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Essay on Environmental Science

Essay for environmental science

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Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and oil meal. Sesame, benne, beni, beniseed, benneseed, gingelly [English]; sesame [French]; ajonjoli, sesamo [Spanish]; gergelim, sesamo [Portuguese]; sesam [Afrikaans]; sezam [Croatian]; Ri?i [Hausa]; wijen [Indonesian]; Indiski sezam [Serbian]; Susam [Turkish]; V?ng [Vietnamese]; ??? [Amharic]; ?????? [Arabic]; ??? [Bengali]; [Bulgarian]; ?? [Chinese]; ???? [Farsi]; ??????? [Greek]; ?? [Gujarati]; ?????? [Hebrew]; ??? [Hindi]; ?? [Japanese]; ?? [Korean]; ????? [Malayalam]; ??? [Marathi]; ??? [Punjabi]; [Russian]; ??? [Tamil]; ?? [Thai] Product names : sesame meal, sesame oil meal, sesame oil cake, til oil cake, sesame press cake, expeller sesame oilcake, sesame expeller meal. Sesamum mulayanum N. C. For Environmental? Nair, Sesamum orientale L. Sesame ( Sesamum indicum L.) is a tropical and herman melville bartleby subtropical plant cultivated for its seeds, which yield about 50% of a high quality edible oil. Essay? Sesame oil meal, the by-product of your favorite sesame oil extraction, is essay, used as a feed ingredient. Sesame is an bengal criticism in political west annual, or occasionally perennial, species which can grow to 50-250 cm in essay, height (Sun Hwang, 2005). Its morphology is extremely variable.

The sesame plant can be branched or unbranched. The leaves vary in shape and herman melville bartleby the scrivener size, and may be alternate or opposite (Oplinger et al., 1990). The growing sequence is indeterminate, with leaves, flowers and seeds being produced as long as the weather permits. At maturity, leaves and stems turn yellow to red in colour (Oplinger et al., 1990). It normally takes 125 to 135 days for unimproved sesame to reach maturity, but commercial varieties only require 90-120 days (Hansen, 2011). Sesame has an for environmental extensive root system that makes it very tolerant of drought. The stems are green, erect, quadrangular, longitudinally furrowed and densely hairy. The leaves are hairy, ovate, 3-17.5 cm long x 1-7 cm broad, and dull green in colour (Sun Hwang, 2005). White to pale pink bell-shaped flowers develop at the leaf axils along the stems.

Sesame flowers are self-pollinated though some cross-pollination may occur. Essay In Political? Only flowers borne 30 to for environmental 60 cm off the ground develop into fruits. Essay Place? The fruit is a deeply grooved capsule, 2.5-3.5 cm long, parallelepipedic in shape and containing 8 rows of essay seeds (about 100-150 seeds in herman melville bartleby, total). The fruits of older varieties usually shatter, splitting open at fruit maturity and essay for environmental science releasing seeds. A non-shattering mutant cultivar with reduced seed losses has been developed. Four to six weeks are necessary for seeds to mature. Essay Websites? The seeds are variable in colour, small and flat with a point at one end.

A 1000 seeds weigh is about 32 g. Essay Science? Lighter coloured seeds are considered of higher quality (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990). 1000 Word Essay? White seed varieties are produced in essay science, Mexico, Guatemala and El Salvador. Black seed varieties are grown in reading response, China and Thailand (Hansen, 2011). Breeding programmes focus particularly on 2 traits: the antioxidant factor in sesame oil (sesamol), and non-shattering high yielding potential (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Sesame is primarily grown for its edible seeds and oil, with 65% of the essay seeds being used for oil extraction and 35% for food. Sesame seeds have outstanding amounts of oil and a desirable nutty flavour after cooking. Word And Responsibility? For these reasons, they are much appreciated in bakery, the candy industry and for other food specialties (Hansen, 2011). Sesame seeds are mainly used for for environmental science, their high oil content. They have a high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and essay mill websites rank 4th after safflower, soybean and maize for their PUFA content.

Sesame oil contains about 47% oleic acid and 39% linoleic acid (Oplinger et al., 1990). It is rich in tocopherols and essay lignans (notably sesamin and sesamolin) that provide exceptional oxidative stability compared to other edible oils (Sun Hwang, 2005). There are two main types of sesame oils: the first is pale yellow, has a grain-like odour and a nutty taste, and is used for salad dressing and essay deep frying. The second is obtained from roasted seeds, and is amber-coloured and used in cooking as a flavouring agent (Hansen, 2011). Due to its stability, sesame oil can be used in margarine production where refrigeration equipment is lacking (Hansen, 2011).

Sesame oil is used in essay, pharmaceutical preparations as a vehicle for drug delivery, in insecticides and cosmetics. Numerous medicinal properties have been reported (Hansen, 2011; Monteiro et al., 2014). Sesame oil meal (or sesame oil cake) is the protein-rich by-product obtained after oil extraction. Depending on the way oil has been extracted, sesame oil meal can be food grade (from dehulled sesame seeds), or used as a feed for livestock, especially ruminants and poultry (from undecorticated sesame seeds). Essay Your? It is a valuable source of protein for for environmental science, animals (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990).

Unlike other oil meals, sesame oil meal is your favorite, usually obtained by mechanical extraction only (rather by mechanical extraction followed by solvent extraction) and its residual oil content is essay for environmental, high. The hulls resulting from the dehulling of essay sesame seeds are discarded and essay for environmental can be used as fodder for response, ruminants or poultry (Mahmoud et al., 2015; Abdullah et al., 2011). Sesame is one of the oldest oil crops, its use being recorded in Babylon and science Assyria 4000 years ago. It spread from the Fertile Crescent and is now found in many tropical and subtropical areas. It has been cultivated commercially in bartleby essay, the USA since the science 1950s. The worldwide seed production was 5.5 million t in 2014 (FAO, 2016; Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990). Melville Bartleby The Scrivener Essay? Most sesame is produced in Africa (3.0 million t) and Asia (2.3 million t). India, Sudan, China, Myanmar and Tanzania account for 80% of world production. China, India, Taiwan, Vietnam and Mexico are the main users (FAO, 2016).

In Ethiopia, sesame cake is sold in local markets (Gebremedhin et al., 2009). Sesame grows well in areas with long, warm seasons, from the essay science equator to 40° North or South in both hemispheres, under conditions similar to 1000 essay and responsibility those of the cotton crop (Sheahan, 2014; Sun Hwang, 2005). It does well in most soils but prefers those that are well-drained. It is particularly tolerant of drought and extreme heat, though it requires good soil moisture for science, its establishment (Sheahan, 2014; Hansen, 2011; Sun Hwang, 2005). A minimal seasonal rainfall of 500 to 700 mm is necessary for optimal seed yield. Water requirements are particularly high during seedling and flowering. Response? Sesame is intolerant of waterlogging. Rainfall or winds during late growth may impair seed yield as they increase shattering. Moisture occurring at maturity increases fungal attacks. Essay For Environmental Science? Sesame yield and oil content are positively correlated with photoperiodism (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Sun Hwang, 2005; Oplinger et al., 1990).

Sesame has moderate tolerance to salinity (Sheahan, 2014; Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Because of bartleby critical its deep root system, sesame scavenges nutrients at a greater depth than most crop root systems. It has low input requirements and often grows under conditions where few other crops can survive. These attributes make sesame an excellent candidate for low-input sustainable food systems (Sheahan, 2014). Sesame seeds have good viability and for environmental science can be stored for about 5 years at room temperature. Essay Present? However it is important to dry them down to 8-6% moisture in order to prevent heating and rancidity. For Environmental Science? Frost might hamper seed quality (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Several processes exist to extract sesame oil, depending on the end product required and the region of production. The seed may be dehulled, cooked or roasted, and the oil extracted by mechanical pressure, resulting in a feed-grade, oil-rich sesame cake. Further extraction with solvent results in essay on accountability and responsibility, a feed-grade, low oil sesame flour. Dehulling is common in India, where sesame meal is an important food, and can be performed manually at village level or mechanically in conventional oil mills.

In East Asia (China, Japan, Korea), where sesame oil is the main product, the whole seeds are roasted, ground and cooked before expeller extraction. For Environmental? In North China, seeds are soaked, roasted, dehulled and milled to make sesame paste, and bartleby essay the oil (called small mill sesame oil) is separated by centrifugation or gravitation (Sun Hwang, 2005). Essay For Environmental Science? In Africa, farm-level extraction is performed by your place crushing with a grindstone and by adding boiling water to for environmental skim off the oil, resulting in a crude, low quality oil. A more sophisticated process uses hand-operated presses and a 3-step extraction: the first extraction is done at essay your, room temperature and produces high grade oil; the essay resulting press cake is bengal history in political present west, then heated and essay pressed to yield a coloured oil; this can then be refined to give a non edible oil (Mkamilo et al., 2007). Sesame oil meal (usually from non-dehulled seeds) is fed to ruminant livestock and poultry (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Sesame should be planted after the last sharp frost when soil temperature is above 21°C.

It requires a well-prepared weed-free seedbed with a good moisture content. 1000 Word On Accountability? Sowing sesame just after rain or irrigation is recommended. Sesame seeds should be shallow planted at 2-3 kg/ha (Myers, 2002). Careful weeding is necessary for essay for environmental, it to essay grow (Hansen, 2011; Myers, 2002; Oplinger et al., 1990). High density sowing reduces late weed growth, which may be troublesome at harvest.

Sesame is frequently intercropped in smallholder fields. Strip cropping with maize and sorghum is also common, and protects sesame from strong winds (Mkamilo et al., 2007). Sesame is ready to harvest 90 to 150 days after being sown. Because frost is deleterious to for environmental seed quality the harvest should be done before the 1000 first sharp frost (Hansen, 2011). Harvest of essay non-shattering varieties can be done with a combine harvester provided all holes have been sealed to prevent losses of small seeds. As sesame seeds are fragile, it is preferable to use a low cylinder speed (half that for herman melville bartleby, cereals). In shattering varieties, it is recommended to cut the plants when the essay stems are still green, and word on accountability and responsibility then to stack them in for environmental science, vertical piles (Hansen, 2011; Oplinger et al., 1990). Seed yields are about 400-500 kg/ha (FAO, 2016).

Cover crop, soil improver, green manure and weed/pest control. Because of critical its extensive root system, sesame provides valuable cover to science the soil and has a positive effect on soil structure, moisture retention and reading response tilth (Langham et al., 2008; Myers, 2002). Sesame has a higher C:N ratio than most legume covers, making it a valuable green manure. Science? It vigorously outcompetes weeds (Creamer et al., 2000). In some cases, it has been reported to have some potential to become weedy (Sheahan, 2014). Sesame can successfully reduce root-knot nematode populations in subsequent crops and mill help regulate cotton bollworm/maize earworm (Pimbert, 1991; McSorley, 1999; Sipes et al., 1997; Rodriguez-Kabana et al., 1988). Sesame attracts beneficial insects and essay for environmental is a source of herman melville bartleby essay feed for essay science, songbirds, quail and doves (Sheahan, 2014; Creamer et al., 2000). Sesame plants have been reported to herman bartleby accumulate and remove from the for environmental science soils the organochlorine pesticide lindane, a neurotoxin that can persist in the soil for many years (Abhilash et al., 2010). Sesame oil meal is a protein rich by-product. Expeller sesame meal has a protein content of bartleby essay about 45% of essay for environmental DM, ranging from 32 to 53%, whereas solvent-extracted sesame meal contains about 48% protein. Herman Essay? Expeller sesame oil meal is rich in residual oil, and thus in for environmental, energy, though the oil content depends on the process and may be very variable, from 5 to 20%.

The fibre content (crude fibre 4-12%) is mill websites, relatively low compared to other oil meals except soybean meal. Lignin content is also low (below 2%). Sesame oil meal from dehulled seeds should have a higher nutritional value, but it is normally a food product. Sesame oil meal has a peculiar amino acid profile being low in lysine and rich in sulphur-containing amino acids. Unsaturated fatty acids (mostly oleic acid C16:0 and linoleic acid C18:1) constitute 80% of the essay for environmental science total fatty acids. Sesame seeds are mainly characterised by their large oil content (about 50% of DM, ranging from 35 to 55%). They are also rich in protein (22-27%). The fibre content appears to be extremely variable with some varieties containing small quantities of fibre (crude fibre 4-8% of DM) while others are much more fibrous (13-20% of reading DM) (Sun Hwang, 2005). Sesame seeds have a high content of phytic acid (about 5%) and science the hulls contain oxalates (2-3%) (Graf et al., 1990; Sun Hwang, 2005). As phytic acid reduces calcium availability, diets with significant amounts of sesame hulls, whole sesame seeds or non-dehulled sesame oil meal may need to be supplemented with calcium (Aherne et al., 1985; Gohl, 1982). Large amounts of herman bartleby oxalic and phytic acids may have adverse effects on palatability.

Dehulling alleviates the problems raised by oxalates, but it has little effect on phytates (Ravindran, 1990). Though sesame oil is very stable, oil-rich sesame oil meal will eventually become rancid (Gohl, 1982). Sesame oil meal is science, a valuable protein and energy source for ruminants. Reported in vitro OM digestibility is high (83% in ADAS, 1988; more than 75% in Chandrasekharaiah et al., 2002). However, lower values have been reported (69% in vitro DM digestibility in Innaree, 1994).

In Egypt, it has been used in the control diet of comparative studies on critical essay, protein supply in goats (Kholif et al., 2015). Several processes have been tested to improve the nutritional value for ruminants. Treatment with 1.5-2% formaldehyde decreased rumen protein degradability with no effect or a positive effect on nutrient intake (Bugalia et al., 2008; Pani et al., 1998), and a positive effect on Ca and P balance (Pani et al., 1998). Formaldehyde treatment increased the digestibility of crude fibre and lipids, as well as indices of essay for environmental post-partum reproductive efficiency (Bugalia et al., 2008). Heat treatment of sesame oil meal at 140°C, 150°C or 160°C for 1, 2 or 3 hours increased bypass protein, with the most efficient heat being 150°C (Mahala et al., 2007). In Thailand, sesame oil meal introduced at 14 to 42%, substituting for essay mill websites, soybean meal, in essay for environmental science, the diets of lactating crossbred cows, reduced DM digestibility, but did not result in essay mill websites, significant differences in milk production, milk constituents, feed consumption and essay body weight (Innaree, 1994).

In Iran, including 15% sesame oil meal in word on accountability and responsibility, the diets of lactating dairy cow did not affect DM intake and increased milk fat, but decreased milk yield and feed efficiency compared to the control diet (mixture of soybean and cottonseed meals) (Shirzadegan et al., 2014). In Egypt, sesame oil meal included at 17.5% of the diet was found suitable for feeding lactating dairy buffaloes as it resulted in milk yield similar to that obtained with soybean meal and science cottonseed meal (Mahmoud et al., 2014a). In Eritrea, in Barka cattle fed on essay mill websites, a urea-treated sorghum stover based diet, DM intake was increased (6.13 vs. 5.81 kg/head/day) as was daily weight gain (741 g vs. 650 g) and feed efficiency when they were supplemented with sesame oil meal rather than fish meal (Mehari et al., 2010). In Egypt, mixtures of for environmental nigella meal ( Nigella sativa ) and sesame oil meal used as a total replacement for concentrate in reading response, calf diets had higher DM, lipid and crude fibre digestibilities, resulting in higher intake, higher daily weight gain, improved feed conversion ratio, and increased profitability (Mahmoud et al., 2014b). In Gambia, in essay for environmental, young grazing N'Dama bull calves, sesame oil meal was fed as a protein supplement for 4 months at levels up to your favorite place 400 g/day.

Fed at this level, the essay for environmental sesame oil meal not only increased daily weight gain (271 vs. 169 g/d for the control diet) during the experiment, but also resulted in 1000 word essay and responsibility, higher growth (217 vs. 158 g/d) after it (Little et al., 1991). In Ethiopia, sheep fed teff straw, with sesame oil meal at up to essay science 30% of the diet, had a higher weight gain, enhanced carcass parameters, and herman melville overall profitability was increased (Fitwi et al., 2013). In Eritrea, male sheep fed a urea-treated sorghum stover diet had higher DM intake (847 vs.

826 g/head/d) and higher daily weight gain (134 vs . 115 g) when they were supplemented with sesame oil meal rather than fish meal (Mehari et al., 2010). In Sudan, sesame oil meal and groundnut meal ranked higher than cottonseed meal or sunflower meal as a supplementary protein for desert lambs over essay a 7 week fattening period. Bengal Essay History West? The lambs had a higher daily weight gain and a better feed efficiency (Suliman et al., 2007). An earlier experiment done with yearling desert lambs ranked sesame oil meal 2nd after sunflower meal for growth rate (Ahmed et al., 2005). In Egypt, mixtures of nigella oil meal and sesame oil meal used as a total replacement of concentrate in lamb diets decreased total digestible nutrients, but no significant difference was observed between the two diets in final weight and essay for environmental science average daily gain. It was concluded that a mixture of nigella oil meal and sesame oil meal could replace a commercial concentrate in essay favorite, growing lambs (Mahmoud et al., 2014b). In Ethiopia, Abergelle goats grazing on natural pasture were profitably supplemented with different ratios of essay for environmental science sesame oil meal and Faidherbia albida pods.

The 1:1 ratio (105 g of each feed) yielded better intake and reading response daily weight gain (80 g/d) (Weldemariam, 2015). Sesame meal has a high protein and energy content, but its deficiency in lysine, its fibre content and science the presence of phytate and bartleby the scrivener oxalates are limitations for essay for environmental science, its use in pigs. Early trials found that sesame oil meal could be used in growing-finishing pigs at up to 15% of the diet with satisfactory results (Squibb et al., 1951). However, later studies demonstrated that it is preferable to associate sesame oil meal with a source of lysine such as soybean meal or animal by-products (Ravindran, 1990). Sesame meal could only replace 10% of response soybean meal in maize-soybean meal based diets for growing-finishing pigs and sows (Seerley, 1991). Generally, it has been advised to essay adapt the level of sesame oil meal in the diet according to the type and essay favorite place quantity of the other protein sources of the diet (Ravindran, 1990; Cunha, 1977). Ileal digestibilities of most of its amino acids tended to essay for environmental decline as the inclusion of sesame oil meal increased in pig diets, and daily weight gains and feed efficiency were hampered as the level of sesame oil meal increased from 0 to 12% (diet DM) (Li et al., 2000).

When the websites formulation of essay for environmental pig diets took into essay websites, account the apparent ileal digestibility of protein and amino acids, up to 10% sesame oil meal (DM basis) could be included in for environmental science, the diet without causing significant changes in total feed intake, average daily gain and feed conversion ratio (Tartrakoon et al., 2001). Due to potential palatability problems caused by oxalates, it has been recommended to limit the inclusion of bengal essay history present sesame oil meal to 5% in starter diets (Ravindran, 1990). Sesame seeds are known to have a role as a natural antioxidant. In Vietnam, where small-scale farmers use diets based on non-defatted rice bran, which is prone to rancidity and to loss of for environmental palatability during storage, it was shown that the inclusion of criticism essay history in political 1-3.5% of ground sesame seeds limited peroxidation and essay for environmental science enhanced feed intake and feed conversion ratio in pigs (Yamasaki et al., 2003). Sesame oil meal is rich in protein and energy but, due to its low lysine content and in political west high methionine and cysteine contents, it is used as a supplementary source of protein with other oil meals such as soybean meal (Yasothai, 2014). Large differences in essay for environmental, the quality and west nutritional value of sesame products can be observed (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). Phytates and oxalates are an issue for poultry feeding and can limit the use of sesame oil meal in practice. Amino acid digestibilities are high but processing at excessive temperatures can decrease amino acid levels and for environmental science availability (Yasothai, 2014).

Studies on the use of the scrivener essay sesame oil meal in broiler diets tend to conclude that sesame oil meal can be used at essay for environmental science, moderate levels, usually below 10% (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013; Daghir, 2008). Performance decreased at higher inclusion levels (Mamputu et al., 1995; Rahimian et al., 2013). Some effects on broiler metabolism and intestine mucosa characteristics were observed (Yamauchi et al., 2006; Rama Rao et al., 2008). However, in some cases dietary levels as high as 20% sesame oil meal sustained good growth (Jacob et al., 1996; Rama Rao et al., 2008). Feed intake is melville, generally not affected by sesame oil meal in for environmental science, the diet, suggesting that palatability is not an herman melville essay issue. Adequate values for metabolizable energy and amino acid digestibility should be used since local products can vary significantly from those presented in international feed tables (Kang et al., 1999; Yasothai, 2014).

Phytase addition improved performance in for environmental science, some cases (Sterling et al., 2001), although this effect was not constant (Rahimian et al., 2013). The general recommendation is to take great care on bengal essay history in political west, feed formulation when using sesame oil meal in broiler diets to avoid inadequacies in amino acids (lysine) and minerals (Ca, P, etc.), which can occur if inappropriate values are used. In these conditions, the use of relatively low levels (5-8% of the essay science diet) should be safe, while higher levels (10-15%) can be tested with high quality sesame oil meal, or if lower growing rates are acceptable. In layers, laying performance and feed efficiency were affected by levels of sesame oil meal above 4% of the diet (Mamputu et al., 1995; Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). High levels (15-20%) of sesame oil meal led to significantly reduced laying rates, feed efficiency and weight gain (Jacob et al., 1996). Differences between the performances obtained with sesame oil meals of herman melville bartleby the scrivener essay different origins have been observed, possibly due to amino acid content or protein quality (Cheva-Isarakul et al., 1993). In pullets, the use of sesame oil meal above 5% of the essay for environmental diet led to reduced growth and uniformity in the flock, and delayed initiation of lay (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992).

Sesame oil meal should be used with care in layers, and criticism history in political west only at low levels. Essay For Environmental Science? In particular attention should be paid to feed formulation, particularly to the amino acid content (lysine). In growing Japanese quails, up to 15% sesame oil meal was used in the diet without adverse effects on growth and carcass characteristics (Sina et al., 2014). In laying quails, the use of sesame oil meal decreased egg production and feed efficiency, and is thus not recommended (Tangtaweewipat et al., 1992). The use of raw sesame seeds at criticism essay history west, 5 to 15% in diets for broilers reduced body weight gain and feed efficiency. Feed intake was less affected but tended to essay science decrease (Olaiya et al., 2015; Ngele et al., 2011). Mill Websites? Technological treatments can alleviate this negative effect to some extent. Toasting was the most efficient treatment, followed by soaking and boiling (Olaiya et al., 2015). However, even when toasted, sesame seeds led to performance below that obtained from for environmental science control diets (Jiya et al., 2014; Ngele et al., 2011). In layers, the optimal level of soaked sesame seeds in word, the diet was 3%, which gave an improved laying rate with unchanged feed intake. With more than 6% sesame seeds, egg production and science egg weight decreased, leading to herman the scrivener essay a lower egg mass and feed efficiency (Diarra et al., 2008).

The use of 1 to essay for environmental 2% sesame seeds improved laying rate in quails, without affecting body weight and feed intake. Fertility and websites hatchability were also improved (Al-Daraji et al., 2010). In broilers the use of sesame hulls at up to 10% of the diet, with adequate feed formulation, tended to slightly improve feed intake and growth, with no effect on feed efficiency (Nikolakakis et al., 2014; Mahmoud et al., 2015). In chicks, sesame hulls led to for environmental a decrease in growth performance, with a stronger effect at 12% inclusion than at 6 or 8% (Farran et al., 2000). Egg production decreased above 14% sesame hulls in essay mill websites, the diet. At 7 to 14% sesame hulls inclusion, laying rate slightly decreased but egg weight increased, leading to a constant egg mass and essay for environmental science feed efficiency. In all cases, sesame hulls decreased body weight gain in criticism essay history present west, layers (Farran et al., 2000). Sesame oil meal has long been a traditional source of protein for essay science, rabbit feeding (Templeton, 1937; Benoit et al., 1948). Essay? Its high digestibility was established in the 1940s, with values up to 91% for crude protein and 90% for gross energy, corresponding to 15.05 MJ DE/kg DM (Voris et al., 1940).

Sesame oil meal is essay for environmental, included at 10-20% in the control diets of many experiments (Roy et al., 2002; Salma et al., 2002; Ibrahim, 2007; Fasiullah et al., 2010). Present? In trials, sesame oil meal has been introduced at up to 38-39% of the diet of growing rabbits without any health problems or alteration of essay performance (Colin et al., 1977; Colin et al., 1978), and in essay, one trial at up to 56% (Lebas, 1973). If sesame oil meal is to be considered as a suitable protein source for rabbits (Colin et al., 1974; Colin et al., 1978), its deficiency in lysine, which covers only 50% of the requirements of essay science growing rabbits, must be corrected (Lebas, 2013). Thus, the utilisation of sesame oil meal in reading, balanced rabbit rations requires a source of science lysine, such as legume seeds or industrial lysine. Whole toasted sesame seeds were introduced safely in essay, rabbit diets at essay science, up to 12%, but their utilization in balanced diets was limited by the very high lipid content of the bengal in political present seeds (52%). The best growth and carcass quality were obtained at 8% of the diet (Njidda, 2010). Due to the lack of essay experiments at essay favorite place, the time of science writing (2016), it is not known whether toasting is necessary for the use of sesame seeds in rabbit feeding. Sesame oil meal has been found to have a value similar to that of soybean meal for herman bartleby the scrivener, carnivorous fish, and for environmental science has been used successfully as a fish meal protein substitute without negatively affecting growth. About 50% of fish meal was replaced with sesame oil meal in diets for reading response, rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) (Nang Thu et al., 2011), and European sturgeon ( Huso huso ) (Jahanbakhshi et al., 2012).

Avg: average or predicted value; SD: standard deviation; Min: minimum value; Max: maximum value; Nb: number of values (samples) used. Sesame meal, mechanical extraction. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 10:34:32. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 01:00:13. The asterisk * indicates that the average value was obtained by an equation. Last updated on 08/09/2016 01:12:22.

Heuze V., Tran G., Bastianelli D., Lebas F., 2017. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) seeds and oil meal . Feedipedia, a programme by for environmental INRA, CIRAD, AFZ and FAO. https://feedipedia.org/node/26 Last updated on June 22, 2017, 16:08. Feedipedia - Animal Feed Resources Information System - INRA CIRAD AFZ and FAO © 2012-2017 | Copyright | Disclaimer | Editor login.

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1996 Reconstruction Dbq Essays and Research Papers. A.P. United States History Dr. Parsons 1/3/2012 DBQ 1996 Question: In what ways and to what extent did constitutional . and social developments between 1860 and essay for environmental science 1877 amount to place a revolution? Doc A: South Carolina declaration of Causes of Secession, Dec. 24, 1860. For Environmental? Evidence: Interpretation of the 10th Amendment--…powers not prohibited to federal govt nor prohibited to states are reserved to the states, or people. Inference: Challenges Article 4, section 4 and bartleby essay Article 6, section 2; assumes. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Jim Crow laws 605 Words | 3 Pages. ? Reconstruction DBQ The era of for environmental Reconstruction in essay history present the 1870s in both the North and South experienced battle for . Science? equality for men freed by the 13th Amendment. America was on the brink of recreating the American government, showing genuine signs of a better and brighter future for the African American population.

Economic and bengal criticism present political practices limited the liberties of black men. Vicious hate groups struck fear unto those who supported the integration of freedmen. The political realm during the time. African American , African American history , Democratic Party 886 Words | 3 Pages. AP US History Reconstruction DBQ Following the culmination of the Civil War, issues regarding the restoration of seceded . states to the Union, the emancipation of slaves, and the overall re-development of political institutions in the nation prevailed. Essay For Environmental? The idea of Reconstruction was proposed to political officials in late 1865, when the reading, effects of the essay science, tumultuous Civil War were at essay your favorite place its most devastating. The various enactments of the period were deemed void and not actively enforced.

Democratic and. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Ku Klux Klan 1142 Words | 4 Pages. Civil War until the end of the Reconstruction period, America faced what can be considered a revolution. During this time, many social and for environmental science . constitutional developments emerged and brought great change to the country. Social developments that contributed to word the revolution were the Freedmen’s Bureau, the Ku Klux Klan, and the Black Codes.

Constitutional events that sparked dispute were the three civil rights bills, the Emancipation Proclamation, and the reconstruction . Between 1860 and 1877, both constitutional. Essay For Environmental Science? Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Ku Klux Klan 851 Words | 3 Pages. reuniting the South with the North introduced a new set of significant challenges. The Congress' Reconstruction were the efforts to establish . and protect citizens' rights of freedom. Democrats led to the failure of the essay history in political present, Congress' Reconstruction by forgiving those who participated in science the Civil War who were still in essay websites favor of slavery and inequality. This act of Amnesty led to three major obstacles for reconstruction : the emergence of the Ku Kux Klan, the development of black codes, and the Compromise of 1877. African American , American Civil War , Black people 1091 Words | 3 Pages. apart over one major issue: slavery. With the end of the Civil War came the end of slavery in the United States. Although the former black slaves were now . For Environmental Science? free, they had no land and very few rights, and most did not even have family.

Though out reconstruction , blacks were able to 1000 word and responsibility gain rights, but were continuously repressed by essay, the white Southerners. The only way to truly enfranchise the herman bartleby the scrivener essay, former slaves was by effectively disenfranchising their former masters. The reign the masters had over their former. American Civil War , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution , Ku Klux Klan 1448 Words | 4 Pages. ?Blaize Giangiulio Mr. Reader AP US II 3 September 2014 From 1860 to 1877 America fought a bloody Civil War and went through a . “ Reconstruction ” era from that war. During this time period changes to the Constitution, such as the 15th Amendment that granted African American men the right to vote, caused what is now viewed as a revolution.

The formation of the Ku Klux Klan in essay 1865 exemplifies a social change that stirred the response, pot of revolution in essay science a different way. Put together, the social and constitutional. African American , American Civil War , Democratic Party 842 Words | 4 Pages. The years 1865 to essay favorite place 1877 mark a period of reconstruction in which the country’s main focus was to heal the nation and bring the . Confederate states back into the Union. Reconstruction took place in two distinct phases: presidential reconstruction , which was extremely lenient, and Congressional reconstruction , which was less forgiving, but more transformative.

Presidential reconstruction had very limited success because President Andrew Johnson was swayed by Southern praise and became. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 1308 Words | 4 Pages. During the time period of 1860 and 1877 many major changes occurred. From the beginning of the civil war to the fall of the reconstruction , the . United States changed dramatically. Nearly one hundred years after the Declaration of Independence which declared all men equal, many social and constitutional alterations were necessary to protect the rights of all people, no matter their race. These social and constitutional developments that were made during 1860 to 1877 were so drastic it could be called. American Civil War , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 954 Words | 3 Pages. ?Krista Angeliadis 12/17/14 APUSH Period 8 The era from 1860 to 1877 was a time of . reconstruction and essay for environmental science revolution in America. Many constitutional developments aided the herman bartleby, reform movement, such as the ratification of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which granted African Americans voting and civil rights. Though these changes seemed like a step in the right direction, social values such as white supremacy didn’t allow things to go as planned. Despite. African American , Black people , Jim Crow laws 1031 Words | 4 Pages.

Reconstruction Rebecca Howard University of essay science Phoenix #1 I found that I had mixed feelings as to 1000 word essay and responsibility if the Reconstruction . Science? was a splendid failure or not so I did some research. The Reconstruction is reading response surrounded by controversy. Eric Froner asserts that the Reconstruction did not achieve the radical goals that were hoped for essay for environmental science, but the essay, Reconstruction did offer African Americans in the south a vison of a free society even if only essay, temporarily. Historians have categorized the Reconstruction as a total. Bartleby Essay? African American , Democratic Party , Reconstruction era of the United States 778 Words | 5 Pages. Reconstruction : The Post War Era Lindsay Pone Professor Goldstein History 105 Strayer University 01/30/2013 . Reconstruction : The Post Civil War Era Friday April 12, 1861, America embarked into war with its biggest adversary; America! The American Civil War broke out, and what was believed to be a quick battle by the North, turned out to be a long bloody four years and left the country devastated. Essay Science? President Abraham Lincoln, the 16th president of the United.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1366 Words | 4 Pages. The Reconstruction Chapter One ! Mikayla Musco History 17.2 February 9, 2013 Reconstruction The . Reconstruction of the critical, South was the time period after the for environmental, Civil War; where several different groups in the government tried to solve the economic, political, and social problems. Many Southern Whites rejected all forms of equality, whereas Blacks wanted nothing but full freedom and land of their own. Essay? A lot of the controversy led to frequent and inevitable riots. The Reconstruction of the. American Civil War , Compromise of 1877 , Democratic Party 1393 Words | 5 Pages.

Samantha Barschow Ms. For Environmental Science? Werdmann Reconstruction Web Quest 4 January 2013 Part 1 1. Lincoln offered pardon to those in the South that . pledged allegiance to the United States. When 10% of Southerners signed the allegiance, the Congress would then reinstate the South into the Union. 2. Reading? The opposition they faced was the Radical Republic. Essay For Environmental? They wanted the majority of Southerners to bartleby critical sign the document and they wanted to put the South under military rule. 3. Essay Science? Lincoln was assassinated at the. Word? African American , American Civil War , Black people 1692 Words | 5 Pages. For Environmental Science? its future was Reconstruction . Reconstruction was a time period in America involving many leaders, goals and accomplishments.

By . the end of the civil war, nobody knew what was to be done. With the assassination of President Lincoln in reading 1865, it was up to President Andrew Johnson to try to reunite former enemies. They had to solve one issue; African Americans still continued to essay for environmental serve white southerners on their plantations. Was the Reconstruction a success or a failure? The Reconstruction was more of a. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 1033 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction Period DBQ From the beginning of the favorite place, Civil War until the end of the Reconstruction , the United . States went through what can be called a revolution.

During the time period of 1860 to 1877, many constitutional and social developments brought great change to for environmental the country. Some constitutional developments that caused conflict were the Emancipation Proclamation and the reconstruction , while some social developments, which could possibly have lead to a revolution, were the melville, Freedmen's Bureau. For Environmental? Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Confederate States of bengal criticism history west America 771 Words | 2 Pages. Evaluate the essay for environmental science, gains made by the blacks during Reconstruction Reconstruction was during the bengal essay history present, period of 1865 to 1877, where . attempts were made to solve the injustices of slavery and for environmental its political, social and economic legacy and solving the problems that would arise because of the readmission of the eleven states into the Union and has been long portrayed by many historians as a time when vindictive Radical Republicans fastened black supremacy upon the defeated confederacy. Your Favorite Place? Some gains were made by. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Black people 1717 Words | 5 Pages.

Congress put an effort to ensure that equal rights were given to freedman during reconstruction . The conflict was between the norths and south, . the disputes between one another caused the south separated from the north because of the protective tariffs, unequal political power and different views on slavery. The dispute between the north and south caused the for environmental science, civil war. Due to the civil war 620,000 people were killed or wounded. Slavery was abolished but many properties were destroyed and it created. African American , African American history , American Civil War 1684 Words | 4 Pages. Essay Favorite? ? In the timespan of essay science 1860, the beginning of the Civil War, to 1877, the end of Reconstruction , many social and response constitutional developments took . place. Such developments included secession of the south, disputes over civil liberties such as voting, the ending of slavery, and essay for environmental the passage of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments. These expansions were very revolutionary to an extent but due to the intrusion of white supremacist groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan, couldn’t fully prosper.

The constitutional. American Civil War , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 696 Words | 2 Pages. Response? ?History 102 DBQ #1: Reconstruction’s Failure Historical Context: The Civil War may have settled some significant national problems, but it . Essay? created many more. Yes, slavery was abolished, secession had been refuted, and the supremacy of the national government confirmed. But the cost of Union victory—in lost lives, destroyed property and sectional bitterness—was staggering, and created huge new problems and tasks. Perhaps the place, most challenging task facing our exhausted nation was the future status. African American , Democratic Party , Ku Klux Klan 2318 Words | 10 Pages. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ . _________________________________ How do the essay science, two cartoons affect your view of what Reconstruction accomplished? ____________________________________________________________________. Federal government of the United States , Philadelphia Convention , U.S. Bengal History In Political? state 1267 Words | 5 Pages. ? DBQ In the for environmental, time period 1925 – 1950 Chinese peasants, and Chinese created a bad relationship with each other.

Peasants were stronger than the essay your favorite place, . Chinese Communist party supported by documents one, five, and six, peasants were the prime target for for environmental, attacks instead of the Chinese Communist party supported by documents four, eight, and nine, and the peasants were more willing to fight the Japanese while the Chinese Communist party was not so willing supported by documents two, and three. Peasants and word the. Chen Duxiu , Chinese Civil War , Communism 828 Words | 3 Pages. ? Reconstruction DBQ Matilda Primrose U.S History 2nd Period America’s gone through . many political changes throughout it’slifetime. Leaders and their ideas for the future have come and science gone, all of them leaving their own mark on the country. History takes it course, though, and with it comes the beginnings and ends of favorite place revolutionary movements. One of these movements was Reconstruction . Essay For Environmental Science? Reconstruction was a time period in America consisting of many leaders. Bartleby? Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 1941 Words | 5 Pages. Reconstruction or Disfranchisement: AH 213 Olds 7 DBQ Essay Reconstruction or Disfranchisement: After the Civil War, the South’s economy was . devastated and was filled with angry whites who were frustrated over the emancipation of slavery.

They wished to change the social status of African Americans and suppress them once again. The post-war South was in for environmental a state of chaos. In hopes to your favorite place solve this problem, Lincoln established a Reconstruction Plan. Reconstruction was meant to tackle the issues through the re-admittance. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 1571 Words | 5 Pages. For Environmental Science? ?Ariana Biagioni DBQ : Topic A: The Ancient Near East November 24, 2013 Professor Goldman During the time of Dynasty 18 in Egypt, many . Response? religious, economic, and essay for environmental science social connections were created amongst the mill, various regions in the Near East. In these regions, new groups of people, religions, and empires were formed. The Near East helped surface civilization. It established centralized governments, law codes, and writing systems. The Ancient Near Eastern Empires introduced the essay, methods of agriculture. Ancient Near East , Assyria , Babylon 1120 Words | 4 Pages. Civil War was called the Reconstruction Period.

Reconstruction was a federal policy established immediately after the critical essay, South . surrendered; it was an attempt to create a new Southern society and essay science heal the terrible wounds between the bengal in political west, North and South. The three main goals of the Reconstruction were to protect the rights of the for environmental science, freed slaves, rebuild the essay present west, South's devastated economy, and enforce the loyalty of the ex-confederates . In spite of tremendous efforts, the Reconstruction Period failed to completely. Black people , Freedman , Jim Crow laws 2503 Words | 7 Pages. ? DBQ With the era of American Reconstruction in America during the mid to late 1800’s came a sense of opportunity and essay science hope for . its people. America was on bartleby critical the move as nation, railroads being built faster than ever and essay the freedmen looking to find their niche in society. Although in the beginning the bengal criticism essay history west, government provided support for these new citizens, efforts toward reconstruction faded as the years passed.

Those efforts faded to a point where they were all but nonexistent, and with the unwritten. American Civil War , Compromise of 1877 , Freedman 887 Words | 3 Pages. ?Teresa Swinehart Mrs. Plimley AP US History 16 January 2015 DBQ The Civil War began in 1861 due to many political issues between the Northern . states, the Union, and the Southern states, the Confederates. Although, mane people are taught the Civil War was entirely fought over slavery, this is untrue. The North sought to regain control of the South and to keep the Union together, while the South had no interest in the Union and wanted to keep their way of life the same as it had been for generations.

Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 915 Words | 3 Pages. Dbq on Effects of Reconstruction on African Americans. DBQ Reconstruction had a large impact on African Americans. It was a gateway period for African Americans into for environmental, American . society as equals. Many changes were made that helped them gain rights and acceptance, but it wasn’t an easy change. In the early years of reconstruction , black codes restricted African Americans greatly (Document D), but as reconstruction went on, various acts were passed to help African Americans gain passage into bengal criticism in political, every day society (Document A). From 1865-1866, the essay science, Southern. African American , Black people , Democratic Party 624 Words | 2 Pages. IBRDInternational Bank for Reconstruction andDevelopmentINTRODUCTION The. Reading Response? IBRD International Bank for Reconstruction and Development INTRODUCTION • The International Bank for for environmental, Reconstruction and . Reading? Development (IBRD) is an international financial institution which offers loans to middle-income developing countries. • The IBRD is the first of five member institutions which compose the for environmental science, World Bank Group and essay is its headquarter is in Washington, D.C., United States. • It was established in 1944 with the mission of financing the reconstruction of European nations devastated.

Bretton Woods system , Development , Economic development 790 Words | 13 Pages. ? DBQ QUESTIONS Writing the DBQ Civil War Assess the following quote: “Ultimately, the Civil War reduced sectional antagonism . and made the United States truly ‘one nation.’” ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Constitution Using information from the evidence below as well as your knowledge of the period, discuss the development of the United States Constitution as a. Essay For Environmental Science? 20th century , American Civil War , Cold War 781 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction of African Americans Dbq. would face unemployment, eviction, and sometimes physical harm. Mill? From evidence shown the African Americans had dramatic reconstruction stages . in both political views along with social views. They received some respect and rights of being created equal.

They also received their right to vote. Though, it didn’t all become easy and perfect they had much progress of reconstruction . Many changes were made. As many lives were transformed. African American , American Civil War , Black people 486 Words | 2 Pages. Facial reconstruction plays a large role in providing identification and justice to essay for environmental unknown human bodies. From Neolithic skull plastering, to . death masks, to modern techniques, there have been immense changes in both efficiency and usage over the years. Many notable forensic anthropologists dedicated their lives and research to the development of this form of identification. The immensity of change in facial reconstruction techniques over reading the years is definitely not indicative of the focus placed. For Environmental Science? 18th century , 2nd millennium , Bone 744 Words | 3 Pages.

Susan Weng Reconstruction : Overall Failure. After the response, Civil war ended in essay 1865, the south was in complete shambles, the economy was . down, there were political struggles, and bartleby newly freed slaves needed to be included in society. All these problems called for “The Reconstruction Act of 1867”, which was instituted by the Republican Party. The goal of reconstruction was meant to reunite the nation and rebuild a southern society that was not based on slavery. Historians Kenneth M. Stampp and Eric. African American , American Civil War , Jim Crow laws 912 Words | 3 Pages. wounded the most from the science, war. Reconstruction lasted from 1865 to 1877 and mill was one of the most controversial periods in the nation's history. . The victory of the North in the Civil War put an end to science slavery and stopped the South's effort to secede from the Union. This also marked the beginning of rebuilding the South. There would be about four million freed slaves, most of websites them homeless, poor, and illiterate during the era of for environmental Reconstruction . The Presidential Reconstruction was a complicated situation.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , President of the United States 2152 Words | 7 Pages. The Agony of Reconstruction Ch. 16 (499-510) I. Bengal Present West? Issue—Most important post-war issue was the future of the essay science, freedmen A. Blacks . Bartleby Critical? sought the rights to vote and hold political office B. Results in intense and unparallel political conflicts at for environmental science the national level II. Political crisis A. Minimal Reconstruction and supporters B. Radical Reconstruction and supporters C. Websites? Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty Reconstruction (Dec. 1863) 1. Proclamation of amnesty . Abraham Lincoln , Andrew Johnson , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 670 Words | 4 Pages. 31, 2010 Civil War and Reconstruction DBQ The United States Civil War was one of America’s darkest hours of nationhood, but . resulted in new rights and liberties for African Americans and revolutionized the science, United States for the better. The war resulted in the freedom of black slaves, and called for a complex reunification procedure to reading response rejoin the depleted South and the high spirited North. Constitutional and social developments during the Civil War and for environmental the Reconstruction period created a sense. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 842 Words | 3 Pages.

Anthony Kerkula JrJoseph Myers HIS 120 October 2, 2014 Failure of Reconstruction Reconstruction was the period from . 1865-1877 where the government of the essay, United States tried to put the essay science, country together again after the Civil War. President Abraham Lincoln lived briefly during this period (assassinated) and set the template for reconstruction . The Vice President Andrew Johnson who is described as lacking Lincoln’s moral sense and herman melville the scrivener essay political judgment, became President and followed the template. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1777 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction was a failure due to the opinion on race. Racism played a big part in the 1896 Plessey vs. Furguson case. . Reconstruction began in for environmental science 1865 and essay websites ended in 1877.

Two goals were to rebuild the south and to reform society. Reconstruction should not be thought of as a bad idea. It was virtually impossible to just change ways in the south with out for environmental using some kind of force. Black codes did nothing but for the south but put them in further segregation. The black codes aloud a form of disguised.

African American , Black people , Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution 964 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction and Industrialization. Growing Pains” Reconstruction and essay and responsibility Industrialization 1865-1900 Four years after the first shots were fired at Fort Sumter the Civil . War ended with the Union’s Victory over the Confederacy. Though the war was over, there were still many problems that needed to be resolved in order to essay for environmental science reunite the states as a nation. The time period in which steps were taken to rebuild the nation is known as reconstruction . Reconstruction lasted from 1865 until 1877.

The influence of reconstruction can be seen. Abraham Lincoln , African American , American Civil War 1440 Words | 4 Pages. proved false. Some people may believe that the main reason why the congress’ reconstruction efforts to ensure equal rights to the freedmen . failed was because virtually no one in your place America thought blacks were equal to whites. For Environmental Science? Basically it was because people still have racial thoughts; slaves didn’t get to fully acquire the meaning and prerogatives of their rights; in other words they were uneducated. Also during the reconstruction multiple deals were made in word and responsibility order to make things go by in certain parties. American Civil War , Black people , Democratic Party 801 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction in essay the South Reconstruction is the Federal Governments plan(s) to abolish slavery, change the way of life . in response the South, and to essay science bring the nation back together after the devastating effects of the essay favorite place, Civil War. Many Government plans were brought up but never fell through. Likewise, Presidents over the years, after the Civil War, had also brought their own Reconstruction plans to the nation. Several good things came from each plan but not one individual plan had drastically changed. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1047 Words | 3 Pages.

History of Reconstruction Shortly after the Civil War, the United States found their country in disarray. “It had just endured four years of . civil war, a period in which the Union northern states fought against essay the Confederate southern states.” (Bowles, 2011). This war brought about the melville the scrivener, Reconstruction period that was primarily focused on bringing the essay science, North and critical the South together and to enable African Americans to have freedom and equal rights as citizens of the United States. Reconstruction is essay science “The. American Civil War , Confederate States of America , Jim Crow laws 960 Words | 3 Pages. ?CHAPTER 22: THE ORDEAL OF RECONSTRUCTION Name: Period: The Problems of Peace Know: Reconstruction 1. Your Place? Dismal indeed . was the picture presented by the war-wracked South when the rattle of musketry faded. Explain. Freedmen Define Freedom Know: Exodusters, American Methodist Episcopal Church, American Missionary Association 2. How did African-Americans respond to emancipation in the decade following the war? The Freedmen's Bureau Know: Freedmen's Bureau, General. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Charles Sumner 453 Words | 4 Pages. Lincoln, the president of the U.S at the time came up with the plan to re-build the country after the war. He called it Reconstruction Plan. . The Reconstruction Plan was put to use right after the war in essay 1865 and critical ended in essay 1877.

Within the Reconstruction Plan, Lincoln offered a model for reinstatement of bartleby critical essay Southern states called the 10 percent Reconstruction plan. And also, during reconstruction period, we witnessed the emerged of for environmental science Black Code which created the Fourteen and Fifteen Amendments and followed up. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , President of the United States 1116 Words | 3 Pages. peacemakers were faced with was giving freedom to the black slaves, which meant that would be the end of slavery all together. c. Reading? Since after the for environmental, war the . country need much reconstruction within the country to be able to essay mill websites combine the south and north back together. Another issue would be dealing with the pros and cons of the reconstruction plan that Lincoln had faced with. Essay For Environmental? There were many Political issues when it came to brining the south back into the Union; this brings issue because the reading, democrats and republicans.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1334 Words | 4 Pages. Reconstruction FRQ After the Civil War ended, America had a big task to deal with. There was devastation throughout the nation. The . Essay For Environmental Science? Reconstruction Era started, and the process of repairing the Union went underway. Newly freed slaves had to bartleby begin the for environmental science, process of adapting to society and your favorite making it on their own.

They had some successes, but ultimately Reconstruction was a failure to science African Americans. Reconstruction (1865-1877) failed to bring social and economic equality of opportunity to essay former. American Civil War , Jim Crow laws , Ku Klux Klan 867 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: MANIPULATION AND INTIMIDATION OF RECONSTRUCTION 1 The Manipulation and Intimidation Tactics Used to . Undermine Reconstruction in the South MANIPULATION AND INTIMIDATION OF RECONSTRUCTION 2 The Manipulation and Intimidation Tactics Used to Undermine Reconstruction in the South This paper will describe in for environmental detail how certain radical groups were able to undermine, control, and manipulate the amendments. American Civil War , Black people , Ku Klux Klan 1058 Words | 3 Pages. granted black males the right to essay vote. • Reconstruction - plan to re-establish the south and science re-admit them into criticism essay in political west, the union o Lincoln- 10% plan . Essay For Environmental Science? o Johnson took away 10% plan o Amendments 13,14, and15 • Black codes- way for the southerners to control the freed slaves o Freedman’s Bureau- congress plan for reconstruction • Protect the freed slaves, put south under martial law to enforce reconstruction and new amendments • Johnson vetoed it o Reconstruction acts- set up military to supervise former. Charles Sheldon , History of the United States , Reconstruction era of the United States 1865 Words | 7 Pages. different forensic methods, for example, facial reconstruction , in order to determine the essay your favorite, identification of the unearthed skeleton (Wagner, . For Environmental Science? 1997). Facial reconstruction is “a forensic technique that attempts to bengal criticism history present west recreate an individual’s face from essay a skull for the purpose of identification” (Hwang et al., 2012, p.443). It can be divided into three main categories, for instance, two-dimensional, three-dimensional, and superimposition.

Each category of favorite reconstruction can produce an approximate face, which is. Computer forensics , Face , Face transplant 1026 Words | 3 Pages. I. The Problems of Peace I.After the war, there were many questions over what to do with the free Blacks, such as how to essay for environmental science reintegrate the essay in political present, Southern states . into the Union, what to do with Jefferson Davis, and who would be in science charge of Reconstruction ? II.The Southern way of life had been ruined, as crops and farms were destroyed, the slaves had been freed, the mill, cities were burnt down, but still, and many Southerners remained defiant. II. Freedmen Define Freedom I.At first, the essay for environmental, freed Blacks. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 2232 Words | 6 Pages. I. Reading Response? Reconstruction : Option 2 “ Reconstruction can be summed up this way…” During reconstruction a major shift took . place in our government. With the passing of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments the United States had become a nation pressing toward equality. With the newly granted freedom to learn how to for environmental read and write, marry, practice religion, and vote it seemed as if blacks were in store for a better life.

However for freed blacks most aspects of herman melville bartleby the scrivener essay life were still heavily influenced by white southerners. Essay Science? American Civil War , Freedman , Reconstruction era of the United States 2559 Words | 7 Pages. 19 September 2013 The Violence of Reconstruction Though the Civil War brought about an officially reunited country and the freedom of . slaves, it set a precedent for our burgeoning country that social change happens quickly where blood is spilled. Reading? This violent state of mind paved the science, way for a reconstruction era that was largely detrimental to bartleby the progress of the United States as a nation, especially in the case of newly-freed African Americans. After the confederacy was disbanded, Black codes. African American , American Civil War , Black people 787 Words | 3 Pages. ?In the era of Reconstruction to the end of the 19th century, the United States underwent an economic change marked by the rapid expansion of for environmental . big business. The rapid corporate growth in America started in the end of essay on accountability and responsibility 1860s, after the essay for environmental science, end of Civil War.

The first period of Big Business rise matched with important changes in the American society. These were the end of Civil War, abolishment of slavery and several other political reforms, resolution of social tension between the critical essay, North and the South, and. American Civil War , Democratic Party , Immigration to for environmental the United States 822 Words | 3 Pages. On Accountability? Univ US History Plans for essay, Reconstruction Johnson’s Plan for Reconstruction had some of Lincoln’s key concepts in it but the 1000 word, . plan also differed from Lincoln’s greatly. Essay Science? The looming showdown between Lincoln and the Congress over competing reconstruction plans never occurred. The president was assassinated on April 14, 1865. His successor, Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, lacked his predecessor’s skills in handling people; those skills would be badly missed. Johnson’s plan envisioned Pardons that would. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 1560 Words | 4 Pages. Place? after an ACL tear will decrease knee range of motion following surgery. (Dr. Andrews) the for environmental science, one who did surgery on Peterson’s knee only six days after his . injury. (Dr.

Andrews) determined Peterson to essay your place be a perfect candidate for early surgery. ACL reconstruction surgery involves taking a small piece of muscle tendon and using it to replace the torn ACL. The replacement muscle tendon, known as a “graft” can come from the athlete’s hamstring muscle tendons, patellar tendon (the part of the knee a doctor. Anterior cruciate ligament , Anterior cruciate ligament injury , Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction 2861 Words | 7 Pages. RECONSTRUCTION By: nicole alexandria Reconstruction . was a time period of rebuilding economy and society. Science? The South had needed to herman the scrivener rebuild their economy and society because of the civil war. Many people disagreed with the idea because people thought that they did not need this and essay science that they should live in ruins. Reconstruction occurred in 1867 many people felt devastated because.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , President of the United States 1016 Words | 4 Pages. ? Tips for writing a “9” DBQ : 1. As you read the question, come up with at least three categories. Essay Mill Websites? Then try to fill in essay science as much specific . factual information that you can think of, and put this into the categories. It’s important to do this BEFORE you read the documents, so that you don’t forget them when you are analyzing the documents. 2. After you do this, and ONLY after, start reading the documents. When looking at the documents, be sure to look at who is the author/painter/political cartoonist/historian. African American , African American history , Democratic Party 713 Words | 3 Pages. Reconstruction after the American Civil War By: Alec Decker The period after the bengal essay west, Civil War, 1865 - 1877, was called the . Essay Science? Reconstruction period.

Abraham Lincoln started planning for herman melville bartleby the scrivener essay, the reconstruction of the South during the Civil War while Union soldiers occupied huge areas of the South. He wanted to bring the for environmental, Nation back together as quick as he can without many complications. In December 1863 he proposed one of his plans to his Reconstruction which required the States to prohibit slavery. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 613 Words | 2 Pages. Essay Mill? 3. Essay For Environmental? How do we integrate and protect newly-emancipate black freedmen?

4. And Responsibility? What branch of government should control the process of Reconstruction ? . Essay? Wartime Reconstruction President Lincoln’s 10% Plan - Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction (December 8,1863) - Replace majority rule with “loyal rule” in the South - He didn’t consult Congress regarding Reconstruction - Pardon to all but the highest ranking military and civilian Confederate officers - When 10% of the voting population in the. Essay? Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Johnson 397 Words | 2 Pages.

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Essay for environmental science

essay on bruchko The Bible is a cross-cultural (cc) training document. It has the only absolutes that we possess. A member of any culture can use it safely to relate both to God and to fellow humans. Ted Ward, a missiologist, has said that commonalties outweigh differences among people. We are more alike than dissimilar. The image of for environmental science God rests on all people (Gen. 1:27).

All people have a longing for eternity in some form, for instance (Eccles. 3:11). God has given people consciences, which reflect another attribute shared with God, morality (Rom. Reading. 2:14-15). Humans also love, which reflects God (1 John 4:8). People also have an aesthetic sense--we appreciate sunsets and art. We enjoy beauty because God made that beauty. For Environmental Science. He himself is beautiful (Ps.

27:4). He is extravagant with that beauty, creating flowers that none will ever see but Himself. We have highly developed symbolic language. Animals communicate, but not through symbols. The principles of Scripture are intended by God to be used by persons of any culture in relation to other persons of herman bartleby the scrivener essay any other culture or subculture. Otherwise, it would be good for only Near Eastern and Greco-Roman cultures. The Bible is above culture, since it stands to judge any culture. There are elements of common grace insights that even pagans enjoy. The Greek poet Aratus wrote, accurately, We are his [God's] offspring. (Acts 17:28). Essay For Environmental. He referred to Zeus, but the statement is true of Deity (F.F.

Bruce, 1954, The Book of the Acts, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, Mich., p.360). Non-believers may discover truth and employ correct principles, reaping their benefits. Many Chinese model principles for generating income in Proverbs and are financially successful. God reveals much about Himself, such as His eternal power and divine nature (Rom. 1:20), but even this is suppressed, or consciously denied by godless people (Rom. History In Political. 1:18 NIV). A culture may reflect God's principles of hospitality to strangers (Ex. Essay For Environmental. 22:21; Lev. 19:10; Heb.

13:2), for instance. Essay. It may have strong taboos against embarrassing anyone (face saving, 1 Cor. 13:4), but may allow parents to invade and for environmental control the history in political present, marriage of a son or daughter (Eph. 5:31). Scripture stands in essay for environmental science judgment of culture, not culture over the Bible. Jesus declared that the word essay and responsibility, cultural assertions of Samaritans regarding the place to worship to be absolutely wrong (John 4:19-22). Science. Paul wrote, Even one of their own prophets has said, 'Cretans are always liars, evil brutes, lazy gluttons.' This testimony is true. Therefore rebuke them sharply, so that they will be sound in essay your favorite place the faith. Essay. (Tit.

1:12-13). However, in the same chapter, Paul gave behavioral guidelines for essay, the selection of elders, which were in complete harmony with those given to Timothy for other cultures, illustrating absolute moral criteria (Tit. 1:5-9; 1 Tim. 3:1-7). Whenever culture and Scripture conflict, culture must be judged. Democratic societies operate on majority consensus, or majority morality (sociological truth). Perhaps the greatest hermaneutical challenge today is at this point: What in for environmental science the Bible was the result of cultural conditioning and what is enduring to herman melville bartleby essay, all generations and peoples? Not a few, for example, believe that a woman should teach men in the church today, despite 1 Tim.

2:12, since, we are told, women were domineering a local church and it was simply a local problem, confined to one time and culture. However, Paul's reasoning in his prohibition goes all the way back to Adam and Eve, to the origin of gender relationships, which suggests a larger application of his words (1 Tim. 2:13-14). For Environmental. The issue of polygamy is similar. Those opposing it go to Gen. 2:24, where one man and one woman become one flesh (cf. Matt. 19:5), which is the clearest and most authoritative teaching. Some believe that polygamy is bartleby critical valid in the church today, as for instance Father William Knipe, an American Maryknoll missionary in East Africa ('Africanizing' the essay for environmental, Church, Newsweek 126(14): 56, Oct. 2, 1995). God did seem to sanction polygamy in the Old Covenant (2 Sam.

12:8). As Marvin K. Mayers has pointed out, missionaries are change agents (Christianity Confronts Culture, Zondervan, 1987, p. xiv). Bartleby Critical Essay. They have stopped widow burning in India, the killing of twins in Africa, and prostitution in Hawaii. They have introduced hospitals and education and dignity for women. In thousands of ways Christians have been salt and light in culture, exposing darkness and preserving the good. God is both able and essay for environmental science willing to reveal errors in our understanding (Phi. 3:15). The Word of God, is living and active. Sharper than any double-edged sword, it penetrates even to dividing soul and spirit, joints and marrow; it judges the thoughts and attitudes of the essay, heart. (Heb. 4:12).

However, understanding God's mind involves nonconformity to for environmental science, the prevailing unchristian worldview (Rom. 12:2). A culture will be as Christian as its people have been permeated with biblical truth. We communicate because God communicates. Essay History Present. Francis Schaeffer has shown that within the Trinity, there was both communication and love.

Jesus had glory, and the love of the Father before the creation of the world (John 17:5, 24). The Father communicated to the Son that Jesus was to go into our world (John 17:18). There was knowledge of each Person of the Trinity (John 17:25). The Word had fellowship with God (John 1:1) before coming to earth. The Spirit is also eternal (Heb. 9:14), and was present with the Father and Son from the creation of the world (Gen. 1:1-2; John 1:3; Col. 1:16). Science. As Schaeffer has noted, the love and communication among the Trinity is the basis of love and communication among men and women whom He has created in His image (Gen. 1:27). Schaeffer also correctly observed that this world is essay place abnormal, due to the effects of sin, which has affected every aspect of human existence, including the mind (in contrast to Aquinas' view).

Man is separated from God, which creates a spiritual division. He is separated from society, which creates sociological problems. He is for environmental science separated from essay your place, groups within society, even within his own culture, which creates social psychological divisions. He is even separated from himself, creating psychological problems. The Gospel is able to bridge each separation. Essay For Environmental. However, the existence of essay place these divisions creates challenges both within and essay among cultures.

Normal differences are magnified by sin, and exploited by Satan. This is so among Christians, as well as non-Christians. Fallen people join in fallen societies. It is possible for 1000 word essay and responsibility, certain sins to dominate a city, as sexual perversion dominated Sodom and Gomorrah (Jude 1:7). Intellectual pride seems to have overtaken Athens in the first century A.D. Essay For Environmental Science. (Acts 17:18). Essay. The Assyrians were known for their cruelty (Nahum 3:19). Such strongholds of sin require divinely powerful weapons to destroy them. Essay Science. Among such weapons is prayer (2 Cor. Herman Melville Bartleby The Scrivener Essay. 10:4-5). Conversion of for environmental individuals will result in the change of societies, composed of criticism in political present west individuals.

A Christian is a new creation, following a new master, with new goals and values (2 Cor. Essay For Environmental Science. 5:17; Col. 1:13). But even Christian churches can have strongholds of sin, as the letters to five of the websites, seven churches in Revelation reveal (Rev. 2-3). Ephesus lacked love for essay for environmental, God (Rev. 2:4); Thyatira apparently tolerated sexual immorality (Rev. 2:20); Sardis was complacent (Rev. #:2-3); Laodicea was proud (Rev.

3:17). Nor only are individuals fallen historically through Adam (Rom. 5:12), but they are actively dominated by a wicked ruler, Satan. The whole world is under the criticism essay history west, control of the evil one. (1 John 5:19). God's superior power is for environmental evident, however. Jesus keeps God's people safe (1 John 5:18).

Satan's defeat is decreed (Rev. 20:10). Conversion robs Satan of a subject, so evangelism is spiritual warfare. Reading. Considering the enemy, we can do nothing apart from Christ (John 15:5). Essay For Environmental. Satan has his subjects in supernatural blindness (2 Cor. 4:4).

Christians are advised to wear the full armor of essay God (Eph. 6:10-18), so that they can be strong in the Lord and in his mighty power. (Eph. 6:10). Cross cultural ministry compounds the normal problems of evangelism, increasing possible misunderstanding. Because of the for environmental, supernatural nature of critical resistance to essay for environmental, the Gospel, the Holy Spirit must come in convicting power upon the unsaved (John 16:8). This is technically an awakening, in contrast to a revival. When the Spirit comes in conviction upon a church, it is revival.

The best conditions for the spread of God's Kingdom exist during the powerful outpourings of the herman bartleby the scrivener, Spirit, as the worldwide revival/awakening of 1905 demonstrates. Dramatic conversions were common, especially in Wales. The Welsh revival sparked the science, Korean revival (J. Edwin Orr). One hundred years have elapsed since the last worldwide revival. The most prudent mission strategy is prayer for the Holy Spirit to come upon both the Church and the lost in great power. Generally a revival results in zealous new missionaries, as with the East Africa Revival, begun in 1000 essay 1930. God is intentionally involved in essay science cross-cultural ministry. Because Christians are to history present, go to every ethnic group (ethnv), this implies not only the for environmental, mandate, but its feasibility.

In fact, Christ Himself accompanies us (Matt. 28:19-20, cf. Heb. 13:5-6). In the Old Testament, Christ was to be a light for the Gentiles (Is. 42:6-7). It is too small a thing for you to be my servant to restore the herman bartleby essay, tribes of Jacob and bring back those of Israel I have kept. I will also make you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring my salvation to the ends of the earth. (Is. 49:6, NIV).

At Pentecost the divisive effects of the dispersion through language confusion (linguistic separation, due to the sin of essay pride) at bengal criticism history in political present west, Babel (Gen. 11:4-9) was momentarily overcome. For Environmental Science. Jews from every nation under heaven . . . Essay. heard them speaking in essay science his own language. (Acts 2:5-6). This underscores the decisive barrier that language is to bartleby critical, cc ministry. We need to essay for environmental, be able to communicate in the heart language of the people to be best understood. Even a riot was calmed when Jews heard Paul speak in their own tongue (Acts 22;2). The salvation of 3,000 at Pentecost included the same cosmopolitan gathering (Acts 2:41). The church from inception has been multicultural and transcultural. The church in its final form will include those purchased by Christ's blood from bartleby the scrivener, every tribe and language and people and nation. (Rev. 5:9).

The barrier to sharing the Gospel with non-Jews took extraordinary measures to overcome, including angelic visitation, visions, and providential timing (Acts 10:3, 11, 19-20). Most cultures tend toward ethnocentrism, toward a prejudicial preference of essay for environmental their own culture to all others. 1000 And Responsibility. Ethnocentrism is prejudicial because the strengths of other cultures are often not appreciated. The attitude that we are the people prevails. This pride is for environmental perhaps strongest among those who have the least experience with other cultures. Culture may be defined as the particular solutions to the needs of life adopted by a group of people. It rests upon bartleby critical essay, beliefs. The deepest beliefs and assumptions about the world, including values, perspectives, taboos and behaviors, constitute one's worldview. A worldview constitutes a cognitive grid through which perceptions are interpreted. Essay For Environmental. Typically this worldview cannot be articulated by 1000 word on accountability the holder, since it is taken for granted, and is so deeply ingrained from birth.

A person wearing glasses, for for environmental, instance, doesn't notice the lenses, yet they are unique to the needs of the wearer, and would not help most others to properly see. One's worldview can be illuminated through contact with contrasting cultures. It can be judged as right or wrong by the absolute standard of the Bible. Otherwise, a culture can be judged to be relatively more or less efficient in dealing with its unique environment. Worldview can also be illuminated by the deep structures inherent in bengal criticism essay history in political language.

It is common wisdom that to understand a people, their language needs to be comprehended. In trying to discover the worldview of an for environmental science, ethnic group, George Foster (The image of the limited good), advised that the method of triangulation be used. Possible explanations for a specific behavior, such as spending great sums for a wedding, are considered. As other unusual behaviors are observed, perhaps throwing an expensive party when someone prospers financially, explanations are sought which explain as many of the unusual behaviors as possible. That explanation, the melville bartleby, intersection of the largest number of adequate answers to behavior, would be a key to the worldview.

Degrees of Cross Cultural Ministry. Acts 1:8 is suggestive of degrees in cc ministry. For a Jew, Jerusalem represents intra-cultural ministry, or ministry to one's own culture. This has been termed M1. Judea represents one's own culture, in another locale. For Environmental Science. However, even within one's culture are pockets of those with a different subculture. In America, ministry to critical essay, hyphenated Americans is cc in nature.

So is ministry to race track personnel. Ministry in Samaria is for environmental analogous to essay, such cc ministry. Samaritans were if intermingled Jewish/Canaanite stock, and had a paganized Judaism (2 Kings 17:26-34). Even while these people were worshipping the Lord, they were serving their idols. (2 Kings 17:41). This is essay for environmental science equivalent to christo-paganism, on bengal in political, the order of Mariolatry in for environmental science Roman Catholicism. This is termed M2. Melville Bartleby The Scrivener Essay. Usually the basic language is the same, although of essay for environmental a different dialect (such as Black English is to English). The M3 field is equivalent to the end of the earth (Acts 1:8). Essay Your Place. Language and culture are entirely different from those of the missionary. A South American missionary who goes to for environmental, India is an example. Linguistic gifts are needed for M3 ministry.

Historic hostilities can increase the distance between the missionary culture and the target culture, as the mill, Jewish/Samaritan situation, and as Whites ministering to African Americans illustrate. Principles of Cross Cultural Ministry Incarnation. The greatest cultural gap ever bridged was when the eternal Logos (John 1:1) became the infant Jesus. He emptied Himself, voluntarily limiting the exercise of aspects of His divine glory (Phil. 2:6-8). Jesus, Who being in essay science very nature God, did not consider equality with God something to be grasped, but made himself nothing, taking the very nature of a servant, being made in 1000 word on accountability human likeness. (Phil.

2:6-7). This incarnational principle of cc ministry is probably the dominant model today in evangelical missions. Jesus did not come to be served, but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many. (Mark 10:45). Jesus, who as God was the agent of creation, became a humble member of the humanity He made (Col. 1:16). Paul wrote of such sacrifice: Your attitude should be the same as that of Christ Jesus. (Phil. 2:5). So service is a cc way of life. Service bonds us to the recipient (2 Cor.

9:14). It creates bridges, as did the flesh of the essay for environmental science, God-man. This identification with the target people was illustrated by Paul. I have become all things to reading, all men so that by for environmental science all possible means I might save some. (1 Cor. 9:22b). Though I am free and belong to no man, I make myself a slave to everyone, to win as many as possible. (1 Cor. Bartleby The Scrivener. 9:19). Circumcision illustrates this principle. Paul had Timothy, who had a Jewish mother, circumcised, in essay for environmental order to be found acceptable to the Jews (Acts 16:3). The principle of contextualization, or the principle of making the Gospel as relevant to melville bartleby, a given ethnic people as possible, without compromising the biblical truth, is illustrated by this circumcision. However, accommodation to a people halts if it is in conflict with Scripture.

Paul refused to circumcise Titus , so that it would not give the message that a Christian had to first observe the Law (Gal. 2:2-5). Normally circumcision is not an issue (1 Cor. Essay Science. 7:18-19). Incarnational ministry is flexible, without compromise. What exactly compromise is favorite place has been problematic. What is the line between honoring a worshipping ancestors?

Some believe that Matteo Ricci's (1552-1611) allowance of Chinese Christians praying to ancestors was compromise (Chinese Rites Controversy, Ruth Tucker, From Jerusalem to Irian Jaya, Zondervan, 1983, p. 65). Hudson Taylor's fellow missionaries felt that he had gone too far by adopting Chinese dress, including pony tail. A missionary probably cannot completely identify with those served. For Environmental. This is due to essay and responsibility, differences in mother tongue, worldview, education and essay for environmental science often economic level. Bruce Olsen, a single American, (his fine book is Bruchko), has in effect become a Motilone Indian, of South America. He lives exactly as they live in mill the jungle.

Yet he is essay more than a Motilone, having access to education and other North American resources. Viv Grigg (Companion to word on accountability and responsibility, the Poor) lived in the slums of Manila to incarnate the Gospel to the poor. However he maintains that complete cultural identification is not possible. For example, he has decided to keep his engineering credentials current, for use when needed. Once a week he was able to essay for environmental, leave, to gain perspective, strength and Christian fellowship. This is not a criticism, but illustrates that complete identification is probably not possible. Jonathan Bonk (Missions and Money, Orbis Books, 1991) made a strong case for the estrangement of missionary and host culture because of economic distance. He advises identification economically with host culture. Response. However, if a missionary is on a par with the people, he is unable to minister, because ministry costs money, in contrast to business, which gains money from serving people.

He will have also the essay for environmental, power of personal networks. Place. It is hard to for environmental science, deny, in any case, that a compound mentality puts distance between missionary and national. One resolution is to live at the level of those to whom we minister primarily. While God is interested in the Gospel for the poor (Luke 4:18), He desires missionaries to all the world, including the middle and upper classes, something extremely difficult for a missionary who identifies with the herman melville bartleby essay, poor. As Larry Burkett has noted, God has His people at all levels of society (whether official missionaries or not). Ralph Winter (Center for World Mission, Pasadena, Cal.) lives on a wartime budget. During war, expensive airplanes and science ships are purchased in order to win, while luxuries are scarce. He believes in spending whatever is herman melville essay needed to win the battle that a ministry faces.

This may mean digital recording for a radio ministry, or a fast modem for a missionary to reduce phone costs, or a laptop computer which will withstand a harsh environment. When Paul visited Athens, he said, As I walked around and looked carefully at your objects of worship, I even found an altar with this inscription, TO AN UNKNOWN GOD. Now what you worship as something unknown I am going to proclaim to you. (Acts 17:23). Paul observed carefully. Essay For Environmental. Not only that, he was alert to critical, build a cultural bridge between the for environmental, experience of the Athenians and the Gospel. Some believed Paul's method failed, but a few men, a woman and a number of others believed (Acts 17:34). Paul did not have any Old Testament scriptural base from which to operate, so the Athenians had to essay on accountability and responsibility, be brought further along than would Jews. Ethnographic cultural observation will assist to understand a people and find points of intersection for science, the Gospel. Don Richards (Peace Child), believes that each culture has its Redemptive Analogy, The application of local custom to spiritual truth (Tucker, p. 481). He found this among the 1000 on accountability, Sawi tribe of Irian Jaya in essay for environmental their peace child ritual. To make the criticism history, most binding peace, children from warring tribes would be exchanged.

From that analogy, Christ was effectively presented as the child the Heavenly Father gave to make peace with us (p. Essay For Environmental Science. 483). As aids to observation, we can look for behaviors that to us are strange. We can look for patterns of behaviors and ask Why? (Ted Ward). Who is involved in essay mill this behavior and why are they doing it? So simple that it is overlooked, we can ask a member of the group for an explanation. Cultural informants are precious.

Why, for example, do Ugandans drive so aggressively? Is this connected breaking into the head of a line of essay for environmental science people, something considered rude by Americans? Are these behaviors, in turn, related to mill websites, a survival of the fittest worldview, due to the slaughters led by Amin and Obote? Research into ethnographies of the target people can be invaluable. Many are not done from for environmental, a Christian perspective. Country studies published by the U.S. Criticism Essay In Political. government are very thorough.

The British publish quarterly the Country Report, Economic Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom (HC 870 .A C68) on every nation, giving economic and political analyses. Human Resource Area Files extensively document many cultures, but are somewhat dated. They are now on essay for environmental science, CD Rom discs. Article data bases provide the most current information, apart from shortwave reception of national news services. Social scientists publish ethnographic articles in journals (the GN1 Library of Congress number area) such as Ethnology, American Anthropologist, Ethnic and Racial Studies, International Journal of Cross-cultural Relations, Journal of your favorite Applied Social Psychology, Journal of Ethnic Studies and many others. Encyclopedias exist which detail aspects of cultures, such as the Dictionary of Race and Ethnic Relations (1994), and those which detail even aspects of a culture, as the Encyclopedia of African American Religion (1993). Northwestern University at Chicago, Illinois, U.S.A. has devoted one floor of a library wing to essay, Africana. Bartleby Critical Essay. Dissertations and theses, as well as books, are other sources.

Cross cultural ministry is for environmental like picking one's way through a mine field. With great care we probe for the mines, knowing that a situation may blow up in our face if we are careless. So we need to watch where the nationals walk, even where the bartleby critical, pets walk, so reading cultural clues and cues. How are people reacting? Why are they reacting like they are? But hopefully we learn from errors and improve. To adapt to a people requires unusual flexibility and humility.

Such ministry is demands competent, intelligent and gifted servants of God, not as some think, those who can't make it in other kinds of work or ministry. The quintessence of Christian ministry is personal relationships with those we seek to serve. James Engel, a Christian expert in communication, developed a model which places the for environmental, acceptance of the messenger before the acceptance of the bartleby essay, Gospel. A good relationship precedes the most effective evangelism, although there have been exceptions, since the Holy Spirit is not limited. A strong relationship is almost essential for discipleship. A trust bond develops slowly, and is earned by attempting to be faithful. Science. It may take years to develop a reputation for being trustworthy. Reading Response. This is the case even for pastors. Science. Mayers and Josh McDowell, among others, begin with self-acceptance as the basis of criticism history present strong, positive relationships with others. Mayers advocates the attitude which recognizes that we all are under construction (Mayers, p. Essay For Environmental Science. 37-38). Co-dependency is characterized by trying to find a base of self-acceptance through the perception of how others treat us.

If we can accept ourself, for this moment, with our flaws, we can more easily accept the flawed (Mayers). McDowell came to not simply accept, but to be thankful for an alcoholic father and reading obese mother, because God did not err. God used difficulty to develop McDowell into a speaker who has talked to more college students, he claims, than any other person alive. Because God is good, we can trust our past, present and future to Him. We can afford to be thankful (1 Thess. 5:18; Phil. 4:4), because God can turn evil into good for the believer (Rom.

8:28). For Environmental Science. When I do not need the approval of others, and do not fear them, I am free to love them, since love casts out fear (1 John 4:18). Personal strength comes from God. King David wrote, When I felt secure, I said, 'I will never be shaken.' O Lord, when you favored me, you made my mountain stand firm; but when you hid your face, I was dismayed. (Ps.. Reading Response. 30:6-7). Prayer gives us personal stability.

Personal acceptance can be based upon the acceptance of God. Accept one another, then, just as Christ accepted you, in order to bring praise to God. (Rom. 15:7). From a basis of self-acceptance (Love your neighbor as yourself. Luke 10:27), we can love others. Above all, love each other deeply, because love covers over a multitude of sins.

This love covers cross cultural conflict. Love must operate behind any Christian ministry. Otherwise our sacrifice means nothing (1 Cor. 13:1-3). When God loved, He gave (John 3:16). An Indian was asked his memory of a missionary among his people. He loved us very much.

He loved us very much. Yes, very much he loved us. Essay For Environmental. Love considers others to be more important than we are, showing honor (Phil. 2:3). Herman Melville Bartleby The Scrivener Essay. The principle of servanthood holds across cultures, that the greatest is servant of all (Matt.

23:11). As a former missionary to Irian Jaya put it, Love finds a way. Two are better than one, because they have a good return for their work. (Eccles. Essay Science. 4:9). Jesus sent out the essay mill websites, 12 and the 70 by two's (Mark 6:7; Luke 10:1). Two not only lightens the load, but makes the load light (Matt. 11:28-30). Additionally, since Christians specialize in ministry, we need to both assist other Christians in their ministry and call upon them to assist us in ministry to others (see The Urban Christian, by Ray Bakke, InterVarsity Press). Various ethnic groups have dominant learning styles. A common division is field dependent and for environmental field independent.

The former style is group-oriented, with emphasis upon the student-teacher relationship, as well as visually oriented. Mill Websites. Independent study and a cognitive orientation characterizes the latter style. Being aware of these styles, it is probably better to teach to it, rather than use the opposite style. Copyright © 2016 Reconciliation Ministries Network Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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essay on talmud Recently, Rabbi David Stein authored a programmatic essay on essay science the way Talmud should be taught in mill websites American Modern Orthodox High Schools. The major contribution of the article is to shift the teaching and learning of Talmud from being just the essay for environmental study of text, into being the study of a discipline or subject with a “structure” of essential questions and key ideas. I had previously addressed the curriculum question in regard to Halakhah education in a different forum , [1] and the importance of focusing on the essential questions of the discipline is essay place, critical for Talmud study as well ; I agree with the science point of 1000 essay departure that educational best practices require attending and focusing lessons around the science structures of a discipline. In this response, I am prepared to agree with Rabbi Stein that best practices of Talmud instruction would suggest a focus on essential questions; yet, I would disagree with him on what those essential questions are.

His essay ends with a stark dichotomy: either we accept the new model in his school with its unique conception of the essential questions and structures of Talmud, or we are guilty of rejecting the scientifically modeled best practice of Schwab and Bruner. But from my perspective, a third possibility remains open: even schools with more traditional curricula can still use an essential questions approachjust with different essential questionsand are still following the science of melville bartleby education even without copying the authors’ new model. I serve as a Talmud teacher in the same type of schools that Rabbi Stein writes about, namely, the Maimonides School in Brookline, Massachusetts, a flagship institution for Modern Orthodox education founded by Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik in 1937. Though it is a fallacy to lump all forty-five US Modern Orthodox high schools into one group, I think that Maimonides reflects fairly broadly on these schools as a whole. We are coeducational, and passionately committed to Halakhah ; located in Boston, we are neither tiny nor huge in size . And we reflect the general ethos of Modern Orthodox Jewish education: our students go on to be students and scholars of essay for environmental Talmud in essay in political west their year of study of Israel, in college, and beyond, while engaging with the science wider world in citizenship, career, and reading response community.

The Magic Behind Essential Questions. Rabbi Stein focuses on one of Bruner’s most important contributions to the field of education: the realization that the for environmental most important aspect of the learning of any discipline is the essay mill websites key structure or essential questions of the subject, and not the texts, textbooks, or units which are used as manifestations or illustrations of those essential questions. For Environmental Science? Essential questions can be taught at all ages and all grade levels, and 1000 word and responsibility recur throughout the curriculum in each semester of each year. Like any curriculum, Talmud curricula should be focused on science essential questions at the core, and schools should be open to make all sorts of adjustments and changes to topics of Jewish Law and Tractates of Talmud studied, so long as the essential questions and structures remain constant. 1000 Essay On Accountability And Responsibility? A curriculum might adjust (1) the selection of topics and science tractates, (2) languages used in instruction (Hebrew or English) and text-reading (Aramaic or English), (3) the difficulty of 1000 essay on accountability language in the text studied (Talmudic sections written in Hebrew to complex Aramaic), (4) the focus on science Practical Law, or Talmud alone, or Talmud and commentarybut these shifts only change the externalities of the program and favorite place not the core: the essential questions which remain the same. Rabbi Stein quotes extensively from a thin booklet penned by essay Rabbi Aharon Lichtenstein in mill which the late Har Etzion rosh yeshiva discusses the issues confronting Talmud study in yeshiva high schools today. [2] Throughout his essay, Rabbi Lichtenstein returns to the same basic essential questions and themes of Talmud study such as “command and essay for environmental limit,” normative message, of “He who commands and essay obligates,” “normative consciousness of the Torah’s authority”, “authority and logic,” “conservatism and momentum,” a normative system. Essay? [3] Not surprisingly, Rabbi Lichtenstein considers these themes essential to Talmud study in other essays as well, such as the earlier “Why Learn Gemara.” [4]

Accordingly, it is noteworthy that Rabbi Lichtenstein agrees methodologically with Rabbi Stein in word essay and responsibility his openness to changing curricula while maintaining essential questions and structures, but disagrees with Rabbi Stein in establishing what those essential questions are. For Rabbi Lichtenstein, a possible shift to the conventional way Talmud is essay for environmental science, studied is to maintain the original essential questions of reading response normative command - which for him are the essential themes of Talmud study - while changing only the texts that are studied (dimension #3 above), focusing more on the easier Hebrew in the Mishnah or Mishneh Torah instead of on the more complex Aramaic of the Talmud. In addition, Rabbi Lichtenstein unequivocally indicates that, in his vision, the overwhelming majority of yeshiva high school students should continue intensive study of Talmud as has been the case until now; no major change is needed for this group of students who are not presently in crisis. A new curriculum which sacrifices the development of text-study skills by shifting the text that is studied is appropriate for some students, but the essay for environmental science majority should study in accordance with past curricula. Yet, the Shalhevet program appears to suggest a change to be made for bengal criticism essay history present, all students, and therein lies a risk in making a change for science, students for whom no change was necessary. What are the word essay and responsibility Essential Questions of Talmud Study? It is important to determine what the essential questions are, because in essay for environmental a context of limited time, schools will spend more time and focus on reading the essential questions and less on for environmental secondary aspects of the subject. Though unstated in word on accountability their piece, one gets the impression from Rabbi Stein that a majority of for environmental science “traditional” Talmud programs spend more time on the development of textual-skills, and the major change of the Shalhevet program is devoting more time to the essential structure of underlying philosophy, at the expense of less time to textual-skills. For Rabbi Stein, the essential core or structure of Talmud study relates to the philosophical basics and “fundamental principles, values, and questions” of Jewish law; the major movement of their curriculum is to liberate the essential philosophical questions from being weighed down by intensive textual study, enabling students to focus on the central ideas (Rabbinic Authority, law and logic, diversity and unity in law, flexibility and democracy, Rabbinical and Biblical law). Yet, the essential questions in melville the scrivener essay skill-based classes are usually phrased not as underlying philosophical issues, but as the skills-to-be-acquired. The essential questions of a math class do not relate to science, the philosophy of math, but to 1000 on accountability, the way students approach math problems. Science? [5] And so, a different educator might argue that even one adapting Bruner’s approach to Talmud study might focus on bartleby a different set of essential questions which are skill-focused.

In my view, the essay science essential questions of Talmud study are different, and are formulated as skill or methodology based, and not as underlying philosophical questions. Dr. Yael Jaffe (full disclosure, m y w ife), recently suggested in word essay on accountability and responsibility her doctoral dissertation on Talmud study that one of the for environmental key essential questions in Talmud study is learning how to process the 1000 word essay unique recurring text-structures of Talmud study, involving question answer, attack response, proof disproof. Other Talmud teachers would similarly grant that understanding and identifying the for environmental science modes commentaries operate in 1000 word essay and responsibility (translation interpretation, filling in lacuna in the argument, or independent questioning), or the distinction between fundamental and peripheral debates is a similar skills-based essential question of the discipline. And so, even were we to shift Talmud study to a new focus revolving around educational best-practices, the result is probably not the Shalhevet curriculum: it is instead a curriculum that is more attendant to the transparent identification, instruction, practice, and scaffolding of science text-analysis skills. Textually Literate or Philosophically Aware? From my vantage point, the key essential structures relate to the skills of understanding the text, more than the ideas and theoretical underpinnings of your favorite place Halakhic Jurisprudence.

Moreover, skill development must be undertaken at the earlier grades, because though students can pick up the for environmental science philosophic principles as they mature, the hours and the scrivener years needed to attain strong skills do not happen overnight, and so skills must be introduced early and spiraled around numerous times in middle school and essay science high school. Our current curricular approach produces a large cadre of students each year who can be independent Talmud studiers and who can be empowered consumers of our tradition. We are able to achieve the ideal result: men and women who can to borrow from Rabbi Lichtenstein againhave a primary engagement with primary texts, and thereby become “insiders” in word essay the unfolding of Halakhah and Jewish tradition. A turn towards philosophy might help our students understand what they observe as new questions are raised and addressed in essay modernity (and also across the generations of Jewish history) but it comes at the risk of herman the scrivener essay relegating our students to the role of “outsiders,” those who watch and can make suggestions about the evolution of Jewish law but never have enough mastery of the essay texts to be able to hold their own in the details of the debate. Issues of Rabbinic Authority, law and logic, diversity and unity in law, flexibility and democracy, etc., often stand behind the essay websites curtain of Halakhic jurisprudence, but in Orthodoxy new decisions are based on the precise understanding of Talmudic texts, and not the background principles alone. We risk doing our students a disservice if we explain to essay for environmental, them the background principles, but don’t spent the hours (some might say 10,000 hours ) necessary to your, give them the keys to precise and nuanced understanding of the for environmental foundational texts. In the end, continued literacy in our texts is what will perpetuate our mesorah , more than discussions about Jewish thought might without a prior foundation in text study; and middle and herman melville bartleby the scrivener essay high schools must prepare their students for that kind of textual literacy as they go through school. Defining Crisis, and Understanding Possible Responses to it. Rabbi Stein’s argument begins with the identification of a crisis in essay for environmental science current Talmud study across Modern Orthodox high schools in the United States. Much has been written about this topic in essay on accountability the sources Rabbi Stein cites, in further sources cited in the above referenced dissertation, and in numerous other forums.

And much as we might agree with the old adage in politics that a serious crisis provides a resounding call to essay, action that cannot be wasted, the diagnosis of the precise nature of the crisis and the appropriate solutions for it remains a needed first step. As many writers note, this question is a deeply subjective one, and a question which might carry a different response in different communities, and so one school’s specific crisis or challenge might differ from the ones in a different community. Is the crisis that students feel like the topics they study in Talmud are not relevant to their daily lives? That the goring ox Rabbi Stein speaks of cannot relate to modern realities? If so, a possible solution is more careful selection of tractates of Talmud study, focusing on practical and day-to-day topics, as has been the practice in Maimonides for generations, which has chosen to study topics like Shabbat, Prayer, and Kashrut as the 1000 word essay on accountability building blocks of for environmental science its Talmud curriculum. [6] Or perhaps the crisis is that students beginning Talmud lack the Hebrew language skills needed to crack the challenging language of Talmudic texts? This might lead to an entirely different solution related to how we teach Hebrew, or related to the difficulty of Talmudic language used (à la Rabbi Lichtenstein). Is it that students are no longer captivated by the content? To be sure, student investment and zeal in a discipline is a key predictor of outcomes in that discipline, but it is only a partial measure. [7] We should acknowledge, that like in regard to math or the hard sciences, schools and the adults therein sometimes make choices in light of long-term payout for bartleby essay, students and not short-term student gratification.

Students might care less or like a discipline less in the here-and-now, but schools still teach the building blocks of the discipline in order to essay for environmental science, reach the long-term payout. In America, students routinely prefer the stimulating discussions of History and English over Math and herman melville bartleby the scrivener Physics, but few would argueespecially in our STEM -steeped culturethat the solution is to teach less of for environmental math and the sciences. Many subjects take years of essay your place introductory level study before reaching the essay for environmental science final payout, but the crisis of captivation in the present should not lessen our zeal to undertake the study of these subjects for the sake of the future. And perhaps, the problem is bartleby essay, not rooted in curriculum, as much as it is rooted in teacher training. For Environmental Science? Perhaps teachers lack subject-matter expertise (their own 10,000 hours of prior Talmud study) or the reading response didactic expertise (as in essay the aforementioned dissertation) to give first-rate and well rounded classes? If so, the solution to 1000 word essay and responsibility, the crisis is improving teacher trainingeither in teacher training programs or in the early years of teaching; changing the curriculum fails to address the essay for environmental science central issue. Or perhaps there is no crisis at all.

We cannot generalize to all communities, and whether it is bartleby, indeed true across the for environmental country and in each and response every school. My hope and sense is that in at least some schools Talmud is not the least-liked of all Judaic subjects, although perhaps I am mistaken. In the end, Rabbi Stein’s essay raises some important questions about the need for science, and value in rethinking the way Talmud is taught and studied. But as a next step, we probably need major nation-wide empirical research about what distinguishes successful schools and classrooms in Talmud from those in despair and crisis. Such data can help reassure us whether the solution lies in curricular change, didactic approaches, teacher training, topic selection, language, or some of the above. Until then, perhaps the solution of refocusing on essential structures and questions is the way to favorite place, start. In my mind, though, the essential structure of “Talmud” is the structure of the Talmud: understanding the ebb and flow, rhythm, and key words and science phrases that make the essay websites Talmud buzz and sing.

[1] See Yaakov Jaffe “Towards a New Paradigm for the Study of Halakhah,” Ten Da’at 20 (October 2009 ): 75-90. [2] Aharon Lichtenstein and Yehuda Brandes Notes from Atid: Talmud Study in Yeshiva High Schools (Jerusalem: Atid, 2007), 7-28. Brandes also recently discussed his views on Talmud study in more detail in his own programmatic essay “Talmud Study: From Proficiency to Meaning” Hakirah 21 (2016) : 81-112. Rabbi Stein is not focused on Brandes’s views per se, and they are also outside the scope of this paper, but a fuller treatment of his views can be found in that article, accessible here . [3] Ibid. 8, 9, 10, 11, 18, 20, 21, and 21; respectively. [4] Aharon Lichtenstein “Why Learn Gemara” in Leaves of Faith Volume One (Jersey City: Ktav, 2003), 1-18.

[5] See Jay McTighe and essay for environmental science Grant Wiggins, Essential Questions: Opening Doors to Student Understanding (Alexandria, VA: ASCD, 2013). [6] See Seth Farber, An American Orthodox Dreamer: Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik and Boston’s Maimonides School (Brandeis University Press, 2004), 82. [7] See Thomas J. Kane and Douglas O. Reading? Staiger, Learning about Teaching: Initial Findings from the Measures of Effective Teaching Project (Seattle: Bill Melinda Gates Foundation, 2010), 23-25. Essay? The authors indicate that in herman bartleby Math and ELA , classroom management and the setting of high standards are greater predictors of student outcomes than the ability to captivate or interest the student in the material. Out of seven measures of teaching studied there, captivation has third lowest predictive power in both ELA and Math. Rabbi Dr. Yaakov Jaffe serves as the rabbi of the Maimonides Kehillah, founded by Rabbi Joseph B. For Environmental Science? Soloveitchik in 1963, and as the Director of Tanach Studies at the Maimonides School. He received his ordination and doctorate from Yeshiva University, where he holds graduate degrees in Bible, Jewish History, and Jewish Education. Rabbi Dr. Yaakov Jaffe serves as the essay on accountability rabbi of the Maimonides Kehillah, founded by Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik in 1963, and essay for environmental as the Director of Tanach Studies at the Maimonides School. He received his ordination and doctorate from Yeshiva University, where he holds graduate degrees in Bible, Jewish History, and Jewish Education.

Jan 30 The Modern Orthodox Vote and mill the Episcopalian Turn. Jan 23 Aesopian Language in the Holocaust Writings of the Aish Kodesh of Piaseczno. Jan 12 Curriculum, Crisis, and Change: Towards a Talmud Curriculum Grounded in Educational Theory. Jun 22 Would the Rav Approve of the Soloveitchik Siddur? Oct 2 Are Modern Orthodox Jews More Comfortable with Mysticism or Anthropomorphism? Theodicy, faith, and the meaning of life.

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