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The Braindead Megaphone: Essays - …
biography is Leonardo DiCaprio is an george award-winning actor and a three-time Academy Award® nominee. DiCaprio#8217;s 5th collaboration with Director Martin Scorsese #8220;The Wolf of Wall Street#8221; is available on Blu-ray DVD now. DiCaprio starred as Jay Gatsby in “The Great Gatsby”, directed by on a book Baz Luhrmann. Megaphone Essays Saunders! Prior to “The Great Gatsby”, he starred in #8220;Django Unchained,#8221; where he received a Golden Globe nomination for his work. As the title role in “J. Edgar”, under the direction of Clint Eastwood, he received Golden Globe, Critics’ Choice and nus thesis, Screen Actors Guild (SAG) Award® nominations for his work in the film. Additionally, he starred in braindead Christopher Nolan’s blockbuster “Inception,” and the dramatic thriller “Shutter Island,” which marked his fourth collaboration with director Martin Scorsese. DiCaprio earned an Oscar® nomination in comparison essay 2007 for his performance in Edward Zwick’s drama “Blood Diamond,” also receiving Golden Globe, Critics’ Choice and Screen Actors Guild (SAG) Award® nominations for essays george saunders, his work in the film. That same year, he garnered Golden Globe, BAFTA Award, Critics’ Choice Award and SAG Award® nominations for his role in report on a the Oscar®-winning Best Picture “The Departed,” directed by braindead megaphone george Scorsese.
He also shared in a SAG Award® nomination for Outstanding Motion Picture Cast Performance as a member of the favorite place, ensemble cast of “The Departed.” He previously earned an Academy Award® nomination for braindead george, his performance in Scorsese’s acclaimed 2004 biopic “The Aviator.” DiCaprio’s portrayal of report on a book, Howard Hughes in that film also brought him a Golden Globe Award for Best Actor in a Drama, as well as Critics’ Choice and BAFTA Award nominations. He was also honored with two SAG Award® nominations, one for Best Actor and another for Outstanding Motion Picture Cast Performance as part of the “The Aviator” cast. In addition to his acting work, DiCaprio launched his own production company, Appian Way. Braindead George! Under the Appian Way banner, he wrote, produced and comparison essay, narrated the acclaimed environmentally themed documentary “The 11th Hour.” Among Appian Way’s other productions are the megaphone george, aforementioned “Shutter Island” and “The Aviator,” as well as “The Ides of March,” “Red Riding Hood,” “Orphan,” “Public Enemies” and outline, the soon to be released “Out of the Furnace” starring Christian Bale and Woody Harrelson and “Runner, Runner” starring Justin Timberlake and Ben Affleck. Born in braindead megaphone essays george Hollywood, California, DiCaprio started acting at the age of 14.
His breakthrough feature film role came in Michael Caton-Jones’ 1993 screen adaptation of Tobias Wolff’s autobiographical drama “This Boy’s Life.” That same year, he co-starred in Lasse Hallstrom’s “What’s Eating Gilbert Grape,” earning his first Oscar® and Golden Globe nominations for his performance as a mentally handicapped young man. In addition, he won the National Board of Review Award for Best Supporting Actor and the Los Angeles Film Critics Association’s New Generation Award for his work in the film. In 1995, DiCaprio had starring roles in three very different films, beginning with Sam Raimi’s Western, “The Quick and the Dead.” He also garnered praise for his performance as drug addict Jim Carroll in the harrowing drama “The Basketball Diaries,” and for his portrayal of disturbed pansexual poet Arthur Rimbaud in Agnieszka Holland’s “Total Eclipse.” The following year, DiCaprio starred in Baz Luhrmann’s contemporary screen adaptation of “William Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet,” for which he won the Best Actor Award at the Berlin International Film Festival. He also joined an all-star ensemble cast in “Marvin’s Room,” sharing in a SAG Award® nomination for Outstanding Motion Picture Cast Performance. What issue do you care about the most? New documentary #8220;Before The Flood#8221; to outline air globally on NatGeo on essays, October 30th.
Before the format, Flood presents a riveting account of the dramatic changes now occurring around the world due to climate change, as well as the george, actions we as individuals and as a society can take to prevent catastrophic disruption of life on our planet. Essay Structure! Leonardo calls for climate action at Mayors summit in megaphone saunders Paris. Leonardo addresses Mayors and local leaders gathered in Paris on the importance of switching to renewable energy to tackle the climate crisis. Leonardo joins artists and public leaders at the Global Citizen Festival. Leonardo joins artists and public figures from around the world to report book celebrate the adoption of the UN Sustainable Development Goals at braindead megaphone essays george saunders the 2015 Global Citizen Festival in Central Park, New York. Leonardo Addresses the World Economic Forum in Davos. Book! In January, Leonardo DiCaprio attended the essays saunders, World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland to receive the prestigious Crystal Award. The award is given to artists and cultural leaders who are helping to address the world#8217;s humanitarian and environmental challenges, including climate change.
Leonardo calls for climate action at Mayors summit in Paris. Leonardo addresses Mayors and local leaders gathered in Paris on the importance of switching to descriptive comparison renewable energy to tackle the climate crisis. Leonardo DiCaprio honored with SAG Foundation#8217;s #8216;Actors Inspiration Award#8217; Leonardo DiCaprio received the nonprofit Screen Actors Guild Foundation’s single “Actors Inspiration Award” at the SAG Foundation 30th Anniversary Celebration on Thursday, November 5th at the Wallis Annenberg Center for the Performing Arts in megaphone george Beverly Hills. Leonardo joins artists and nus thesis format, public leaders at the Global Citizen Festival. Leonardo joins artists and public figures from around the world to celebrate the adoption of the UN Sustainable Development Goals at the 2015 Global Citizen Festival in Central Park, New York. Braindead Essays Saunders! Leonardo and LDF join more than 400 institutions pledging to divest from fossil fuels.
Leonardo and the Leonardo DiCaprio Foundation announced today they are joining over 400 institutions and 2,000 individuals participating in the pledge Divest-Invest pledge, along with governments and investors from 43 countries. 2nd Annual LDF Gala raises over $40 million. Nus Thesis Format! LDF held its annual fundraising gala in megaphone essays saunders St. Tropez raising more than $40 Million to protect Earth’s last wild places and implement solutions to preserve and save the environment. Outline! Leonardo#8217;s new film #8216;The Revenant#8217; set in Canadian wilderness.
Leonardo DiCaprio will play the role of Hugh Glass in upcoming film The Revenant, shot entirely with natural light in the remote wilderness of Canada. Copyright Greenhour, Inc. Braindead! All rights reserved.
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Ossett - the history of a Yorkshire town. My grandfather was a coal miner all his life. It was a difficult and dangerous occupation, yet essential for megaphone george saunders the development of industry in the U.K. miners were judged so important that they were given exemption from nus thesis format, military service in WW1 and WW2. There were coal strikes at the pits in Ossett in 1893 and 1926 that I am aware of, and probably others that haven't been documented. Although my grandfather didn't work in braindead george saunders, the Ossett or Gawthorpe mines, I am intrigued by the history of Ossett's coal industry, which employed a large proportion of the men in the town around the end of the 19th century and beyond. Outline An Essay? The pits at old Roundwood, Gawthorpe and Shaw Cross were substantial and there were many more smaller undertakings dating back to the 1790s or earlier. Braindead Megaphone? The men who worked in these mines endured terrible working conditions and accidents were common. Much evidence of the many horrific mining accidents in the Ossett coal mines can be found in the archives of the an essay, ' Ossett Observer ' and I have reproduced just a few of the reported incidents in this account.
There were many more. It is said that in 1965, the NCB had records of twenty-six different coal mines in Ossett. However, first indications suggest that there were many more mines than twenty-six and there were certainly many more mineshafts within the boundaries of the town, which have all now been properly filled up. The old colliery workings at Low Laithes came to national prominence in braindead essays george, March 1973 when it was found that a build-up of essay place water in the old workings at braindead megaphone george saunders, the abandoned 19th century pits caused the terrible disaster at favorite, Lofthouse Colliery when seven men lost their lives from braindead megaphone saunders, a huge inrush of water and sludge. It was later estimated that the old mine workings at Low Laithes had become an mill underground reservoir containing nearly 3 ½ million gallons of water. Shortly after the disaster, which happened at 2am the 21st March, a surface visit was made to the site of the old Low Laithes Colliery and it was found the Bye Pit was exposed and water could be heard falling down the shaft. It was also reported that the braindead george, Engine Pit and Bull Pit were exposed and water could also be heard falling down them. There was little doubt that there was a direct relationship between the inrush of water into the Lofthouse workings and the water pouring down these old shafts.
It is known that a coal mine was established at Gawthorpe as long ago as 1366 during the reign of Edward III. Above: Westfield Colliery circa 1880. Originally owned by Joshua Wilby and located close to the old GNER railway, which connected Ossett with Batley and Wakefield. When Wilby died in 1881, the colliery was purchased by Henry Westwood and Company. A relatively small mine, in 1896 it employed 56 underground workers and essay 11 surface workers.
The manager was Mr. Braindead George? J. Simpkin and the under-manager, Mr. J. Wilkinson. Smithson's New Park Colliery, Low Laithes. In 1743, James Fenton leased land to extract coal belonging to the Earl of Cardigan in the area surrounding Bushy Beck, near Low Laithes in the townships of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe, Alverthorpe and West Ardsley. In the nus thesis, event, only a small part of the coalfield was worked and that was in the Ardsley area, because of the difficulty in transporting the coal to essays george saunders the Calder, which was about four miles away. The first recorded pits in Ossett were probably in the Low Laithes area and outline date back to the 1790s. Robert Smithson (1747-1800) was a gentleman farmer and maltster who leased Low Laithes Farm from the Earl of Cardigan like his family had done for braindead essays saunders years before him. Smithson leased land nearby his home at Low Laithes to develop his New Park, Kirkhamgate or old Low Laithes Colliery (as it was variously known) from essay mill, 1796. In 1798, he and his Wakefield associate, cloth merchant John Charnock (1752-1811), opened their version of New Park colliery and 'Smithson's Tram Road' connecting it with the Calder and Hebble Navigation at Thornes Wharfe, Wakefield.
The railway was horse powered and had L-section rails mounted on stone block sleepers. There was a parallel railway covering almost the same route to collieries (also confusingly called 'New Park Colliery') owned by Smithson's arch rival and Yorkshire coal-king, William Fenton. Fenton's railway crossed Smithson's on megaphone, the level near Wakefield, and for several miles higher up the valley towards the pits, the two lines actually ran side-by-side. Fenton's railway was powered by bullocks rather than horses. Robert Smithson died in 1800, and it is said that his early death was partly as a result of the bitter business rivalry with William Fenton, which continued after his death.
For a few years, Smithson's collieries and tramway were run by a consortium of trustees headed by Smithson's well-to-do cousin William Smithson (1750-1830) of Ledston Hall and later Heath; his own brother Joshua Smithson and his brother-in-law Thomas Preston of essay your Halifax. In 1818, Robert Smithson's farm and braindead essays saunders malt business (valued then at £8,906) was bequeathed to his son, also Robert. A three-quarter share in outline, Smithson's collieries and tramway (and the debts due to them) was passed to Smithson's youngest son Joshua Smithson (1791-1867) who continued with the coal business under difficult circumstances until he failed financially in braindead megaphone saunders, 1850. During the early years, the relatively small numbers of colliers working in Smithson's pits can be illustrated in the case of Ossett-cum-Gawthorpe by the use of the poor rate assessments as a basis for rating of the rogerian structure, number of colliery face workers. Saunders? In 1820, Smithson's Gawthorpe colliery had fourteen face workers and there were five more at Paleside. By 1823, this had risen to eighteen at Gawthorpe and seven at outline an essay, Paleside. In 1833, there was a prolonged strike at Smithson's colliery in Ossett. An attempt was made to bring in 'blackleg' labour to replace the striking miners. Joshua Smithson described the plan as a complete turn-out of megaphone saunders colliers. The 'blackleg' labour force was provided with houses and even bedding. Rogerian Essay Structure? Many of the men brought their wives and families to the area.
It was noted that four of the 'blacklegs' sold the bedding that they had been provided with and ended up in front of the local magistrate accused of theft. At the Bye Pit at Low Laithes, Ossett, records show that in 1844, four coal miners, who were aged between 60 and 70 years, earned on average, a weekly wage of £1-1s-3d each. However, at Bye Pit No. 5, seventeen colliers earned up to £1-5s-6d for megaphone george saunders an eight hour day. For this, they had to fill twenty corves (coal wagons) a day with coal. By the end of the 1840s, the colliers were being paid 3s-3d for getting one dozen of coal at the face and 3s for straitwork. Straitwork is the work involved in essay, extending the access tunnels to the area of the coalface. Fatal Colliery Explosion at Low Laithes - December 3rd 1859. Smithson's colliery had a low fatality rate, although in 1859 when the Low Laithes colliery business had been bought by Benjamin Roberts, there was a fatal accident at Bull Pit and this was recorded as follows:
Mr. Taylor, Coroner for the horour of Pontefract, held an braindead essays saunders inquest on Monday evening, at Alverthorpe, near Wakefield, respecting the death of David Beacher. On the 28th November 1859. Beacher and another man, named Brown, were working together at a bank in the Bull Pit of the Low Laithes Colliery, belonging to Mr. Benjamin Roberts, under the structure, direction of John Noble, the steward. Noble told the men to get the coal until they got to braindead megaphone essays the old works ; but he gave no orders about descriptive essay lamps, and they worked with naked candles. Both men placed their candles upon the edge of the solid coal, when the gas from the old workings fired at that of megaphone Beacher. The two men were badly burned but Beacher most severely. A third person, a burrier, was also burned.
Beacher died from his injuries on Saturday morning last. Verdict - Accidentally burned. There was no formal contract for colliers to serve for a fixed period in Smithson's mines and they could leave their employment as and when they desired. Of course, this arrangement worked both ways and coal miners could be summarily dismissed without comeback. These were the days before Unions were established. Between 1834 and 1850, Smithson made profits of £4,320 in nine of the years and losses of £3,690 in the other seven years. This left a net profit of only nus thesis £630, or about £40 a year over the entire period. Clearly, the modest profits could not sustain the rentals and by 1850, the business had failed.
By 1850, Smithson had ten working pits in Ossett, close to where Low Laithes Golf Club is now situated. These pits all took coal from either the Haigh Moor seam or the Gawthorpe seam. The first recorded instances of coal workings in Ossett date back to the 13th and 14th century after woodland was cleared and coal was beginning to braindead megaphone essays be used as fuel. There were several day holes and simple mines located in various parts of Ossett. Format? These pits were recorded in the Manor Court Rolls of Wakefield and examples are Rhode Pyttes, Coolepitt Close, Runtinge Pitts, Totteringe Pitts, plus many more unnamed workings. There are several references in the Court Rolls of people mining for coal without the required licence from the Lord of the Manor. Braindead Essays George? In 1332, three Ossett men were each fined 6d for not filling in pits in the New Park and in 1339 all the inhabitants of report on a book Ossett were required to back fill all coal pits in the township that were worked out. In the george saunders, 14th century the rolls record that Adam del Dene cut down trees, made waste the land, gardens and houses, which his mother held as a dower for outline an essay digging coal. Clearly coal was becoming an important fuel not just for heating homes but as a fuel for braindead megaphone essays george saunders industrial use such as the making of iron. Ironstone digging and smelting was an important local industry at around this time and was first carried out in the New Park. In 1332 Adam de Gaukethorpe and William Carpenter were charged with digging an iron mine without a licence in the bond lands of the Lord of the structure, Manor and were fined 3d each.
John Sonman paid the Lord of the braindead george saunders, Manor 12d for a licence to dig a mine in Gawthorpe for rogerian essay stones to be used for iron smelting. The first 1:10,560 large scale OS map of Ossett was published in essays, 1851 and from that map, it is possible to identify most of Smithson's pits at Low Laithes. In addition there were several other coal mines in Ossett listed on the map. Structure? The following listing is an attempt to identify all the known coal mines in Ossett. There are many others, not listed here, identified only as 'old coal pit' and george saunders shown clearly within the town boundaries of Ossett on outline an essay, historic OS Maps. Some of these may have been shallow bell pits and it is known that when the underground reservoir along Chidswell Lane in braindead megaphone essays saunders, Gawthorpe was excavated in 1877, between 200 and 300 tons of outline an essay coal were removed and sold on behalf of the braindead saunders, Local Board. The first eight mines listed here were part of the old Joshua Smithson undertaking at Low Laithes, which had been bought out by Benjamin Roberts after Smithson failed financially. The pit shafts were geographically separated by an essay, some distance, especially those located in the area of Gawthorpe. 1. Braindead Essays? Engine Pit(No. 1), Low Laithes - 35 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from essay, 1850. 2. Bye Pit(No.
2 ), Low Laithes - 141 yards to the Haigh Moor seam and 71 yards to megaphone saunders the Gawthorpe seam, owned by essay your place, J. Roberts from braindead george, 1850. 3. Barron's Pit (No. 6), Low Laithes - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam and 50 yards to outline the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Megaphone George Saunders? Roberts from 1850. 4. Barron's Pit (No. 4 ), Low Laithes - 55 yards to the Gawthorpe seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850. 5. Nus Thesis Format? Bull Pit (No. 7), Low Laithes - 140 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. George Saunders? Roberts from 1850. 6. Lower Park Farm, Gawthorpe - 120 yards to the Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Roberts from 1850.
7. Lodge Hill, Gawthorpe (Nos. 42 and 43) - 30 and 18 yards respectively to the Top Haigh Moor seam, owned by J. Essay Mill? Roberts from 1850. 8. New Lodge Colliery, Gawthorpe - owned between 1855-1889 by George and John Haigh and braindead megaphone essays george saunders was most probably Lodge Hill (above). In 1874, the manager of the colliery, William Haigh and two under-managers, John and Isaac Oates were prosecuted at nus thesis, Dewsbury Petty Sessions for offences brought by george saunders, the government inspector of mines, Mr. Wardell after a fatal colliery explosion in the pit that led to the death of Burman Lister, which could have been avoided.
FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION 1 - On Saturday evening, a hurrier, named Burman Lister, of descriptive Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, died from the effects of an braindead megaphone essays george explosion of firedamp at book, the Gawthorpe Colliery on the previous afternoon. Deceased and a miner named Samuel Waterhouse had completed their day's work and were coming down one of the megaphone essays george, main roads with corves when the gas fired and both were severely burnt. Waterhouse had on a flannel shirt and he suffered less from the scorching flames. The one Lister wore was of cotton and it was burnt off his back, which along with his arms, breast and face, was terribly scorched. The explosion caused great excitement among the miners and the injured men having been brought to the surface, the others were raised without delay. Lister died, as above stated, on Saturday evening. Essay Mill Websites? The explosion was caused by gas coming into to contact with a naked light, which was carried by the deceased as he and Waterhouse were walking down the hurrying road. GROSS CARELESSNESS AT A WEST RIDING COLLIERY 2 - Yesterday an adjourned inquest was held at Ossett Street Side, near Dewsbury, on the body of Burman Lister, coal miner, of that village who was killed by an explosion of gas at Messrs. Haigh's colliery, Gawthorpe on braindead essays george saunders, the 4th inst.
Mr. Wardell, government inspector of mines, watched the proceedings, as also did Mr. Pickard, secretary of the websites, West Riding Miners' Association. Evidence was given that on the 4th inst., about half-past one, the deceased and another youth named Waterhouse came along the main air-road with lighted candles, they having ceased work for the day. On arriving at essays saunders, a drift or slit, the deceased went up, taking his naked light with him. An explosion followed and both youths were severely burnt, the deceased fatally.
It transpired at the inquest that a labourer had several weeks ago received instructions to build a wall some distance up the drift, but to leave a hole, a foot square for rogerian structure ventilation. This he did, but about ten days before the accident he filled up the hole with dry bricks, not knowing, he told the jury, that he was doing anything wrong. As it was stated that Waterhouse was in a very precarious state and unfit to be examined, the inquiry was further adjourned. THE LATE FATAL COLLIERY EXPLOSION AT GAWTHORPE 3 - Yesterday, the adjourned inquest was held on the body of Burman Lister, hurrier, who died on September 5th from injuries he received the previous day at Gawthorpe Colliery, through an explosion of fire-damp. Braindead Megaphone George Saunders? From the evidence, it appeared that the deceased and report book a young man named Waterhouse were coming down the hurrying road and when opposite a disused working they both stopped and Waterhouse began to dress himself, having previously stuck a lighted candle in some clay on the corve.
Lister took the candle up and megaphone essays saunders said he would go to essay the drift and braindead megaphone look at the air pipes, as he could smell something. Essay Favorite Place? His companion told him to keep the braindead megaphone essays, candle down. The deceased had just entered the drift when the explosion took place and they were both severely burnt. The jury recorded a verdict of Accidental Death. COLLIERY PROSECUTIONS AT DEWSBURY 4 - At the Dewsbury Petty Sessions, yesterday, William Haigh, of West Ardsley, the certified manager of the Gawthorpe Colliery was charged with neglecting to inspect the essay your favorite, mine.
John and george saunders Isaac Oates, underviewers, were summoned for - the one for neglecting to enter in a book kept for the purpose, the state of the mine and the other with neglecting to fence off a drift in descriptive, which there was an accumulation of inflammable gas and with neglecting to exhibit a danger signal there. Through this neglect an explosion of gas took place in the pit on megaphone, the 4th of September, resulting in the death of one collier and in another being frightfully burnt. Haigh was fined £5, or two months imprisonment; Isaac Oates £3, or three months and John Oates £2, or two months. Rogerian Essay Structure? In the course of the hearing it transpired that the report book had not had a single entry made in it until three days after the explosion. Burman Lister was just 16 years of age when he died.
Samuel Waterhouse lingered on a few weeks before he also died from the braindead megaphone essays george saunders, burns he had received in the accident. The five pound fine that William Haigh, the rogerian essay, colliery manager received is the megaphone, equivalent of about £360 today on the basis of RPI inflation. Less than four months later, another miner would lose his life at Gawthorpe Colliery as a result of a terrifying fire in outline, January 1875: A COLLIERY ON FIRE 8 - Fire was discovered to have broken out on Friday (8th January 1875) in the colliery at Gawthorpe, near Dewsbury, belonging to Messrs. J. and G. Megaphone Essays George Saunders? Haigh, and it is an essay, believed was caused by a hurrier boy accidentally igniting a canvas brattice by his lighted candle. Seventy men and boys were in george saunders, the mine at the time and great alarm was occasioned, as the flames spread to a quantity of wood and then set fire to the face of the coal.
The miners and format hurriers rushed along the ways as the alarm spread and getting to the pit eye, were drawn up as quickly as possible. One, however, was left behind and he was subsequently found lying dead at some distance from his working place, apparently having been suffocated. His name was Richard Oldroyd, aged 39, and he leaves a widow and children. One of the megaphone essays, miners that had got to know that a fire was raging, called to Oldroyd as he ran past his working place, but the deceased was rather deaf, and it is supposed he did not hear the warning cry of his fellow worker, and was not made aware of the danger until he felt the suffocating gas. The body was discovered by an exploring party and in a place where, if he could have gone four yards further, he would have had a stream of fresh air. The progress of the flames was arrested in report book, the course of the day by stoppings being built and there is reason to believe that the fire has been extinguished. In the ' Ossett Observer ' 24th November 1888, the following piece was printed concerning a colliery strike and it gives us an idea of the size of the colliery and the attitude of the owners to their workforce:
The miners employed at Messrs G J Haigh's Gawthorpe Colliery, about 30 in number, recently went on strike for a 10% advance in wages. The advance was conceded by the Yorkshire colliery owners generally, but Messrs. Haigh did not see their way to follow the example and consequently the strike still continues. Subscriptions have been gathered and levies received from other collieries in megaphone, support of the men on essay, strike. The strike was still going on into early December 1888, but after that there was no further word, so it is likely that the men returned to work, maybe in time for Christmas? 9. Wheatley's Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke. In 1831, a Wakefield barrister and land speculator, Thomas Foljambe (1775-1851) purchased land at Hagg's Lane, near to Woollin's Roundwood mine, which he rented to another Wakefield man, Samuel Rhodes, for the purpose of mining for coal. In 1833, Foljambe had built his grand residence Holmefield House in Wakefield. Rhodes paid Foljambe an annual rental of 6% of the original purchase price and in 1831 Rhodes was selling 10 tons of coal per day, with another 20 tons per braindead week going to a regular customer. Rhodes also sold 2 barge loads of outline an essay coal (90 tons) per week, which had to be shipped from the megaphone essays george saunders, colliery to the nearest canal in Wakefield. Rhodes died in early 1838 and by mill, 1839, his widow had gone bankrupt.
The colliery was then taken over by megaphone essays george, Charles Locke, whose family had recently sunk a new pit at nearby Snapethorpe, Wakefield. The colliery was eventually bought by Charles Wheatley (1813-1900) who had been working a colliery at nearby Ossett Common (probably Lights Colliery) in 1836. Structure? Wheatley was a Mirfield colliery owner with significant land holdings in braindead megaphone essays saunders, Ossett, some of favorite which he had inherited from the Haigh family, who were also coal masters. Braindead Megaphone? In 1851, Wheatley had 110 men and 140 boys working in his coal mines. On A Book? The Ossett colliery at Shepherd Hill was likely to be a relatively small undertaking and may even have been a day hole, which was simply a drift mine dug into the side of a hill. Wheatley was still working the braindead essays george saunders, Shepherd Hill colliery in 1854 with a steam engine and his rateable value was £36.
Wheatley's colliery is report book, likely to have closed down in the mid to braindead megaphone george late 1850s and was not working in1869. Wheatley was by then operating the your favorite, Hagg Wood and Whitley Wood day holes in Dewsbury; the Bradley and Helm coal mines in Huddersfield and the Ledgard Bridge and Calder Day Holes at saunders, Mirfield. The latter mine, with an entrance on the bank of the canal close to Greenwood Lock, was driven into the hillside below Sands House, Wheatley's opulent Mirfield residence. By 1871, Charles Wheatley formed the nus thesis format, Mirfield Colliery Company with Robert Barraclough and John Nevin and his mining operation in Ossett was finished. 10. Mount Pleasant Colliery , Shepherd Hill, Flushdyke was worked in the 1870s. 11. Love Lane Colliery , Love Lane, Pildacre. 12. Greaves Colliery , off Bridle Lane, Gawthorpe. Owned between 1855-1872 by megaphone george, Wilson and Co. On A Book? but then was called Gawthorpe Colliery and was probably Greaves Colliery, which was owned by braindead essays george saunders, Joshua Greaves prior to nus thesis 1855.
The pit finally closed 1872. 13. Streetside Colliery , behind the Red Lion Public House, Dewsbury Road and was owned first by Abraham Greaves until his death in 1843 and then by Ossett coal masters Joseph Greaves and Joshua Greaves. The colliery had four face workers in 1836. 14. Old Roundwood Colliery , was probably first known as John Woollin's Hagg's Lane Colliery and a plan exists of this site dating back to 1812. The original Roundwood colliery was located close to the Ossett and braindead megaphone essays Alverthorpe boundaries near to the top of Shepherd Hill at Flushdyke where mining had been carried on back to at least the 14th century. Essay Websites? The Woollin family worked Low and Scale coal there until giving up the lease in approximately 1839. The colliery at braindead george, Roundwood first established in 1847 by Terry, Dawson and Greaves was said by John Oldroyd Greaves to be a very small affair at the top of Flushdyke Hill about one mile to the north of the later Roundwood colliery. They had simply taken over the workings of a smaller, older pit, partially worked some years previously.
The older pit was most likely Woollin's pit, closed in essay structure, 1839. In 1847, Wakefield mining engineer, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916), the son of essays george Ossett coal master Abraham Greaves (1794-1842) founded the Old Roundwood colliery with two other investors in the name of Terry, Dawson and websites Greaves. Braindead Megaphone George Saunders? John Greaves had been articled to John Walker, the mill websites, Wakefield based mining and braindead essays saunders civil engineer for five years in the 1840s and, for a short time after qualifying, had been manager of a colliery in Stanley owned by Robert Hudson and Co. The other partners in the concern were Benjamin Terry (1818-1882), who was born in Gawthorpe, the son of Percival Terry and William Anson Smith Dawson of Wakefield. Benjamin Terry became a law pupil at Haigh's, a Horbury firm of favorite place solicitors. After qualifying, Terry joined the firm of Carr, Nettleton and Terry as a partner and then moved to Bradford in 1844 setting up first in business in his own right and by 1864 as Terry Watson, Solicitors. In 1846, he married Alice Cooper Dawson in Wakefield, who may have been related to his partner William Dawson. Terry entered public life and he served at one time as an Tory alderman of Bradford Council. He lived in some style at Barkhill House, Idle and when he died in 1882, he left an estate worth £40,000 (a considerable sum in those days) plus a generous £500 per year annuity for his widow.
Not much is known about William Anson Smith Dawson, the third partner in the enterprise. In the 1851 census, Dawson is unmarried and living at braindead megaphone essays saunders, Roundwood, Alverthorpe with a house servant Ann Peace. He is listed as a coal proprietor employing 12 miners, 12 hurriers, 2 banksmen, 1 blacksmith, 1 boy and 1 woman, which may well refer to the operation at Roundwood colliery. His secondary occupation is that of a farmer of report book 19 acres, employing 1 man, 1 lad and door (sic) labourers. He was aged 25 years in 1851, having been born in 1826 at nearby Stanley, a village on the outskirts of Wakefield. However, by May 1953, Dawson had dropped out braindead megaphone essays george saunders, of the report on a, business and he died in Bradford in the summer of 1854, to be replaced by Watson Scatcherd, a Morley lawyer and squire. The three partners each putting up a sum of braindead megaphone essays saunders £500. In 1857, after Scatcherd had died in favorite, 1855, the megaphone, accounts showed that Terry had advanced £1,150, Greaves the same and Scatcherd £950. When Scatcherd died, the business was carried on as Terry, Greaves and nus thesis format Co.
When Benjamin Terry died in 1882, his two daughters continued in business with Greaves until a limited company was founded until 1908. Benjamin Terry (or his daughters) and John Greaves never entered into braindead essays saunders a formal partnership since both men trusted the other implicitly and no legal agreement was ever needed. Perhaps as a result of the death of Scatcherd, the websites, partners considered selling the colliery in 1857. Braindead Essays? At this time, they also owned Manor Colliery, which was located on Ossett Common but was definitely not the nus thesis, colliery on Cross Lane in Wakefield, which co-incidentally, Terry, Greaves and Co. did purchase much later. The Gawthorpe seam, which was the top portion of the well-known Barnsley seam and about three feet thick was mined originally, but this didn't last long. Essays Saunders? The pit was in profit and balance sheets for Roundwood for 1857 and 1858 reveal profits of £1,702 and £2,032 respectively.
However, if they were to continue, some serious decisions had to be made. Instead of selling up, Greaves and Terry decided as early as 1853 to essay mill websites develop Roundwood significantly by braindead saunders, sinking two new shafts, a mile to the south of the original Flushdyke pit and close to the Wakefield - Ossett boundary. This would be the better-known location of Roundwood colliery at the top of Queen's Drive where coal would be worked for another 100 years or more. The second significant decision was to establish a railway link to Roundwood and an agreement was made in July 1860 with the essay favorite place, Bradford, Wakefield and Leeds Railway to build a mineral railway link to the Ossett Branch so that coal could be transported from Roundwood to more distant markets. Braindead George Saunders? At this time, there were still tolls on the Wakefield - Halifax turnpike, which all traffic going from report on a, Roundwood downhill to Wakefield had to negotiate.
However, in 1867, the firm advertised that it had agreed for tolls on coal beyond Westgate Moor Bar on the turnpike road to be removed. The new railway link to Roundwood was opened in January 1862 and for goods and passengers to a temporary terminal station at Flushdyke in April 1862. In 1860, two new shafts were sunk to the levels of the top and low Haigh Moor seams at 140 and 150 yards respectively. These shafts were of the braindead essays george, Engine Pit at 9 feet diameter and the Bye Pit at 10 feet in diameter. Both shafts were walled with brick 5 inches thick with four water conduits behind the brickwork. The Engine Pit was sunk five yards below the descriptive comparison, bottom of the coal to form a sump and the Bye shaft was widened to 13ft at the bottom. John Oldroyd Greaves continued with the management of Roundwood colliery but by March 1874, the partners agreed to saunders sell Roundwood colliery to Thomas Stammers Webb of format London and braindead megaphone essays Cardiff.
There had been a period of prosperity in the coal industry prior to 1874, but from 1874 there was a period of continued depression. Webb agreed to take a 5-year lease on Roundwood, with power to take on a 31-year lease for £35,000, the vendors agreeing to work the colliery and pay any profits to Webb if he had first paid an initial £1,000 to essay structure them. Webb formed a new company, The Consolidated Collieries Co. Essays George Saunders? Ltd. Mill Websites? with a proposed capital of £180,000 in £10 shares. The plan was for the company to braindead megaphone essays take over three collieries - the on a, New Forest Colliery in Neath, Glamorgan and the Bush Colliery, near Cardiff were the other two. In the megaphone essays george, event, the venture never got off the ground because of the deepening depression in the coal industry during 1876.
By 1885, John Oldroyd Greaves was very ill and wasn't expected to live very long, but he eventually recovered and lived on an essay, in good health until 1916. In the event, his 17 year-old son Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) was forced to leave school and take charge of the family business, which he found in a parlous state. Percy Greaves had been born on Christmas Day 1868 and was educated at Lockers Park School, Hemel Hempstead before going firstly to Wakefield Grammar School and then to Tonbridge School in Kent. Percy Greaves was equal to the difficult task and applied his talents energetically to george the running of Roundwood colliery. In July 1892, he obtained a first-class certificate as a colliery manager under the Coal Mines Registration Act of 1887. Essay? At the time he was living at braindead george saunders, 69, Westgate, Wakefield with his parents. In 1889, Percy Greaves was responsible for report book the sinking of the braindead megaphone essays george, new upcast shaft to a depth of 200 yards to the Silkstone seam.
During the sinking of this new seam, in June 1888, two men were to format lose their lives. The 'Ossett Observer' dated June 23rd 1888 gives the following account: On Wednesday last a shocking fatality occurred at braindead george, Roundwood Colliery, Wakefield Road on the boundary of Ossett. At present the Haigh Moor seam of coal is being worked, at a depth of rogerian essay 160 yards from the surface; but the proprietors of the colliery, Messrs. Terry and Greaves, are sinking about 190 or 200 yards further, in order to reach the Silkstone seam. The new sinking is megaphone essays george saunders, being made as a continuation of the upcast shaft, which is 12ft in descriptive comparison, diameter; it has already progressed some 40 yards downward, and is expected to be completed this year. On Wednesday morning about half a dozen sinkers were at work, and they had come up the shaft to the surface whilst some shots were being fired for blasting purposes. After the shots went off, three of the men got into the ordinary hoppet or bucket, and were lowered down the megaphone george, shaft by the engineman.
In descending they had to rogerian essay structure pass the mouth of a ventilating furnace and there is some reason to suppose that this may have induced them to change their position in the hoppet. This would possibly cause some additional oscillation of the hoppet, which almost immediately struck the corner of the arch in the Haigh Moor seam. All three men were thrown out, but one of them, named Patrick O'Brien, of Wakefield, managed to clutch the braindead essays, edge of the hoppet. One foot of another was caught by O'Brien, who was, however, unable to descriptive hold it. Two men consequently fell a depth of about 40 yards to the bottom of the newly sunk portion of the shaft, and were doubtless killed instantly. O'Brien, however, reached the bottom in safety. Braindead Megaphone George Saunders? The deceased men were Mathew Harrison, aged 32, married, of Ashton-under-Lyne, and George Geary, aged 20, single, of Wakefield. Harrison had only commenced working at the colliery the previous day.
In November 1897, John Oldroyd Greaves, who by now was no longer involved in the active management of Roundwood colliery made two of his sons, Percy Christian Greaves and rogerian essay structure John Henry Greaves (born 1871) partners in megaphone saunders, the family business of essay mill land agents, mining engineers and colliery proprietors. Greaves senior had bought the Snapethorpe Hall estate in Wakefield on behalf of the george, colliery partnership in rogerian essay, November 1891. Braindead George Saunders? Meanwhile, Percy Greaves, despite his tender years, was able to nus thesis take the braindead essays george saunders, running of the family business in his stride and he soon became one of the leading mining experts in northern England. Percy Greaves' obituary that appeared in the The Times newspaper on Friday, 25th October 1957 says this of him: comparatively few days passed when he was not to be seen at essay, the pit-head or down the shaft of one of his own collieries or one of those of the many people who readily consulted him as, perhaps, the best known mining engineer in the north. His pride in his own pits was unbounded. Megaphone Saunders? He knew the men and essay their problems personally. He was at the forefront in the introduction of new methods, making for safety and efficiency, and it was his proud boast, evoking the sincere admiration of his many friends that, from 1886 until the nationalization of the mines (1947), none of the groups of collieries under his control had ever suffered a single strike apart from the national strikes, which affected the essays saunders, whole country. By 1896, the structure, manager of Roundwood was Mr. Braindead George Saunders? F. Format? Flint, and the under-manager was Mr. H. Farrant.
There were 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers. By 1945, ownership of Roundwood was still with Terry, Greaves and Co., Wakefield, but the colliery was now managed by essays george saunders, Mr. H. Descriptive? H. Burton with two under-managers. Mr. H. Newell and Mr. J. Morley. There were now 521 underground workers and 120 surface workers. Above: Picture of Old Roundwood Colliery from the early 1900s.
The building on the right-hand side of the picture is braindead megaphone essays, a brickworks. The brickworks was subsequently closed, but it was proposed to reopen them to produce building bricks for Ossett's council house building programme in the 1920s and 1930s. In the event, this never happened and bricks were sourced elsewhere. In June 1895, the ' Ossett Observer ' published details of An Alarming Accident at Ossett Collieries - Two Cages in Collision - Miner fatally injured. The account, reproduced below gives a good insight into the working conditions at Old Roundwood: On Thursday morning, an accident of report a serious and unusual nature occurred at the Ossett Roundwood Collieries (Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co.) There are three seams of braindead essays coal, worked by means of three separate shafts. One of these shafts, about 350 yards deep, passes through the Cannel seam at a depth of 240 yards, and goes down to the Silkstone. About 160 men and your place boys are employed in the Cannel seam, and essays saunders among these was Richard Renshaw (35), a married man, residing in Teal Street, Ossett.
Renshaw was a hanger-on in the Silkstone seam, and on a book about quarter past six o'clock in the morning, he was ascending in one of the george, cages, a two-decker, to the Silkstone landing. The cages are guided by thimbles working on wire conductors of 1.5 inches in diameter. Through some unexplained cause, the ascending cage came into contact with the brickwork at the side of the shaft, and almost immediately afterwards collided with the descending cage. Nus Thesis Format? Owing to the velocity with which the cages were travelling, the braindead megaphone, collision damaged both, and gave a terrible shock to poor Renshaw, who was in the descending cage alone. He eventually reached the bottom in a helpless and descriptive essay paralysed condition suffering from spinal injuries. He was taken up another shaft to the surface, and removed to his home, where he died the same evening. Work in the Cannel seam had to be suspended for two days.
At the inquest, which was held at megaphone essays, the Little Bull Inn, Teal Street, it was concluded that it had never been know for the cages to catch before, but evidently they had caught this time. It was an unforeseen event and nobody could be held responsible, although something could be done to outline an essay prevent a recurrence. They returned a verdict that the unfortunate deceased was accidentally injured. An extension of the Ossett borough boundary in 1900 brought Roundwood Colliery, owned by Terry, Greaves and Company Limited into the town. Mining ceased at braindead george saunders, this pit in your, April 1966. Above: The biggest colliery in Ossett was Old Roundwood, so named in 1901 to avoid confusion with another Roundwood Colliery that had opened in saunders, South Yorkshire, which had suffered financial difficulties. Roundwood was opened in 1847 and finally closed in 1966. Roundwood had 619 underground workers and 129 surface workers and attracted workers from all parts of the area surrounding Wakefield. Comparison? Many miners from the Barnsley coalfields moved to Roundwood and settled in braindead megaphone essays saunders, the Ossett Spa area.
Roundwood Colliery was a large concern and mined the Cannel, Haigh Moor, Lupset, and Silkstone (new Hards) seams. Nus Thesis? It was noted in the 'Ossett Observer' dated 20th March 1948 that the following accident occurred at Old Roundwood: Twelve miners at Old Roundwood Colliery were injured, including two men with broken legs, when the braindead george saunders, cage taking them down to the Silkstone Seam for the night shift got out of control for the last 40ft of the descent and crashed into outline the sump boards. The engine winder had fainted at the controls in the engine house. Like all other British collieries, Roundwood was nationalised in 1947 and became part of the National Coal Board empire. Old Roundwood colliery was finally closed in April 1966. Above: View of megaphone essays Roundwood Colliery from the top of Queens Drive in essay, the 1960s.
After the pit was demolished, what is now the Holiday Inn was built on braindead megaphone essays, part of the old pit site. 15. Thorn Tree Pit , Low Laithes adjacent to the Great Northern (LNER) railway line. The 16th green of Low Laithes golf course is believed to outline an essay be located on the site of Thorn Tree pit. 16. Dewsbury Lane was opened before 1856 and closed in 1877. Megaphone Saunders? Owned between 1856-1870 by W. Hallas and between 1862-1876 by W. Gartside. It was reported that in December 1871, a collier's supper was held in the George Hotel, Ossett for the miners at Mr.
Gartside's colliery, which is likely to outline have been Dewsbury Lane colliery. The meal was for members of the colliery Sick and Accident Club, which was funded by the miners themselves from weekly subscriptions to pay the members during times of sickness. In 1871, there had been no accidents at the colliery and only £134 had been paid out in braindead megaphone essays george saunders, sickness benefit. The managers of the colliery, Messrs. T. Westwood and J. Wilkinson were praised by the men for their work at the colliery. Thirty-six members of the club were present at the supper, suggesting a fairly small coal mine. 17. Field Lane Colliery , Gawthorpe near to the Flying Horse public house.
The Field Lane colliery was worked by Joshua Greaves and after his death, in 1861, it was offered for sale in February 1862. The advertisement in 1862 mentioned that the colliery was powered by a steam engine and nus thesis that there was a 3ft seam of braindead coal at comparison essay, a depth of 30 yards with three leases - two expiring in 1877 and one in 1881. It appears that when the two leases expired in 1877 that the colliery was closed down. Some more details about Field Lane Colliery following a particularly suspicious accident resulting in the death of 19 year-old Richard Broad: 5. WANTON OUTRAGE NEAR DEWSBURY - A MAN KILLED: On Thursday night last, an inquest was held at the Shoulder of Mutton Inn, Gawthorpe, before Mr. Taylor, coroner, on the body of Richard Broad, who met with his death after falling down a pit shaft on the previous Tuesday. Braindead Essays George? Mr. Morton, the Government inspector of mines, was in attendance and watched the case, in consequence of the pit rope having been maliciously cut. The evidence went to show that the deceased was employed at Field-lane Colliery, Gawthorpe and had charge of the pumping engine.
At this colliery there are two shafts, one used as a pumping and rogerian downcast and the other as as an upcast and drawing shaft. The only apparatus for reaching the bottom of the former is a windlass and a rope an inch and a quarter in diameter, and megaphone essays when men wish to go to the bottom, they attach a man-loop to the end of the rope. This man-loop consists of book a piece of tough and strong wood, about thirty inches long, and near the ends are two holes about an inch and a half in diameter. Through these holes are drawn a piece of hempen rope an inch and a quarter in diameter, and the ends are securely fastened underneath. On the braindead essays george saunders, day in question the deceased used this loop, examining it before he did so, and, having placed himself astride, he was lowered by two men to the bottom with a few tools where he repaired the pump clack. Having finished his work, he gave the signal for ascending, and was raised to essay within half a yard of the platform, when the rope of the man-loop gave way at once close to both holes, and he was precipitated to braindead megaphone saunders the bottom.
He was alive when reached, and was removed home; but he died within a few hours. Broad sustained a fractured thigh, a fractured rib (one portion of the nus thesis format, rib was driven into essays saunders the lung) and descriptive essay a large scalp wound. Dr. Thornton, Church St,, Dewsbury and Mr Greenwood, Surgeon, Ossett attended. The broken rope was examined by the jury and was unanimously pronounced to have been cut. It ought to have borne half a ton without danger. The deceased was a small, spare youth of nineteen years of age.
An open verdict was returned. Megaphone? In the meantime the police are making active inquiries in the matter. No person was criminated by essay favorite, the evidence offered to the inquest. 18. Ossett , owned by braindead megaphone essays, Messrs Haigh - but as yet unidentified. 19. Crownlands Collier y, possibly the rogerian structure, site of Northfield Colliery, which was owned by Westwood and Co. 20. West Field , owned by Joshua Wilby when it was opened in 1863. The colliery closed in braindead megaphone essays george, 1908.
In 1896, the owner was Westwood and Co., Ossett. Manager: J. Simpkin, Under-Manager: J. Wilkinson. In 1896 there were 56 underground workers and 11 surface workers. West Field colliery mined the Beeston, Middleton and Haigh Moor seams. 21. Healey Lane , was owned by Charles Kilner and Henry Slater trading as Hinchcliffe, Kilner and Co., when the pit was first opened 1876. However, their partnership was dissolved in your, June 1886.
Kilner was later declared bankrupt in June 1888, by which time he was living in the Green, Ossett and was working as a colliery weighman and book-keeper. By 1896 the owners were John Wilby and Edward Mortimer, both of megaphone george Ossett. The Colliery Manager was owner John Wilby, but there was no under-manager. There were only 18 underground workers and 5 surface workers at the height of the pit's production. The Yorkshire Sheet 247.08 Ossett (SW) Combs 1905 map (O.S. reprint from book, 1890) by braindead megaphone essays george, Alan Godfrey clearly shows a pit near the bottom of Healey Lane with a day hole linked by tramline to a series of buildings, which may have had pit shafts. There are other older mine workings below the house called Green Lea shown on the map suggesting extensive coal mining operations in the area over the years. The colliery closed in 1899. 22. Ox Close, was owned in 1880 by the Flockton Coal Co. Limited.
Ox Close opened in 1873 and closed in 1881. The pit was sunk between 1873 and 1878. The owners between 1873-1875 were Whitworth and Co. and then between 1876-1880, Tolson Whitworth, who formed a limited company in September 1877. Outline? The colliery had a lease on two beds of coal: the Joan Bed and braindead megaphone george saunders the Flockton Thin Bed over an area of 48 acres. 11. The pit was not yet operational in 1877 as this excerpt taken from the Ossett Observer on the 11th August 1877 reporting an accident to a miner shows: On Tuesday evening last, shortly after 5 o'clock, a rather serious accident occurred at the new coal pit being opened out by Messrs.
Whitworth Co. in Runting Lane. A heavy piece of pump gearing weighing about 4 tons was being lowered down the shaft by structure, means of essays george a capstan and two-inch ropes. It had reached within about eighteen inches or so of the bottom when one of the ropes broke. Two men who were at the bottom fortunately got out of the way. The half-dozen men who held the capstan bars, feeling the jerk, and being startled, let go, with the exception of one, a miner, named John Grace, who was instantly knocked off his feet and thrown to the ground. He was found to have sustained a compound fracture of one shoulder , injuries to his arms and an essay back, etc. On his removal to his house at Ossett Common in a cab he was attended by Mr.
J.G. Braindead George Saunders? Wiseman, surgeon, and your favorite is, as we hear, progressing as well as can be expected. The cause of the rope giving way is not known, as it was considered to be capable of bearing the strain of megaphone essays george saunders six tons. Ox Close was located in the Runtlings area of Ossett and medieval maps show the essay favorite, presence of Runtinge Pitts in the Ox Close, which is braindead megaphone george, bisected by Ryeroyde Lane . However, Ox Close is not shown on current maps, although it is thought it was so named at the time of the Ossett Inclosure around 1807. 23. Lights Colliery, was located north-east of the old Lights Bridge, which was near the location of the present Two Brewers public house and is shown on essay your, the 1851 1:10,560 OS Map. Many of the braindead essays saunders, men who worked here were patrons of the Colliers Arms, later the Little Bull in Ossett Common, which dates back to at least 1830.
The Wakefield Manor Rolls for 1709 refer to a small colliery at Ossett Lights and between 1712 and 1752, the colliery was operated there by Joseph Naylor. Lights or a clearing in mill, the woods was so named because the of the way the woodland pasture was managed. Trees were grown on the same land that was used for rearing stock (usually pigs). Megaphone Essays? The branches of the trees were cut and used for fuel, fencing or building. This process was called pollarding (and is the derivation of the English surname Pollard) so that when the tree branches were cut, sunlight would reach the forest floor through the previously dense canopy of woodland, hence the name The Lights . Ossett Lights covered an estimated area of 254 acres, but presumably, by the time the colliery was established, much of the woodland had been completely cleared.
24. Manor Colliery, Middle Common, was located between Manor Road and Spa Lane in the area known as Drain Close. The colliery dates back to format the 18th century and was owned then by essays george, the Naylor family. Later, in format, 1857, the colliery proprietor was John Mitchell who, according to the 1843 Tithe Map of Ossett rented the land at Drain Close from the Ingham. Braindead Megaphone Saunders? At some stage, Manor Colliery was owned by Terry, Greaves and rogerian essay Co., owners of Roundwood Colliery, probably prior to 1857.
Manor Colliery is almost certainly the site of the Engine shown on braindead essays george saunders, Jeffrey's 1775 map. The symbol on the map looks like a windmill, but it seems more likely that it was a steam powered pumping engine at the coal mine. The local press 13 and 14 in 1857 describes a fatal accident at the colliery, which gives us some indication of the scale of operations: A MAN KILLED BY FALLING DOWN A COAL PIT SHAFT Mr. Report? Taylor, coroner for the town of Pontefract, held an inquest, on Saturday last at the Weaver's Arms, Ossett, on the body of Joseph Rushworth, blacksmith, 46 years of age.
The deceased was employed in attending the engine of the Manor Colliery, Ossett during the braindead george, day. (NOTE: Manor Colliery is outline an essay, given as located in Middle Common, Ossett and in the ownership of colliery proprietor John Mitchell in the Leeds Mercury report of the same accident on 22nd December 1857). Last Tuesday evening Rushworth was relieved at the usual time by Luke Veale, the man who performed night duty. Saunders? Rushworth went to on a book Horbury and returning between ten and braindead saunders eleven o'clock at night, he went to the coal cabin. At that time he was tipsy. He remained there a few minutes, when, he got up saying it was too warm for him there, left the outline, cabin and was not seen again. On Friday afternoon last, a miner named Joseph Chappel went down the braindead george, pumping shaft of the pit to unloose a rope which he had made fast to an essay the bottom a week ago, when he was assisting to change the buckets. When he got about braindead saunders forty yards down the shaft, he saw the body of Rushworth suspended by a stay, his head and legs resting on the plank. Descriptive Comparison? The body was mutilated, the legs broken, and the jaw-bone crushed in. The shaft was only about 30 yards from the megaphone essays, coal cabin and the deceased, being no doubt confused with the drink he had taken, had missed his way and fallen down the pit. Verdict -found dead with fractures.
25. Park Lane , Ossett was opened in 1862 and closed 1885. Owners between 1862-1874 were Cliffe and on a Co. then between 1876-1885, G J Haigh. The colliery, which had two working shafts, was located to left of Owlers Farm, Flushdyke. 26.
Pildacre Colliery , Ossett was owned originally by Naylor and Co., and opened 1872, but closed in November 1910 after an inrush of water. By 1896 owners were John Naylor and Co., Ossett. Manager: S. Megaphone Essays? Broadbent and Under-Manager: J. Mann. There were 232 underground workers and essay mill 25 surface workers in 1896. Pildacre mined coal from the Flockton, Joan, Low Haigh Moor, Top Haigh Moor and Haigh Moor seams. Braindead Essays Saunders? The ' Ossett Observer ' for an essay the 25th February 1893 carried the braindead megaphone george saunders, following report about Pildacre Colliery: Messrs. John Naylor and Co. On A? Ltd.
The half-yearly meeting of the shareholders of this company was held at Pildacre Collieries, Ossett, on Monday afternoon last. The directors report for the half year ended December 31st showed a profit of £162 3s 9d. The Chairman, Mr. Edwin Mitchell J.P. in moving the adoption of the braindead george, report, said that the directors had continued the policy of developing and improving the efficiency of the colliery plant and workings, and were now in a position to nus thesis produce about 1,500 tons of braindead saunders coal per week from the descriptive comparison, Joan and Flockton beds. Since the beginning of braindead megaphone essays saunders August last they had incurred considerable expense in opening out the Cannel seam at Pildacre, which was of a very fine quality and satisfactory thickness; next winter they hoped to send out a respectable quantity of Cannel, the price of comparison which was much higher than black coal. Braindead Megaphone Essays? They now had over 50 wagons, the property of the company, and another 24 partially paid for. An Essay? The wages paid were now considerable (between £360 and £370 per week ) and the directors could not spare anything to secure safety in essays, working the collieries. A man's life was of more consequence than a dividend. The Chairman said that there had not been a serious or fatal accident at Pildacre for about seven years, which spoke well for the management. 27. New Low Laithes , owned by the Low Laithes Colliery Co.
Ltd was first opened in 1892 using existing pit shafts, which were widened in 1890 and were probably the old pit shafts from the defunct New Lodge (Gawthorpe) colliery, which had closed in 1889. In September 1890, two local men employed as pit sinkers at essay mill, New Low Laithes: Michael Glynn (51), Manor Rd., Ossett and John Murray (40), New St., Wakefield, were to lose their lives whilst working on widening the existing pit shafts from 9ft to 13ft in diameter. 9 They were working on a circular wooden platform 100ft down the pit shaft, which was suspended by heavy-duty iron chains. One of the four chains holding the platform was being re-attached when Glynn slipped, tilting the platform at a precarious angle. Glynn desperately tried to hold on to Murray, but only succeeded in pulling both of them to an instant death as they crashed down 150ft to the bottom of the old pit shaft.
Above: Rare picture of Low Laithes Colliery circa 1920 looking north. The house on the horizon is thought to be Low Laithes villa. Above: Another rare picture of Low Laithes Colliery courtesy of Ian Taylor. His grandfather Ernest Hutchinson worked in a clerical capacity at Low Laithes until its closure in braindead, 1927, and descriptive comparison this picture is from Mr. Hutchinson's photo album. Low Laithes Colliery was located to the west of Low Laithes Farm, and east of the essays, village of descriptive Gawthorpe, a few hundred yards along Gawthorpe Lane, which leads to Kirkhamgate and Bushy Beck. The men from megaphone saunders, Gawthorpe who worked at the colliery used the shortest route, which was a footpath, shown on the map below going almost due west towards the village.
Above: Map of the new Low Laithes Colliery off Gawthorpe Lane, Ossett dated 1908. The terminus of the Mineral Railway that ran to report book Flushdyke can be seen to the south-east of the colliery. In 1894 the site was shared with a brickworks. In 1896, the braindead megaphone essays saunders, manager was A.B. Blakeley with the under-manager at the time C Copley. There were 155 underground workers and essay 43 surface workers in 1896, but by 1908 this had increased significantly to 460 underground workers and braindead megaphone essays george 133 surface workers showing that the pit had expanded rapidly in the preceding 12 years. Above: Miners from Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe pictured in 1905 after an descriptive underground shift.
The bottles were used for carrying water or cold tea for meal breaks underground. The colliery was affected by the Great Coal Strike of 1893 when the Coal Owners Federation tried to braindead saunders impose a 25% wage cut on an essay, miners because of a fall in the price of coal. Braindead? The men at Low Laithes went out on descriptive comparison, strike for several months in the summer and autumn of 1893. At Low Laithes, the management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction (of the braindead megaphone essays george saunders, 40% advanced since 1887), but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives and a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by the manager. On the 17th November 1893, a settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. Subsequently, the miners at Low Laithes returned to descriptive comparison work the following week.
Above: Winding Engine at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to pull the cage up the pit shaft. The man operating the controls is thought to be the manager Mr. David Arnold West. In 1908, the colliery was still managed by braindead megaphone essays saunders, Mr. A.B. Blakeley, followed in 1915 by Mr.
David Arnold West, a mining engineer born in 1875 at nearby Birstall. Report On A Book? By 1908, the output of the pit was 61,250 tons per annum, all produced by muscle power alone. Low Laithes was served by what was called a 'mineral railway', which ran from Flushdyke to a rail terminus just south of the colliery. The coal from braindead megaphone george saunders, Low Laithes could then be transported via the railway goods yard at Flushdyke to any part of the UK. The coal extracted from your favorite, Low Laithes was taken at various times from the Silkstone, Beeston, Haigh Moor, Flockton or Cannel seams and megaphone george there was a ready market for coal of essay your this quality. Above: The winding engine house at Low Laithes Colliery with the water softener and megaphone essays steam accumulator circa 1920. The New Low Laithes Colliery, now owned by W. and report on a E.H. Middlebrook, ceased production in May 1927, and braindead george the sister colliery at nearby Wrenthorpe also closed at the same time. The effects of the 1926 General Strike were causing severe economic problems at the time and trading was difficult with many coal miners either on shortened working weeks or having already been made redundant. The Ossett Observer in December 1928 noted that the chances of the Gawthorpe pit re-opening were remote and sadly it never did, despite probably being viable. In the event, the site changed hands, re-emerging as the your, Doric Kerb Works producing concrete drainage ducts.
The Doric works were derelict in the 1960s and it is braindead megaphone george, believed that production ceased completely in the 1950s. 28. Northfield , Ossett opened in 1896 and closed in 1917. The colliery was owned in 1896 by descriptive, C. Newsome, and in 1899 by Shaw's Linfit Lane Coal Co. Braindead Essays Saunders? By 1917, Northfield was owned by an essay, the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd. It is most likely that Northfield and Crownlands Colliery are the same site. In 1908, there were 61 underground workers and 10 surface workers so this was a relatively small undertaking. The manager in 1908 was Mr.
S. Braindead Essays? Broadbent. 29. Shaw Cross , Owl Lane on the Ossett - Dewsbury border, was owned by C. B. Crawshaw and Warburton and first opened in 1903 and closed in 1968. Book? In 1896, the braindead megaphone essays george, manager was G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was P. Winstanley. By the early 1900s, there were 228 underground workers and 45 surface workers, but the colliery expanded significantly. Above: Shaw Cross Colliery as seen from Owl Lane, Ossett.
The pit baths were on the opposite side of Owl Lane. Above: Miners leaving Shawcross Pit after completing a shift underground circa late 1960s. 30. Storrs Hil l, Ossett, close to the Weavers Arms, was owned by outline an essay, W. Megaphone? Wilcock and was opened in 1901 and closed in 1908. The pit was not working between 1904-1908.
31. Longlands , Ossett was first opened in your favorite place, 1910 and abandoned in May 1923. Braindead Megaphone George Saunders? The colliery was owned by the Northfield Colliery Co, Ossett and mined the Haigh Moor seam. 32. Greatfield Colliery , was opened in 1913 and closed September 1954.
The pit was initially sunk between 1913-1916 and was owned in 1945 by the Northfield Colliery Co. Ltd., Ossett with manager: A.W. Thompson and no under manager. In 1945 there were 49 underground workers and favorite 11 surface workers. In 1947, the colliery was nationalised and megaphone essays george saunders came under NCB ownership. Above: A group of outline an essay Ossett coal miners at braindead george, Greatfield Colliery in the early 1950s. Above: A group of miners at Greatfield Colliery, Ossett circa 1956, which was always referred to as Westwood's Pit.
My thanks to David Maddison who recently contacted me and has identified his father Jack Donald Maddison on the back row, 2nd from the left. Format? The miner with the impressive ZZ-Top beard, second from the right on the back row is Harry Bains. 33. Whinny Moor , is listed as an Ossett pit, although geographically it was actually located between Lupset and megaphone essays george Wakefield. The colliery was first opened in 1869 and abandoned in June 1913. The owners between 1869-1873 were Hargreaves, Naylor and format Co. In 1896, the braindead essays saunders, colliery was owned by John Naylor and Co., who was also the owner of Pildacre Colliery in Ossett. In 1896, the manager of Whinny Moor Colliery was S. Descriptive Essay? Broadbent with the under-manager being J. Hudson. There were 37 underground workers and 7 surface workers. Collieries adjacent to Ossett. Many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at the pits just outside the town boundaries and the nearest four pits are as follows:
1. Chickenley Heath , Dewsbury, was leased by Joshua Greaves in essays, 1854. By 1857 it was noted that the essay your, Greaves Brothers had a 40 yard shaft at Chickenley Heath colliery and braindead megaphone essays one man who had worked for them for six years. In 1861, after the death of Joshua Greaves, the on a book, lease of coal at Chickenley Heath was assigned to Gawthorpe butcher and farmer Joseph Terry and braindead megaphone essays two others, most probably the Greaves brothers. In July 1862, the local press 10 had a notice that the on a, partnership of John Henry Greaves and Charles Howard Greaves, trading as Greaves Brothers and Co., at Chickenley Heath was being dissolved and that from the 31st March 1862, the business would be carried on by John Henry Greaves alone. Chickenley Heath colliery was owned in 1880 by the Chickenley Heath Coal Co., Dewsbury.
In 1896, the manager was Mr. A.B. Blakeley and the under-manager was Mr. M. Rayner. There were 122 underground workers and 12 surface workers at this time. 2. Chickenley Wood , Dewsbury, in megaphone george saunders, 1880 the comparison essay, owner was the Chickenley, Wood Coal Co. 3. Braindead Saunders? Chidswell , Dewsbury, In 1880 and 1896, the owners were C. Essay Structure? Crawshaw and Warburton, Dewsbury. The manager in megaphone essays george, 1896 was Mr. G.F. Blacher and the under-manager was Mr. P. Outline? Winstanley with 248 underground workers and 17 surface workers.
Since the owners, the manager and the under-manager are the same as those who were at saunders, Shaw Cross in 1903, it seems likely that Chidswell Colliery was an earlier variant of Shaw Cross, with possibly new pit shafts being sunk at Shaw Cross in 1903. In March 1888, the nus thesis format, local press 12 carried a report describing a fatal accident at the pit, which was described then as being located in Leeds Road, Ossett: FATAL EXPLOSION AT OSSETT COLLIERY. An inquest was held at Ossett yesterday by Mr. T. Taylor, coroner, touching the death of George Brook (45), colliery labourer, Naylor-street, Ossett, who was killed on Monday at george, Messrs. Crawshaw and an essay Warburton's collieries, Leeds-road. Mr.
F.N. Wardell, H.M. Saunders? Inspector of Mines watched the proceedings. The evidence stated that three other men working with the format, deceased had a narrow escape with their lives and had been severely burnt. Isaac Kilburn, pit sinker deposed that on Monday last he and braindead george saunders another man named Waterhouse were working in a staple or ventilating shaft between two seams known as Flockton and Old Hards. They were widening the shaft and stood on rogerian essay, a scaffolding fixed therein.
After they had been working for between two and braindead essays three hours with naked candles and without noticing anything unusual, gas came up the on a, shaft, and there was a violent explosion. The scaffolding was blown away, and Waterhouse and witness, both burnt were left clinging to the ledge of brickwork at the side of the shaft. The deceased and braindead megaphone essays george another man, who were working a jack-roll or windlass at the top of the shaft were also scorched, and the planking on which they stood was displaced, causing the deceased to fall down the shaft. When assistance came, Brook was quite dead. James Pomfret, the Deputy in charge at the time stated that the cannel seam was chiefly worked at the collieries, which employed a large number of mill websites men. Next, below this was the megaphone essays george saunders, Flockton seam, in which the deceased was at the time of the explosion and lowest of essay mill websites all, the megaphone, Old Hards, which was being newly opened out. Descriptive Essay? He examined the workings in the latter seam prior to braindead saunders the accident and found them free from gas and when he entered them afterwards, he found the ventilation in good order still.
In answer to questions by the Inspector, he said that eastwards of the bottom of the staple shaft was a heading driven, the further progress of which had been checked by a fault. When he examined that part of the workings on report, Monday morning, he did not go up to the fault, because part of the header was standing nearly up to the roof in megaphone essays george, water, but he examined the an essay, the edge of the water with his safety lamp and found no trace of gas, a good current of air coming over the water. The jury returned a verdict of accidentally killed. Braindead Saunders? He leaves a widow and a large family. 4. Wrenthorpe , Wakefield was first opened in 1838 and was closed in 1900 after the death of the owner Mr. W.T. Marriot of Sandal Grange, Wakefield. Before then and as late as 1885, the colliery was in the ownership of D. Micklethwaite and Company.
In 1896 the manager was Mr. Rogerian Essay? T.W. Embleton and the under-manager was Mr. W. Wood. There were 103 underground workers and 35 surface workers. In 1905, the colliery was bought by the Low Laithes Colliery Co. Ltd, who were operating their pit at Gawthorpe. It was re-opened in 1907, and braindead megaphone george saunders was used as part of the principal Low Laithes colliery with the same manager, but Mr. D.A. West was the nus thesis format, under-manager at Wrenthorpe. In 1908, there were 80 underground workers and 31 surface workers, suggesting a slight decline from megaphone essays george, ten years previously.
Wrenthorpe colliery had a branch line to nus thesis format the nearby main Leeds-London railway to transport coal to distribution centres and larger customers. Wrenthorpe colliery closed in 1927 at the same time as New Low Laithes Colliery as a result of the strike. Above: Wrenthorpe Colliery complete with an Upholsters Shop. The date of the photograph is not known but this section of the colliery opened in 1857. As an example of the prevailing conditions, there was a report in the ' Ossett Observer ' in June 1912 of braindead megaphone george a pit deputy being killed at Wrenthorpe pit, part of the Low Laithes Colliery: William Henry Hayes (56), colliery deputy of Dewsbury Road, Ossett met his death as a result of an accident in the Wrenthorpe part of Low Laithes colliery. The deceased was well-known in both Earlsheaton and Chickenley Heath, in which places he had lived for a good many years. Ezra Ramsden, of 11 East Parade, Eastborough, Dewsbury, coal miner, said that the accident happened on Friday at 12.30 p.m. In a few more minutes he would have finished the job of filling up a gob. There had been a fall of roof three or four days before in the Silkstone seam, and rogerian essay structure deceased, who was assisting to remove the dirt, was working about half a yard from the witness.
Suddenly, a stone fell down on the deceased, who was sitting on his right foot and leg and was in braindead megaphone george saunders, the act of using his shovel. Outline An Essay? The end of the stone struck him on the head, and knocked him against a prop which was behind him. He was still upright when witness pulled him out. The stone was not on him. He said Pull me out Ezra and he (witness) said Tha is out. There was no bleeding, but deceased appeared helpless.
He asked him (witness) to lean him against a prop, but he said he was not easy after after that had been done, so he was laid on braindead megaphone, his back. Deceased asked witness to take him to the gate, but witness told him that he could not do that by essay mill, himself. He would not let witness go for help for some time, and he could not call for braindead megaphone saunders help because there was no one near to hear. Report On A Book? Eventually witness got the help of george saunders several men, and together they got him out of the pit on a stretcher. He was quite helpless all the time. The stone that fell would be about three feet six inches long, twenty inches broad, and would not fill a tub. One end hardly fell fourteen inches, because it reared. The roof was a yard high. Tamar Hayes, of Pickersgill Street, Dewsbury Road, Ossett, widow of the deceased said that her husband was an old servant of the on a book, company and megaphone essays had worked at Wrenthorpe for about five years. He left home at about 4.15 a.m. on Friday morning and she heard that he had been hurt at an essay, about three in braindead megaphone essays george saunders, the afternoon.
She was able to see him at Clayton Hospital, Wakefield and although conscious, he could not talk much. She was there when he died on Saturday afternoon. Dr. Hugh Walker Moir, assistant house surgeon at the Clayton Hospital, said that deceased was admitted on the 21st June, and was suffering from paralysis of the legs, arms and body, and from shock. He was quite conscious and on a book quite helpless. The case was hopeless from the commencement. He rallied from the shock, but gradually sank and megaphone saunders died at 12.15 on the following day. The cause of death was fracture of the fourth vertebra of the spine. Mr. On A? D.A. West, the manager of braindead megaphone Wrenthorpe colliery, said that the deceased had been at Wrenthorpe for three years and had worked for the company for forty-five years.
He had never worked anywhere else. The Coroner remarked that the deceased was a thoroughly experienced man and essay your favorite place not a man likely to work in megaphone george saunders, a reckless way. The evidence pointed to it having been a pure accident, and he suggested a verdict to the effect That deceased was killed by having his spine accidentally fractured by a fall of stone whilst at work. The jury agreed. The 1893 Ossett Coal Strike 6. In 1893, the rogerian essay structure, price that mine owners could get for their coal dropped significantly.
Since 1887, coal miners' wages had increased by 40% above the standard rate and now, because profits were being affected, the braindead essays saunders, Coal-owners' Federation called for rogerian structure a reduction in wages from August 1893. The mine owners wanted to pay only braindead george saunders 15% above the your place, standard rate, i.e. an effective reduction in wages of 25%. When the Coal-owners' Federation presented their revised pay offer to the Miners' Federation of Great Britain, not surprisingly, the proposal was turned down flat and the Miners' Federation then asked its members to withdraw their labour from the end of July 1893. All of the megaphone george, English Coalfields were affected, with the exception of Durham and Northumberland, where wages had already been reduced under sliding scale agreements. In 1893, there were four working collieries inside the town boundaries: Low Laithes (Gawthorpe), Pildacre, Westfield and Healey Lane. Just outside the Ossett boundary, but always regarded as an your favorite place Ossett coal mine, was Roundwood Colliery, which was easily the biggest of the local pits, and on record as employing 619 underground workers, with another 129 surface workers (1896 figures).
The next two largest local collieries were Pildacre with a workforce of 232 underground and 25 surface workers (1896 figures), then Low Laithes, which had about 120 miners in 1893. Westfield and Healey Lane Collieries were relatively small by megaphone essays, comparison with Westfield having thirty underground workers and Healey Lane only about twelve. Also, many Ossett and Gawthorpe men worked at rogerian structure, Shaw Cross colliery, on Owl Lane, just over the town boundary in Dewsbury and employing about 232 underground workers and 45 surface workers (1896 figures.) Nearby Chickenley Heath and Chidswell collieries employed about another 350 local men, some of braindead saunders whom must have lived in Ossett. Those miners that were union members were organised by the Yorkshire Miners Association, based in Barnsley. Within the Ossett collieries, Union membership was strongest in the larger collieries, Roundwood, Pildacre and Low Laithes. Work had ceased at Low Laithes and Roundwood by the end of July in line with the recommendation made by the Miners Federation, and at Pildacre soon afterwards. At the two smaller Ossett pits, Westfield and Healey Lane, the miners worked on and this was to cause trouble in the following weeks. The strike had a serious effect on the local economy, which was based on structure, the use of coal as a fuel for braindead saunders industry and transport. On Saturday, 12th August, the Great Northern Railway cancelled the majority of its passenger trains, from the following Monday, which ran between Ossett, Leeds, Wakefield and essay websites Bradford. The Ossett Observer noted that the short notice that was given had caused the maximum inconvenience to braindead megaphone essays saunders travellers.
Worse was to descriptive comparison come, and further cancellations followed in September. Before the end of essays george August, the structure, lack of coal had forced some of Ossett's textile mills to introduce part-time working. In September, the mills of J T Brook at Town End and Flushdyke; Swallow's Mill on Dewsbury Road, and Giggal Clay's Mill at Healey all had to close. The Ossett Gas Company was also affected by the lack of braindead megaphone saunders coal and in November, it increased the price of gas from 2s 9d to 3s 0d per 1,000 cubic feet because of the rise in coal prices. Local mill owners tried to keep their businesses going by buying coal from the Durham coalfield and some paid up to outline triple the normal price. Unfortunately, the coal deliveries were delayed because the megaphone saunders, North-Eastern Railway was unable to essay structure cope with the increase in demand for coal from the still operational Durham and Northumberland coalfields. Megaphone Essays George? A by-product of making gas from coal is coke and a few enterprising Ossett mill owners used coke purchased from the Ossett Gas Company instead of coal. Unfortunately, by the end of August all the coke stocks had been used up.
Pildacre Colliery was a wet pit and needed constant pumping to prevent the underground workings from flooding. Pildacre's manager, Mr. S. Format? Broadbent applied to the Yorkshire Miners Association for permission for his men to get coal from the pit to keep the pump engines running. The owners of Pildacre Colliery were not among those trying to impose a wage reduction on their workers, but nevertheless, showing a certain amount of insensitivity, the Miners Association refused the request and Broadbent had to purchase 100 tons of coal from the Durham mines. Pildacre was potentially the worst affected of all the Ossett mines because of the flooding, but conditions deteriorated in essays, all the other local collieries during the strike. Ossett's two small collieries, Healey Lane and Westfield tried to work on through the dispute.
This caused a certain amount of anger among the striking miners and format there were several attempts to intimidate the men working at these mines, who in any case, were not members of the mineworker's union. Braindead Megaphone? At Healey Lane, the police were called on Saturday the book, 12th and megaphone george Monday the 14th August in order to prevent a likely breach of the peace by a group of pickets. This intimidation had some effect, since on the Monday, only part of the workforce turned up for work. When the men came out of the pit, the had to be escorted home by the police amid hooting and an essay cries of 'Baa' and other unfriendly demonstrations by a crowd of men and women . As a result, the men did not return to work on braindead megaphone, the Tuesday. On Saturday, 2nd September, some of the miners at Healey Road had returned to work, but were once again the subject of a rather hostile demonstration by a crowd of pickets. On Monday 4th September, a group of nus thesis forty or fifty miners from outside the town gathered at Westfield Colliery, Ossett owned by Henry Westwood and where only a few miners were at work. Two or three of the pickets went to george saunders see Henry Westwood to ask him to essay close the pit. Braindead Megaphone Saunders? Westwood was not imposing any wage reduction on his men and in essay mill, fact, he was opposed to the wage reduction proposals. Westwood refused to close the pit on the grounds that depriving Ossett's textile mills of essays george coal would not help the rogerian essay, miners, but would inflict hardship on the textile workers, who were unconnected with the strike and would be put out of work.
This did not meet the approval of the pickets and one of them suggested that they should fetch the blacklegs out of the pit and throw the corves down the shaft. Sensibly, this proposal was not carried out, but when Westwood's men came up from the braindead george, shaft and on a were leaving the pit-yard to go home, some of the pickets started shouting 'Baa' and one of the ringleaders grabbed a pit deputy and hustled him. Any further disturbance was prevented by megaphone saunders, the timely appearance of two policemen. On Thursday 7th September 1893 at report, the height of the coal miners strike, it was reported in the Ossett Observer that a serious encounter took place at Chidswell on the Ossett boundary a mob of between 2 and 3,000 men was marching in the direction of Ossett. About forty-five police charged the mob, and dispersed it using truncheons. There was a good deal of stone-throwing, and some of the rioters were armed with formidable bludgeons, but they did not make very much of a stand against the police staves ( it was noted that some of the crowd were rather severely punished by the officers' truncheons.) The constables were also armed with cutlasses, but did not resort to the use of them.
Westfield Colliery in braindead megaphone essays george, Ossett was the true objective of the rogerian essay, Chidswell rioters, but Henry Westwood, the owner of Westfield Colliery had learned of the megaphone essays george, planned attack earlier in outline an essay, the day and megaphone had withdrawn his men from the pit. Only two men were arrested at websites, Chidswell; one was a miner and the other a cloth fuller. Braindead Megaphone George Saunders? They were both sentenced to one-month's imprisonment by the West Riding Court in Dewsbury. Unfortunately, for comparison essay the local police, the disturbances coincided with the braindead george saunders, St. Leger races at Doncaster, which annually took some 200 men away from their usual duties in structure, the West Riding.
When Ossett came under threat, there was only one policeman in megaphone essays george saunders, the town. Following the disturbances, Ossett's police force was strengthened by the addition of a sergeant and three constables, to rogerian essay the usual force of six officers. All of the police were armed with cutlasses and saunders officers were stationed at the town's collieries. At the beginning of the week of disturbances, there was the first of three mass meetings by the town's miners. All three were organised by the local branches of the Yorkshire Miners Association. The first two meetings were held at the football field near Ossett railway station, and an essay the final meeting took place in the Temperance Hall in Illingworth Street. At the first meeting, which was held on the evening of Monday 4th September, a resolution expressing continued support for the strike was passed by megaphone, the 800 to 1,000 men present. Although one of the speakers, Mr G.R. Simpson, a check-weighman at Roundwood Colliery condemned the rowdyism that had recently taken place at Westfield Colliery and said that some of the unionists were very sorry that there had been an element in Ossett that day which was no credit to the working class . Book? Another of the speakers, the Reverend B. Haddon, a Primitive Methodist minister, hailing from Durham was more forthright. In his opinion this was not a strike but a lock-out and that a terrible day of retribution would come for men who out of the blood of the working class were selfishly amassing huge fortunes . The miners next meeting took place on the morning of Thursday 14th September. A large number walked to the meeting behind a brass band and the banner of the Chickenley Heath branch of the Yorkshire Miners Association.
At the meeting, which was attended by braindead essays george, 2,000 people, a resolution to rogerian structure resist the wage reduction was unanimously passed. The final meeting was held on Wednesday 18th October and the principal speaker, the President of the Yorkshire Miners Association, Edward Cowey (1839-1903), received an enthusiastic reception from the audience. The Ossett Observer noted Cowey's effectiveness as an orator a big man, with a deep voice, and essays a North-country accent, Mr. Cowey has a rugged eloquence of his own, which evidently exercises a powerful effect on its hearers - exhibiting as it does, deep earnestness and an essay an absence of affectation. By the time that Cowey visited Ossett, some of the miners' families were suffering hardship. When the dispute began, the Yorkshire Miners Association was able to pay 9 shillings a week to each man. The funds were distributed in the local public houses and one collier wrote to the Ossett Observer protesting about receiving his pay in a public house and suggested instead that a schoolroom in the Temperance Hall would be more suitable. In the third week of September 1893, the Association's fund ran out.
The last strike pay, amounting to george 7 shillings a week for nus thesis each man, was issued on Thursday 21st and Friday 22nd September. The non-union miners who were forced out of work by megaphone george, the strike received no strike pay at all. Outline An Essay? For example, of the 30 'coal getters' at Westfield Colliery, five were non-unionists. In Ossett, the megaphone essays, local leaders of the Yorkshire Miners' Association began organising relief for non-unionists in September. A Relief Committee, headed by Thomas Webster of Roundwood Colliery was set up and book collections taken.
In the week ending Saturday 9th September, almost £20 worth of 'necessaries' were distributed to megaphone non-unionists. A number of individuals also tried to descriptive essay help the families of miners who were suffering from hardship. Among them was the Mayor, Councillor Francis Lumb Fothergill, who visited over 200 such families and also Alderman Wilson. Braindead Essays George? Some help came also from the Ossett Industrial Co-operative Society, which received £10 from the Co-operative Wholesale Society and distributed it in the form of groceries. The congregation at the Primitive Methodist Chapel in Dewsbury Road raised £5 9s 8d in a collection, while the parishioners in North Ossett raised enough funds to provide thirty boys with breakfast at Gawthorpe Church School. A meeting for those groups interested in helping provide relief for the miners was called in the Temperance Hall on rogerian essay structure, Wednesday 11th October 1893 and george this resulted in the formation of a Relief Sub-Committee of the Borough Council and the opening of essay a subscription list. The Sub-Committee consisted of eight men representing between them the Borough Council, the town's Anglicans, the town's non-Conformists and braindead megaphone saunders the miners. By Saturday, 14th October, the book, Sub-Committee had raised £48 1s 6d.
The largest donation of £10 came from the Leeds Mercury Fund, whist Westwood and Company were among four donors of £5 each. The Sub-Committee distributed some 180 relief tickets weekly until Friday 3rd November, when the funds ran out. During the same period, the Sub-Committee also provided two teas for 600 children in the town's schoolrooms, whilst two Leeds gentlemen provided tea for 200 children. A dance and george saunders then a concert, both held in an essay, the Temperance Hall provided the Sub-Committee with fresh funds and there was a further distribution of relief in megaphone essays george, the weeks ending Saturday 18th November and Saturday 25th November. Two more free teas for outline an essay 600 children were provided and Walter Scott, a butcher in megaphone essays, Station Road provided tea for essay 200 children. By the 25th November, the braindead megaphone essays, strike had finally come to an end.
It lasted so long because neither side was willing to compromise. The Coal-owners Federation insisted on a wage reduction whilst the Miners' Federation was firm that no reduction of comparison wages was acceptable. A ballot, held by the Yorkshire Miners' Association in early September, indicated that most of its members supported the braindead megaphone essays, strike. Rogerian? A wage reduction, arbitration and a return to work on the old rate of wages were all rejected by large majorities. However, in Ossett, the feeling was rather different and the Ossett Observer noted that the overwhelming majority of braindead megaphone essays george miners in the town wanted to return to work at structure, the old rate of wages.
The attitude of the Yorkshire miners changed as their strike fund ran out braindead megaphone essays george saunders, later in the month. Rogerian Structure? In a second ballot later in September, they accepted a recommendation from the leaders of the Yorkshire Miners' Association to return to work at those collieries where the old rate of pay was offered. The Miners' Federation endorsed a return to work on these terms, but also imposed a levy of one shilling a day on returning miners in order to support those still in dispute. Most of the Yorkshire miners found that their employers were still insisting on a wage reduction and braindead essays saunders so only a minority returned to essay work. In Ossett, Healey Lane and Pildacre Collieries were working double shifts at the beginning of October, while Low Laithes and Roundwood remained closed. At Low Laithes, the braindead, management offered a 15% reduction in wages rather than the 25% reduction of the essay structure, 40% advanced since 1887, but this was unacceptable to the men's representatives. In mid-November, a rumour that Low Laithes was to be re-opened was quickly denied by megaphone essays saunders, the manager.
The dispute was finally brought to an end by the Prime Minister, William Ewart Gladstone, who appointed the Foreign Secretary, Lord Rosebery as a mediator between the an essay, two sides. On the 17th November 1893, a joint conference was held at the Foreign Office, under the presidency of Lord Rosebery between representatives of the Federated Coal-owners and the Miners' Federation. A settlement was arrived at on basis of the old rate of saunders wages being paid until at least the 1st February 1894, with a Conciliation Board to follow in at least one year. Nus Thesis Format? In Ossett, the miners at george, Low Laithes and essay mill Roundwood returned to work the following week. With the end of the strike, the town's mills were able to return to full production and cancelled rail services were gradually restored. Unfortunately, the Ossett Observer did not comment on how long it took the megaphone essays george, miners' families to nus thesis format recover from the financial strain of the dispute. Bradford Observer, Monday, 7th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday, 15th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Friday, 25th September 1874. Bradford Observer, Tuesday October 13th 1874.
Leeds Mercury , Saturday January 17th 1863. 1893 Ossett Coal Strike - adapted from an essay by David Scriven. Relative value of UK pound in RPI terms, taken from the web site: http://www.measuringworth.com/calculators/ppoweruk/ York Herald , Monday, January 11th 1875. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, September 25th 1890. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, July 19th 1862. Leeds Mercury , Saturday, September 8th 1877. Leeds Mercury , Thursday, 29th March 1888.
Leeds Mercury , Tuesday, 22nd December 1857. Lancaster Gazette , Saturday, 26th December 1857. My maternal grandfather, Joseph John Smith worked nearly all his life as a coal hewer in the Yorkshire pits. He was born in Beaufort, Ebbw Vale in 1897, but moved to Yorkshire in the 1920s to work at Sharlston Colliery. Here, Joe Smith met and married local Horbury girl, Frances Margrave and then lost her to cancer in 1936. Megaphone Essays? For a while, in the 1960s, he came to structure live with his only daughter, Margaret Wilson and braindead essays family in Kingsway, Ossett. I wish I had talked with him more about his life, but it didn't seem important at the time. My grandfather was a great talker, but he never talked about his experiences in essay your place, the Welsh and Yorkshire coal mines, where he had worked from the age of 14. His back and upper arms were mottled with bluish-grey tattoo-like markings, which were the scars from cuts and braindead megaphone essays george abrasions sustained working bareback, hewing coal in the narrow seams under Wakefield.
The bloody, exposed tissue had then filled with black dust, just like ink from a tattooist's needle, leaving him with a permanent reminder of the decades of outline an essay underground toil. His lungs were shot from braindead essays george saunders, years of websites inhaling the george, coal dust, muck and bad air down the mines. Essay Your Favorite? I can hear his hacking, wheezing cough now. Joe died aged 68 from saunders, diseases and complications brought on by his years of working in that subterranean hell-hole. Miner's Death 1869 - Inquest at outline an essay, the Little Bull, Ossett Common. Mr Taylor, honor and county coroner held an inquest at the Little Bull Inn, Ossett Common over the body of a coal miner, Joseph Crabtree, aged 30. His widow stated that he had his back hurt about megaphone essays two years ago and was laid up for a week. On Friday 27th August 1869 he had left home at on a book, 5 o'clock in the morning to go to his work at Messrs. Terry, Greaves and Co., Roundwood Colliery, Soon after 1pm the same day, he was brought home with his left leg broken. Mr. Kemp from Wakefield attended him and braindead essays george saunders Mr.
Lawson Tait also acted to set his leg. Deceased began to complain of pain in his left side a day or two afterwards, but he seemed to mend until last Thursday when the pain in his side commenced again. He died on book, Wednesday morning about half past two. Mr. Lawson Tait, Wakefield surgeon said that he visited the deceased about a fortnight ago and found that he had fractured his left leg and thigh. The leg was in position and appeared to be going on well. On Thursday witness made a post mortem examination of the megaphone saunders, body and found the an essay, fractures in process of a cure and in a very satisfactory state. The organs were in braindead saunders, a normal condition, except the right side of the heart, which was very much distended with dark, fluid blood. The pulmonary artery was entirely stopped with a hard clot of blood. The clot would cause death by suffocation. It had no direct communication with his injury.
It must have been in existence for several days or possibly weeks. Weakness from injury or illness would be likely to cause disease. Jacob Page of Alverthorpe, coal miner, a fellow worker of the deceased's said that about 11 o'clock in the morning of the 27th August, the deceased's hurrier fetched him and report on a book he went to his bank, He found the deceased sitting about braindead essays george saunders two feet from the face with about 3 or 4 hundredweight of coal and rock on his left leg and helped free the deceased by moving the coal. A row of props were set to within four feet of the face. The seam of coal is the Haigh Moor, which is about a yard thick, but in three seams. Outline An Essay? The deceased told him that he had got the two lower seams and tried to get down the top seam and braindead megaphone failed, and he had therefore determined to let it stop up until he had got ready for nus thesis format another fall.
Verdict: Died from george, a clot of blood, accelerated by the accidental fracture of the left leg. From the ' Ossett Observer' 18th September 1869. Fatal Accident to essay mill websites a Hurrier at Roundwood Colliery - 1877. On Tuesday the 2nd inst., a Horbury lad named Wilson Baines was at his work as a hurrier at the Roundwood Colliery, when a mass of stone from the pit roof fell on george saunders, him inflicting various injuries to his head. The poor boy was taken home unconscious, in which state he remained till half-past one on Sunday afternoon, when he died. Last Tuesday morning, an inquest was held at the King's Arms, the house of Mr. S. Hall, before Mr. T. Taylor and a respectable jury of whom Mr.
Thomas Mitchell was foreman. The following evidence was adduced:- Charles White, joiner of Northgate said the deceased was his step son and was 15 years old on Friday. He was a hurrier and rogerian structure the son of the late Mr. T. Baines, rag dealer.
He went out to his work at a quarter after five o'clock, a week since that morning. He had worked in a pit going on for four years. He was brought back soon after twelve o'clock, unable to speak, and remained unconscious till he died on Sunday afternoon. He received frequent attention, both from Messrs. Braindead Megaphone Essays George Saunders? Kemp and Son, surgeons of Wakefield and from Mr.
B. Outline? Kemp from Horbury. William Peace, hurrier of Flushdyke, Ossett said he was working at Messrs. Terry, Greaves Co.'s Roundwood Colliery, and knew Wilson Baines who hurried on the same road with him. On Tuesday morning deceased was standing in the middle of the horse road, which is about 5ft 6 in high, when a piece of the roof came in suddenly. Only one piece came out; it was a lump of blue bind and seemed to catch the megaphone essays saunders, deceased on the head, knocking him down. He raised an alarm, and his father came to the spot. Joseph Peace, coal miner, of Flushdyke, said he was getting coal from the face of a bank, when he heard something fall and rogerian structure his lad scream out george saunders, O father, do come, and away he ran and found the deceased on the floor bleeding, with knees drawn up and insensible. He was in essay your favorite, a new road which he (witness) helped to drive. He had always considered the road good; his own boys passed up and down the way 70 or 80 times a day, and he had to braindead essays saunders go that way himself.
If he had not, he should not have used the road himself or have allowed his boys. Where the accident occurred, the road was about 8 or 9ft wide. Essay Structure? Deceased was bleeding about the head. The piece of stone which came down would weigh about 5 or 6 stones, and it knocked a prop down in falling. Witness went up to the pit bank immediately to george send for a doctor, and descriptive comparison the deceased was taken to his home. A verdict of accidental death was returned. From the ' Ossett Observer ' October 13th 1877. Sep 18th 1880: A Chidswell collier with the nickname “Wild Jack” had made a bet that he would “worry a live hedgehog with his teeth, his hands being tied behind him” , also that he would go through other similar performances, in a field behind the Royal Oak, Owl Lane. On Saturday afternoon a crowd of about 200 had gathered, including a number from Batley and other places. A man was also in attendance with a bag containing the braindead megaphone george, hedgehog. The police had heard of the affair however, and at mill, 5:00pm a sergeant and two plain clothed constables arrived and were greeted with hooting.
No attempt was made to proceed with the braindead george, exhibition, but it was rumoured that the encounter between the man and the hedgehog came off the same evening at a place called “Dog Loitch”. Above: Percy Christian Greaves (1868-1957) long time principal of Roundwood Colliery, Ossett. Greaves took control of the essay place, colliery in 1885 at the tender age of 17 years when his father, John Oldroyd Greaves (1824-1916) suffered a heart attack. Percy Greaves was destined for a place at Cambridge University, but his father's ill health forced him to take over the family business. Braindead Megaphone Essays? By 1892, he had qualified with a first-class colliery manager's certificate and he went on to become one of the essay structure, most eminent mining engineers in the UK. Essays George Saunders? He was respected and very well-liked by the men at Roundwood where there were no strikes (excluding National Strikes) during his ownership. Greaves always strove to provide the an essay, most up-to-date methods for safety and saunders efficiency for his men.
It was noted in his obituary (The Times of October 25th 1957) that few days passed when he was not seen at the pit-head or down the shaft of rogerian structure one of his collieries. Percy Greaves lived with his wife and family of four children at Woolgreaves, near Wakefield; a large eleven bedroomed house built in the 1830s and set in 30 acres of grounds. Miners summoned for leaving work - 1888. At the West Riding Court, Dewsbury, George Cawthorne, Richard Foy and John Richardson were summoned for megaphone essays unlawfully absenting themselves from their employment at Pildacre Colliery, Ossett early in July 1888. Foy did not appear. Mr. T.L. Chadwick appearing for Messrs. John Naylor and Co.
Ltd., the colliery proprietors stated that the essay, defendants on entering their employment signed the usual printed form of contract to give or take 14 days notice on leaving. On the dates named, however, they had abstained themselves and braindead megaphone were written to by Mr. William Noble, the colliery manager, but appeared to have obtained work elsewhere. Essay Mill Websites? Compensation was claimed from each, being 2 shillings per day, a proportion of the standing expenses of the colliery during their absence. Foy was asked to pay £2, Richardson £1 14s and Cawthorne £1 12s. Braindead Megaphone Essays George Saunders? Richardson was allowed two weeks to pay and the others two months. From the ' Ossett Observer' 12th August 1880.
Aug 16th 1890: A day hole is to be opened from the Runtlings Lane colliery of Messrs Westwood Co. to Healey. It will be fitted with an engine plane, so that coal can be sent out that way for the mills at Healey, instead of essay being drawn up that shaft. The object is to save the expense of megaphone george saunders carting coal down into the valley. During the format, coal strike in Ossett in 1893, the textile mills in the town were starved of coal and many had to close. Temperance Mill in Church Street, Ossett was owned by Francis Lumb Fothergill and he came up with a novel approach to keep his mill open. Megaphone Essays? By running the mill boilers on favorite, dried sewage sludge, he was able to keep Temperance Mill operating. By the megaphone essays george saunders, middle of September 1893, Fothergill had used 150 tons of sewage sludge and several other mills in the town followed his example. The sludge was available free-of-charge from the borough sewage works and outline the only cost was transporting it, which must have been an unpleasant job. Another approach was to burn rag dust saturated with old engine oil and John William Smith, the owner of Healey Old Mill, Ossett managed to keep his mill operating through the strike using this method.
Fire at Roundwood Pit - 1893. The 'Ossett Observer ' noted in March 1893 that a fire had occurred earlier in megaphone essays, the year in the Silkstone pit at Roundwood colliery. The owners of the colliery, Terry, Greaves and Co. had not seen fit to contribute the one guinea a year for the services of the Wakefield Fire Brigade, which would have attended the fire earlier so that the disaster would not have been so great. Also on rogerian, the 7th September 1893, on the same day as as the riot at Chidswell, at nearby Ackton Hall colliery in Featherstone, two men lost their lives, after soldiers opened fire on a large crowd of people. There had been some destruction of property at the colliery by a group of rioters and flying pickets intent on causing trouble. By the late afternoon 3 officers and braindead saunders 26 men from the 1st Battalion of the South Staffordshire Regiment had been called in, and the local magistrate read the Riot Act. Because the crowd didn't disperse quickly enough, the soldiers were ordered to open fire.
Tragically, by then, the crowd had been swollen with many innocent local bystanders. James Gibbs (22) and James Arthur Duggan (25) were to your favorite die of megaphone george gunshot wounds and six other people were injured. Neither Gibbs or Duggan had been involved in the rioting and the unfortunate sequence of events came to nus thesis be known as the Featherstone Massacre. Alarming Explosion at essays saunders, Ossett Colliery - 1895. A serious accident occurred in one of the coal seams worked by the Low Laithes Colliery Company Limited, at Gawthorpe, Ossett.
The seam in question, the Cannel is regarded as sufficiently safe to be worked with naked lights at book, neighbouring collieries, but safety lamps are used in it at Low Laithes. There were considerably fewer persons employed there on braindead, Saturday than on other days of the week. Operations proceeded in the usual fashion until about eleven o'clock, when an explosion occurred. It appears that ripping was done in the main road, to make the latter high enough for the passage of on a corves to the coal face. A shot had been fired to blow down a portion of the roof, and megaphone essays george saunders this left a cavity, in which it is supposed some gas may have collected. At all events, when the Deputy in charge Asa Dransfield, of Gawthorpe, fired another shot, gas exploded.
Dransfield and five other miners who were working in that part of the mine were unfortunately burnt. As soon as possible they were drawn to the surface. Dr. Mill (Messrs. Wiseman and Mill) happened to outline be in braindead megaphone, the locality, and was quickly summoned. Nus Thesis Format? The colliery surgeon, Mr. Oates, of Dewsbury arrived later. Oil and limewater were applied to george saunders the burns of the injured men, which were also bandaged with cotton wool. Assistance in this was rendered by Police-sergeant Wilcock and Police-constable Groves, who are members of the St. Essay? John Ambulance Association. George Saunders? Under the direction of Dr.
Mill, five men were removed in cabs to descriptive comparison essay the Dewsbury and District Infirmary, their names being: Joseph Peaker (39), married, no children, of Bennett's Buildings, Gawthorpe, Ossett; burnt on right side, back, and arms. John Robinson (33), married, two children, of Commercial Street, Earlsheaton.; burnt on back, shoulder, face, and arms. Fred Squires (27), single, living with his parents at Chickenley Heath, Soothill; burnt on the neck face, and megaphone george head. Thomas Coulter (20), single, lodging at your place, Sunderland's Buildings, Soothill Lane; burnt on arms, back, and face. Peter Kenney (about 45 or 50), single, of Cobden Street, Batley; burnt on back, arms, and face. Asa Dransfield, the deputy, who was badly burnt on his arms, etc. did not go to braindead megaphone essays george saunders the Infirmary, but was able to go down the pit upon the arrival of the managing director, Mr. A.B. Blakeley of Dewsbury, and explain how the accident had occurred. Essay? It is understood that the explosion was not of sufficient violence to do any material damage to the pit workings. Robinson was able to leave the infirmary on Wednesday, and george saunders Peaker yesterday.
The other three men are still lying in the Andrew Pickard ward of the institution, but it is thought that Kenny will be ready to go out essay mill, next Tuesday or Wednesday. Squires and megaphone essays george Coulter, who were both terribly scorched are not yet out of danger. Rogerian Essay? Squires has his face and head entirely enveloped in bandages, with the exception of small orifices for his eyes, nose and mouth. From the ' Ossett Observer ' July 13th 1895. Above: The engine in the Power House at Low Laithes Colliery, Gawthorpe which was used to generate electricity. Fatal Accident at Shaw Cross Colliery - 1897. A lad named Joseph Jennings, 14 years of age, son of Allen Jennings, coal miner, Chidswell was fatally injured at Shaw Cross Colliery belonging to Messrs. Crawshaw and Warburton.
The deceased's mother, Mrs. Emma Jennings, said he was a strong active lad and employed as a pony driver. Megaphone? He left home at 5.30 on Wednesday morning to go to the pit, along with his brother Israel, a hurrier at the same pit. He was brought home at about quarter to eight the same morning in an injured condition, but he died at 10.30 that night. When the body was laid out, the left side had the book, skin grazed and one of essays his hands was crushed. Stuart Hartley of Hanging Heaton said he was employed along with the deceased as a pony driver at Shaw Cross Colliery. He saw the nus thesis format, deceased at the pit bottom at about half past six on Wednesday morning. They both travelled on the main horse road to the junction, the road being 6 feet high and 12 feet wide. About seven o'clock, he was coming from the coal face when he saw deceased's pony standing still in the road, attached to ten loaded corves, the braindead essays george saunders, first being overturned, with the outline, deceased lying under it. Five of the corves were off the rails, and five on, but they were all coupled.
The road appeared all right, and he could not tell how the essays george, accident had happened unless some coal had fallen into the points and prevented them from working properly. He and another driver named Joseph Henry Wade liberated the essay, deceased, who only george said Take me home. Witness had worked on the same road and had found nothing out of order. They found the deceased about five yards from the points. The jury returned a verdict that the deceased was accidentally injured by the corves. From the ' Ossett Observer ' September 4th 1897. After the websites, coal strike in megaphone george, 1893, Ossett artist Mark Senior received a commission from a group of local mill owners to paint a portrait of Henry Westwood, the owner of essay mill Westfield Colliery in Ossett. Above: 1893 portrait of Ossett mine owner Henry Westwood, J.P. painted by Mark Senior. Westwood had tried hard to braindead george saunders keep his pit open to supply coal to power the local textile mills in Ossett. During the dispute, not only had Westwood not tried to impose the 25% pay cut on his workers that the Coal-owners' Federation was calling for in response to lower coal prices, but also he had not drastically increased his coal prices to take advantage of the coal famine.
In recognition of his services, local mill owners subscribed for report his portrait to be painted and it was presented to braindead saunders him in January 1894. The painting was described in the Ossett Observer as an admirable likeness and was inscribed Presented to Mr. Henry Westwood J.P. by structure, a few friends, as a mark of braindead essays saunders respect and in grateful recognition of the generous assistance rendered by his firm to the trade of Ossett during the place, memorable coal strike of 1893. Saunders? Westwood's business partner, in Westwood and Co. at Westfield Colliery, William Wray, was presented with an inscribed gold watch. Oct 2nd 1909: An interesting discovery was made in the Low Laithes pit at Gawthorpe on rogerian structure, Sunday when a bye-worker named Joe Edwards discovered a bottle, containing tea, in a worked-out part of the mine. Braindead Megaphone Essays Saunders? Edwards, along with four other men, was making his way up No.2 rise towards the “73 gate” when they stopped for a rest in what is known as “Ned Littlewood’s Place“. It was while resting that Joe noticed the bottle, covered with dust, lying on one side of the road. Outline? He picked it up and it immediately occurred to him that it was the bottle taken down by a miner named Horace Moorhouse, who had his back broken in that spot nearly two years ago. Near at hand they also found Moorehouse’s “snap“. Although it is braindead, two years ago since the structure, accident occurred, the bottle was intact.
Shale had fallen from the roof around the bottle but had not touched it. The man to whom it belonged, though helpless, is braindead megaphone essays saunders, stated to be in excellent health and spirits, apart from his injured back. Colliery Death at essay, Low Laithes 1921. Alexander Isaacs (40), a colliery contractor was severely injured in an explosion following a misfired shot whilst working in the Low Laithes Colliery Co Ltd at megaphone essays saunders, Wrenthorpe (Wakefield). The accident happened on the 9th February 1921 and Isaacs was taken to Clayton Hospital in descriptive essay, Wakefield where he later died from his injuries on the 21st February 1921. Redfern Kaye, the underground manager at Whitwood Colliery, near Castleford agreed to allow a group of students from Leeds University to essays go underground on February 16th 1926. His daughters Gladys and Mary went with him. The shaft was inspected in the afternoon and the group went down the Speedwell shaft at 6pm, Redfern Kaye leading the outline, way and Bill Hughes at megaphone essays george saunders, the back of the group. Mary was in front of him.
The roof caved in and Mary was trapped under a huge timber roof support. She was killed outright. Essay Websites? This led to a ban on women going underground at West Yorkshire collieries for many years. Aug 14th 1926: While searching for coal during the braindead, strike, workers have unearthed in fields near the boundary beck, near Tufty Farm, what appears to outline an essay be old coal stores. In field after field on the bottom side it was found that underneath about a foot of soil was a layer of small coal, varying in depth from braindead megaphone george, one to two feet, and partitioned off every four or so by a narrow barrier of solid clay. At some time or other beyond the memory of the oldest inhabitant, the turf and subsoil have been removed, clay walls constructed at intervals of four feet, the intervening space filled with coal, and the soil turf then restored. The theory put forward is that long ago well over 100 years ago, it is comparison, thought coal was worked extensively in this locality, and as it was used mostly for domestic purposes, the small coal, or slack, was practically valueless, and essays george was disposed of in book, this way, either to level up undulating land, or to megaphone essays george avoid the on a book, creation of unsightly spoil heaps.
This would entail much labour, but labour was cheap in braindead megaphone saunders, those days. The clay partitions could serve to either stop the small coal being washed away, or to prevent the spread of fire in the case of spontaneous combustion. In some places intersecting clay barriers are found, giving the appearance of a huge honeycomb. Similar operations are being carried out at Low Park Farm, where the formation of the dumps is the same. Here the coal is being got between two and two and a half feet thick. An 18th century coin has been found here amongst the coal, and may give some indication of the age of the dumps. May 25 1946: Opencast coal workings between Storrs Hill and Healey, in six months, have transformed 52 acres of agricultural land into a region of quarries and report book huge mounds. Producing 700 tons of megaphone essays saunders coal per week, over 20,000 tons have been taken since work commenced last October. It is essay mill websites, estimated that 400,000 tons will have been taken before work finishes, probably at the end of the year. The site is between Storrs Hill Road and Healey gasworks.
Two coal seams, each 3 feet thick, are being worked. They outcrop about 100 feet from each other, on the Ossett side of the LMS railway. Excavations have been made a short distance inwards, where coal is twenty to thirty feet below the surface. During the last six months the Upper Haigh seam has been almost exhausted, and Lower Haigh has been started on from the Storrs Hill end. Between thirty and forty men are employed there by Messrs Otty Brothers of george Leeds.
Old underground pit workings have been exposed by the work. Rogerian Structure? A field on braindead megaphone george saunders, the Horbury side of Storrs Hill has already been worked, and is ready to be restored.
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George Saunders The Braindead Megaphone: Essays
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critical poem essay What is poetry? How is it analyzed? What are the elements of poetry? Good questions! One good way to get started analyzing poetry is to go straight to the good, old Structure, Sound and Sense by Laurence Perrine, the purple-ish book usually assigned for English classes at MGCCC. Perrine's table of contents lists the elements of essays george poetry . It divides the elements into chapters--one chapter on imagery, one on metaphor and symbolism, et cetera. Report On A Book! It also includes poems in each chapter which represent uses of the poetic elements the chapter discusses. Read through these chapters--use them as reference tools--for further, more detailed discussion of the elements of poetry. Essays! However, the Writing Lab instructors decided it wouldn't hurt to write up a supplement to Perrine's book.
This supplement will discuss the same information as Structure, Sound and Sense , but it will take up less space. A further advantage is that it will discuss the same ideas in clearer, simpler language. Pleas note that this handout discusses the basics of poetry; there is much more to know about it than there is room to discuss here. What is format, poetry Poetry goes beyond the rhyming of words. The object of writing a poem is usually to make a very complicated statement using as few words as possible; as Laurence Perrine says, poetry may be defined as a kind of language that says more and braindead essays george, says it more intensely than does ordinary language (517). Thus every word and stanza is packed with meanings. Poetic language could be said to have muscle because, in a sense, it is powerful.
When a poet writes, he is trying to communicate with the reader in a powerful way. Essay Your Favorite Place! He uses the megaphone saunders elements of poetry to get his point across, and these elements consist of a variety of ways to use words to convey his meanings. In the analysis of poetry, then, two important questions the reader must ask himself are: What is the poet trying to descriptive comparison essay, say? How does he or she try to say it? Individual instructors may have specific requirements for papers written in their classes.
Those requirements take precedence over anything written in this handout. Otherwise, a critical analysis paper may be written in the same format that is taught for writing ordinary essays in george Comp. Format! I and Comp. II. A critical analysis includes an introduction , a thesis statement , perhaps a map of the essay, the braindead essays saunders body of the essay, and a conclusion . The critical analysis paper will consist of a proof or a demonstration of the thesis statement. Always begin with a thesis statement, which usually appears at the end of the introductory paragraph.
The thesis of a critical paper should include a statement of the poem's theme; everything in the body of the paper should apply in some way towards proving the thesis statement. In critical analysis, one looks both analytically and rogerian essay structure, critically at a short story, a novel, or a poem and makes an argument about what the meaning of the story or poem is. Braindead Megaphone Saunders! What follows is a discussion of what the words critical and analysis mean: What is analysis? It is helpful to think of analysis as decoding. Creative writers rarely say what they mean in a straightforward, obvious way, and this is especially true of poets. However, they are trying to communicate with readers.
In doing so they use a variety of tools to place, enrich their purpose, and these tools are the elements of poetry . The combination of elements the poet uses makes up the code of the megaphone essays george poem. Analysis means literally picking a poem apart--looking at elements such as imagery, metaphor, poetic language, rhyme scheme, and so on--in order to see how they all work together to essay, produce the poem's meaning. Braindead Megaphone! By looking at a poem in terms of its elements, one decodes the poem. This guide is to help readers learn what to report on a, look for saunders, and what questions to essay websites, ask in decoding a poem. What does critical mean? To criticize means to judge the merits and faults of a poem. Megaphone Essays Saunders! Questions to outline, consider in this regard are: What has the poet doen well, and what has he done less well?
Has he successfully expressed his theme? Has he written a good poem or a great poem according to braindead, Laurence Perrine's standards? The following are some initial helpful tips for reading poetry recommended by Laurence Perrine and explored in more detail in your textbook: Read the poem more than once. Use a dictionary when you find a word about report on a book, whose meaning you are unsure. Read the poem slowly. Pay attention to essays, what the poem is saying; do not be distracted by the rhyme and an essay, rhythm of the poem. Try reading the megaphone saunders poem out loud to get a sense of the your place way the #9;#9;sounds of the poem effect its meaning.
Elements of Poetry. Denotation and Connation Words in poems have denotations, or literal, easy-to-understand dictionary meanings, and connotations, or figurative, less specific and braindead megaphone saunders, less direct meanings. The latter is the more important in poetry than the essay former. Braindead Megaphone Essays George! The figurative, or connotative, meaning of a word means everything that the word might imply besides its direct, dictionary meaning. For example, the literal, denotative meaning of the word apple is something like this: It is the fruit of the apple tree, anywhere from gold to dark red in color, and nus thesis format, it has seeds and braindead megaphone essays saunders, a sweet taste. The literal meaning of a word, its denotation, can usually be defined in descriptive comparison essay simple, clear language and can be understood right away. The connotative meaning of a word, however, is much different. Braindead George! A red apple in a poem is essay, never merely a red apple, but probably implies a lot of different things. The red color may symbolize passion, fertility, anger--anything one can associate with the braindead megaphone george saunders color red could be a possible meaning.
The apple itself could symbolize the Tree of Life, it could symbolize knowledge, Adam and Eve and on a book, their Fall from Grace, the harvest in fall, the forbidden, Sir Isaac Newton or Johnny Appleseed--perhaps a combination of these things. In this way a poet uses a word or an idea in a poem to express a variety of ideas at one time, and so deepens our experience. Thus, in reading poetry one should look at words as having two kinds of braindead george saunders meaning. They have dictionary meanings, but also mean other things besides. One should look at individual words and at phrases in the poem and brainstorm; that is, one should think about the literal meanings, but then try to think of every possible idea that the word or phrase could imply. Importantly , words do not mean anything and everything in an essay a poem. Thus the reader should look at the poem as a whole and try to megaphone essays saunders, figure out which implications make the most sense within that poem. Imagery Images are very concrete word pictures having to do with the five senses--touch, smell, taste, sound, movement, and rogerian, especially sight . As Perrine points out, images make readers experience things vividly . To figure out the megaphone saunders imagery in a poem, the reader should first make a list of every single mental picture, or visual image, that comes to mind as he reads the poem. He can then go back and find other kinds of favorite place ideas that have to do with physical sensations--sounds, tastes, smells and so on. Finally, he can go back and think about all the ideas these different images could imply --figure out their connotations , in essays george other words.
For example, if a poet compares something to a ship, the reader might think about what ships look like, and your favorite, then think about what it feels like to megaphone essays saunders, be on a ship. Essay Websites! How do ships move? Where do they go? What sights, sounds, smells and sensations can we associate with ships and being on ships? After thinking about these questions, the reader can go back and attach these ideas that a ship implies to the thing to which the megaphone george saunders ship is compared, and finally try to fit these ideas into descriptive comparison the overall meaning of the poem. See Emily Dickinson's poem There is No Frigate Like a Book on page 575 of Structure, Sound, and braindead megaphone essays, Sense . Importantly, poets often place images in opposition to each other. This creates what is known as tension.
Tension is often an important clue to descriptive, the meaning of a poem; it also creates drama and interest and is a key to paradox (see below). One should look out for megaphone essays saunders, strange contrasts in images in the process of analyzing poems, and think about the essay your favorite responses they arouse in a reader. Images can be part of similes and metaphors, though they are not always (see below). Figurative Language Figurative language involves a comparison between two things--a literal term , or the thing being compared, and a figurative term , or the thing to which the literal term is being compared. Braindead Megaphone Saunders! As Perrine states, figurative language is report book, a way of describing an ordinary thing in an un-ordinary way. Simile A simile is an explicit, or clear and direct, comparison between two things that are basically unalike using dead-giveaway words such as like, as though, seems, similar to, than, or as. Essays George Saunders! For example , The woman moved like a fish--she moved as though she were as weightless as a fish in water. Rogerian Structure! Her movements were certainly as graceful and fluid as those of a sea creature.
She seemed ready to swim away at any moment, like a startled school of fish. Braindead Megaphone Essays Saunders! Here, the woman is the literal term, while the essay favorite fish, sea creatures, and school of fish are all figurative terms. Metaphor A metaphor is a comparison that is braindead essays george saunders, not made explicitly--that is, it is essay mill websites, not made clearly and directly and is not made with clues such as like or as. It is, instead, an indirect comparison between two things that are basically unalike. In metaphor, the braindead figurative term is substituted for or identified with the literal term, the thing being compared. This is done to make the format meaning of a poem more forceful. #9; For example , the expression The apple never falls far from the tree contains a metaphor in which parents or family (literal term)is compared a tree (figurative term), while children (literal term) is compared to an apple (figurative term).
The metaphor expresses that children are never very different from the parents or family from essays george, which they come. For further example , The fire eye in the clouds survives the gods (Wallace Stevens) also uses metaphor. Here, the sun is outline, compared to an eye--one that has seemingly eternal life, and thus can watch the full course of human events. Here, one figurative term is fire eye in the clouds while the literal term is the braindead essays sun. The term eye may give the reader the essay mill websites idea that the sun is kind of like a conscious being, since conscious beings have eyes for purposes of perceiving the braindead megaphone george world; what a thing sees it can presumable think about in a conscious way. Also, the idea that the sun survives reinforces the idea that it is like a living thing, though it is nus thesis format, not, in fact living. See also, The Road Not Taken and braindead essays saunders, Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, both by Robert Frost and appearing in Structure, Sound and Sense . An Essay! These are good examples of easy-to-understand uses of metaphor. Personification Personification is a kind of metaphor, and it means to speak of an impersonal thing, such as a season, a natural element, any object, a country, etc., as though it were a person. For example , look at the line from the popular Seals and Crofts song, Summer Breeze: July is dressed up and playing her tune.
Here the month of July is spoken of as though it were a woman. Megaphone George! July is dressed up, that is, July is in rogerian essay structure full swing--flowers are blooming and butterflies are flying, resembling the pattern of a summer dress. Also, to say that July is playing her tune is a metaphorical way of saying that birds are singing and braindead saunders, nighttime insects and frogs are voicing their mating calls. Nus Thesis Format! Thus the figurative term, a woman in a dress playing a tune, is identified with the literal term, a summer month in which nature is at its peak of activity. Synecdoche Synechdoche is megaphone essays george saunders, a way of naming a thing: the outline an essay word for a part of a thing is substituted for the whole. For example, in the sentence I bought a new set of wheels this morning, the word wheels is substituted for the word car.
Wheels are part of any car; here the part is substituted for the whole. The following are further examples: How do you like my new threads ? and All hands on deck! both represent synecdoche. Metonymy Mentonymy is a way of naming a thing: a thing closely related to braindead essays saunders, the thing actually meant is used to name it. For example , He came from rogerian essay, excellent blood substitutes the term blood for family, and expresses the idea that an individual comes from saunders, a good family, perhaps a noble one. Blood and family are related because families are made up of people who have similar characteristics; people have blood, and people in families, being related to one another, are often said to share the same blood. Furthermore, blood, a biological thing, is not part of nus thesis format a family, which is a cultural institution. However, blood, part of the human body, can be substituted for family, a group of biologically related bodies. Braindead Essays Saunders! Thus the essay mill websites figurative term blood is substituted for the literal term family. Symbol A symbol means what it is, but at the same time it represents something else, too.
For example , the straw that broke the camel's back is a symbol of a last, remaining bit of patience with a difficult, ongoing situation. Allegory An allegory is very similar to a symbol. Laurence Perrine describes it in essays saunders this way: Allegory is a narrative or description that has a second meaning beneath the surface one. Although the surface story or description may have its own interest, the author's major interest is in the ulterior meaning. (597) What this means is that in addition to the surface meaning of the poem there is also a more important, deeper meaning. Allegories relate especially to subject matter from the Bible and from mythology. Nus Thesis! For example, a garden in a poem may be not just a garden, but it may represent also the Garden of Eden and all of the ideas that accompany the idea of the Garden of Eden become potentially important in the poem. These might include ideas such as the seven days of creation, paradise, utopia, the Fall of Man, disobediance, human rationality, God's power, Eve's origin as Adam's rib, and so on. References to mythology are harder to catch because most Americans simply are not familiar with Greek, Roman, and Norse gods and essays saunders, goddesses and their stories.
However, there are dictionaries of mythology in any public library, so use one if need be. Paradox A paradox occurs when two things that should not be able to exist at your favorite place, the same time are said, in a poem, to exist at the same time. For example, it is impossible that it be both night and day, both spring and fall, both past and present at braindead essays, the same time. If, however, one were to say that night and day coexist in a poem, one would be expressing a paradox. Because human beings frequently experience two or more emotions at outline an essay, the same time (mixed feelings, ambivalence) or can see things from two points of view at the same time, they often use paradox in essays saunders poetry to express such a situation. For example, if a poem were to say that the speaker of the poem is experiencing the mill websites past and the present at the same time, this may mean that his memories of the past are so vivid that the braindead essays past seems to outline an essay, be existing in the present. For example, A poem should be palpable and mute/As a globed fruit (Archibald MacLeish, p. 650 of Structure, Sound and Sense ). This line expresses a paradox because poems are constructed through words--why should a poem be silent? A poem has the silence of a globed fruit because the poem should be able to communicate the non-verbal aspects of the braindead essays fruit (the things we experience without words)--the fruit's roundness, its smooth or fuzzy texture, its sweet fragrance, its crunchy or soft texture once it's bitten into, and so on. These are all things which are not experienced nor understood in a verbal way but which a poem may paradoxically communicate through words. Thus a silent poem is place, a paradox.
Overstatement and Understatement Overstatement is braindead megaphone essays george saunders, very similar to exaggeration. To say You'll tear down that house over my dead body! is essay, overstatement; what is braindead, actually meant is that the structure speaker will do everything in his power to prevent the house being torn down. Megaphone Saunders! He will probably not, in fact, submit to outline, death in essays order to prevent that from occurring. Understatement is the opposite of exaggeration--one states less than one's full meaning. To say It is on warm side in July and August on the Gulf Coast would be an essay your favorite, understatement. In fact, it is blazingly hot on essays saunders, the Gulf Coast. See Burns' A Red, Red Rose and essay mill, Frost's The Rose Family on pages 611 and 612 of Structure, Sound, and Sense for good examples of over- and understatement in poetry. Irony Irony is a situation in braindead megaphone saunders which one thing is said but another is actually meant, or in which the outcome of a situation is the opposite of what one would have expected it to be. Irony is packed into on a the line, The fire eye in the clouds survives the gods. Megaphone George Saunders! Human beings are often said to report, create their gods, beings frequently presumed by humans to be immortal, all-knowing, and all-powerful because they are presumed to have created things like the earth, the braindead george saunders moon, the sun. Outline An Essay! Rather, this line of poetry emphasizes the mythical nature of gods and goddesses; their existence, so to speak, is tied to braindead essays, a culture, and once that culture has run its course, those gods can be said to have died.
It is the sun, supposedly created by the gods, which actually witnesses the passage of time and the events of human history. Thus the opposite of what one would think to be the true situation is occurring: The sun, not the gods, can make a better claim to websites, being immortal and all-knowing because it watches the rise and fall of cultures and of the gods associated with those cultures. Furthermore, it is the sun which has, in fact, inspired human beings to create gods in braindead megaphone essays george order to account for its existence. See the section in Structure, Sound, and Sense that covers irony for good examples of this element in poetry. Meaning and Idea Remember that a poem might be summed up in a literal, one-sentence statement, a theme. Also remember that along with that simplified statement a poem has other ideas connected with it. Rogerian Structure! For example, The fire eye in the clouds survives the gods means literally that the sun has a very long life expectancy of several billion years.
However, other ideas are associated with this literal meaning; the line expresses ideas about the braindead megaphone essays saunders nature of time, history and descriptive comparison essay, the immortal gods. For example the fire eye in the clouds implies that the sun is in some way godlike because gods are often said to live in the sky, amnong the clouds, on mountaintops. Likewise, those aspects of the sun are represented here. Braindead Essays Saunders! Furthermore, eyes see, and the idea of the sun as an eye implies an all-knowing and perhaps all-powerful quality; for instance, God's eye is depicted above a pyramid on US dollar bills, and so we are one nation under God. The words fire-eye allow us to experience the sun in an entirely new way, above and beyond its being a star in the sky which produces heat. (See above discussions of metaphor and irony.) Tone Tone consists of the attitude of the speaker toward his subject matter. It involves practice working with the other elements--especially under- and overstatement, language, irony, imagery, the meanings and your place, connotations (implications) of words--of poetry to judge the tone of a poem. In assessing tone, nevertheless, one might begin by asking oneself the following questions: Is the speaker involved or detached (uninvolved, unemotional?) How does he seem to feel about his subject matter?
Is the speaker serious or joking, ironic or straightforward, condemning, approving or dispassionate, lighthearted or depressed, loving or angry? Does the tone change as the poem progresses? Is the tone mixed? For instance, is the speaker at braindead megaphone, once sad and apprehensive, happy and nostalgic, loving and angry? Musical Devices To determine what musical devices are used in descriptive a poem, one should ask how sounds are arranged and used in a poem. What sounds and words get repeated? What are repeated but with slight changes? Is there rhyme?
The following are kinds of musical devices. Keep in mind that the vowels are a,e,i,o,u and sometimes y, and the consonants are all of the other letters in the alphabet. Alliteration --the repetition of beginning consonant sounds For example, P eter P iper p icked a p eck of p ickled p eppers. Assonance --the repetition of vowel sounds found anywhere in a word For example, m a d a s a h a tter, bl a ckj a ck, knick- kn a ck, p a ddy-w a ck, p i cn i c Consonance --the repetition of cononsant sounds found at the ends of words For example, kni ck -kna ck , paddy-wa ck, bri c -a-bra c , fli p -flo p Rhyme --also spelled rime rhyme is the essays george repition of ending sounds between words; poems can have end rhyme , in which words at essay your favorite place, the ends of lines rhyme; this is what we usually mean when we say a poem rhymes. A poem can also have internal rhyme, in which words inside of individual lines for example, Go with the flow , Joe . The sounds used in a poem can effect its meaning and tone. The use of consonants, vowels and saunders, rhyme can effect the way the essay mill websites reader feels about the poem's subject matter; they can effect the poem's tone and reflect its meaning. One should think of the sounds of braindead letters in structure terms of the range of feelings they may express. For example, lots of long vowel sounds accompanied by george soft consonant sounds may contribute to a tone of sleepy restfulness in a poem.
Short vowel sounds plus hard consonant sounds may express anxiety, quick movement, anger or happiness. For further information on additional poetic devices, read first the glossary of outline an essay terms for poetry in Structure, Sound, and Sense , and then refer to the page numbers in which they appear for more detail and example.