F. Participate in Cultural Training G. Format Paper! Foreign language training H. Diversity training A. Structural! Develop Cultural Sensitivity: . Anthropology , Cross-cultural communication , Culture 883 Words | 3 Pages. Description…………………………………………………………………….…..3 3 Week Training Plan……………………………………………………………………4 Analysis of difference essay writing Training Principle . Thesis! Specificity………………………………………………5 Analysis of Training Principle FITT……………………………………………………..6 Analysis of Training Principle Overload………………………………………………..7 Evaluation of notecard paper Performance………………………………………………………………8 Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….…..9 Bibliography……………………………………………………………………….…..…10 1.0 Introduction In order to thesis acquire a more advanced knowledge on on why training programs, throughout this term. Aerobic exercise , Exercise , Fartlek 1386 Words | 11 Pages. Training Evaluation and the Transfer of Training.

Training Evaluation and the Transfer of Training Genoveva Gonzalez-Jaquez MAN4350 370187 September 22, 2012 Professor Willie . Thesis! R. Williams ABSTRACT After companies determine through their HR departments that their employees need training to strengthen or acquire certain knowledge, attitudes and skills inherent in the successful development of a particular job, the next step would be to research paper determine what type of training is better suited to the needs of the structural company. In addition, they should determine. Educational psychology , Employment , Evaluation 1812 Words | 6 Pages. Topic: Human Behavior and paper Training Experiential Method, Instructional Method, Simulation Method I. Introduction Methods are the . means or ways that we use to teach material to our students. Our choice of methods depends on what we want to structural teach (content), who we are teaching, and the level of competence expected. A training method is the process, technique or approach which a trainer uses in teaching. Resume Semiconductor! II.

Lecture and Discussion Human Behavior and Training Experiential Method Experiential. Computer simulation , Education , Experiential learning 1674 Words | 7 Pages. Part I Introduction On the structural Job Trainee (OJT) is one of the best training methods because it is planned, organized and conducted at . the employee’s worksite. OJT will generally be the primary method used for broadening employee skills and increasing productivity. It is resume semiconductor particularly appropriate for developing proficiency skills unique to structural an employee’s job, especially jobs that are relatively easy to learn and good require locally owned equipment and facilities. OJT is dependent upon. Crab , Experience , Knowledge 1009 Words | 4 Pages.

?P.E. Essay – Training Principles 1. Thesis! Diogo complains that his football training sessions are boring. Describe the . training principle his coach needs to think about when planning the report format training session. The coach doesn’t change the classes enough making the students complain that they’re boring; this is where you apply the variance/tedium concept of the SOPPRAV principle. The teacher must prepare the training sessions so that they’re varied and that they avoid mental boredom as in the brain must. Better , Boredom , Exercise 1048 Words | 3 Pages.

Cross-Cultural Management in China. | |Individual Peer Review Research Paper . | | Cross -cultural management in thesis structural China | | . China , Chinese culture , Cross-cultural communication 1926 Words | 7 Pages.