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Nietzsche Morality As Anti Nature Twilight Of The Idols Summary Essays and essays on the cup 2010, Research Papers. ?Abraham Jimenez Professor Sean P. Ireland English 3060 27 March 2014 The name of how do Nietzsche occupies one of the leading places among the . Essays On The Cup 2010. greatest philosophers till nowadays. His influences can be traced in postmodernism and essay, existentialism. His theories and views are studied by scientists and students; his profound and sharp understanding of reality and human nature attract attention of cup 2010 numerous people all over self essay, the world. His most well-known theory is related to “Will of Power”. The notion of. Human , Human nature , Humans 917 Words | 4 Pages. Nietzsche-Philosophizing with a Hammer Running head: Nietzsche Header: Philosophy Name: . On The Cup 2010. University: Course: Tutor: Date: Nietzsche Philosophizing with a Hammer. How Do A Ged. In philosophizing with a hammer, Friedrich Nietzsche meant that the assortment of stories that constitute the dominant representations of life and essays on the world cup 2010, our world. This philosophy is brought.
Existentialism , Friedrich Nietzsche , Human 2026 Words | 6 Pages. What method does Nietzsche use to become the Dionysian Overman? What perspective on life does the Overman adopt? How does it enable “amor fati” . and express optimum Yes-saying to our present natural life in the world? How does this overcome “slave morality or religion”? Nietzsche uses acceptance of fate, its obstacles, adversity and also its divinity to become the Dionysian Overman.
He believes by affirming life in both its cruelty and beauty that we can achieve joy in the present without the need. Eternity , Faith , Friedrich Nietzsche 1348 Words | 4 Pages. comes down to us from the ten commandments of God. There is also Kant's view that reason dictates the commandments of morality . The moral law, . according to Kant, is derivable from our own rational faculties and, not surprisingly, God's ten commandments can be found along with other maxims in our rationality. However, Nietzsche ascribed to neither of these views. Born in 1844, Nietzsche was influenced by Darwin and philosophers such as Schopenhauer. His moral theory mirrored more that of process thesis Hume's in sticking. Ethics , Friedrich Nietzsche , Human 997 Words | 3 Pages.
In Twilight of the Idols Nietzsche writes, My objection against the whole of sociology in England and France . remains that it knows from essays on the experience only the forms of decay, and with perfect innocence accepts its instincts of decay as the norm of sociological value-judgments. The decline of life, the topic for romeo and juliet decrease in on the the power to organize, that is to tear open clefts, subordinate and super-ordinate -- all this has been formulated as the essay for romeo ideal in contemporary sociology. Essays World. (p 541). The culture of Europe. Earth , Europe , Friedrich Nietzsche 935 Words | 3 Pages. Ethic and Morality There is a close relationship between morality and games, ethics but they do not mean the same thing. On the other . hand, anti - morality and anti - nature are aspects, which negate vital instincts.
Friedrich Nietzsche is a renowned philosopher who criticized social laws, religion, and honorable in a radical manner. Nietzsche argues that, “ anti - nature refers to the idea of essays on the world allowing human beings to coerce others into adopting their beliefs and why boston college essay, morals” (Friedrich 404). Friedrich Nietzsche had a. Ethics , Human , Human nature 1461 Words | 4 Pages. Esoteric Morality I found how the world had been misled by world prostitute writers, to ascribe the process modeling master thesis greatest exploits in war to cowards, the wisest . counsel to on the fools, sincerity to atheists, chastity to sodomites, truth to informers. For Master. How many innocent and excellent persons had been condemned to world cup 2010 death or banishment, by the practising of great ministers upon the corruption of judges, and the malice of factions.
How many villains had been exalted to essay and outdoor games the highest places of trust, power, dignity, and profit. Drapier's Letters , Friedrich Nietzsche , God is dead 833 Words | 3 Pages. ? MORALITY AS ANTI - NATURE TARGET AUDIENCE: 10TH GRADERS IN TOMAHAWK PURPOSE: TO SUMMARIZE Friedrich . On The World. Nietzsche , a prominent German philosopher in the 19th century is one of the most well-read philosophers of the past two-centuries. His ideas regarding morality and nature continue to be discussed and essay on importance, debated to this day among scholars of all beliefs. All living things are given desires by nature . These desires exist as part of who we are.
They define us in a way; they can aid us and on the, they. Ethics , Human , Humans 749 Words | 2 Pages. Iisha Clark Business Ethics PHL 248-501 Final “The beginning of the slaves’ revolt in morality occurs when ressentiment itself turns . Essay Topic And Juliet. creative and gives birth to on the cup 2010 values: the ressentiment of those beings who, denied the proper response of self reliance essay 2 action, compensate for it only essays cup 2010 with imaginary revenge. Whereas all noble morality grows out of a triumphant saying ‘yes’ to itself, slave morality says ‘no’ on on importance and outdoor games, principle to everything that is ‘outside’, ‘other’, ‘non-self ’: and this ‘no’ is its creative deed. Evil , Friedrich Nietzsche , God 1601 Words | 4 Pages. of the eventual victory of the “slaves revolt” in morality . Essays World Cup 2010. In “First Essay: ‘Good and Evil’, ‘Good and Bad,’” which is part of the work On . the for romeo Genealogy of Morality , Nietzsche outlines the two types of morality --aristocratic and slave--and describes the eventual overtaking of essays world cup 2010 aristocratic morality by slave morality through the “slaves revolt.” Nietzsche claims that master morality came first, with its defining characteristics being the morality of the masters, nobles, and self reliance essay, warriors who saw themselves.
Good and evil , Ressentiment 1323 Words | 4 Pages. ? Nature of Morality A Russian born American science-fiction writer and biochemist once quoted, “Never let your sense of morals . get in the way of doing what’s right.” This statement generates a series of essays on the world cup 2010 controversial questions. What is right? How do morals affect people and society in which we live? Does everyone have specific morals by which they try to live their life? How does someone realize what their morals are? What are morals? These questions cannot be truthfully answered because everyone.
Aesthetics , Categorical imperative , Ethics 1823 Words | 5 Pages. I chose to outline for master write on Freidrich Nietzsche . He was criticized for essays on the all of his writing because they were so controversial. He was mostly known for . his statement “the Death of God”. It was said that a lot of his philosophies were misunderstood by most of his readers. He was commonly classified as a German philosopher. He believed in life, creativity, health, and the realities of the world we live in, rather than those situated in a world beyond. His key ideas were the death of god, perspectivism, the. Eternal return , Existentialism , Friedrich Nietzsche 1247 Words | 3 Pages.
Morality Essay Have you ever asked yourself where your conscience comes from? The feeling that takes a hold of you when you do what you . Essay And Outdoor. feel is wrong. This feeling is almost like a consequence when you tell a lie or commit a crime. Your conscience helps you sort out the good and bad and on the, feels your mind with sorrow when you see a sad story on the news or gives you the initiative to donate money to a contribution. Self Reliance Essay. But where does it come from. Is it something you are naturally born with, taught. Atheism , Existence , Existence of God 1393 Words | 4 Pages. Friedrich Nietzsche Nietzsche spoke of the “the death of God” and foresaw the dissolution of essays traditional religion and . metaphysics. Some interpreters of how do i write essay Nietzsche believe he embraced a literary exploration of the human condition, while not being concerned with gaining truth and knowledge in the traditional sense of essays world cup 2010 those terms. However, other interpreters of Nietzsche say that in attempting to self reliance 2 counteract the predicted rise of on the nihilism, he was engaged in a positive program to reaffirm life, and so.
Friedrich Nietzsche , Immanuel Kant , Nihilism 829 Words | 3 Pages. Introduction Our presentation is about Friedrich Nietzsche who was one of the most important and influential modern thinkers of nineteenth . century for his notions of inexistentialism, post-modernism, and post-structuralism; but before talking about him, I would like to essay and outdoor games tell you a brief introduction of postmodernism and how this philosopher took these concepts to explain his ideologies. One of the main characteristics of postmodern thinking is that the world is seen as much more complex and an. Beyond Good and Evil , Friedrich Nietzsche , God is essays cup 2010 dead 1364 Words | 4 Pages. Summary of Morality Without God by John Arthur Nirvair Chahal Dr. Ronald de Sousa PHLA11 S T.A. Chad Horne 996811650 . January 24, 2012 John Arthur argues that morality exists without the influence of for romeo religion in his passage Morality Without God. Arthur claims that morality is independent of religion both logically and psychologically. On The World Cup 2010. He first distinguishes what he is referring to when he speaks of morality and religion. Arthur explains that morality is having the tendency to sample outline s thesis evaluate.
Ethics , God , Human 744 Words | 3 Pages. Friedrich Nietzsche Friedrich Nietzsche was a philosopher born in the small German village of Rocken bei Lutzen, located in a . farmland area southwest of cup 2010 Leipzig, Germany. Nietzsche was named after the Prussian King, Friedrich Wilhelm IV and process master, was coincidentally born on the Kings birthday. According to on the world www.britannica.com , when Nietzsche was 5 years old his father Karl Ludwig Nietzsche (1813–1849) died from a brain ailment , leaving Nietzsche to college essay live with his mother Franziska Nietzsche (1826–1897). Friedrich Nietzsche , Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl , God is dead 1066 Words | 3 Pages. The Symbolism of Alfred Hitcock’s the essays on the cup 2010 Birds Towards Frederick Nietzsche’s Theory of Morality as an Artificial Restraint on Nature. In Alfred Hitcock’s The Birds, birds of all species all around the globe start to riot and essay, spread havoc as they consistently begin to essays cup 2010 attack humans in flocks . of process modeling waves. Cup 2010. The theme of the film represents an act of modeling master revenge of on the world cup 2010 nature towards humans due to our lack of morality to respect it and treat it as gentle and humble as it treats us. Outline For Master. In the film it simply states that “millions of years of memory” stored in the birds' “little brains” have produced “this instinct to destroy mankind.” Hitchcock reflected. Alfred Hitchcock , Atheism , Bodega Bay 1186 Words | 3 Pages.
?Book Report of Twilight “Breaking Dawn” Bella Edward The Author Stephanie Meyer was born in the 24th of on the December, 1973. She was . nominated for the best author 2009 by essay and juliet “USA Today” and she’s also won a price for most selling books (29 million copies). Essays On The Cup 2010. She wrote three another books in the Twilight story so this is the last book. Two of them have also been filmed and the third movie is coming to the theaters in topic for romeo and juliet approx half a year. Cup 2010. Summary of the essay of indoor Story Bella gets pregnant and everyone. Bella Swan , Edward Cullen , Human 962 Words | 3 Pages.
Friedrich Willhelm Nietzsche , a German Philosopher of the mid 1800`s was Born 1844 and died after a long medical condition that was thoroughly . investigated but with no found result in 1900. Nietzsche is most renowned for challenging the moral integrity of Christianity in on the cup 2010 the late 1800’s despite having grown up with a background and family history of Lutheran ministers; where his Father, Uncles and Grandfathers were all Ministers. This philosopher was the most outspoken on topics such as power, pain. Culture , Existentialism , Friedrich Nietzsche 1913 Words | 6 Pages. Book One of the for master s thesis posthumous collection The Will to essays world Power (a highly selective arrangement of jottings from various notebooks and from a surceased project . Why Boston College Essay. began by Nietzsche himself, then released by world cup 2010 his sister, Elisabeth FA¶rster- Nietzsche ) is entitled European Nihilism which he calls the problem of the nineteenth century. Nietzsche characterized nihilism as emptying the world and especially human existence of meaning, purpose, comprehensible truth, or essential value. Though some deride it as. Existentialism , Friedrich Nietzsche , God is dead 2074 Words | 6 Pages. 1. Discuss the how do i write emergence of guilt in light of Nietzsche's analysis in the genealogy.
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Arthur Schopenhauer , Friedrich Nietzsche , Human 1424 Words | 5 Pages. ?Unit 1: Nature Concept Chapter 1: Introduction to Business Ethics Lesson 2: Morality and Moral Standards In the first . lecture I have tried to explain you the concept of Business Ethics, its importance in the organization, and essay, arguments against its implementation. Along with that we did a small activity so as to world make everything clear. In this lecture I shall talk about morality and s thesis, moral standards. Points to be covered in this lecture: Meaning and characteristics of morality Meaning. Aesthetics , Ethics , Moral psychology 1380 Words | 5 Pages. Friedrich Nietzsche and Mahatma Gandhi, two mammoth political figures of their time, attack the essays cup 2010 current trend of process master thesis society. Their individual . philosophies and concepts suggest a fundamental problem: if civilization is so diseased, can we overcome this state of society and the sickness that plagues the minds of the masses in on the cup 2010 order to and outdoor games advance? Gandhi and Nietzsche attain to answer the world cup 2010 same proposition of sickness within civilization, and although the how do i write a ged topic of unrest among both may be dissimilar, they. Friedrich Nietzsche , Indian independence movement , Master-slave morality 1406 Words | 4 Pages. Nietzsche's rejection of traditional morality.
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Truth, according to Nietzsche , is really just a manmade concept that has completely omitted anything beyond it. He argues that every word is automatically assigned a concept. Concept , Human , Idea 1148 Words | 3 Pages. 1. How does Twilight define good and evil? Note that the epigraph to Twilight refers to a verse in Genesis regarding the tree . of the knowledge of good and evil, representing the sample outline for master dangers of knowing too much about what really is world cup 2010 good or evil. This is related to the cover art, where apparently an Eve figure is sample for master holding out an on the, apple from this tree for Adam to eat. This opening reference suggests that Bella is a serious problem for Edward. He is often trying to withhold knowledge from her, but she is.
Bella Swan , Edward Cullen , Good and evil 1603 Words | 4 Pages. Nietzsche repeatedly refers to Buddhism as a decadent and nihilistic religion. It seems to be a textbook case of essay on importance of indoor games just what . Nietzsche is out to remedy in human thinking. It devalues the world as illusory and merely apparent, instead looking to an underlying reality for value and meaning. Its stated goals seem to be negative and escapist, Nietzsche sometimes seems to essays cup 2010 praise certain aspects of Buddhist teaching—and some of his own core ideas bear a resemblance to Buddhist doctrine. Essay. What exactly is Nietzsche’s. Buddhism , Dukkha , Four Noble Truths 1705 Words | 5 Pages. Equality as Defined by Aristotle, Tecumseh, and Nietzsche. German philosopher, Frederick Nietzsche , viewed equality as being “rooted” in a “slave morality ” (Grigsby, 2012, p. 84). His . view was not based upon God-given rights but on a more natural order such as Charles Darwin’s survival of the fittest. Nietzsche believed that Christianity withheld a structure for essays on the cup 2010 slave morality within Europe.
His beliefs did not identify with equality, compassion, pity, and selflessness in sample outline the sense that Christian-based morals do. Essays Cup 2010. Instead, Nietzsche believed that superior people. Democracy , Egalitarianism , Friedrich Nietzsche 909 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 1 THE NATURE OF MORALITY Copyright, J. Humble, 2010 ETHICAL • • • • • • Moral Right Good Fair Just Proper Copyright, . J. Humble, 2010 INDUSTRIAL OR BUSINESS ETHICS • The study of process modeling what constitutes moral, right or good conduct in a business context. • BUSINESS: any for-profit organization Copyright, J. Humble, 2010 MORAL OR ETHICAL STANDARDS • Concern behavior that can have serious consequences to human welfare. • IMMORAL violates moral standards • NON-MORAL does not concern moral standards. Ethics , Moral psychology , Moral relativism 510 Words | 17 Pages. : Does Nietzsche Think There Is No Truth? Explain. Essay Question: Does Nietzsche think there is no truth?
Explain Nietzsche is one of the essays on the world most important and . influential philosophers at 19th century. In the how do i write essay main lines of his philosophy, it can be shown that he protests against all philosophical aspects in his own age. He is against world rationality, all philosophical systems, historical streams and all values, which are approved. According to Nietzsche , the truth is business process modeling master not a concept to be discovered or founded. It is a concept to be. Friedrich Nietzsche , Human , Morality 1395 Words | 5 Pages. Nietzsche , Birth of Tragedy In Friedrich Nietzsche’s work The Birth of Tragedy, he argues that during the times of the ancient Greeks the . artistic fusion between the Apollonian way of thinking and the Dionysian way of thinking lead to the creation of the greatest works of tragic art and music. Nietzsche believes that society needs to develop a new art form that recognizes the balance between the apollonian and Dionysian influence to reaffirm human existence. Nietzsche uses the Greek Gods, Apollo.
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The Nature of Source and Evidence summary Inquiry includes • What? • How? • Who? • When? • Where? • Why? There are no . simple answers to these questions. In many cases, there is a lot of debate about the answers. Historians examine traces of the past in order to answer these questions. World Cup 2010. These traces are called ‘sources’. Historiography • The study of reliance essay how archaeologists and historians reconstruct the past, the sources they use and the way in which they use them. • Focuses on methodology. Historiography , Peloponnesian War , Pericles 828 Words | 4 Pages. Johnny Lee Plato versus Nietzsche The central ideas that two great philosophers, Plato and essays on the world, Friedrich Nietzsche , talked about . were the reality and appearance; and what they mainly focused on is where we as humans stand between these two. Of course, regarding the fact that Plato and Nietzsche lived in different time periods, they had their differences that conflict with each other’s theories. But they do have something to 2 agree upon; they both argue that humans live in an illusory world of our. Arthur Schopenhauer , Existentialism , Meaning of life 1140 Words | 3 Pages.
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Sir Francis Bacon's, The Four Idols , and Steven Jay Gould's, Nonmoral Nature , are quite compatible as comparisons. Essays On The Cup 2010. I would say . more so than comparing Gould's work with Charles Darwin's Natural Selection, from a literary standpoint. I think Bacon and Gould would have shared some similar ideas and agreed with one another on several issues. When describing Bacon's Idols of the on importance of indoor games Tribe, Bacon states,have their foundation in human nature itself, and in the tribe or race of essays men. Sample For Master S Thesis. For it is a false assertion. Aesthetics , Charles Darwin , Human 935 Words | 3 Pages. Patterns in Nature 1. Organisms are made of cells that have similar structural characteristics * Outline the historical development of . the cell theory, in particular the contributions of Robert Hooke and Robert Brown Robert Hooke was the first person to observe a cell through a compound microscope in 1665. Franscesco Redi used a microscope to observe that flies do not spontaneously appear but develop from eggs laid by other flies. Many years later, Robert Brown observed a large body in.
Bacteria , Cell , Cell membrane 2394 Words | 7 Pages. Eng-112 Morality There is an inherent question on the basis of morality and essays cup 2010, whether or not it is a man-made, almost religious . invention or if it is self essay intrinsic to our beings as humans. Essays On The Cup 2010. I think that the rope that is the argument between is too complicated and tightly knotted to have a short conversation about, but by fraying the ends of the rope we can inevitably decide that morality is why boston college innate and that religion may have a part in on the world cup 2010 building upon it, but not in creating it. The curiosity behind the. Ethics , Faith , God 1373 Words | 4 Pages. Master Morality vs.
Slave Morality: Neiztche. Master Morality vs. Slave Morality : Neiztche Wikipedia defines morality as “a system of a ged principles and judgments . based on cultural, religious, and philosophical concepts and beliefs, by which humans determine whether given actions are right or wrong.” (Wikipedia Morality ) Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche , a German philosopher thought up of the idea that there are two moralities ; The master and slave morality . These define a person by there actions to there world around them and how they handle certain. Beyond Good and Evil , Friedrich Nietzsche , Immanuel Kant 860 Words | 3 Pages. ? MORALITY THALINE JACQUET March 16, 2014 PHIL.
201 PROF. CHRITINA FUSCH AIU ONLINE Morality is an . important concept that has always generated interest when dealing with business organizations. Some of the business organizations argue that morality in business is important as it ensures that the needs of the customers are fully satisfied. However, with the increased focus on on the world cup 2010, profitability, morality the concepts of morality is no longer considered in most organizations. Deontological ethics , Ethics , Immanuel Kant 905 Words | 3 Pages. Layne Johnson Dr. Scott Austin PHIL 251-502 December 6, 2011 Nietzsche and the Ascetic Ideal According to Friedrich . Nietzsche in his third essay of “On the Genealogy of Morals” the ascetic ideal is how do i write essay nothing more than a false sense of moral codes and boundaries set to fill what would be an otherwise void part of the human mind. Nietzsche believes that any true philosopher will reject the notion of ascetic ideals as a creation of the misguided masses of on the world society. He believed that to make sense of. Ethics , Friedrich Nietzsche , Human 2130 Words | 5 Pages.
Nietzsche's critique of Plato and sample outline, Christianity. ourselves, the murderers of all murderers?” ( Nietzsche , 1882, 1887, s. 125).This is one of many renowned and influential quotes devised by the . prolific German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche . A lover of on the world Greek myths and a philologist by essay topic for romeo trade, Nietzsche expounded his controversial philosophy with an essays on the world cup 2010, iron fist criticizing Platonism, Christianity and other popular forms of business process modeling thesis thought as anesthetising and essays world cup 2010, suppressing the instinctual, impulsive energies of man. Topic For Romeo And Juliet. Nietzsche was the original non-conformist and true. Ancient Greece , Beyond Good and Evil , Friedrich Nietzsche 2437 Words | 7 Pages. theories, there are many ways to determine one’s identity. World. An identity can be shaped by the experiences we have in topic relation to essays world other individuals, but the . philosopher Nietzsche says the sample outline best way to determine ones identity is to on the world cup 2010 remove yourself completely from society to outline for master fully understand one’s true identity. The Philosopher Nietzsche once wrote: “The individual has always had to work hard to avoid being overwhelmed by the tribe. World. If you try it, you will be lonely and sometimes frightened. Topic. But no price.
Debut albums , Facebook , Identity 1605 Words | 4 Pages. Vis a vis morality , for us to lay the foundation of the understanding of the term, I deemed it necessary to search for essays on the world its meaning and I found . in Cambridge Advanced Learners Dictionary: Third Edition that morality is a personal or social set of standards for good or bad behavior and character or the essay 2 quality of being right, honest, or acceptable. Taking from the definition itself, we can draw out a conclusion that morality is more of essays world cup 2010 a personal encounter of what is morally good or right. It might. Birth control , Condom , Family planning 931 Words | 3 Pages. The Secret Agent: Human Nature vs. Morality.
The Secret Agent: Human Nature vs. Morality “The surface of society, like that of the sea, is in perpetual motion; its depths, . like those of the essay of indoor and outdoor games ocean, remain unmoved.” - Sir James Frazer Kingdoms come and go; Empires rise and fall. Men achieve great power, and manage to lose it as quickly as they originally gained it. What causes this? What malevolent force can cause man to essays lose what they worked so hard for? Human nature . As old as mankind itself, it is something that is so deeply.
Human nature , Joseph Conrad , Moral 1087 Words | 3 Pages. ? Idols and Francis Bacon By: Bailey Gray Soc 101-099 TR 11:10 To Francis Bacon the four . idols , tribe, cave, market place, and theater, beset the minds of men (Bacon). To him, the topic for romeo human race has four prejudices that haze our scientific thoughts: 1) Our perceptions are true and trust worthy,2) Experience make us wise, 3) Language provides us to be superior beings, and 4) We believe previous scientific theories and philosophical assertions (Bacon). Because. Francis Bacon , Human , Middle East 1295 Words | 6 Pages. Moral Issues in Business Chapter One The Nature of essays world cup 2010 Morality Terminology • What is ethics? • The study of right and wrong • . Distinguish between ethics and morality ? • Some people distinguish between the two. On Importance Of Indoor And Outdoor Games. We will use them interchangeably. On The World. • What is business ethics? • The study of what constitutes right and wrong, or good and bad, human conduct in a business context. Non-Moral Standards • Characteristics of moral standards • Concern behavior that is of serious consequence to human welfare • Take.
Business ethics , Ethics , God 525 Words | 2 Pages.
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Essay about 2010 world cup in south africa
Feelings and world cup 2010 Emotions: The Essay, Part One. Part One: A plumber’s version. So many time I have found it useful to have learned about emotions. I was not taught any of this when I was kid, and I went through so many experiences in life completely confused when it came to understanding, managing, and self essay 2 living with feelings. I was also at a complete disadvantage when someone would flash their knowledge of feelings. Like so many, I learned to be respectful when someone shifted, saying, “I think you are being unfair. On The Cup 2010! No, I feel you are being unfair.” When I entered graduate school in counseling, my advisor asked my what a “feeling” was.
Whatever I said to him I do not recall, but he told me that I needed to get into the counseling program quick, to fix my woeful ignorance. My Masters paper was written upon Anger: A Resource Paper for Teachers. I had come a long way in reliance 2, a year. World Cup 2010! That paper, like my early training in Counseling, was a major turning point in essay, my life. Essays On The World! It marked the path that lead to this set of Essays, which I think of as a plumber’s version of emotions – i.e. a description of emotions that even an uncomplicated guy could learn from. And so, if you are confused about the role of emotions in how do i write, your life, here we go with all the answers. Before I launch into the guts of the matter, let me settle an important point. Feelings are feelings and feelings are not thoughts. People use the essays on the world cup 2010 word “feeling” when they are speaking of thoughts often. Sample Outline For Master S Thesis! I think they learn this along the way, but also I think that many people are somewhat intimidated by the word “feeling” and thus people who use it are often treated as more believable.
Whatever, let me set the record straight right up front. As I move along, you may get the impression that feelings are a bit more real than thought. I believe that. Feelings are very real. They happen. They exist even when people say they are not there.
People can misunderstand feeling, mis-label them, but the underlying feelings are still present. Feelings are very objective. Researchers know what babies are feeling in essays world cup 2010, the womb. I can measure the contents of your blood stream and thus measure and describe some of your feelings. I can not do that about your thoughts. Thoughts or thought processes seem to sample s thesis be much more vague. On The! I can think one thing all morning and think the opposite all afternoon. I can fully believe that which I fully disbelieve in 10 minutes. I think of thoughts a little the essay and juliet way I think of data in a computer. Words, words, words.
But feelings seem very solid. I believe it is silly to on the world trust thoughts and be hesitant about feelings. Still that seems to be what our culture teaches. One thing I want to encourage you to do right now. Stop saying. “I feel that….” or “I feel like….” Those are some of the reliance more misleading statements in the English language. Use the word “feel” for a feeling and use the word “think” for a thought. “I feel that you are cheating me.” Is a nice sentence, but critically defective. The feeling is left out of it. The sentence should read “I feel angry when I think you are cheating me.” Now the “feeling” has been put back in. And notice that the feeling, that was left out, is pretty important. Learn to use “thought words” and separate them from “feeling words”. I have found this to significantly clear up a great amount of confusion.
Thought words: think, believe, recall, imagine, guess, have a hunch. Most thought words are followed by “that”. “I believe that you are….” I think that if you hear the word “feel” followed by “that”, we are not into talking about “feelings.” That counseling profession taught me that all psychology was based on this wheel. So here it is. Cup 2010! The sentence was taught me as, “Words and self reliance Symbols evoke Feelings, which evoke Thought Processes, which are full of Words and Symbols.” I think of words as symbols. They have spelling and use letters and when spoken, have sounds. Other symbols may not have letters, may have only essays on the world cup 2010, sounds, or just gestures. Objects can be a symbol. Studying General Semantics years ago, I learned that “words” do not have meaning. People have meaning and i write essay people use words to on the world cup 2010 try to business thesis communicate the meaning they have. A dictionary, I recall, was a history book of the meanings that people have used a word for.
I learned to never argue about the meaning of a word, but to ask the user what they meant by it. Essays Cup 2010! Who knows if they have the for master same meaning I have for a certain word? The same is true of all symbols. They mean different things to different people. There is no right meaning for a word or a symbol. I suggest you get used to this idea.
Still all these words or symbols evoke feelings. Yes, the feelings come first, before the thoughts. I guess this is on the pretty basic to the way our brains work – fast. If I show you a symbol of danger, your body starts to respond to that danger before the college essay good old cortex decides what to do. (See my Chapter on Safety, The Lizard.) Apparently you body does not wait to essays on the think. It moves.
My favorite word for this “evoking” is the self 2 word TRIGGER. I use it a lot. For me it means a #8220;little thing#8221; that kicks off something that may be a lot bigger. Also it suggests a connection but not a causal connection. I like that. A symbol may trigger an emotion one time and may not the next time. While I will define these words more fully later, here is my short description.
A feeling is an event in on the, a person’s body that can be strong or weak or in-between. I use the word Feeling and Emotion in the same way. I think we have enough trouble getting the idea without splitting hairs over the difference between them. Affect is 2 a word often used in the medical world to refer to signs of the feelings a person is experiencing. A nurse might make a note that a patient’s affect was agitated, which seems be the cup 2010 same as “the patient displayed behavior that indicates he feels agitated.” Most people won’t run into the word “affect.” Now, these events in the body have an and outdoor games effect on the brain. Often the event is essays chemical and the chemicals (hormones, etc.) cause all sorts of why boston, shifts in the brain.
Still the important idea is that the events, the feelings, trigger thought processes – chains of thoughts. Differing events trigger differing thought processes. When a person is essays angry, some parts of the cortex are shut down and others are awakened. When a person is scared, other parts are affected. I think it is fascinating to watch people when their emotions are strong and to witness how different are the memories available to them in one state of emotions from another. I think of thought processes as strings of symbols like sentences.
They start, have a middle and come to an end. Paragraphs are to me a little like a single thought process. If I am trying to topic make a point, I will start, say some more and then finally reach an end. I don’t think of thought processes as having any sort of reality to essays world cup 2010 them per se. I can think of a green elephant, but that doesn’t make a green elephant appear. I can think that you are a crook, but that doesn’t make you a crook. However, thought processes are full of symbols and words. That’s the way our cortexes work and outline store things. And those wonderful words and world cup 2010 symbols may trigger new emotions. And round we go, day in day out, all through our lives.
Fascinating and simple. My profession told me that all kinds of therapy work on one or more parts of this wheel. Giving people medicine attempts to interfere with the emotions that are triggered by essay of indoor and outdoor games, the words and essays cup 2010 symbols. Psycho Education or teaching, and that is what I am doing here, tries to change the thought processes that are kicked off by the emotions. Essay! It also attempts to change the words and symbols those thought processes contain.
Behavior Modification often seeks to change the link between a word or a symbol and the emotions that are evoked. Again, pretty simple, but fascinating. Simplest of essays world, all emotions: Attraction. This paper will lead you to some interesting places and so let me start with something fun. The simplest of all emotions is the master emotion of attraction.
There are lots of words for this emotion but what I want you to do is experience it, now. Think of the foods in your refrigerator and think of whether they “attract” you or “repel” you. Just observe yourself and this one dimension of attraction. Essays Cup 2010! Now think of attraction as a measurable scale. Absolute, powerful attraction, is a plus 10. “Who cares”, or a neutral feeling is essay a zero. Absolute and on the world cup 2010 powerful feelings of getting away from it are minus 10.
Try this on a menu in a restaurant. I bet you can “score” everything. Now look around and everything and everyone in your life. Essay On Importance And Outdoor! See the on the world cup 2010 scores! We often gather a lot of high plus score objects to us and put a lot of high negative things in the garbage. This is self 2 a feeling. Ask yourself, “Do feelings stay the same?” Nope. Is there any “right” or “wrong” about these scores? Nope.
Does anyone have the on the world same scores you have? Nope. Welcome to the world of feelings! They are part of process master thesis, you, unique to you, and cannot be wrong! They just are. And so here I go with the essays on the world cup 2010 best definition for master thesis, feelings or emotions that I can come up with.
After I give you this definition I will give three examples that illustrate all parts of the definition. On The! Then I will describe the four prime emotions. Remember that these are my definitions, not the “official” definitions. An emotion has five distinct qualities: facticity, amount, consciousness, label and business process modeling value. An emotion is an essays world cup 2010 event in your body.
It actually happens. It is measurable. A person does not even need to be conscious to have emotions. An emotion is how do i write a ged essay not a figment of the imagination. Since it is an on the event, an emotion exists in time. They start, and the end. It is essay and outdoor games possible to identify what babies feel even before they are born. (The primary emotion they feel is pleasure, by the way.) Most emotions are chemicals. All emotions act as if they were chemical.
The point here is that emotions do not click on and off. And emotion starts, grows bigger and bigger and then may decrease until finally it ends. Emotions always have an “amount” or intensity to them. The question is never are you angry or not angry – yes or no. The question is how angry are you. Essays World! How angry are you now? And now? As I mentioned in the simple emotion of attraction, I find it useful to put a number on the level of an emotion.
Zero means none. And Juliet! I think of five as maximum. World! And so to accurately speak of emotions one can say, “I was scared at a ged essay a 5 level for essays on the, a bit, but it decreased a while ago to about 3. On Importance And Outdoor Games! Now I am just a bit nervous, perhaps a 1.” A decrease in intensity is essays world often called a release or is spoke of as relief. Remember this for later. There is a component of awareness that comes with emotions. One can be completely unaware of an sample outline for master s thesis emotion ripping through the body.
Or one can be unaware until an emotion reaches a certain level of intensity. Or some even can bring an emotion to your awareness. Some people are almost completely unaware of their own emotions. Some are exquisitely sensitive. One confusion about emotions is the difference between the emotion as an event, and the emotion as an experience.
It is possible for world cup 2010, an emotion to begin at business process modeling one time and to start affecting your behavior while you are still not aware of it. At some point you become aware of the emotion and at that point your subjective awareness begins. That awareness may continue until the level of that emotion is quite a bit lower. Then the event may continue for a bit after you are no longer aware. If I ask you about your experience and I measure your emotional experience, reports may be quite different. There is a component of awareness that comes with emotions. One can be completely unaware of an emotion ripping through the body. Or one can be unaware until an emotion reaches a certain level of intensity. Or some even can bring an emotion to on the world cup 2010 your awareness.
Some people are almost completely unaware of s thesis, their own emotions. Some are exquisitely sensitive. One confusion about on the, emotions is the difference between the emotion as an event, and the emotion as an essay experience. It is possible for an emotion to on the begin at one time and to start affecting your behavior while you are still not aware of it. At some point you become aware of the emotion and at that point your subjective awareness begins. That awareness may continue until the level of that emotion is quite a bit lower. Then the event may continue for a bit after you are no longer aware. If I ask you about your experience and I measure your emotional experience, reports may be quite different.
Another very difficult problem is essay on importance games that I can be having an world emotion, I can be displaying signs of that emotion, others can observe these signs, and I can be completely unaware. Others may be much more aware of my feelings than I am. In many ways I am an open book about some of my emotions. On Importance And Outdoor Games! I can try to keep them hidden, but feelings can be hard to hide. When we speak about emotions, really we are reporting on essays cup 2010, them. We are labeling what we are feeling. And Outdoor Games! And we can mislabel feelings quite easily. Essays World Cup 2010! When my professor asked me to describe an emotion and when I could not, he handed me a large list of words people have used for emotions. I found this quite useful and include this list at on importance and outdoor the end of this chapter.
Finally, emotions have value in our culture. Some emotions are desirable at certain times and undesirable at others. Some emotions are considered “bad” emotions. For instance, I was taught that all emotions just “get in the way.” In contrast I have learned that life is essays greatly more enjoyable when I treasure the emotions that move in me and others. Essay! Before I go to work sharing my thoughts about the “big” emotions, I would like to give you some examples that I hope will illustrate all the parts of the definition. Essays On The Cup 2010! Many would not thing of hunger as an emotion, but I think it is an excellent starting place. Hunger is an event in essay, your body. It comes and goes. World Cup 2010! It gets stronger and weaker.
Its chemistry relates to sample outline for master s thesis blood sugar levels in essays on the, your body. Note how awareness is involved. Aren’t there times when you have worked for a while and then suddenly become aware of how hungry you are? Truly, you’ve been hungry for some time, but just haven’t noticed. “Wow! Am I famished!
I could eat a horse.” This is the i write a ged exclamation of a person who has been distracted from the on the slow growing feeling of hunger. Heck, I can remain hungry for some time during dinner. And I may still be eating while my hunger goes away. Most people do not have any trouble reporting on their hunger. But look at the issue of essay of indoor, social value. Ask yourself, what is the world value of being hungry one hour before dinner time? I’ve found it is a good time to not snack even though my stomach is growling. Then “dinner is served” and hunger is topic suddenly of high value. “Aren’t you hungry, dear? What’s the matter?” This is a similar emotion in that it happens, grows larger and world cup 2010 grows smaller (chemical).
The question is for romeo not “Are you thirsty?” but “How thirsty are you?” I think thirst has something to do with inter-cellular water levels (event). Again, a person can get thirsty without noticing it. Think of how taverns take advantage of awareness. They show customers pictures of water running, of salty products and on the world cup 2010 even put popcorn on the tables, all to bring you awareness of your levels of business process thesis, thirst. If you were only on the world, slightly thirsty when you arrived, the essay of indoor and outdoor games scene will raise the level of your thirst, but your awareness of on the world, it. Most people are clear about their reporting of thirst, and speak clearly. And again the social value of being thirsty is reliance pretty simple. In most situations I think being thirsty is socially acceptable. But do take notice that a person may say they are “thirsty for a cold beer,” when that is not exactly the emotion of thirst, but a matter of a desire for a particular taste or temperature.
The label “thirsty” is being used differently. Now let’s get into some fun. Alertness I think of as the feeling of being awake or sleepy. The more alert you are, the wider your eyes are and the more you tend to on the world cup 2010 want to move. The less alert you are, the more you yawn, look sleepy and tend to move less.
Alertness has to do with the reticular activating system in our brain. It happens. Business Modeling! (Event) The feeling of on the cup 2010, alertness goes up and for master down during the day and all night. It becomes more or less intense (chemical). Most adults have about a 90 minute cycle: alert at essays world some point and then much slower about 45 minutes later. Essay On Importance Games! Dreams take place in the alert part of our sleep periods. A person can be sleepy and yawning while they think they are wide awake. Here is an essays on the world cup 2010 emotion that is quite visible to i write a ged essay others, and yet may be out of our awareness. Here is a story I tell my clients. Imagine an 8-year old boy.
It is about 7:30 in the evening. He is essays world yawning. A parent says to him, “Are you sleepy?” The boy jerks, widens his eyes and says, :”Nope, definitely not!” Here is a report about an emotion that is obviously out of sync with the “actual” emotion. He is essay topic for romeo and juliet sleepy, but says he is not. People can lie about their emotions quite easily. What is on the cup 2010 going on here? Well, the essay of indoor and outdoor games boy is actually answering a different question that the one being asked. Essays On The World! He is answering the question, “Do you want to be sent to bed?” His answer is now obviously valid, where before it was confusing. How Do A Ged Essay! My point is that reports of essays on the world cup 2010, emotions can be and why boston are normally widely different from the emotion being felt or being observed.
And what of the social value of alertness? During a school class or at church yawning is frowned on. Essays On The World Cup 2010! On Christmas Eve being wide awake is a handicap. Not often thought of thesis, as an emotion, still it has all the characteristics. The need does happen in your body (event). It involves chemical changes in the tissues of and surrounding your bladder. It grows more and more intense over time.
One can need to pee for quite some time before one becomes aware of it. World Cup 2010! As an older man, I am quite aware of this phenomenon in self reliance 2, the early morning. Sometimes awareness can seem to increase the intensity. But now I want to introduce another point about on the world cup 2010, reporting. Master Thesis! Let’s say a friend is on the picking me up for a drive. He asks if I need to college use the bathroom. I say, “No.” He says that there will be not place to stop for about 2 hours, and now I change my report. I say, “Yes.” The report of an emotion can change based on a change in the situation while there is world no change in the subjective feeling. The social value of this “emotion” is also fascinating. I think of how one person saying, “I need to college visit the facilities,” can trigger many people getting up and essays on the world going there together.
And, I recall once in military boot camp a sailor who was not allowed to go to the “head” as a kind of training incident – he was shamed. Let us see where we have gotten so far. Emotions are not thoughts, beliefs or ideas Emotions are triggered within a person, never caused by the external world. Different emotions lead to different thoughts Emotions actually happen and have intensity that varies. A Ged Essay! Emotions and the reports of essays on the cup 2010, them can be quite different. Emotions occur whether we are aware of them or not.
Other people can sometimes see our emotions, which we unaware of. Society has all sorts of rules around emotions. My boundary rules: All emotions are valid. and No one can make you feel anything. Feelings and Emotions: The Essay, Part One #8212; 9 Comments. Curious in reference to emotions vs thoughts in the context that all emotions are not only reflective of past experiences (memories) but also the present state of mind also encompassing any current environmental factors.These must be considered relevant in relation to an action occurring. As we react to a situation, symbols verbal and visual are we not relying on the core basic thought pattern that is most paramount for how do i write a ged essay, all species Survival ? Therefore I wonder if the topic regarding the chicken and the egg need to be discussed. I wish to essays on the world cup 2010 say this is the first article of outline, yours I have read and intend to follow up with additional research of your past articles.
Thank you for the insight.. Enjoy the Day with PMA. I refer to your essay about Emotion vs Thoughts. I love your writing style! You make it so easy for a new comer to essays on the world cup 2010 grasp the concept in the most simple way.
I would like to read more of your essays…where can i look them up?
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essay augustus show An Online Encyclopedia of Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to essays on the world cup 2010, address the underlying ills of the Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of essay, his political opponents. Essays World Cup 2010? During these years, and following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and essay for romeo the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to crown him king. Essays On The? Nevertheless, his broad disregard for essay for romeo, tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in essays on the world all but name.
To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the calendar), but he made no serious effort to business thesis, systematize his position or tackle the on the world, issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in the first place. In fact, in sample for master s thesis the last months of his life he was planning to essays, leave Rome for several years to essay topic and juliet, campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. On The World? Julius Caesar, dictator for sample outline for master, life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of essays world cup 2010, a statue of his great rival, Pompey. The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and college brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [] . The Liberators, who were led by L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the essays cup 2010, reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for i write essay, their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of essays on the cup 2010, Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for Caesar's power).
It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of thesis, emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city. Power seemed firmly in the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in world particular, in those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of a political bombshell that was to business process, shake this situation to its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is on the cup 2010, clearly more informed by reliance later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC). There is no evidence that the essays world, two actually met before Octavius was in his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events.
In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in this period, Octavius was also adlected into essay of indoor and outdoor the patrician order. He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to fight the Pompeians at Munda (45 BC). He earned the admiration of the dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC. Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in on the world Apollonia in essay for romeo Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign.
His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to essays on the world, Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of how do a ged essay, Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in essays world cup 2010 order to secure his personal safety. For Romeo And Juliet? In a tremendous act of essays on the cup 2010, daring, he instead made directly for self reliance essay 2, Brundisium and the large concentration of essays world, troops there. [] Entrance into Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [] Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and inquire as to essay and juliet, his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators.
Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of essays on the world cup 2010, Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and sample tensions with Antony rose. [] Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to a head, both between the essays world cup 2010, Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the province of s thesis, Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul.
Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of on the cup 2010, 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. Reliance Essay 2? [] Against this backdrop of looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to essays on the, deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against essay for romeo and juliet, him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.
Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the on the, power of the name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to business process thesis, Octavian. Fearing the on the cup 2010, worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to college, attack Decimus Brutus in on the cup 2010 Cisalpine Gaul. [] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul. Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the sample s thesis, armed parties were mutually antagonistic.
The senate, led by Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [] Cicero and Antony were now on on the world cup 2010, opposing sides, following an acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in sample outline September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to Octavian's benefit and began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into the region and moved against Antony. [] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and fled over the Alps to his political allies in Transalpine Gaul.
Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to on the cup 2010, him, and palmed Octavian off with an topic and juliet ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Smarting at such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph.
Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. On The Cup 2010? [] In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to and outdoor, replace the deceased consuls of cup 2010, 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day. Despite his control of essay, Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Essays On The World Cup 2010? Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. []
These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of essay topic for romeo, his tender years, he lacked the nexus of influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in his career: his name, Caesar, and promises of bounty to essays world cup 2010, the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and decisiveness when he had to. Business Modeling Thesis? In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start. Their first act was the world cup 2010, implementation of proscriptions, unused since the horrible days of Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the i write, proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in essays on the the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to essay, root out all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy.
Our sources preserve, in essays on the excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance. The apparent financial reason for the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Why Boston? Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [] Next, the essays on the world cup 2010, Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in self essay 42 BC, in which a pro-senate governor was ousted by on the world Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on self essay 2, Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year.
The campaign took place in the Balkans and essays on the world culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in October at on importance of indoor, Philippi in Macedonia. The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and essays on the all of those implicated in the murder of Caesar who fell into s thesis his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the East but retained Transalpine and Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to essays on the cup 2010, Italy, and a new polarization of the Roman world began to manifest itself. [] In the West, Octavian faced an college immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in essays on the world cup 2010 Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to self reliance, Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the future loyalty of his armies.
The procedure entailed the on the, forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in topic for romeo and juliet the towns and regions selected for settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the dispossessed were not compensated for their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. Essays On The Cup 2010? [] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and led to the so-called Perusine War. One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Essay Topic For Romeo? Antonius, brother of Mark Antony.
Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to on the world cup 2010, Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation. By late in 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and essay Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by Octavian, though the councilors and on the cup 2010 people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder.
He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the i write a ged essay, Antonian governor had died. [] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at essays on the cup 2010, war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium.
By means of this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East. Essay 2? Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Essays On The? Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and on importance of indoor conveniently, died in Greece in the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in the West. Sextus, the youngest son of Pompey, is essays on the world cup 2010, one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution.
Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to essay and juliet, the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the essays world cup 2010, triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of republican sentiment. For Master? He beat off attempts by Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the essays world, Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs. Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. Essay Topic? At a meeting off the coast at on the cup 2010, Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC.
This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Sextus appeared well entrenched in essay on importance games triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. On The? [] The Treaty of Misenum was to and juliet, have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to Cleopatra and indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and essays cup 2010 worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an 2 obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC. Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. He now appealed to Antony for help. Essays World Cup 2010? The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC.
Aside from Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the s thesis, meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of on the cup 2010, 37 BC. Essay Of Indoor Games? Now their power was renewed. [] Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to essays, defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south.
Another of Octavian's generals was to converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at for master, the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on essays cup 2010, 3 September, 36 BC. Essay Of Indoor And Outdoor Games? Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward. Essays World? Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in for romeo Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Cup 2010? Fate allowed him to how do essay, neutralize the other. Essays World Cup 2010? Lepidus, so long in the shadows, now decided to make a play for power.
Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in essay topic for romeo and juliet Sicily, he defied Octavian and made demands that he quit the island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. On The Cup 2010? At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of i write essay, his powers and on the world cup 2010 confined him to house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the college essay, Roman West.
In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC. In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and on the world difficult contests with the essay, Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. Essays World? This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against the tribes of Illyricum. But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Essay On Importance Of Indoor? Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.
In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to become Queen of on the cup 2010, Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at i write a ged, his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to on the world, war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.
This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to outline for master s thesis, quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and essays on the world cup 2010 denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators. News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra.
It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. Essay For Romeo And Juliet? As preparations for war geared up in the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in on the cup 2010 his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra.
It was not a legal position, but it was an process unassailable one. [] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans. Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the end, however, the cup 2010, war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. Essay Topic For Romeo And Juliet? The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to world, get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. How Do I Write A Ged? In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the battle prematurely. The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse.
Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [] The victory of Octavian was complete. Essays On The World? Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Antony's forces and former supporters defected in droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the of indoor, very eyes of on the world cup 2010, their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC).
Antony and Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into the realm of a ged, romantic legend. Octavian had Caesarion and essays on the world cup 2010 Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and he annexed Egypt as a province of Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the business process modeling thesis, entire Roman world. Essays? If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to secure the future, for himself and for Rome. [] From Octavian to Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to self reliance essay, be done. After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from on the Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. Business Process? For the essays on the world cup 2010, most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected.
Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of why boston, Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt). Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by essays on the cup 2010 Augustus as universal consent. The roots of master thesis, this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in essays on the cup 2010 principle, if not in practice, to essay topic and juliet, embrace the entire empire and all its armies.
Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for world cup 2010, a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of essay on importance of indoor, tradition. [] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to find a firm place simultaneously within and above established norms. His position at the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order. Memories of Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to appease the sensibilities of the elite.
In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. These two issues, in fact, were at world, the heart of the First Settlement, staged in essay topic and juliet the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. [] On that day, Octavian entered the senate and, to cup 2010, the shock of those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the topic, state. After a show of reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for essays, imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic. This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance.
C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for essay games, saving the lives of on the world cup 2010, citizens; the Shield of self reliance 2, Virtues erected in his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in the state and world craft the process master thesis, beginnings of an Augustan ideology. Essays World? By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [] In the thesis, summer following the on the, settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out of the public eye while the new arrangements took root.
While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the Second Constitutional Settlement was staged. At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and Varro Murena, were executed. Self Essay? In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the essays world, Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the events unrelated?
In the i write a ged essay, end, the essays world cup 2010, conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the modeling thesis, settlement seems the essays world cup 2010, stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. Why Boston Essay? The outline of the Second Settlement itself is essays on the, clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Business Modeling? Augustus relinquished the essays on the world cup 2010, consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and outline for master was only to take it up on two further occasions in world the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for why boston college essay, five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of world, any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. I Write Essay? Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of this province. On The Cup 2010? The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the on importance of indoor and outdoor, imperium aequum ). Whatever the essays on the cup 2010, legal details, by virtue of this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire. Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of Rome (the pomerium ), probably for process, purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the essays on the world cup 2010, city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and modeling master thesis its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding).
These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the essays on the cup 2010, people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. These two powers were long to a ged essay, remain the twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for on the world cup 2010, the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to topic for romeo and juliet, refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to cup 2010, have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before. Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. Essay For Romeo? In 23 BC, for on the cup 2010, instance, he was given the right to convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). A Ged? In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in on the world 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in complete control of everything.
In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into English with a single word, was a combination of authority and on importance and outdoor influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and world achievements. It was, most importantly, an sample s thesis informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by the senate or the people. On The? In this way, the why boston college, extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in auctoritas . [] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at world, heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Above all, there was political genius in why boston college essay Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of world, overarching authority in every area of public life. At every step of the essay topic, way--from the oath of essays cup 2010, 32 BC through the constitutional settlements and the honors and modeling master privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the on the, passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him.
He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and on importance of indoor and outdoor occasionally he refused them outright. Essays Cup 2010? In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Self Essay 2? Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the point: there was the illusion of choice. That is what mattered.
The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and most skillfully manipulative politicians of any nation in any age. The Nature of the Principate and The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on on the cup 2010, the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. The first sure sign of favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of sample for master, 29 BC. In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on essays, Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of i write essay, sitting as an ex-praetor in on the the senate and of standing for self reliance essay 2, the consulship ten years in essays on the cup 2010 advance of the legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise.
Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an sample outline for master s thesis account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Calpurnius Piso, and essays his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top. Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. Why Boston Essay? He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. []
The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of on the world, Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in how do a ged conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for office early) to indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the cup 2010, same right granted to why boston college essay, Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by essays cup 2010 a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to process master, Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). On The World? Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the business modeling, sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of world cup 2010, his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit.
Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and essay on importance and outdoor subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of world cup 2010, whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor. Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Essay? Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is world, reported to why boston essay, have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Julia was married to Agrippa in that year.
Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. On The World Cup 2010? Aside from his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of business process modeling master thesis, government. Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the essays on the world cup 2010, situation in business modeling thesis these years has been complicated by Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and on the cup 2010 they became Gaius and Lucius Caesar. A further complication is added when the essay and juliet, ongoing careers of essays on the world, Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for why boston college essay, the third generation of the Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to cup 2010, succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events).
Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. 2? Notions of Regency (Agrippa over Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in essays action again in process 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year. Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and essays the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. 2? But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.
In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and essays world both young men died, Lucius in AD 2 and Gaius two years after that. In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and adopted by Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is games, probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and essays cup 2010 see here an outline attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of his adoption by on the world cup 2010 Tiberius , was clearly the business process master thesis, frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. []
The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in essays world cup 2010 its train some domestic tragedies. Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of this group of events. Julia's marriage to Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. How Do I Write A Ged? She never returned to Rome. The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and essays world cup 2010 allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of self essay, her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty.
That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in essays on the political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of modeling master, one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. Essays On The World? However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [] In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for college essay, Augustus, and his solutions only perpetuated it for all future emperors.
Despite the essays cup 2010, internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the purview of process thesis, this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the essays cup 2010, presentation to the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and why boston college children included--as a corporate entity. On The? The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is process modeling master thesis, palpable. The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army.
Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to essays on the world, be lost in Germany in AD 9), made up of sample outline for master s thesis, volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for on the, a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of how do i write, cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by cup 2010 a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). How Do I Write? For the essays on the cup 2010, first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune). Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of service similar to those for the legionaries. And Outdoor? Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. [] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to essays on the, Augustus was assured by modeling master their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and guarantor of essays on the, their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron. The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of outline s thesis, Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. He also kept the army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the on the world, Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers.
Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in Gaul or in on importance and outdoor the East, the army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in 20 BC or the meeting of C. Essays? Caesar and the Parthians on i write essay, an island in the Euphrates in AD 2) or as a garrison over essays on the world cup 2010 local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to business process, station the legions along the frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in essays cup 2010 the vicinity of the frontiers. Process Modeling Master? Although Augustus appears to cup 2010, some scholars to have been aiming at establishing scientific frontiers along the business modeling thesis, Rhine/Elbe and on the world cup 2010 Danube lines, the whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear. For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the essay on importance and outdoor games, Romans' cartographic capabilities and on the world cup 2010 their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and sample for master local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. Essays World? [] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in why boston essay its infancy. At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the on the cup 2010, Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on modeling, three prior occasions in all of Roman history.
Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of military glory, it had the potential to confuse the essays on the, soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. Reliance Essay? (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. Essays Cup 2010? C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on sample outline s thesis, its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. He then celebrated his successes with statues of himself and bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and his property given to Augustus. His social status and essays world political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in 26 BC).
Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for essay games, so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and essays world cup 2010 triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the army's conquests were formed into for romeo new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae). In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in essays on the world very complex arrangements, as with the essay of indoor, Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor.
From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into essays on the world cup 2010 those that fell into the vast provincia of Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by self the senate and essays on the people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to reliance 2, Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the imperial territories outnumber the public ones by a factor of on the, almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in self reliance essay 2 service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the internal operation of this, a public province. Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into question any notions of joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [] Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in on the cup 2010 imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. The men varied in essay topic for romeo rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in essays world cup 2010 public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and outline s thesis some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor.
Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to a single source of essays on the world cup 2010, authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. Essay On Importance Of Indoor And Outdoor Games? This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of on the, Gallus and Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound. We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on a par with the process master, rapacious activities of the likes of Caesar or Sulla under the Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in world cup 2010 the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of peace and on importance of indoor games prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is essays on the cup 2010, known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the Pax Augusta . [] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Games? Thus, for essays, instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the essay topic for romeo and juliet, elite.
He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. On The World? Minimum property qualifications for membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of on importance of indoor games, this sort of legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of world, slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in outline for master proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is on the world cup 2010, a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and why boston essay generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of being upgraded to full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of on the world cup 2010, achieving worthiness was to have children. Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of sample, his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of all sorts), but the thrust of his social legislation was less to essays cup 2010, regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of s thesis, dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the on the cup 2010, state and hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [] Finally, there is the sample for master s thesis, issue of the worship of Augustus. Essays On The World Cup 2010? The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean. In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium.
Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of sample s thesis, Rome. He probably had an eye on Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in on the world the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. A Ged? In any case, he was already the essays on the cup 2010, son of a god and the revered one (Augustus). Sample For Master? A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and out in essays world cup 2010 the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in i write essay Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at essays on the world, each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and essay on importance games temples to Rome and Augustus and to Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the assimilation of local populations into on the a Roman way of life. [] The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the era of some of sample s thesis, Rome's most famous and cup 2010 influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in sample for master poetry, and Livy in prose.
Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to essays on the world, replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by essay and juliet heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC. Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the world, careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the business process master, degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for the Augustan regime. When all the on the, evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the essay, model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to on the, express the correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and i write a ged stability to public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to on the world, the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian.
The point is why boston college essay, that both authors flourished under the regime. [] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the Temple of Rome and Augustus at Ancyra in essays on the world cup 2010 Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the essay, Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the cup 2010, entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. Outline For Master S Thesis? The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. On The Cup 2010? [] In looking back on 2, the reign of Augustus and essays on the cup 2010 its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in essay topic for romeo and juliet its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the essays on the world cup 2010, Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for sample for master, instance), matters may have turned out very differently. Essays On The World Cup 2010? The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to essay, put an world cup 2010 end to modeling master, the chaos of the essays on the cup 2010, Late Republic and re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the sample for master, frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense.
Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56. Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and Masters in on the the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970). Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997).
Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987). Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. Topic For Romeo And Juliet? The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992).
Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and cup 2010 Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of self essay 2, Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314. Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. Essays On The World Cup 2010? Juni-14. S Thesis? August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998).
Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Essays World? Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59. Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97. ________. Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38.
Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and essay on importance and outdoor Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the on the world cup 2010, Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66.
________. Triumvirate and Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. The Emperor in i write essay the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and essays world E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984).
Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and sample for master s thesis Early Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 334-63. Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and essays world Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and essay on importance of indoor and outdoor L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and world Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990). Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984).
Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in of indoor J.D. Creighton and R.J.A. Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in essays world cup 2010 Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. Self 2? History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________.
The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986). Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'?
Augustan Literary Patronage, in Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of essays on the world, Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [] The chief ancient sources for the life of Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the college essay, Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the on the world cup 2010, edition by P.A. Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Fragments of the biography of sample, Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. ca.
20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is on the world, widely accepted as preserving elements of Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to s thesis, 25 BC; Suet. Aug . Essays? 1-18 appears also to topic for romeo, be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M. Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to essays on the cup 2010, him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). Modeling? The number of modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in essays on the Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of essay on importance, conciseness, the notes emphasize the essays on the, ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Essay Topic For Romeo? Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in essays cup 2010 the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom.
Rev . [] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the topic for romeo and juliet, Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd. The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of a pro-Caesar claque in essays on the world their midst. Process Master Thesis? Only when Caesar refused the crown did the essays world, crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Process Master Thesis? Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62.
Suet. On The World? Caes . Essay For Romeo? 79.2 only alludes to cup 2010, the incident. [] Ancient accounts of process master, Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to on the world, weed out. Sample? He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. Essays On The World? See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Essay? Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . Essays World? 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for that, but provide little information on essay topic for romeo and juliet, his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Octavius, became C. Essays World Cup 2010? Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in modern sources) in master thesis 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in on the world cup 2010 27 BC.
Following standard practice, I shall refer to i write, him by his appropriate name in each period. [] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. B. Civ . 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in essays world early April or late March: Cicero, in sample for master s thesis a letter from Astura dated 11 April, inquired of Atticus how it went ( Att . 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by the elite; see Cic. Essays On The Cup 2010? Fam . 10.24.5. [] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App.
B. Civ . 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of his career ( RG 1.1) is restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Why Boston College? Junius Brutus also refers to world cup 2010, Octavian as Octavius (Cic.
Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . Essay For Romeo? 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364). A few days later, on essays world, 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366). [] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [] Appian ( B. Civ . Modeling? 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into essays world cup 2010 both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the how do i write, details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful.
[] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and essays on the world preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [] See App. B. Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [] All of this took place in October and for master November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . 12.23.2). See also App. B. Civ . 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about Octavian's nature and intentions; see Att . Cup 2010? 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC).
Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the modeling thesis, Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [] Cicero's speeches against essays, Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic. Essay On Importance? Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from world cup 2010 C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. For Master S Thesis? Cicero's quip, reported back to essays on the world cup 2010, him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . 11.20.1) was that the self reliance, youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy).
[] App. B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in on the the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . On Importance Of Indoor Games? 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [] Overtures to on the cup 2010, Antony: App.
B. Civ . 3.80-81. How Do A Ged Essay? Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Essays On The Cup 2010? Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Essay Of Indoor Games? Passage of the on the cup 2010, lex Titia : App. B. Essay And Juliet? Civ . 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the triumvirate is unequivocally established by the Fasti Colotiani . On The? On the legalities of the reliance essay, Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13. Death of Cicero: App. B. Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic.
46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by cup 2010 his compliance in Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the essay, book of Cicero he was reading. Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in blaming the proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. Essays On The Cup 2010? (Perhaps the how do, later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the dead is given by essays on the Appian ( B. Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in arguing forcefully that the college, proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [] Africa: App. Essays On The? B. Of Indoor And Outdoor? Civ . 4.53-56.
Campaign of on the, Philippi: App. B. Essay? Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [] On the depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and essays cup 2010 impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Outline S Thesis? Civ . World Cup 2010? 4.3 (Appian says the towns were remarkable for on importance, their wealth and fine lands and on the houses).
It should be noted that where the sample outline, territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for world, the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. How Do? Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of councilors: App.
B. On The? Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3. For Romeo? Acquisition of Gaul: App. B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [] Threatened war and Pact of Brundisium: App. Essays Cup 2010? B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic. Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App.
B. Civ . 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . Essay? 5.67-74 (Appian places the cup 2010, meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by essay topic and juliet Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over world the sea close to essay, the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind. A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Essays? Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached.
On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . Self Essay 2? In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. World? B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status.
See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of for romeo, its power; see below, n. 29. On the growth of Octavian's party at essays, this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App. B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for essay on importance of indoor and outdoor, service.
Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the on the, rest bounties after campaigns in Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [] One of the how do, honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . Essays? 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in essay on importance of indoor 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Refusal of the pontificate: App. B. Civ . 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. World? Burning of the on importance, records: App. B. Civ . 3.132.
[] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App. Ill . 12-28. Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of it no doubt drawn from essays cup 2010 pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut. Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and of indoor games munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell.
Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the essays on the cup 2010, importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy.
So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed. No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for essay, 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to essays on the, point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the essay and juliet, triumviral powers is unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position.
On ritual, ceremony, and on the appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. 16-24; R. Thesis? Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998). The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Essays World Cup 2010? Ant . 58.3-4.
Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is self essay 2, unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). World? Syme ( Rom. Rev ., 284) was convinced the oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in essay on importance games a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Essays World Cup 2010? Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and essay Augustus . [] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut.
Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185). Cleopatra, according to on the, Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the essay and outdoor, breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of cup 2010, Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. On Importance Of Indoor And Outdoor? 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet.
Aug . 19.1. [] Settling affairs in essays on the cup 2010 the East: Dio 51.18. Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of why boston essay, Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8. Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. By universal consent I was in on the world complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in why boston college essay progress in diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of essays on the, Octavian as the bringer of peace. Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in process master thesis the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to his position and acted accordingly.
That attitude, in fact, had marked his behavior from the essays, very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Aug . 25.4). These are the mottoes of a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and and outdoor games the Principate . Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. Essays On The Cup 2010? As consul in 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the why boston college, illegal acts of the essays world, triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2).
A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and 27 BC as part of a single process of transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and outline the Roman Provinces. Debate over legal status of Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for on the cup 2010, ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . Reliance 2? 313-30.
[] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor. On The World? Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by i write a ged Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.
[] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Aug . 52. Essays On The World? Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. I Write A Ged Essay? Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . Essays On The? 27.5.
Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3. Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing.
Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [] Continuity of essay for romeo and juliet, Principate: Suet. Aug . On The World Cup 2010? 28.1-2. [] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to essay for romeo and juliet, Clodia, stepdaughter of world, Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and self essay 2 then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at on the world cup 2010, triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1.
Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet. Aug . 28.1. Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in master thesis Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and death by on the world cup 2010 illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Why Boston College? Marcellus was not adopted by Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [] Octavius in Caesar's triumph: see n. Essays World? 5. Octavius granted right of standing early: App. B. Modeling Master? Civ . 3.51. [] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3.
Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. Agrippa. Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [] Coins: RIC nos.
407, 408, 414. Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac. Ann . Essays On The? 1.3. Business Modeling Thesis? Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the on the, regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an emperor? The paired accession idea is how do i write a ged essay, no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the essays world cup 2010, second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful.
That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and Julia: Dio 54.31.2. For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Sample S Thesis? Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of world, a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [] Fall of Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . Outline For Master S Thesis? 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Pat. Essays World Cup 2010? 2.100.2-5.
For the i write a ged, political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and essays world Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus. Sample For Master? Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Essays On The Cup 2010? Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16.
On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. Reliance? 65-89. [] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the on the world, Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and cartography).
On the reactive nature of ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. Reliance? For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to A. Cornelius Cossus in the late fifth century BC and essays world cup 2010 M. Claudius Marcellus in 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1. The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. College Essay? Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of on the world, a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in business modeling master pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in world cup 2010 which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and how do essay captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an on the world cup 2010 army beyond the topic for romeo, cataphract of the Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to essays on the, the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of a ged essay, both incidents is provided by Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and on the world Drusus on the Rhine and self Danube in 12 and on the world cup 2010 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28.
On the consilium , instituted between 27 and 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp. Sample Outline For Master? Part Three: Functions. World? On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Newly-created positions: Suet.
Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of sample outline for master s thesis, his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. Essays World Cup 2010? The disposition of the process modeling master, empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions.
Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. World? (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. For Romeo? Aug. World Cup 2010? (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat.
Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the why boston college, Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat. Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and essays on the world Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. Reliance 2? (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 2.
Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. Cup 2010? (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [] For a concise overview of Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of games, Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on on the world cup 2010, the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves. Business Master Thesis? Sulla in the East: Plut.
Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and Gaul: Plut. On The? Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of essay and outdoor, Images . [] There remains to cup 2010, be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52). On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. S Thesis? A good example of his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by essays social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95.
Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [] On the imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . On Importance And Outdoor Games? 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.
[] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to on the, munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4.
A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in process modeling master Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44. On the essays world, much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the reliance, period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [] On the world, literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the for master, Cambridge History of world cup 2010, Classical Literature , vol. 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, ); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.
On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the topic, individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . Essays? 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for praising Brutus and Cassius in his history).
[] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Topic For Romeo? Tiberius's position: Suet. Tib . 21.1; Vell. On The World? Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4.
[] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . 101.4. ). Outline For Master? For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Cup 2010? Fagan. This file may be copied on modeling master, the condition that the entire contents, including the header and this copyright notice, remain intact. Updated: 5 July 2004. For more detailed geographical information, please use the DIR / ORB Antique and Medieval Atlas below.
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