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Bootstrapped SecUR Credentials answers the papers, question: is this resume falsified. Mumbai-based SecUR Credentials is a risk management firm that helps verify employee backgrounds. Founded last year, the business plan writers miami, firm claims revenue of Rs 10 crore during FY 2016-17. Every founder, no matter what stage his or her company is at, finds hiring a challenge. Usfs Papers. Looking at profiles, checking backgrounds, talking to friends, families and references #x2014; the entire hiring process is superman hero tedious. But even after several checks and usfs papers, balances there aren#x2019;t any guarantees whether the candidate is the right fit. Keen to fill this gap, Rahul Belwalkar, who has 20 years of experience across corporates, started SecUR Credentials in Mumbai in philo, August last year.

Currently bootstrapped, SecUR is an employee background check firm that helps companies mitigate the risk of bad hires. The core team at SecUR Credentials. The core team at SecUR has a background of risk management experience across industries and processes. #x201C;Whenever we discussed risk management practices (beyond the financial and information security risk most organisations tend to cover), we realised that HR is usfs research both #x2013; one of the greatest assets for an organisation as well as one of the biggest (and most under-estimated) windows of risk. Any employee, who is not really what she/he appears to be on paper, is a huge internal threat to the organisation. This realisation is what inspired us to set up a venture focused on filtering out this risk.#x201D; Clear that they wanted to set up a technology-enabled platform, the philo, team invested in a JAVA-based platform, SYMPHONY, for all processes. It enables the team to ensure that every transaction or process interaction is captured digitally from the word go. Usfs Papers. Not only does this capture each step in the process and track data, it helps the team analyse all data to teenage pregnancy argumentative essay build their IP. #x201C;We are now taking the next step of making SYMPHONY mobile-enabled, so our teams are able to function effectively, no matter their physical location,#x201D; Rahul adds. Building the team to work around challenges. Usfs Research Papers. Rahul roped in a team with experience in risk management.

Nipa Modi, with 20 years of multi-geography experience in business leadership roles, joined as director; Richard D#x2019;Souza came in with two decades of operations experience; and Col John Chenetra, came in from an army background and with IT experience. During the course of their research SecUR found that there were several challenges that the essay websites, employee screening industry faces #x2014; from a set-up and a scale-up perspective. Rahul explains that over the past decade the research, industry has adopted manual and people-intensive processes to screen employees. #x201C;This is because of the lack of superman essay, digital data in terms of usfs research papers, education records or even criminal history,#x201D; Rahul says. But with the Aadhaar programme, more data will be available online, which also means that the delivery processes need to 54th be re-aligned to suit this shift. Currently, SecUR takes a feet-on-the-street plus tech-driven analysis approach. The organisation has over 500 people and is present across 15 cities. Usfs Research. SecUR, with a mix of technology and miami, the core team#x2019;s experience in risk management, promises to help clients assess whether whoever they are hiring is a safe recruit. The team claims to have over 125 field investigators operating 24/7 across the country. SecUR ensures that the background and reference checks not only run through private entities, but also authenticates the same across government organisations and papers, other institutions where databases are created.

#x201C;The arrival of a completely new set of employers, such as cab aggregators and e-commerce, meant that we had to mill re-interpret the research papers, people challenge in the context of the kind of hiring they do.#xA0; So, in terms of scaling up, the plan writers miami, other redrawing that will need to be done by us will be to build customised product offerings for different industries, based on their specific risk outlook,#x201D; Rahul says. Some of SecUR#x2019;s key clients include Aditya Birla Group, TCS, Directi, Go Air, UltraTech, Honda and Intelenet. The team claims to have made revenue of usfs research, Rs 10 crore during FY 2016-17. As Rahul says, roles and jobs are fast changing with the growing number of teenage argumentative thesis, tech companies. #xA0;With a growing number of complaints against drivers, delivery boys, and even people faking their CVs, startups are looking at this as a big problem to solve. Some of the other players in papers, the field include Better Place, InstaVeritas and hero, Idfy. Usfs Research. Even Locus, the logistics platform that raised funding from Blume Venture Partners, had started with safety tracking. Speaking of their future plans, Rahul says: #x201C;The. #x201C;The digitisation wave that has swept through the country, especially after the recent impetus on superman the use of Aadhaar, will transform the way employee screening is done in the country. We will need to adapt to research papers this in the kind of products we design and the way these products are delivered.

Also, this generation of employees and HR teams uses technology on their mobiles; we will need to build our technology platform and delivery around mobile technology.#x201D; Calling all Bengaluru startups! If you're a startup founder, Head of Finance or a CFO at a startup or a small/medium-sized business, sign up for the Taxmantra GST Workshop on essay mill Saturday, 17 June. Get your tickets now! Limited seats available! Why a princess from Sharjah decided to invest in Mumbai-based Wegan Foods. Usfs Research Papers. With ‘Taskers’, Delhi-based Meratask gets your couriers delivered in a day.

The Synup story: from cash-flow trouble to raising $6M to fund expansion. Ikat or Kalamkari? Fabriclore weaves a success story by bringing e-commerce to handloom. 1988 Dbq Atomic. With $3.3M in funding, Boostinsider bets on Social Book for YouTube influencer insights. Lavelle Networks’ tech makes enterprise communication faster and cheaper. Sindhu believes that everyone has a story to tell, all you have to do is listen. She likes learning new things and believes that there can never be an research, end to learning.

You can reach Sindhu at business plan writers miami © 2017 YourStory Media Private Limited. All rights reserved.

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How to usfs, pass graduate aptitude tests. Aptitude tests are structured systematic ways of evaluating how people perform on pregnancy essay thesis, tasks or react to different situations. They have standardised methods of usfs research administration and scoring with the results quantified and hero essay compared with how others have done at the same tests. They are increasingly administered on a computer. University of Kent Careers has established a partnership with Graduates First for practice aptitude tests. Register using your Kent email address at to take the following free tests: 3 verbal reasoning tests 3 numerical reasoning tests 3 logical reasoning tests. A work style personality questionnaire Situational judgement test Assessment centre exercises. There are the following timed, free practice aptitude tests on this web site including answers and usfs papers working out: Numerical Reasoning Numerical Reasoning: Graphs and Tables Letter Sequences (logical reasoning) Non-Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning (synonyms and antonyms) Verbal Logic Test Computer Aptitude Test Vocabulary Test Homonyms Test Spelling and punctuation test for applications not strictly a psychometric test, but will help with verbal skills.

Lateral (Creative) Thinking Quiz Second Lateral Thinking Test Riddles: another way of Lateral Thinking Harder riddles Lateral Logical Mathematical Test Teamwork Styles Leadership Styles What are your strengths? Careers Explorer not strictly a test, but a quick and easy to pregnancy, use program to help you choose a career. Many people have a fear of tests, but these are usually only research part of the overall assessment procedure. Employers will use them alongside interviews, application forms, references, academic results and other selection methods, so test results won't usually be the professional writers miami only information looked at. No test is perfect , and usfs some candidates such as those with disabilities, may be at a disadvantage when taking this type of 54th thesis test . If you have a disability contact the test administrator in advance as they may be able to usfs research, make allowances. Last fully updated 2017. APTITUDE, ABILITY AND INTELLIGENCE TESTS. Population studies show strong links between intelligence and dbq atomic essay mental and physical health. Lower scores on intelligence tests correlate with higher risk of usfs research papers developing personality disorders, depression, heart disease and argumentative other illnesses. Administered under timed examination conditions.

These assess logical reasoning and increase in difficulty during the usfs papers test. You have to solve problems or do tasks. They commonly take the form of multiple choice with right and wrong answers e.g. 54th Regiment Thesis! numerical and verbal reasoning tests. Usfs! You are not expected to teenage pregnancy argumentative thesis, finish the tests . Your score relates your performance to a 'normed' group. So, your aptitude, ability or intelligence has a relative value to it. This is important to an employer who may want to usfs, know how well you can do something in relation to other applicants, the general population or people already doing the job.

Your score can be used in different ways. There may be a pass mark or the massachusetts employer may have planned to interview a certain number of usfs papers candidates and provided your score puts you in this group you will continue on to the next stage of selection. Alternatively, your score could simply be a further measure considered by an employer alongside a variety of other measures, such as interviews. The Flynn effect refers to the widespread increase in IQ scores over time. Mill! Some measures of intelligence such as performance on usfs papers, Raven’s Progressive Matrices have been increasing for one hundred years. Scores have increased the most on fluid intelligence: the ability to dissertation philo, solve abstract problems, whereas verbal intelligence has remained static. The rise is mainly on content that is not easily learned.

Explanations have included better diet, smaller families, better education, greater environmental complexity and stimulation from computers and other media, and improvement in test-taking skills. I took three intelligence tests in one week and my IQ went up 10 points by the third test. You can learn to do better on these tests and you can do it very quickly. Tips and comments from Kent students. Bring a calculator for the numerical test in case one isn't provided or has an unfamiliar layout. Verbal test was agree/disagree/cannot say questions. Usfs Papers! Read the passage slowly and carefully and the answer should be pretty obvious. Don't rush it as some companies negative mark on them , it's probably better to not finish but get all the ones you attempt correct than finish it all but get half wrong.

The numerical was the usual extract data from graphs, pie charts. It gets more complex as you go along but from what I've seen it's not important to finish and more often than not you are not expected to professional business plan writers, finish given the time constraint as they also look at your accuracy. Usfs Research Papers! The numerical test was the interpretation of professional miami graphs and pie charts and the questions get harder as you go along. The verbal test was one of those where you are given a paragraph and you are supposed to say if 'true', 'false', or 'can't tell' given a set of questions, and they get trickier as you go long. Practise numerical and research papers verbal reasoning tests as much as possible. Diagrammatic and spatial reasoning are different but frequently confused. Diagrammatic reasoning (also called abstract reasoning) tests provide good measures of general intelligence.

They involve evaluating processes represented via diagrams, understanding logical rules and process diagrams and 54th massachusetts thesis identifying causes. Abstract reasoning is usfs research papers, used where the ability to cope with complexity and pregnancy deal with novelty is required rather than relying on previous experience. Spatial reasoning tests predict the ability to usfs, work with complex plans. Spatial reasoning involves mentally rotating two dimensional representations of three dimensional shapes. It is needed in engineering settings, architecture and 1988 essay interior design. See our practice computer aptitude test. Often if you are given aptitude tests for a computing job, these will be standard numerical, verbal and diagrammatic tests but sometimes you will get a programming aptitude test . Some of these use pseudocode, flowcharting, or assembly language . Research! You can find information at How to pass professional level psychometric tests by Sam Al-Jajjoka (Kogan Page 2001) has a chapter called Psychometric Tests for IT Recruitment with an example assembly language test.

Ask at Careers reception to use our reference copy. Parity IT Aptitude Test . Very difficult test which tests your suitability for Information Systems roles by probing your logical thinking and a disciplined approach to complex problems Don't need computing knowledge or strong mathematical ability just ability to work through complex problems. You are given five increasingly complex problems to do over a day. Technique! The test does not have a time limit, but you need to record the time the usfs test takes you. 54th Massachusetts Regiment! Most people take from three to six hours to complete the test. Usfs Papers! You are free to make beverages and take comfort breaks, and deduct this from the overall time from the start of test until you finish.

Questions mix very long mathematical and programming problems e.g. 54th Regiment! keep following an usfs papers, arrow in different directions, and add numbers on technique dissertation philo, different lines at the same time, until you find a certain digit. The test was very much IT based. You can't do much to prepare for this test. Only one test per papers year can be conducted, per type of test, per philo person. It is very much a pass or fail test so if you do feel “under the usfs weather” or not at professional business miami, your best, say before you start the test. Feedback from Kent students after tests at computing interviews. I had a programming aptitude test.

Simple command line language and usfs papers practice examples with answers provided. Have to 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, do simple maths with this computer language, similar to usfs research, concept of mill registers in the ALU. Research Papers! Included WRT: write to screen, STO: store, SUB: Subtract etc. Also included conditionals and loops. I was given a technical awareness test which included the following questions: What is on-chip cache?: Level 0, Level 1, Level 2; How many bytes is 2^20?

Where are UNIX system configuration files kept?: /etc, /usr, /opt; Lots of questions about Java, servers Multiple choice questions based on pseudocode. (AXA) UML diagram for teenage pregnancy argumentative, animal/cat/dog - explain About firewalls and proxy servers (Phillips Research) Very challenging and probing technical questions about the skills I added on my application form: C++, Java, Windows and research papers Linux questions but also questions on superman essay, data structures (linked lists, array lists etc) and sorting algorithms. (Morgan Stanley) They gave me random on the spot maths questions that you had to think 'outside of the box' to usfs research, solve. (Morgan Stanley) Abstract test, finding patterns etc. (AXA) Wireless internet standards: advantages of massachusetts WAP over WEP Decide the next letter in a sequence e.g. a - c - e - g . ? See our Letter Sequences test. These are used in order to determine your typical reactions and attitudes to a range of situations . They ask about your preferences and usfs try to identify how well you get on with others, your normal reaction to stressful situations or your feelings about the kind of people you like to work with. They assess how you do things whereas ability tests assess how well you perform tasks. They help the selector find out your style and way of doing things. Sensible organisations will use the questionnaire in conjunction with your application form, interview and other information to make decisions rather than in isolation. It is unlikely that these questionnaires will be timed or indeed have right or wrong answers. Technique! Do not let this lack of exam conditions fool you. Some employers will know precisely what they are looking for usfs papers, in terms of an ideal Personality Profile and professional writers miami it is up to research, you to meet their expectations.

Don't think too long about your answers, as your first reaction to a question is often the most accurate. It is unwise to try to fake the answers. These questionnaires usually have some type of internal checking where the same question is asked with different wording early and late in the test to try to detect dishonest answers. You may also be interviewed about your answers, and dishonesty may be found out during the interview. Ultimately, there is little point in dissertation pretending to be the kind of usfs research papers employee a firm is essay thesis, looking for if you are not right for them. Research Papers! Find something else you will enjoy doing! A Situational Judgement Test (SJT) allows recruiters to gain an insight into the candidates decision-making within the relevant environment. SJTs also give candidates clear understanding of the role and kind of work situations they may encounter. There is usually a minimum cut-off score.

A typical question may ask If you saw your line manager stealing at work, what would you do? and then there would be three options to choose from. These tests are becoming increasingly common and are used by Accenture, PWC, McDonald's and many others. I'm not personally convinced of their reliability in recruiting the right graduates as often the technique dissertation answers are very ambiguous in these tests. Practice situational judgement tests: University of Kent students can take a Graduates First Situational judgement test. Register using your Kent email address at Assessment day New situational judgement test completely free. Usfs Research Papers! All participant data is anonymous Practice Aptitude Tests

See our Choosing a Career and Skills pages for a variety of tests Personality Type Tests What animal are you? Take a very interesting version of the Myers Briggs Type Indicator test It will tell you your personality type and suggest some careers that would fit your personality. Team technology the regiment thesis Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) - discover your personality type. Usfs Papers! The Keirsey Temperament Sorter Personality questionnaire with instant feedback on personality types Another good Myers-Briggs test Personality Test Center A collection of free professionally developed tests that help users discover their personality type and individual personality traits Outofservice fun personality tests Windmills Programme exercises to help you manage your career. Career Development Profiler assess your personality, motivation and superman hero essay work interests. Tips and comments from Kent students. The Motivation Questionnaire was multiple choice, the title is misleading. Usfs! This is more like a ‘Personality Questionnaire’.

You must choose in each case between two options. If you cannot decide you must pick the technique dissertation philo closest fit. Be careful what you choose. They say that this has no bearing on their decision. However, if this is the usfs research papers case why bother doing it, and when you see the result at the end I think you will feel as I did that it must be taken into consideration. Statements were of the type: ‘a job that requires a great deal of concentration on detail and the following of processes or rules with no opportunity for taking the broader view you may find to be boring, restricting or stressful’. Test taking itself is a skill which can be improved! Practice makes perfect. Evidence suggests that some practice of similar tests may improve your performance on actual tests but don't spend too long practising. Brush up on your exam technique and pregnancy essay perhaps become more familiar with the types of usfs research papers test you may face.

Our practice tests (see the column on the left) should help. Even word and number puzzles may help you become used to the comprehension and arithmetic aspects of some tests. Listen to bomb essay, the instructions you are given and follow them precisely. Many people make errors because they've misunderstood what they have to do. Check the amount of time you have and the number of papers questions you have to massachusetts, answer in research papers that time. You have to get a good balance between speed and accuracy : work quickly during the test , but pay attention to your accuracy. Essay! Don't panic if you can't complete the test as not everyone will be able to: most candidates find these tests hard!

Do try to answer as many questions as possible though. If you have time left at the end, check your answers. You can only score points for questions you answer, not for usfs research, those you don't. 54th! Often there will be a lot of questions in a short time. Try not to get bogged down on any one question: leave it until the end of the test, but remember that questions may get harder as you proceed. Papers! Educated guesses are worthwhile . In multiple choice tests, you may be able to quickly rule out writers miami, obviously wrong answers and concentrate on usfs research, those that are left. Dissertation! In maths tests you may be able to estimate the answer rather than working it out precisely, to save time. Usfs Research Papers! Some older tests (for example an IBM programmer test), those used by the FSA and some investment banks use negative marking where marks are deducted for incorrect answers so random guesses don't work. Hero Essay! In non-negatively marked tests a box ticking monkey could get a 20% score! Negative marking is not used in usfs papers many tests: you could ask the technique dissertation test administrator if negative marking is used but they may choose not to usfs, tell you!

If you have a numerical test coming up and haven't done any maths since school then brush up on your numeracy - try BBC Skillswise Stop using a calculator for everyday calculations, practice your multiplication and technique dissertation division, ability to calculate percentages, and to read graphs and tables. Our numeracy tests (to the left) have answers with full working out shown. Similarly if your English is papers, weak brush up on this. 54th Massachusetts! Personality tests don't have right and wrong answers. Be honest and open when answering these. You'll do your best if your adrenalin is flowing slightly, so don't worry about usfs, worrying! But try to stay calm and superman essay focused and try to enjoy the experience. Increasingly tests are on-line. Again try our on-line practice tests to gain familiarity. Make sure you are in a quiet place where you won't be disturbed and in a good frame of usfs mind. If the test was taken unsupervised on the web you may be asked to sit another, shorter test at the interview stage to make sure you didn't get someone else to do it for you.

Treat it like an interview: get a good night's sleep, plan your journey to essay, the test site, arrive on time and appropriately dressed. Tiredness and alcohol can affect your ability to usfs research papers, do well! Before the dissertation actual test, you will be given practice examples to research, try: make sure you ask questions if anything is essay mill websites, unclear at this stage. Take a calculator with you: most maths tests now allow a calculator. Usfs Research Papers! If so you will be given one, but may be allowed to use your own. A number of books on the subject of tests, including many practice examples, are available for technique, reference in usfs the Careers Service building. How to Pass Graduate Psychometric Tests Graduate Psychometric Test Workbook How to Pass Psychometric Tests You’re Hired! Psychometric Tests. Ultimate Psychometric Tests Ultimate Aptitude Tests Verbal Reasoning Tests How to Pass Numerical Reasoning Tests Advanced Numerical Reasoning Tests.

For more details of all the above books, see our online shelf at dbq atomic bomb, How to Pass Numerical Reasoning Tests Brilliant Verbal Reasoning Tests: Everything you need to know to pass verbal reasoning tests. Take free tests at University of Kent Careers use Graduates First for practice aptitude tests. Students can sign up to use the tests themselves using their Kent email address. Register at to take the usfs papers following tests: 3 verbal reasoning tests 3 numerical reasoning tests 3 logical reasoning tests. A work style personality questionnaire Situational judgement test Assessment centre exercises There are the following practice aptitude tests available on this web site . Numerical Reasoning Numerical Reasoning: Graphs and Tables Letter Sequences (Logical thinking) Non-Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning Verbal Reasoning (Synonyms and Antonyms) Verbal Logic Test Computer Aptitude Test Vocabulary Test Spelling and punctuation test for applications not strictly a psychometric test, but will help with verbal skills. Lateral (Creative) Thinking Quiz Second Lateral Thinking Test Riddles: another way of mill Lateral Thinking Lateral Logical Mathematical Test SHL Direct Free examples of ability test questions and personality questionnaires and usfs research papers timed practice tests with feedback on how you compare to other applicants. Profiles companies to essay, understand how each of them use aptitude and psychometric testing in their recruiting processes and gathers information about their assessment centres and interview procedures. Saville Consulting downloadable verbal, numerical and diagrammatic example tests. Assessment Day Free numerical and verbal graduate aptitude tests that mimic the type employers use - very good!

Practice Reasoning Tests new aptitude test website, designed to help students find out research, about employer's aptitude tests. Job Test Prep includes a practice situational judgement test Institute of Practitioners in Advertising Diagonal Thinking Self-assessment Tool Morrisby examples of ability tests. Top Employers Numeracy tests sponsored by JP Morgan and based on graduate numeracy/data interpretation tests. Psychometric Success non-commercial site is aimed at providing student job seekers with the practice material they need to pass psychometric job selection tests. Philo! Over 100 pages of free information on psychometric and aptitude tests and research papers has over 50 free downloadable practice tests. Professional Plan! Online Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Test Spatial/non-verbal/diagrammatic reasoning questions. Can try the questions for research, free, but have to pay to get the teenage argumentative results.

Psych Press free trials of usfs papers numerical, verbal, abstract reasoning and other tests. QueenDom Offers a variety of personality, aptitude and dbq atomic bomb intelligence tests List of companies offering practice tests GRE Test Examples GRE are american university entrance tests. GMAT Test. Papers! This is the mill Graduate Management Admissions Test often used by research business schools to select for MBA courses. It involves critical and verbal reasoning, data sufficiency, reading comprehension, sentence correction, and thesis problem solving plus written essays. See Graduate Management Admission Council if you are interested in applying for MBA courses. Fulbright Commission London office has test information for papers, study in dissertation the US has some example questions and free tests if you register. Papers! has practice tests for links to free practice tests.

Watson-Glaser Critical Thinking Test Designed to professional business, find out research, how well people can reason analytically and websites logically. It is a very demanding test which is used to usfs research, test staff who will be involved in complex decision making (policy formulation, strategy planning etc). It tests inference, recognition of assumptions, deduction, interpretation and massachusetts thesis evaluation of arguments. For each test, it gives a brief statement (which you are to regard as true) and follows these by proposed inferences/assumptions etc. which you rate as true, probably true, insufficient data, probably false or false. You respond to both neutral and controversial items. The controversial items are designed to arouse attitudes, opinions and biases that can interfere with the ability to think critically. Papers! These refer to political, economic and business plan writers miami social issues which provoke strong feelings Employers giving the test should give candidates the practice booklet. It is similar to the GMAT Test (see above). Papers! Educational Testing Service give access to practice questions for GMAT, GRE and the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL). links to lots of technique practice tests on the web. 10 minute IQ test on-line Career Test collection of tests related to usfs research, career and career development plus many other IQ Personality tests. BBC Skillswise Improve your numeracy and literacy Maths Centre includes a maths test you can print off.

EMPLOYER SELF SELECTION TESTS Civil Service GCHQ What can I do with my degree. These pages are copyright of the University of Kent Careers and Employability Service. The information and advice given in these pages is primarily for the benefit of University of Kent students and dbq atomic bomb graduates. You are most welcome to link to usfs, these pages but should not use content in other ways without our permission.

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When Women Become Men at Wellesley. Hundreds of young women streamed into Wellesley College on papers the last Monday of August, many of them trailed by parents lugging suitcases and bins filled with folded towels, decorative pillows and Costco-size jugs of laundry detergent. The banner by the campus entranceway welcoming the websites, Class of papers, 2018 waved in technique, the breeze, as if beckoning the newcomers to discover all that awaited them. Research. All around the campus stood buildings named after women: the 54th massachusetts, Margaret Clapp library, the Betsy Wood Knapp media and technology center, dorms, labs, academic halls, even the parking garage. The message that anything is usfs research, possible for women was also evident at a fenced-in work site, which bore the 54th thesis, sign “Elaine Construction,” after a firm named for research papers, one woman and philo, run by another. It was the research, first day of orientation, and along the technique philo, picturesque paths there were cheerful upper-class student leaders providing directions and encouragement. They wore pink T-shirts stamped with this year’s orientation theme: “Free to Explore” — an enticement that could be interpreted myriad ways, perhaps far more than the college intended. One of those T-shirted helpers was a junior named Timothy Boatwright. Usfs. Like every other matriculating student at business Wellesley, which is just west of Boston, Timothy was raised a girl and checked “female” when he applied. Though he had told his high-school friends that he was transgender, he did not reveal that on his application, in usfs research, part because his mother helped him with it, and superman hero, he didn’t want her to know.

Besides, he told me, “it seemed awkward to usfs research write an application essay for a women’s college on why you were not a woman.” Like many trans students, he chose a women’s college because it seemed safer physically and psychologically. From the start, Timothy introduced himself as “masculine-of-center genderqueer.” He asked everyone at Wellesley to use male pronouns and the name Timothy, which he’d chosen for business plan, himself. For the most part, everyone respected his request. After all, he wasn’t the usfs papers, only trans student on campus. Some two dozen other matriculating students at Wellesley don’t identify as women.

Of those, a half-dozen or so were trans men, people born female who identified as men, some of whom had begun taking testosterone to change their bodies. The rest said they were transgender or genderqueer, rejecting the idea of gender entirely or identifying somewhere between female and male; many, like Timothy, called themselves transmasculine. Though his gender identity differed from that of most of plan writers miami, his classmates, he generally felt comfortable at research papers his new school. Last spring, as a sophomore, Timothy decided to run for a seat on the student-government cabinet, the highest position that an openly trans student had ever sought at Wellesley. Dissertation Philo. The post he sought was multicultural affairs coordinator, or “MAC,” responsible for usfs research papers, promoting “a culture of diversity” among students and staff and essay mill, faculty members. Along with Timothy, three women of color indicated their intent to run for research, the seat. But when they dropped out for bomb, various unrelated reasons before the race really began, he was alone on the ballot. An anonymous lobbying effort began on usfs papers Facebook, pushing students to vote “abstain.” Enough “abstains” would deny Timothy the minimum number of votes Wellesley required, forcing a new election for essay, the seat and providing an opportunity for other candidates to come forward. The “Campaign to Abstain” argument was simple: Of all the research, people at a multiethnic women’s college who could hold the school’s “diversity” seat, the least fitting one was a white man . “It wasn’t about Timothy,” the superman, student behind the Abstain campaign told me. “I thought he’d do a perfectly fine job, but it just felt inappropriate to have a white man there.

It’s not just about research papers, that position either. Pregnancy. Having men in elected leadership positions undermines the idea of this being a place where women are the leaders.” I asked Timothy what he thought about that argument, as we sat on a bench overlooking the tranquil lake on usfs papers campus during orientation. Regiment Thesis. He pointed out research papers, that he has important contributions to make to teenage pregnancy argumentative essay thesis the MAC position. After all, at usfs papers Wellesley, masculine-of-center students are cultural minorities; by numbers alone, they’re about as minor as a minority can be. Plan Miami. And yet Timothy said he felt conflicted about research, taking a leadership spot. “The patriarchy is alive and essay, well,” he said. “I don’t want to usfs research papers perpetuate it.” In the 19th century, only men were admitted to most colleges and universities, so proponents of higher education for women had to essay build their own. The missions at research these new schools both defied and reinforced the gender norms of the hero essay, day. By offering women access to an education they’d previously been denied, the research papers, schools’ very existence was radical, but most were nevertheless premised on traditional notions: College-educated women were considered more likely to be engaging wives and better mothers, who would raise informed citizens. Superman Hero. Over time, of usfs papers, course, women’s colleges became more committed to preparing students for careers, but even in the early 1960s, Wellesley, for example, taught students how to get groceries into the back of business, a station wagon without exposing their thighs.

By the late 1960s, however, gender norms were under scrutiny. Amid the growing awareness of civil rights and women’s liberation, academic separation based on research gender, as with race, seemed increasingly outdated. As a vast majority of women opted for coed schools, enrollment at business plan writers miami women’s colleges tumbled. The number of women’s colleges dropped to fewer than 50 today from usfs, nearly 300. In response to shifting ideas about gender, many of the remaining women’s colleges redefined themselves as an 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, antidote to the sexism that feminists were increasingly identifying in society. Women’s colleges argued that they offered a unique environment where every student leader was a woman, where female role models were abundant, where professors were far more likely to be women and where the message of women’s empowerment pervaded academic and research papers, campus life. All that seemed to foster students’ confidence. Women’s colleges say their undergrads are more likely to superman hero essay major in fields traditionally dominated by men. Wellesley alumnae in particular are awarded more science and engineering doctorates than female graduates of research papers, any other liberal-arts college in the nation, according to government data.

Its alums have become two secretaries of state; a groundbreaking string theorist; a NASA astronaut; and Korea’s first female ambassador. As women’s colleges challenged the 54th regiment thesis, conventions of womanhood, they drew a disproportionate number of students who identified as lesbian or bisexual. Today a small but increasing number of students at those schools do not identify as women, raising the question of what it means to usfs be a “women’s college.” Trans students are pushing their schools to play down the women-centric message. Hero Essay. At Wellesley, Smith, Mount Holyoke and others, they and their many supporters have successfully lobbied to scrub all female references in student government constitutions, replacing them with gender-neutral language. Usfs Papers. At Wellesley, they have pressed administrators and writers, fellow students to usfs research papers excise talk of sisterhood, arguing that that rhetoric, rather than being uplifting, excludes other gender minorities. At many schools, they have also taken leadership positions long filled by women: resident advisers on dorm floors, heads of student groups and members of college government. At Wellesley, one transmasculine student was a dorm president. At Mills College, a women’s school in California, even the president of student government identifies as male. What’s a women’s college to do? Trans students point out that they’re doing exactly what these schools encourage: breaking gender barriers, fulfilling their deepest yearnings and technique philo, forging ahead even when society tries to hold them back. But yielding to research papers their request to dilute the 1988 dbq atomic, focus on women would undercut the identity of papers, a women’s college.

While women in coed schools generally outpace men in philo, enrollment and performance, the equation shifts after college: Recent female graduates working full time earn far less than their male counterparts, and usfs, more experienced women are often still shut out of corporate and political leadership — all of which prompts women’s-college advocates to conclude that a four-year, confidence-building workshop still has its place. “Sisterhood is why I chose to go to Wellesley,” said a physics major who graduated recently and asked not to be identified for fear she’d be denounced for her opinion. Dissertation Philo. “A women’s college is a place to usfs research papers celebrate being a woman, surrounded by women. I felt empowered by essay mill, that every day. You come here thinking that every single leadership position will be held by usfs, a woman: every member of the student government, every newspaper editor, every head of the Economics Council, every head of the websites, Society of usfs, Physics. That’s an dissertation philo, incredible thing! This is usfs papers, what they advertise to students. But it’s no longer true. Dissertation. And if all that is usfs, no longer true, the intrinsic value of superman hero, a women’s college no longer holds.” A few schools have formulated responses to this dilemma, albeit very different ones.

Hollins University, a small women’s college in usfs research papers, Virginia, established a policy several years ago stating it would confer diplomas to only women. It also said that students who have surgery or begin hormone therapy to become men — or who legally take male names — will be “helped to plan miami transfer to another institution.” Mount Holyoke and usfs, Mills College, on superman hero essay the other hand, recently decided they will not only continue to welcome students who become trans men while at school but will also admit those who identify on their applications as trans men, noting that welcoming the former and not the latter seemed unjustifiably arbitrary. But most women’s colleges, including Wellesley, consider only research female applicants. Once individuals have enrolled and announced that they are trans, the schools, more or less, leave it to the students to work out how trans classmates fit into professional business miami, a women’s college. Two of those students hashed it out last fall after Kaden Mohamed, then a Wellesley senior who had been taking testosterone for seven months, watched a news program on WGBH-TV about the usfs papers, plummeting number of women’s colleges. One guest was Laura Bruno, another Wellesley senior. The other guest was the president of Regis College, a women’s school that went coed in 2007 to reverse its tanking enrollment. The interviewer asked Laura to essay websites describe her experience at an “all-female school” and to explain how that might be diminished “by having men there.” Laura answered, “We look around and we see only women, only people like us, leading every organization on campus, contributing to research every class discussion.” Kaden, a manager of the campus student cafe who knew Laura casually, was upset by superman essay, her words.

He emailed Laura and usfs papers, said her response was “extremely disrespectful.” He continued: “I am not a woman. I am a trans man who is part of your graduating class, and you literally ignored my existence in your interview. . . Argumentative Essay Thesis. . You had an usfs, opportunity to show people that Wellesley is a place that is complicating the meaning of being an ‘all women’s school,’ and you chose instead to displace a bunch of your current and past Wellesley siblings.” Laura apologized, saying she hadn’t meant to marginalize anyone and had actually vowed beforehand not to argumentative thesis imply that all Wellesley students were women. But she said that under pressure, she found herself in a difficult spot: How could she maintain that women’s colleges would lose something precious by including men, but at the same time argue that women’s colleges should accommodate students who identify as men? Although it may seem paradoxical, Jesse Austin said he chose to attend Wellesley because being female never felt right to him. “I figured if I was any kind of woman, I’d find it there. I knew Wellesley would have strong women. They produce a ton of research papers, strong women, strong in all sorts of ways.” When Jesse arrived on campus in the fall of 54th regiment, 2009, his name was Sara. Eighteen years old, Sara wore form-fitting shirts and papers, snug women’s jeans, because growing up in a small, conservative town in Georgia, she learned that that’s what girls were supposed to do — even though she never felt like a girl.

As a child, Sara had always chosen to be male characters in pretend plays, and all her friends were boys. In middle school, those boys abandoned her because she was a social liability: not feminine enough to flirt with and not masculine enough to really be one of the guys. Dissertation Philo. In high school, at the urging of well-intentioned female classmates, she started wearing her hair down instead of pulled back and began dressing like they did, even though people kept pointing out that she still acted and carried herself like a boy. “I had no idea that gender was something you could change,” Jesse told me recently. “I just thought I needed to make myself fit into these fixed places: There are boys, and there are girls. I knew I didn’t fit; I just didn’t know what was wrong with me.” Around the middle of Sara’s first year at Wellesley, she attended a presentation by trans alums, including one who was in usfs research papers, the process of professional business writers miami, transitioning. As Sara listened, the gender dysphoria she’d always felt suddenly made sense. “It was all so clear to me,” Jesse told me. Research Papers. “All I needed were the words.” Sara spent the next two weeks scouring the Internet for videos and plan writers, information on becoming a man. She learned that unlike previous generations, today’s trans young adults don’t consider physical transformation a prerequisite for usfs research, identity.

Some use hormones; some have their breasts removed in “top” surgery; some reject medical interventions altogether, as unnecessary invasions and expense. Thesis. She discovered that sexual orientation is independent of gender: Some trans men are attracted to usfs research papers women, some to 54th massachusetts men, some to both. Research. And she learned that trans men aren’t necessarily determined to hide the fact they were raised as girls, or that they once attended a women’s college. Soon after, Sara cut her hair short and bought her first pair of men’s jeans. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. Sara told friends she was a man.

By second semester, he was using male pronouns and usfs research, calling himself Jesse, the other name his mother had considered for her daughter. He also joined a tiny campus group for students who knew or suspected they were trans men. It was called Brothers, a counterweight to the otherwise ubiquitous message of sisterhood. That summer, Jesse saw a gender therapist, and early in superman essay, his sophomore year, he began injecting testosterone into his thigh every two weeks, making him one of the first students to medically transform into usfs papers, a man while at Wellesley. He became the administrator of Brothers. Though he felt supported, he also felt alone; all the other trans men on campus had graduated, and hero, the other students in Brothers were not even sure they identified as men. Usfs Research. Outside Brothers, everything at Wellesley was still sisterhood and female empowerment. Argumentative Thesis. Nevertheless, he said, “I thought of Wellesley as my home, my community. I felt fine there, like I totally belonged.”

Jesse decided he wanted to have top surgery over winter break, and his parents agreed to pay for research papers, it. He returned for spring semester but only briefly, taking a sudden leave of thesis, absence to go home and help care for usfs research, his ill father. When Jesse re-enrolled at Wellesley a year and professional plan writers miami, a half later, in fall 2012, much had changed in Jesse and at school. Having been on testosterone for two years at research papers that point, Jesse no longer looked like a woman trying to pass as a man. His voice was deep.

His facial hair was thick, though he kept it trimmed to a stubble. His shoulders had become broad and muscular, his hips narrow, his arms and chest more defined. Wellesley was different, too. By then, a whole crowd of people identified as trans — enough for two trans groups. Brothers had officially become Siblings and mill websites, welcomed anyone anywhere on the gender spectrum except those who identified as women.

Meanwhile, Jesse and some transmasculine students continued to meet unofficially as Brothers, though Jesse was the only one on testosterone. Over all, campus life had a stronger trans presence than ever. At least four of the usfs, school’s 70 R.A.s did not identify as women. Student organizations increasingly began meetings by asking everyone to state preferred names and pronouns. Around campus, more and more students were replacing “sisterhood” with “siblinghood” in conversation. Even the school’s oldest tradition, Flower Sunday — the 138-year-old ceremony that paired each incoming student with an upper-class Big Sister to support her — had become trans-inclusive. Though the school website still describes Flower Sunday as “a day of sisterhood,” the department that runs the websites, event yielded to papers trans students’ request and started referring to each participant as a Big or Little “Sister/Sibling” — or simply as Bigs and Littles. And yet even with the increased visibility of trans students on campus, Jesse stood out. When he swiped his Wellesley ID card to get into friends’ dorms, the groundskeepers would stop him and say, “You can’t go in massachusetts regiment thesis, there without a woman to usfs research papers escort you.” Residential directors who spotted him in the dorm stairwells told him the same thing. In his own dorm, parents who were visiting their daughters would stop him to essay mill ask why he was there.

Because bathrooms in the dorms are not labeled “women” or “men” but rather “Wellesley only” and “non-Wellesley,” students who didn’t know Jesse would call him out for using the “Wellesley only” bathroom instead of the usfs research, one for visitors. When he tried to explain he was a Wellesley student, people sometimes thought he was lying. “Everything felt very different than it had before,” he said of that semester. “I felt so distinctly male, and I felt extremely awkward. I felt like an outsider. My voice was jarring — a male voice, which is professional plan writers, so distinct in a classroom of women — so I felt weird saying much in class. I felt much more aware of Wellesley as a women’s place, even though the college was starting to change.” Once spring semester ended, Jesse withdrew. “I still think of Wellesley as a women’s place, and I still think that’s a wonderful idea,” he said. “It just didn’t encompass me anymore. I felt it was a space I shouldn’t tread in.” Some female students, meanwhile, said Wellesley wasn’t female enough. Research. They complained among themselves and to the administration that sisterhood had been hijacked. “Siblinghood,” they argued, lacked the warm, pro-women connotation of “sisterhood,” as well as its historic resonance. Others were upset that even at a women’s college, women were still expected to accommodate men, ceding attention and business plan writers, leadership opportunities intended for women.

Still others feared the changes were a step toward coeducation. Despite all that, many were uneasy: As a marginalized group fighting for usfs research, respect and clout, how could women justify marginalizing others? “I felt for the first time that something so stable about our school was about to change, and it made me scared,” said Beth, a junior that year, who asked to be identified by only her middle name because she was afraid of offending people she knew. “Changing ‘sister’ to ‘sibling’ didn’t feel like it was including more people; it felt like it was taking something away from sisterhood, transforming our safe space for the sake of someone else. At the essay, same time, I felt guilty feeling that way.” Beth went to Kris Niendorf, the director of residential life, who listened sympathetically and then asked: Why does “sibling” take away from usfs research papers, your experience? After thinking about pregnancy argumentative, it, Beth concluded that she was connected to usfs research papers her classmates not because of gender but because of their shared experiences at Wellesley. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. “That year was an epiphany for me. I realized that if we excluded trans students, we’d be fighting on the wrong team. We’d be on the wrong side of history.” Exactly how Wellesley will resolve the trans question is still unclear. Trans students say that aside from making sure every academic building on research campus has a unisex bathroom, Wellesley has not addressed what gender fluidity means for Wellesley’s identity. Business Writers Miami. Last spring, Alex Poon won Wellesley’s 131-year-old hoop-rolling race, an annual spirit-building competition among seniors. Alex’s mother was the hoop-rolling champion of the Class of ’82 and had long ago taught her daughters the ways of the usfs research papers, hoop, on the assumption that they would one day attend her alma mater. (One of dissertation philo, Alex’s older sisters was Wellesley Class of ’11; another went to Bryn Mawr.) Alex was a former Girl Scout who attended an all-girls high school.

But unknown to his mother, he was using Google to search for an explanation for his confusing feelings. Usfs Papers. By the time Alex applied to Wellesley, he secretly knew he was trans but was nonetheless certain Wellesley was a good fit. Pregnancy Thesis. For one thing, going there was a family tradition; for another, it was a place where gender could be reimagined. In his sophomore year at Wellesley, he went public with his transgender status. On hoop-rolling day, Alex — wearing a cap backward on his buzz-cut hair — broke through the research papers, finish-line streamer. Mill Websites. President H. Kim Bottomly took a selfie with him, each with a wide smile.

A small local newspaper covered the event, noting that for the first time in the school’s history, the winner was a man. And yet the page on Wellesley’s website devoted to school traditions continues to usfs describe the race as if it involves only regiment women. “Back in research, the day, it was proclaimed that whoever won the Hoop Roll would be the 54th thesis, first to get married. In the status-seeking 1980s, she was the first to be C.E.O. Now we just say that the usfs research, winner will be the first to achieve happiness and success, whatever that means to her.” But Alex isn’t a her, and he told me that his happiness and success includes being recognized for what he is: a man. That page is essay, not the only place on the site where Wellesley markets itself as a school of only female students. Elsewhere, it crows that “all the most courageous, most provocative, most accomplished people on campus are women.” The student body, it says, is “2,300 smart, singular women feeling the power of 2,300 smart, singular women together” on a campus where “our common identity, spirit and research papers, pride as Wellesley women” are celebrated.

Those sorts of messages, trans students say, make them feel invisible. “I just wish the administration would at least acknowledge our existence,” said Eli Cohen, a Wellesley senior who has been taking testosterone for 1988 dbq atomic, nearly a year. “I’d be more O.K. with ‘We’re not going to research papers cater to you, because men are catered to everywhere else in life,’ rather than just pretending we don’t exist.” Some staff and faculty members, however, are acknowledging the trans presence. Women-and-gender-studies professors, and a handful of others, typically begin each semester asking students to professional indicate the names and pronouns they prefer for themselves. Kris Niendorf, director of campus and usfs research, residential life, recruits trans students who want to be R.A.s., as she does with all minorities. Niendorf also initiated informational panels with trans students and alums. And before this school year began, at teenage thesis the urging of trans students, Niendorf required all 200 student leaders to attend a trans-sensitivity workshop focused on how to “create a more inclusive Wellesley College.” For the last few years, orientation organizers have also included a trans student as one of the half-dozen upper-class students who stand before the incoming first-years and recount how they overcame a difficult personal challenge. And yet many trans students feel that more needs to be done. They complain that too many professors assume all their students are women. Students provided numerous examples in courses across subject areas where they’ve been asked their viewpoint “as a woman.” In a course on usfs papers westerns two years ago, an essay assignment noted that western films and novels were aimed at male audiences and technique philo, focused on masculinity. The professors asked students for their perspective “as a female reader or watcher” — wording that offended the three trans students in class.

When a classmate pointed out the problematic wording to the professors, the usfs papers, instructors asked everyone instead “to explore how your own gender identity changes how you approach westerns.” At times, professors find themselves walking a fine line. Professional Business Plan Writers Miami. Thomas Cushman, who has taught sociology at Wellesley for the last 25 years, first found out about Wellesley’s trans population five years ago, after a student in one of his courses showed up at Cushman’s office and introduced himself as a trans male. The student pointed out that every example Cushman gave in papers, class referred to women, and every generic pronoun he used was female, as in “Ask your classmate if she. . . . He told Cushman that Wellesley could no longer call itself a “women’s college,” given the presence of trans men, and he asked Cushman to use male pronouns and male examples more often, so trans students didn’t feel excluded. Cushman said he would abide by whatever pronoun individual students requested for themselves, but he drew the line at changing his emphasis on dbq atomic bomb women.

“All my life here,” Cushman told me, “I’ve been compelled to use the female pronoun more generously to get away from the sexist ‘he.’ I think it’s important to evoke the idea that women are part of humanity. That should be affirmed, especially after being denied for so long. Usfs Research Papers. Look, I teach at 54th regiment a women’s college, so whenever I can make women’s identity central to that experience, I try to do that. Being asked to change that is a bit ironic. I don’t agree that this is a ‘historically’ women’s college. It is still a women’s college.” On the second day of research papers, orientation this fall, Eli Cohen arrived on campus in a muscle T and business plan, men’s shorts, with a carabiner full of usfs papers, keys hanging from his belt loop.

He was elated to be back to the place that felt most like home. It was the first time in four years that Eli had not been part of orientation — first as a newcomer and then two years as an R.A. We hung out in the Lulu Chow Wang Campus Center, known affectionately as Lulu, and watched the excited first-years flutter by, clutching their orientation schedules and mill websites, their newly purchased Wellesley wear. Just 12 days earlier, Eli underwent top surgery, which he said gave him a newfound self-assurance in his projection of manhood. Papers. It had been nine months since he started testosterone, and the effects had become particularly noticeable over the three-month summer break. His jaw line had begun to square, his limbs to thicken and the hair on thesis his arms and legs to darken. Papers. And of course now his chest was a flat wall. As his friends caught sight of him for the first time in months, they hugged him and gushed, “You look sooo good!” Though Eli secretly suspected in high school that he was a boy, it wasn’t until after he arrived at Wellesley that he could imagine he might one day declare himself a man. By his second year, he had buzz-cut his hair and started wearing men’s clothes. He asked his friends to call him Beckett, which is similar to his female birth name, which he asked me not to pregnancy argumentative essay mention.

His parents live only usfs research papers 14 miles away and dropped by for teenage pregnancy argumentative thesis, short visits. He left his girl nameplate on usfs research his dorm door. His friends understood that whenever his parents arrived, everyone was to revert to technique dissertation his female name and its attendant pronouns. He was an usfs papers, R.A. at the time and decided not to reveal his male name to his first-year students, figuring it was too complicated to explain which name to 1988 essay use when. Given how guarded he had to be, being Beckett was exhausting and usfs papers, anxiety-inducing. Bomb. Demoralized, he eventually told his pals to usfs research just use his birth name. Hero Essay. The summer after his sophomore year, he got an usfs research papers, internship at professional business plan writers miami a Boston health center serving the research, L.G.B.T. Superman Hero Essay. community, and many of his co-workers were trans.

Their confidence gave him confidence. When the research, Wellesley office that coordinates internships sent out an email to all interns that began, “Good morning, ladies . . . ,” he emailed back to say he did not identify as a woman. The coordinator apologized and business miami, explained that all the names on her paperwork from Wellesley were female. By summer’s end, he began introducing himself as Eli, a name utterly unlike his birth name. Eli mustered the courage to research papers tell his parents.

It took a little while for technique philo, his mother to papers accept that her only daughter was actually a son, but she came around. When I asked Eli if trans men belonged at Wellesley, he said he felt torn. “I don’t necessarily think we have a right to women’s spaces. Essay Mill Websites. But I’m not going to research transfer, because this is a place I love, a community I love. I realize that may be a little selfish. It may be a lot selfish.” Where, he wondered, should Wellesley draw a line, if a line should even be drawn? At trans men? At transmasculine students? What about students who are simply questioning their gender? Shouldn’t students be “free to explore” without fearing their decision will make them unwelcome? Other trans students have struggled with these questions, too.

Last December, a transmasculine Wellesley student wrote an massachusetts regiment thesis, anonymous blog post that shook the usfs, school’s trans community. The student wrote to apologize for massachusetts thesis, “acting in usfs, the interest of preserving a hurtful system of privileging masculinity.” He continued: “My feelings have changed: I do not think that trans men belong at Wellesley. 1988 Essay. . . . This doesn’t mean that I think that all trans men should be kicked out of Wellesley or necessarily denied admission.” He acknowledged he didn’t know how Wellesley could best address the trans question, but urged fellow transmasculine classmates to “start talking, and thinking critically, about the space that we are given and usfs, occupying, and the space that we are taking from women.” The reactions were swift and strong. “A lot of trans people on 1988 dbq atomic essay campus felt emotionally unsafe,” recalled Timothy, a sophomore that year. Usfs Research Papers. “A place that seemed welcoming suddenly wasn’t. The difficulty was that because it was a trans person saying it, people who don’t have enough of an understanding to appreciate the nuance of technique philo, this can say, ‘Well, even a trans person says there shouldn’t be trans people at Wellesley, so it’s O.K. for me to think the same thing, too.’ ” Students and alums — queer and straight, trans and not — weighed in, sometimes in agreement but other times in papers, anger. Some accused the blogger of speaking on behalf of women as if they were unable to speak for teenage pregnancy argumentative essay, themselves. Others accused him of usfs research, betraying transmasculine students. (He declined to comment for this article.) But other students, including several transmasculine ones, were glad he had the courage to writers miami start a public discussion about Wellesley’s deeply conflicted identity. “It’s a very important conversation to have,” Eli said. “Why can’t we have this conversation without feeling hurt or hated?” In some ways, students are already having that conversation, though perhaps indirectly.

Timothy ended up easily winning his seat on the student government last spring, capturing two-thirds of the votes. Given that 85 percent of the student body cast ballots in that race, his victory suggests most students think that transmasculine students — and usfs, transmasculine leaders — belong at Wellesley. Another difficult conversation about trans students touches on the disproportionate attention they receive on campus. Professional Business Plan Miami. “The female-identified students somehow place more value on those students,” said Rose Layton, a lesbian who said she views trans students as competitors in the campus dating scene. “They flirt with them, hook up with them. And it’s not just the hetero women, but even people in the queer community. The trans men are always getting this extra bit of acknowledgment.

Even though we’re in a women’s college, the fact is men and masculinity get more attention and more value in usfs research, this social dynamic than women do.” Jesse Austin noticed the paradox when he returned to campus with a man’s build and full swath of beard stubble after nearly two years on testosterone. 1988 Dbq Atomic. “That was the first time in my life I was popular! People were clamoring to date me.” Trans bodies are seen as an in-between option, Timothy said. Research. “So no matter your sexuality, a trans person becomes safe to flirt with, to explore with. But it’s not really the plan writers miami, person you’re interested in, it’s the research, novelty. For lesbians, there’s the dissertation, safety of ‘I may be attracted to this person, but they’re “really” a woman, so I’m not actually bi or straight.’ And for straight people, it’s ‘I may be attracted to a woman’s body, but he’s a male, so I’m not really lesbian or bi.’ ” Kaden Mohamed said he felt downright objectified when he returned from summer break last year, after five months of testosterone had lowered his voice, defined his arm muscles and reshaped his torso. It was attention that he had never experienced before he transitioned.

But as his body changed, students he didn’t even know would run their hands over his biceps. Once at the school pub, an usfs papers, intoxicated Wellesley woman even grabbed his crotch and 54th, that of usfs research papers, another trans man. “It’s this very bizarre reversal of hero, what happens in the real world,” Kaden said. “In the real world, it’s women who get fetishized, catcalled, sexually harassed, grabbed. At Wellesley, it’s trans men who do. Papers. If I were to go up to someone I just met and touch her body, I’d get grief from the entire Wellesley community, because they’d say it’s assault — and it is. But for some reason, when it’s done to mill websites trans men here, it doesn’t get read the same way. Research. It’s like a free pass, that suddenly it’s O.K. to talk about or touch someone’s body as long as they’re not a woman.” While trans men are allowed at most women’s colleges if they identify as female when applying, trans women — people raised male who go on to identify as women — have found it nearly impossible to get through the campus gates. Arguably, a trans woman’s identity is more compatible with a women’s college than a trans man’s is. But most women’s colleges require that all of an applicant’s documentation indicate the candidate is female. That’s a high bar for superman, a 17- or 18-year-old born and raised male, given that so few come out as trans in high school. (Admissions policies at private undergraduate schools are exempt from Title IX, which bans gender discrimination at schools receiving federal funds.) Two years ago, Calliope Wong, a high-school trans woman from Connecticut, applied to usfs Smith College, but her application was returned because her federal aid form indicated she was male.

She posted the rejection letter online, catalyzing a storm on essay mill the Internet and usfs research papers, student rallies at Smith. Smith eventually agreed to 1988 dbq atomic essay require that the applicant be referred to as female only in the transcript and recommendation letters, but not on usfs research financial-aid documents; by then, however, Wong had decided to attend the University of Connecticut. For its part, Wellesley has never admitted a trans woman, at teenage pregnancy least not knowingly. Research Papers. Many Wellesley students, including some who are uncomfortable having trans men on campus, say that academically eligible trans women should be admitted, regardless of the essay, gender on their application documents. Others are wary of research, opening Wellesley’s doors too quickly — including one of Wellesley’s trans men, who asked not to be named because he knew how unpopular his stance would be. He said that Wellesley should accept only teenage pregnancy thesis trans women who have begun sex-changing medical treatment or have legally changed their names or sex on their driver’s licenses or birth certificates. Papers. “I know that’s a lot to ask of an 18-year-old just applying to 54th massachusetts thesis college,” he said, “but at usfs research the same time, Wellesley needs to maintain its integrity as a safe space for women. What if someone who is male-bodied comes here genuinely identified as female, and then decides after a year or two that they identify as male — and wants to stay at Wellesley? How’s that different from admitting a biological male who identifies as a man? Trans men are a different case; we were raised female, we know what it’s like to be treated as females and we have been discriminated against as females. We get what life has been like for women.” In May, Mills College became the first women’s college to broaden its admissions policy to include self-identified trans women, even those who haven’t legally or medically transitioned and even if their transcripts or recommendation letters refer to them as male.

The new policy, which begins by 1988 essay, affirming Mills’s commitment to remaining a women’s college, also welcomes biological females who identify anywhere on the gender spectrum, as long as they haven’t become legally male. Usfs Papers. The change grew out of two years of study by a committee of faculty and staff, which noted that Mills has always fought gender-based oppression and 54th regiment, concluded, “Trans inclusiveness represents not an erasure but an usfs research, updating of this mission.” Mills also aims to educate students, staff and faculty members to be more trans inclusive, said Brian O’Rourke, who oversees enrollment at 1988 the college and papers, was the president’s liaison to the committee. I asked O’Rourke if that included reducing the focus on dbq atomic bomb essay women in the classroom. “I honestly don’t know,” he said. “We had a national speaker on trans issues join us on campus about a year ago, and one of the things she suggested is that we stop referring to Mills as a women’s college, because that concept is exclusionary. Usfs Research Papers. In the auditorium, there was an audible gasp. We’ve had a lot of conversations about how to professional business plan miami stress women’s leadership and women’s empowerment and at the same time, include people who may not identify as women. The answer is: We don’t know yet.”

Last month, Mount Holyoke College announced a more far-reaching policy: It would admit all academically qualified students regardless of their anatomy or self-proclaimed gender, except for those biologically male at birth who still identify as male. In a list that reflects just how much traditional notions of usfs research, gender have been upended, Mount Holyoke said eligible candidates now include anyone born biologically female, whether identified as woman, man, neither or “other” and anyone born biologically male who identifies as a woman or “other.” The school president, Lynn Pasquerella, said she and her officers made the decision after concluding it was an issue of civil rights. But Pasquerella said accommodations for trans students will not include changing the dissertation, school’s mission. “We’re first and usfs papers, foremost committed to massachusetts regiment being a women’s college,” she told me. Usfs Research. “I’m not going to stop using the language of sisterhood.” She mentioned she taught a class in 1988 essay, critical race theory two years ago and told her students, “When I use the research papers, term ‘sisterhood,’ I’m using it in hero, a way that acknowledges the fact that not everybody here identifies as a woman. It is usfs research papers, a rhetorical device . . . , but it is not intended to exclude anybody.” I said her explanation seemed like the one for using “he” as a generic pronoun for pregnancy argumentative essay, a male or female. Research Papers. She offered a different analogy, noting the parallel between women’s colleges and historically black colleges and universities. “Isn’t it still legitimate to speak of being a community of color even if you have half a dozen students who aren’t individuals of color?” she asked. “The same might be said about women’s colleges. Our mission was built upon education for women, and while we recognize that not everyone identifies this way, this is who we are and how we talk about hero essay, things.”

Meanwhile, Wellesley continues to struggle with its own identity. In August, Debra DeMeis, the dean of students, told me the administration had not yet worked out usfs research papers, how to teenage argumentative essay thesis be a women’s college at a time when gender is no longer considered binary. President H. Kim Bottomly and Jennifer C. Desjarlais, the dean of admissions, declined to talk to me. But a few days after Mount Holyoke’s announcement, Bottomly released a statement saying that Wellesley would begin to think about how to papers address the trans question. On the last Friday in May, some 5,000 parents, alumnae and soon-to-be graduates streamed onto the rolling field near Severance Hall, named after Elisabeth Severance, a generous 1887 alumna. Massachusetts Thesis. It was a gorgeous, temperate morning for Wellesley’s 136th annual commencement, and once the usfs papers, last baccalaureate degree was conferred, the audience was asked to stand. As is the school’s tradition, two graduates led an uplifting rendition of technique philo, “America, the research, Beautiful.” The lyrics, for those who needed them, were printed in the commencement program, including the chorus: “And crown thy good, with brotherhood, from essay, sea to research shining sea!”

Those words were penned by Katharine Lee Bates, an teenage pregnancy argumentative essay, 1880 graduate of Wellesley who defied the expectations of usfs, her gender, and not just by becoming a professor, published author and famous poet. A pastor’s daughter, she never married, living instead for 25 years with Katharine Coman, founder of pregnancy argumentative, Wellesley’s economics department, with whom she was deeply in papers, love. Technique Dissertation Philo. When a colleague described “free-flying spinsters” as a “fringe on papers the garment of life,” Bates, then 53, answered: “I always thought the fringe had the technique dissertation, best of research, it.” As parents, professors and graduates joined in 1988 dbq atomic essay, the singing of Bates’s most famous poem, many felt an usfs papers, intense pride in their connection to the graduates and mill websites, this remarkable college, which has sent forth so many women who leave impressive marks on the world. As the hundreds of voices rounded the curve on “And crown thy good with . . . Usfs Papers. ,” the unknowing parents continued to “brotherhood,” the word that was always supposed to business plan writers stand in for usfs research papers, women too, but never really did. Wellesley women long ago learned that words matter, and for decades, this has been the point in the song when their harmonious choral singing abruptly becomes a bellow as they belt out “sisterhood,” drowning out the word that long excluded them and replacing it with a demand for technique philo, recognition. It’s one of the most powerful moments of commencement, followed every year by cheers, applause and usfs papers, tears, evoked by the rush of solidarity with women throughout time, and the thrill of claiming in one of the nation’s most famous songs that women matter — even if the world they’re about to enter doesn’t always agree. In the dissertation, last few years, a handful of usfs research, graduates have changed that word once again, having decided that “sisterhood,” no matter how well intended, is exclusionary, and so they instead call out “siblinghood.” A few trans men find even that insufficient, and in that instant, they roar the word that represents them best: “brotherhood,” not as a sexist stand-in for all humankind, but as an appeal from a tiny minority struggling to essay be acknowledged. In truth, it’s difficult to distinguish in the cacophony each of the words shouted atop one another.

What is usfs, clear is that whatever word each person is hollering is immensely significant as a proclamation of existence, even if it’s hard to make out teenage argumentative essay thesis, what anyone else is saying. Ruth Padawer is a contributing writer for the magazine and teaches at the Columbia School of Journalism. I listened to only female singers all summer. Here’s what I learned. Six writers on their favorite cultural experiences of 2017.

After years as the industry’s top African-American talent agent, Charles D. King is building an audacious new production company — with a vision for papers, bringing long-neglected stories to the screen.

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A* GCSE Art Coursework: Sense of Place. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This Edexcel GCSE Art Coursework project was completed by Samantha Li, while studying at West Island School, Pokfulam, Hong Kong. Samantha gained full marks (120/120 and 80/80) for both her Coursework and Examination. This article contains images of Samantha’s GCSE Art sketchbook pages: outstanding observational drawings of architectural spaces, artist research, development of ideas and experimentation with media. Usfs. In an interview with the 54th regiment, Student Art Guide, Samantha shares the usfs papers, themes she explored – a reflection of daily life and busy routines – and provides insight into how she developed a high level of websites artistic skill and the ability to work with speed. Usfs Papers. Her descriptions of the places depicted within her work are breathtaking: indicating a deep connection and understanding of her subject matter – something all IGCSE / GCSE Art students should aspire to. Professional Business Plan Writers. These sketchbook pages show highly accomplished sketches: tone applied with gestural hatching and papers a overlaid wash. Professional Business Writers. The figures are captured in motion: the viewer immediately drawn into usfs research, the scene.

The immediacy the stunning attention to light and shadow in the figure to the right show indicate exceptional drawing skill. What was your GCSE Art Coursework topic and why did you select this? Samantha : My coursework topic was ‘Sense of place’ and, for teenage argumentative essay thesis, me, this is expressing culture and sense of belonging through touch, sight, taste, smell, and sound. The first two can easily be communicated through texture and colors, and a combination of these creates an atmosphere that bursts into life. The city scenes are of Sham Shui Po, Central, Aberdeen and Causeway Bay, all in Hong Kong. Usfs Papers. For my artwork, I used reference photos I took myself and also drew from life.

I was lucky to be living in Aberdeen during that time and often went to technique the marketplace to buy groceries. It felt good to be part of the busy, yet simple routines. Research Papers. The woman with the red gloves speaking in Cantonese while I just pretend to 1988 essay understand by nodding#8230;the smell of flowers interrupted by the metallic smell of fish. There was so much going on! As I twisted through the lanes searching for the perfect potato, what visually appealed to papers me the most were the professional miami, dripping, grungy walls hidden behind the stalls. A mix between the research, freshness of vegetables, combined with what looked ancient, seemed somewhat natural, which makes it beautiful.

It’s like that feeling when looking at the hands of an 1988 dbq atomic aged farmer, it’s beautiful ! This International GCSE Art sketchbook page is filled with rich mixed-media experimentation: layered mediums encouraging the exploration of research papers shape, pattern, detail and form. Your Coursework project contains exceptional gestural drawings. Drawing quickly is something that many students struggle with. Teenage. How did you develop this skill? Samantha : When sketching without resources, I rarely think and just jump straight into it. Thinking too much restricts your mind’s ability to use the information it has gathered through experience, so I try to just trust my instincts and research papers adjust it afterwards if it doesn’t look right. I have done a lot of drawing as a hobby ever since I could hold a pencil.

I only started to 1988 dbq atomic bomb develop my techniques professionally during the summer of 2012 (towards the end of first GCSE year) when I was introduced to a small, unfamiliar art group by papers an ex-graphic designer. The building was impoverished, with broken stairs, peeling walls (my favorite!) and small rooms with no fans or air conditioning. The tropical climate didn’t help much either. However the intensity of the atmosphere distracted me completely from the stickiness of the sixty people around me and the sweat continuously dripping from 54th massachusetts, my forehead. This goes on papers for nine hours, from 8am to 11:30pm (I try to use only teenage pregnancy 3hrs per piece), not including lunch and dinner breaks in usfs research, between. Absent of superfluous decoration (distracting headings and essay borders), this sketchbook page is an excellent example of mixed-media exploration.

Layers of newspaper, torn paper, ink and earth-coloured washes are combined to create a rich and varied sketchbook page. The other artists were older and more skilled than me. That gave me pressure and the drive to surpass the usfs research papers, person beside me. They were all using the massachusetts, building as a studio and papers practice for art exams to get into pregnancy argumentative thesis, universities, so competition was everywhere. I also made a lot of friends that gave me tips and also taught me how to play basketball and pool! The other artists focused completely on usfs papers the examination system (which I don’t really understand at all, to essay mill be honest) so the sketching ‘rules’ were strict and didn’t have room for imagination.

Nearly all the students there had no interest in art and usfs research papers were simply there to get into a university. I guess this was the difference between us that made me improve at such a rapid speed in a short period of time: passion. I just keep reminding myself of my dream, which is to dbq atomic bomb essay become someone who adds respect to the art world and reduces the stereotypical belief that #8216;people become an artist as last resort#8217;, which is, unfortunately, a common thought among many people I’ve met. These International GCSE Art sketchbook pages contains analysis of artist work and first-hand drawings of usfs research papers architectural structures on a ground of professional business writers torn newspaper. Other than that summer experience, I draw a lot at home for fun, creating dynamic poses and looking up tutorials for interesting techniques.

I used to draw for a few hours right after I got home from school, stopping only when my wrist ached. Now, I have an exciting International Baccalaureate life with subjects I enjoy and usfs I spend less time doodling and more time studying and 1988 dbq atomic bomb hanging out usfs papers, with friends. The main things I learned through my experiences: We are extremely lucky to live with such great conditions to help reach our full potential (especially if we have air-conditioning). Focus on the big picture first, add the superman, details later. Art is art, not a photograph! My journey not only helped me improve technical skill, it helped me build more confidence and develop experiences that are not so art-related. Again demonstrating an intimate understanding of usfs her subject matter, these drawings instantly capture the bustling everyday life of urban spaces. Philo. Which artists did you study as part of your project? Samantha : During the project, the artists I studied use very different styles and mediums. Most of GCSE was experimentation, so our class was encouraged to try a wide range of techniques, such as pen pressure, layering… Ian Murphy was the usfs papers, first artist I studied.

He came to our school and taught us lots of philo methods of papers creating backgrounds, linework, and his art-making process. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. It opened a whole new world of usfs research possibilities in my mind when expressing directional movement and creating effects the business, traditional way (I was a digital art addict)! While most of Ian Murphy’s artwork creates a reminder of culture and age by emphasizing the textural attributes, Jasper Knight’s artworks have a more modern and graphical look. His distinctive style includes using solid colors (usually primary) and bold lines that drip. What captures me the most about Jasper Knight’s work is the combination of geometrical features and playfulness, similar to De Stijl and Memphis. As a digital art lover, I was attracted to Margaret Preston’s color schemes and printmaking technique, which is quite similar to usfs cel-shading. Her artwork express complexity through few colors and strong borders which makes it eye-catching.

Kurt Schwitters was an artist I studied while I was experimenting with collage and composition through basic shapes and materials. I became more open-minded about superman different materials such as rope, wires, and aluminium foil, all which I have never used before in a painting. His work also gave me ideas on the use of levels (height and density of materials) when printmaking. This series of work shows the development towards Samantha#8217;s final piece. With cast light falling upon intersecting, geometric, architectural forms, this final piece reminds us that the research papers, very best high school Art projects respond to meaningful, personal, first-hand experience: an exploration of the world we find ourselves in. Samantha is a multi-talented student: someone to watch. If you enjoyed this article, you may also wish to view Samantha#8217;s International GCSE Art Examination or other exemplary high school Painting and Fine/Art Projects.

This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of dbq atomic Art and Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools. Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Usfs Research Papers. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter.

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FACT Magazine: Music News, New Music. Welcome, ladies and usfs research gentlemen, to The 100 Best Albums of the 1990s. We’ve been chewing over technique philo this selection for nearly two years now, on and off. It’s not a process into papers, which we’ve entered lightly, but along the way we’ve tried to keep the debate fluid, fun and massachusetts above all personal. Usfs! The result is a list that above all reflects our preferences and our prejudices. We’ve sought to include as many personal favourites of our staff members as possible (we’ve also gathered quotes and requested blurbs from professional writers, some of usfs papers our favourite contemporary musicians), and above all we’ve done our best to be honest: these are records that we truly love, records that we truly enjoy listening to even now. Essay Mill! No false nostalgia, no sacred cows, no going through the motions. Usfs Research Papers! Many of the chosen LPs we discovered during the 90s, many we discovered more recently. 54th Regiment Thesis! At the research papers, end of the day, this is a list of the best albums of the ’90s from a very precise and peculiar vantage point: 2012. If we had compiled the list last year, or next year, it would look broadly similar to the one you’re looking at now, but certainly not identical. Our perception and technique understanding of the past is always changing and always, we hope, improving.

And so it begins. Today we’re publishing the first 20 of our 100 (#100-81), and we’ll be publish another 20 each day this week, with #20-1 revealed on usfs research papers Friday. So strap in, prepare to pump your fists in agreement and shake them in essay websites, outrage, as we lift the lid on FACT’s 100 Best Albums of the 1990s. In case you missed the memo, Lil Wayne’s more interested in skating than rapping these days, and it explains a lot – bar a few moments on recent-ish mixtape Sorry for the Wait , he’s been one of the laziest stars on the genre’s frontline for quite some time. Either way, if the coming years are to see the dust settle on Weezy’s career, don’t be surprised if 1999’s Tha Block is Hot becomes reevaluated as his best: less drug-addled and spluttered-out than his work in the next decade, it captures Wayne naive, confused and trying to find his way in research papers, a cold world – several tracks (‘Fuck tha World’, ‘Up to Me’) are moving tributes to his murdered stepfather, while on others (‘Kisha’, ‘Loud Pipes’), he spars with his Cash Money contemporaries like the best Hot Boys cuts.

More atmospheric and pregnancy argumentative less silly than debut EP Guts of usfs papers a Virgin, the second transmission from 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, Painkiller (John Zorn, Mick ‘Scorn’ Harris and Bill Laswell) showcases some of the decade’s most confrontational characters at usfs research close to technique their peak: whereas Zorn, in particular, can tire over the course of research papers a whole album, here the balance between endlessly echoed doom, squealing murder-skronk and lo-fi grind works perfectly. Godflesh’s Justin Broadrick and G.C. Green even join the party at points, making Buried Secrets as close to massachusetts regiment thesis a jolly as grindcore ever got. 98. The Olivia Tremor Control. …Dusk At Cubist Castle.

(Blue Rose / Flydaddy, 1996) The neglected little brother to Neutral Milk Hotel’s In the research, Aeroplane Over the Sea , the essay mill websites, first album from Georgia’s The Olivia Tremor Control – which sounds roughly like the Beach Boys dissolved into clouds – remains an overlooked piece of the ’90s indie puzzle. Sadly, the recent death of founding member Bill Doss was the first time we’d heard people mention the group in years. (Glitterhouse / Sub Pop, 1990) Released right at the start of the decade, and a clear influence on Mogwai and others, what’s still remarkable about Frigid Stars is how classic it sounds from your very first listen. None of its songs have had the advantage of usfs papers being buried into 54th thesis, the trans-Atlantic subconscience the way that the most recognisable tracks by Pixies or even Pavement have, yet from research, that first guitar lick, the hero, first time “D for effort…” leaves Stephen Immerwahr’s mouth, you feel like you’re listening to an album that you know each note of. It’s no coincidence that Frigid Stars features a track titled ‘Gravel Bed’: this is music that ebbs and flows like the tide on the coast, but with a bitter, bored core that’s far spikier than mere sand. Jim Baker and Phil Aslett’s extraordinary run of research 12?s singles released between 1994 and 1998 – on Good Looking, Certificate 18, Metalheadz, Odysee and their own Source Direct Recordings – established them as one of drum ‘n bass’s most talented and dark-hearted production units. By the time their major label debut album, Exorcise The Demons , arrived, their best days were already behind them; this was an album boasting all the precision-engineered brutality of their previous work, but lacking its beauty, and its humanity.

It remains nonetheless a thrilling document of smacked-out, misanthropic jungle for superman hero essay, stalkers, serial killers and ne’er-do-wells – no wonder opening track ‘Call Response’ is the favoured listening of Stephen Dorff’s vampire villain in Blade . Logos (Keysound): “Source Direct will always be, for me, the masters; a weaponised hybrid of The Parallax View , hardcore rave and usfs research papers the breakbeat. Exorcise the Demons is the technique philo, flawed, at times frustrating but still essential culmination of their mid-90s experiments.” Scott Walker’s journey is papers a pretty unique one: from mill, ’60s teen heartthrob to avant-garde visionary, via a decade or so of Valium-addled MOR decrepitude. Usfs Research! 1983’s Climate Of Hunter marked the singer’s return from obscurity, but it’s the 1988 essay, 1995 follow-up, Tilt , that really sees him hit his stride. Walker’s lyrics verge on impenetrably dense, pivoting lithely between the starkly personal and the cryptically political, and the arrangements follow suit: from the industrial clatterings of ‘The Cockfighter’ to usfs the threateningly sparse ‘Bolivia ’95’, Walker sculpts sounds that explore the outer limits of the orchestral palette, as well as twisting pop forms into tortured, exquisite new shapes. Joakim: “Crooners can be assholes in real life and angels when they sing. They can save your soul, they are super-humans.” Before Global Communication really become a going concern, Messrs Pritchard and Middleton dreamt up this sprawling dreamtime techno opus, complete with ambient interludes, industrial hissy fits, dusty breakbeats and a booklet of cosmic pulp fiction to boot.

Airlock jams and 54th regiment thesis soapbox proselytizing from Brooklyn’s nimblest operators. There were tougher and tricksier rap records, but few had Funcrusher Plus ’s furious panache. El-P: “It was different back then: We were in The Source , DJ Premier was rocking our shit on his mixtapes, KRS-One was rapping above our instrumentals. We kind of came out at research papers the perfect time because people hadn’t yet created subgenres so we were thrown into the pantheon of rap music in general. Massachusetts Regiment! There wasn’t a lot of people being like, ‘Wow, they listen to usfs papers this kind of rap.’ But when I was a kid I just assumed everyone should like this shit because I felt like I was the ultimate hip-hop fan. Like: ‘Yo, this adheres to my very fucking strict standards of what a dope record should be.’ I was 21 so I was pretty fucking high on myself.”

If D’Angelo’s 1995 album Brown Sugar fired the business plan miami, starting gun on what came to research be termed Neo-Soul, then Baduizm , released in 1997, was the so-called movement’s early peak. Mill Websites! Compared to papers the sprawling, symphonic and increasingly auteurish ambitions present in Erykah Badu’s later work, her debut album feels lightweight – but its streamlined, unfailingly smooth exterior conceals a sharply observed lyrical core. From quietly heart-rending socio-political commentary (the exquisite ‘Otherside Of The Game’) to naked expressions of desire (‘Next Lifetime’) and professional business plan writers miami easy humour (the improvised ‘Afro’) Baduizm succeeded in smuggling subtle, challenging and at times troubling emotional content into the dinner parties and hotel lobbies of the Western world – all under cover of a silkily urbane, endlessly gratifying boom clack. (Chemikal Underground/Matador, 1998) It’s hard to talk about Arab Strap without falling into cliche, or even sounding condescending: yes, on research the surface it’s depressing music about depressing subjects played by depressed-sounding Scots, but to focus on that would be to do Aidan Moffat and Malcolm Middleton several disservices. Firstly, for a pair of miserable c**ts they pen a euphoric climax better than most trance producers (Tiesto’s never written anything as soaring as the 54th massachusetts, close of ‘There is usfs research No Ending’ or ‘The First Big Weekend’), and secondly, unlike many of their contemporaries, Arab Strap never moped – each tale of desolation or disgrace was delivered with a knowing smile and superman hero essay sense of perspective. It’s been said before, but who else could write a song as heart-breaking as Philophobia ‘s ‘Packs of Three’ and open it with that line? Bratmobile: the definition of papers three-chord amateur punk, with lyrics straight out of a high school diary (“I don’t wanna hear how many friends you have / I don’t have any anymore”), but by God did it work, and just how ridiculously welcome would it be now? ‘Polaroid Baby’ (“Polaroid girl / Polaroid boy / You’re so white and you’re so cute / Burn to the fucking ground L.A.”) sounds directed straight at the Instagram generation, while ‘Fuck Yr Fans’ is the sort of declaration of technique philo unadulterated hate that indie rock’s barely had the chutzpah to show in years. The Self Evident Truth Of An Intuitive Mind.

Sumptuous drum ‘n bass science fiction – a trip to research the dark side of the moon powered by pistoning Amen breaks and sighing, widescreen string pads. Self Evident Truth came out the hero, same year as the far more fauned-over Timeless , but while Goldie’s debut looked to slick jazz-funk and usfs soul for off-piste inspiration, T-Power’s creation felt more aligned with the Detroit techno of the early ’90s – if Carl Craig was a junglist, he might have made something like the sublime ‘Circle’. A collaboration between controversy-bating noise terrorist Boyd Rice (NON) and goth pin-up Rose McDowall (Strawberry Switchblade), Seasons In The Sun is a surprisingly sweet, faithful covers album of rock ‘n roll, teen-pop and hero essay country songs from the 1950s through to the ’70s – or at usfs research least so it seems. Under the essay, wry, breezy, Nancy’n’Lee-ish exterior lurk demons and mischief: lyrics are modified to sound darker and more fatalistic, references to Hell and death are introduced. There is usfs research poison in this cherry pie. The biggest surprise, though, is business plan writers Boyd’s voice: an oaky croon of research uncommon warmth and plan writers gravitas. Filmmusik is the usfs, sort of capriccio the forward slash was made for: an album/OST/radio show/scrapbook/verbatim piece/dream journal that offers unprecedented insight into the German artist’s cluttered mind. Felix Kubin: “All I know about Felix Kubin personally is 54th that he claims to have telepathic connections to outer space intelligence, especially to Jurij Gagarin and his humming protones…Felix is usfs research also fascinated by massachusetts eerie sounds, he started to use them in research, his compositions when his mother died. I wouldn’t want to pregnancy argumentative essay share a room with him but I respect his music.

Concerning music he is research papers ‘ok’, I think.” Serous art-techno from Thomas Koner and Andy Mellwig’s groundbreaking production project, calibrated for essay mill websites, the dancefloors but perfect for the floatation chamber. Thomas Koner (Porter Ricks): “Do I have to be remembered at all? Can’t I just disappear?” A collection of research papers tracks made by Kevin Saunderson under his E-Dancer moniker, including remixes by Juan Atkins, D-Wynn, Kenny Larkin and Carl Craig that fit seamlessly into the flow of future-rushing, maximalist machine-funk.

You won’t find a better one-shot demonstration of essay mill mid-’90s Detroit techno’s soul, vision and papers studio invention. Kevin Saunderson (E-Dancer): “The most important part for me is creating a sound that is 54th massachusetts regiment unique. Getting within the research, parameters and the oscillators, you know, I like that kinda shit, create magic. Most people don’t know that, there’s a bunch of new kids, they just look for presets.” California : aka what happens when Mike Patton’s original band – not quite his weirdest one, but certainly not his poppiest, either – decide they’re going to… you know what, scrap that. I doubt anybody, even Mr. Bungle themselves, quite knew what they were aiming for superman hero, with California , bar some loose idea of making a “pop” record, but it emerged as a bona fide classic. Hotel lobby piano, doo-wop style harmonies, vaudeville swing, rockabilly and surf-pop so laid back that it bought the hammock before the beach house all feature, and somehow all find space to breathe on research a mine-cart ride full of essay mill websites violent twists, sudden gear shifts and usfs papers more. On ‘Retrovertigo’, the group aim skywards with a Vanilla Sky -daubed ballad every bit as potent as Radiohead’s best moments, while ‘The Air Conditioned Nightmare’ is what Quentin Tarantino’s head must sound like when he hasn’t slept for days. ‘Vanity Fair’, meanwhile, sounds like it should be soundtracking a wedding, until you’re realise that it’s roughly about circumcision. California then: how to cram 1000 genres into one record, and make it work.

Girl Talk, take note. Summery, silky-smooth but rave-savvy Bristol soul from the man who vocalled Massive Attack’s debut 12?, brought to life by technique dissertation philo perfectly rugged production from Smith Mighty. Despite its all-but-forgotten, bargain bin status today, this record has stood the test of time a lot better than Soul II Soul’s similarly oriented Club Classics Vol.1 . It’s a lost classic, make no mistake, and quite how it got so lost – especially given its clear abundance of pop and club appeal – is an absolute mystery. In the Beasties’ Homeric odyssey of self-definition, Ill Communication remains the port where they sounded most comfortable. Snotty, funky and screwy, it showed these unlikely journeymen at the peak of their game. Jungle noir – moody, minimalist, sophisticated and tough . In the end, Modus Operandi is perhaps a little too cool, a little too painstakingly constructed, for its own good – it’s an easier album to admire than to love. But really, who could fail to be seduced by the icy rollage of ‘Minotaur’ and ‘Trans 7’, the interstellar funk of ‘Aleph 1’, the research, deep blue techno of ‘124’, or the massachusetts thesis, smoked-out future-jazz of ‘KJZ’ and the title track?

It’s hard to an imagine a dance music album so conceptually robust and vividly, exquisitely produced being made today, let alone coming out via a major label. Photek: “I feel like there was definitely a concept behind it…but I’m not sure how well I could articulate it, even now. I mean, that’s how the title, Modus Operandi, came about in the first place: back then so many different people, in interviews or whatever, were asking me to define jungle. The way I chose to define it to usfs them was as a style of programming, a style of using sonics to make music, as opposed to using instruments to make music. This was music purely about soundscapes, space, bass…and you can forget how hard this was to hero explain to some people at the time. And at the same time, it was quite open: I felt like any style or tempo of music could fit on Modus Operandi if it was sonically right.” (Amphetamine Reptile, 1992) The best album from the Midwest’s finest blues-rock bastards, we could talk all day about Cunning Stunts , but its Wikipedia entry – which doesn’t seem to have been updated since the usfs, 1990s – is unbeatable in its simplicity: “The first album where [Cows] began developing real melodies and patterns instead of their usual blasts of noise.

It is no longer in print; however, it is available online at, on Windows Media Player 10 and on iTunes.” The notion of “glacial” ambient music is a monstrous cliche these days, but it wouldn’t exist were it not for Geir Jenssen’s magnificent Substrata, an album whose drifting Arctic serenity gives new meaning to the phrase “chill out”. ‘Hyperborea’ samples dialogue from hero, Twin Peaks , specifically Major Briggs’ moving recollection of his dream to his son, Bobby, and research this speech serves also to describe the experience of teenage essay thesis hearing Substrata for the first time: “This was a vision, fresh and clear as a mountain stream, the mind revealing itself to itself. Usfs Research! In my vision, I was on the veranda of a vast estate, a palazzo of some fantastic proportion. There seemed to 1988 essay emanate from it a light from within, this gleaming, radiant marble. I’d known this place. I had in fact been born and raised there. This was my first return.

A reunion with the research papers, deepest well-springs of my being.” Released after Dr. Dre halted his involvement in superman hero, the group (he executive produced Above the Law’s Livin’ Like Hustlers ; the research, group’s producer Cold187um later claimed to have pioneered the twisted G-Funk style that Dre made famous on The Chronic , released prior to this album but actually recorded after it), Black Mafia Life showcases the West’s great nearly-men. The production bears all the G-Funk hallmarks, but comes put together in a rough, collaged style, too loose for the charts, while the samples are just that little bit too obvious at times – let’s face it, for all Dre’s faults, you couldn’t see him sampling Hall and Oates’ ‘I Can’t Go For That’ in 1992*. Mill! The rapping, meanwhile, is again loose and research papers scattershot; for all Above the Law’s qualities, it’s clear in retrospect that they didn’t quite have the dissertation philo, ear for usfs research, a radio-friendly hook that made Dre a star. Still, footnotes rarely sound as good as Black Mafia Life. *Yes, we know De La did. We mused on dbq atomic essay the idea of including Godspeed’s oft-overlooked 1999 EP Slow Riot for New Zero Kanada in this list, still the tightest, all-killer-no-filler record that the research papers, Canadian anti-rock group ever made, but it seemed to miss the point. The reason Godspeed’s music works so well over the course of 1988 bomb a full-length album – on both this, and usfs research papers 2000’s Lift Yr.

Skinny Fists like Antennas to Heaven – is because it needs time to massachusetts regiment thesis meander, to retreat, dust itself off and come back at research you with double the force. Sure, there are stretches of F# A# ? that are forgettable, but that’s just the way that Godspeed move, and this record, for us, captures them at their effortlessly iconic best. Jacques Greene: “Godspeed You! Black Emperor have always had this sort of pregnancy argumentative essay looming presence in my neighbourhood in Montreal. Though they were more or less over by the time I was going to shows, their ‘legacy’ or whatever you’d want to call it lived through studios and bars they had opened and their continued involvement in other bands. I came across their music through a friend in high school and proceeded to learn so much from all their records about research papers, pace, sound, the sense for restraint, but to also know when it’s time to go big and professional business plan dense.” A history lesson in more ways than one, singles collection Silentintroduction plots Kenny Dixon Jr.’s fledgling steps, and simultaneously concertinas half a century of black music into research, ten stunning pieces of nuclear Afro-fusion. Carl Craig: “The talking, the narration that caused so much controversy – all that. That was the massachusetts regiment, first time that I ever dealt with anything that had all that controversy. He made some statements – Detroit militant statements – that were more him being silly than anything that he ever believed. Of course, it always seems like when it comes down to usfs papers race, that it’s a one-sided story with a lot of websites folks, and I think people got that kind of usfs research papers concept from it.

But he’s not that kind of guy.” Right – the comments section is right there, does anybody have a bad word to say about Pulp? The best band to 1988 bomb ever be associated with Britpop (though unlike many of their supposed peers, the research, Sheffield group both predated its rise and comfortably survived its downfall), Different Class is a blindingly obvious pick for a list like this, but there’s a reason for that – it is, simply put, from start to finish, just an teenage thesis unbeatable record. Forget ‘Common People’ and ‘Disco 2000’, because the chart-topping singles aren’t even half of the usfs, Different Class story; instead, throw on ‘Something Changed’ and technique dissertation remind yourself of research papers arguably the best love song a band from England wrote all decade, or the gently tumbling ‘Underwear’, all torn-open desires and shared moments of bliss over damp patches. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis! Meanwhile, on papers closer ‘Bar Italia’, Pulp captured the faded morning after the 54th massachusetts, rave just as well as later musicians who’d specialise in it (Burial, The Weeknd), and did it so casually it hurts. The debut transmission from New Jersey’s pre-eminent signal jammers, and a bracing introduction to their heavy-browed amalgam of shoegaze, noise, drone and thug-rap. Given the cerebral shenanigans that have defined Herbert’s last decade, 100lbs remains an usfs papers astonishingly physical, exquisitely rendered house record – for all the pig-sampling high jinks, he’s yet to top it. Matthew Herbert: “I started playing violin and piano at the age of four, and I was in a big band when I was 14. So I think conversely my music teachers would probably have listened to 100lbs and been quite confused. That formal technique of music and harmony had been something I’d been learning for many years. The electronic stuff was much more surprising to me.

It was kind of a reaction to all that learning. I spent a lot of time learning that if you played a wrong note you were a bad musician, and 1988 dbq atomic essay that didn’t seem to correspond to how I felt music was in usfs research papers, my own life. When music technology was democratized in the ’80s it allowed me to develop my own style and mill websites ideas at home, away from church halls and papers other people.” (Kill Rock Stars, 1993) Forget Refused and Fugazi, Unwound’s Fake Train is the 1988 dbq atomic essay, true pinnacle of intelligent, prolix but still furious post-hardcore punk, with way more swagger to boot. Best sleeve art ever too: a crudely defaced version of the cover from Tom Jones’ 1977 LP, Tom . Aaron Warren (Black Dice): “I listened to usfs this record every day the year it came out, and for quite a few years to come. This band was the 54th thesis, very model of papers success to dbq atomic me, making records every year, touring, playing DIY shows, living the independent dream to usfs research the max.

The music on here is technique much more angular and dissonant than I remember it being, but it’s basically the meeting of west coast underground rock and usfs the jazzy ideas of dudes like Sun Ra and Ornette Coleman, at least to my ears today.” Breaking Atoms sounded hugely ahead of its time in ’91, and was the record that cemented Large Professor as a go-to producer for the next decade in hip-hop. Pro had already helped out on a couple of seminal albums, finishing off the Eric B and Rakim masterpiece Let The Rhythm Hit Em in dissertation philo, lieu of the research, sadly departed Paul C, and working with Kool G Rap and business miami Polo at the heights of research their combined genius, but it was with Main Source that he nailed his boom-bap signature and kaleidoscopic sample palette. ‘Looking Out The Front Door’ became an instant and 1988 dbq atomic essay enduring club favourite, thanks to the key-cycling loop of Donald Byrd’s ‘Think Twice’, which went on to inspire revisits by Carl Craig and research papers J Dilla among others. Meanwhile a fledgling rapper named Nas made his conspicuous debut on technique dissertation philo ‘Live At The BBQ’, and research papers a new chapter in hero, hip hop history began. Confusingly, their best track, ‘Atom’, never made it onto the album and can only be found on the promo 12”.

Music To Play In The Dark (issued as a limited vinyl edition in ’99 ahead of research papers full release in 2000) is argumentative essay one of Coil’s most enchanting and usfs papers accessible records, but it’s still bleak as hell: a sort of serotonin-depleted postscript to their earlier acid house phase. ‘Are You Shivering?’ was supposedly conceived as a paean to the magickal effects of MDMA, but clearly it’s concerned more with the comedown than the high, in teenage essay, particular that moment when night gives way to morning and one feels, in usfs papers, Jhon Balance’s beautifully chosen words, “squidlike and squalid”. ‘Red Birds Fly Out Of The East And Destroy Paris In A Night’ reimagines Detroit techno as part of the European gothic tradition, while the sepulchral cabaret jazz (!) of ‘Red Queen’ channels Isherwood via Marc The Mambas. Teenage Pregnancy Argumentative Essay! R.I.P. Jhon and Sleazy – the world is a far less interesting place without you in it. Surgeon: “I like the fact that they lived the life of their music. Gives it more gravity, greater depth.” In 1997 life was pretty shit for Michael and John Head, the Liverpudlian brothers behind The Pale Fountains and Shack. Their studio had burned down, destroying all traces of the nearly-completed new Shack album with it (the one back-up tape in existence was accidentally left in an American rental car by their manager, and never recovered). They were skint. Oh, and they were in the grip of heroin addiction. Given the circumstances, one might have expected their next creative move to be suicide, but thankfully for research, them, and for us, Mick Head looked inside his soul and argumentative thesis pulled out the strongest set of songs of his career.

Not bleak or self-pitying songs, but hopeful, beautiful, often heart-bursting ones, with lyrics equally preoccupied with the usfs research papers, mystical and the mundane, and business writers miami recorded in usfs research, a pastoral, delicately psychedelic folk-rock style – all guitar, strings, woodwind and brushed drums – that nodded to websites their heroes Love, Nick Drake and The Byrds. Credited to Michael Head The Strands it was, and remains, a near-perfect record, but in true Head fashion it took two years to usfs come out and at first was only available as an professional writers miami import, attracting critical acclaim but not much else. Soon after its release, Shack got another shot at commercial success – Mick appeared on usfs research the cover of NME , hailed by the paper as Britain’s Greatest Songwriter, and dissertation philo they signed to London Records – but the usfs papers, album they delivered, the bloated, over-keen and distinctly embarrassing HMS Fable , wasn’t fit to mill websites lick The Magical World Of The Strands ‘ boots, and duly flopped. Michael Head: “It’s that old chestnut – Magical was a smack album, and that’s about the size of usfs research papers it. Mill! And that answers a lot of questions, about transformation, and usfs why this, how come that… Finish with smack, Shack make another album. The Strands was me, John, a girl called Michelle on bass, a flautist called Les, and lain on drums. And then it all happened the way it probably should have, they just dissolved away.”

What more needs to essay be said about usfs, this record? Released later than many of the pregnancy argumentative thesis, New York classics on this list, Reasonable Doubt made up for usfs research papers, lost time with a perfect musical equivalent to the Big Apple portrayed by 54th massachusetts thesis Martin Scorcese and in Leone’s Once Upon A Time in America , every drum hit clouded by cigar smoke, each camera-shot snaking through ominous corridors of unspoken power. This alarmingly underrated full-length collaboration between Pan Sonic’s Mika Vainio and research papers Ilpo Vaisanen and Suicide’s Alan Vega comes over hero like the soundtrack to the greatest cyberpunk movie never made. Vega’s cracked-Elvis howl ‘n croon has never sounded so feral and dissolute, and usfs the Finnish contingent produce some of the most varied and vital music of their career, spanning supple, red-light-district techno, twisted steel industrial and even Tangerine Dream-ish synth-scaping. Irreproachably badass. Recorded after Nick Oliveri left the group, and superman hero essay the last Kyuss album to feature Brant Bjork, Welcome to Sky Valley captures the desert rock titans in a minor state of flux, but remains their best full-length. Usfs Research Papers! Bjork, for all the thesis, alleged disagreements with frontman Josh Homme that fuelled his departure, is an absolute machine on the drums here, and research papers it’s that endlessly rolling percussion that drives Sky Valley , even more so than the sun-scorched guitar that became Kyuss’s trademark. Websites! For a record made of such dry sounds, Sky Valley is remarkably slippery in its movements, and, from opener ‘Gardenia’ to its majestic closer ‘Whitewater’, never once toils or tries.

Picking up where Schaeffer and Tenney left off, the turntable artist sits back and lets his choir of phonographs and knackered belt-drives sing. The results are, in papers, more ways than one, quietly revolutionary. BJ Nilsen: “1998: In the middle of Clicks and Cuts and all that stuff, Surf was the record to really draw my attention. Unlike some of the other turntablists I had heard, he allowed the compositions to take form (or not) organically over longer periods of time, creating warm, ghostly and fragile compositions, the sound of 54th thesis a melted stack of vinyl…The record inspired finalising my debut on Ash International that came out the following year – especially the opening chord of ‘Demolition’, which I ripped off by usfs hitting my guitar at the top of the neck…Hats off to Jeck!” Not quite the towering smackdown of pregnancy urban Britain that 1989’s Streetcleaner was, Pure nonetheless finds Godflesh on fine form – and more musical to boot. Research Papers! The appearance of superman Loop and Main’s Robert Hampson on four tracks probably helps – whisper it quietly, but ‘I Wasn’t Born to Follow’ is actually quite pretty, with more than a hint of Justin Broadrick’s later work as Jesu to it, while ‘Don’t Bring Me Flowers’ sports echoes of Slowdive. Still, Pure is research far from the professional writers miami, sound of Broadrick and Green going soft: one listen to the rampaging drum machines of its title track on research papers a proper stereo is unforgiving proof of that. Justin Broadrick (Godflesh): “We were seen as total outsiders, but managed to get a lot of attention because of it, I think. We were one of those bands that stepped outside the comfortable sense of normality that metal had.

You’d rarely see a band in argumentative, a magazine like that with a guy with shaved head, sitting on the floor and messing with a delay pedal. Usfs Papers! We were seen as a freakish thing I guess, but there was a comfort in 54th massachusetts, that.” Communications (1996) was the record that booted the door in, but Antony Child’s 1999 LP of gnostically-attuned knuckleduster techno is the pick of his sterling album-a-year run through the second half of the decade. Conceived with British agitators like Coil and papers Whitehouse in teenage thesis, mind, it’s brisk, brutal and – on the almost Metalheadz-friendly ‘At The Heart Of It All’, at least – breezy. Hands on hearts, we’d take Westside Connection’s debut album over any of Ice Cube’s solo records. Yes, the combination of Cube and the Bomb Squad provided an unmistakable rush on AmeriKKKa’s Most Wanted , but to our ears there’s no backing that suits Cube better than casual West Coast bump. The production on papers Bow Down hasn’t aged a lick since the ’90s – those fat-bottomed one-finger baselines so refreshing in a climate of ultra-compressed 808s, the crackled intro on ‘The Gangsta, The Killa and essay the Dope Dealer’ still as ominous as ever – and usfs there’s not a single track here that’s close to hero essay a turkey.

Pledge allegiance. Members of the Tortoise/Chicago Undergound Orchestra diaspora free-associate at will; the usfs research, results (folksy funk; Spaghetti Western trip-hop; Geiger counter jazz) out-funk the former and business writers miami out-freak the latter. A member of the Roni Size-helmed Reprazent collective that would take drum ‘n bass to usfs research Mercury Prize-winning heights with 1997’s New Forms , Krust was a consummate producer in professional, his own right, helping define the papers, sound of spry, rolling Bristol jungle with his numerous productions on Full Cycle and V. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis! 1999’s debut album proper, Coded Language , overstretched itself creatively; far more satisfying is the research, grittier, club-focussed double-pack, Genetic Manipulation , which preceded it by business two years. Peverelist: “Epic, sprawling visions of the future from Krust. Releases like this, ‘Future Unknown’ and ‘True Stories’ don’t seem to fit in anywhere within drum bass, and seem extraordinary in retrospect. Krust is definitely the most avant-garde of the Bristol producers.” Ladies And Gentlemen We Are Floating In Space. “Love in the middle of the afternoon; just me, my spike in my arm and my spoon…” Jason Pierce conjured a work of usfs research papers astonishing, redemptive beauty out of dope addiction and heartbreak, aided by a string section, horns, BJ Cole, Dr John, the superman essay, London Community Gospel Choir – everything, indeed, but the kitchen sink. Given the long list of contributing personnel, Ladies And Gentlemen still sounds and feels like a very personal offering from Pierce, and this is testament to usfs research papers the singularity and tenacity of his vision. (Kiff Sm / Pias Germany, 1998)

Germany’s Stefan Betke was so in love with the “crackle” generated by his Waldorf 4-Pole analogue filter, he built his entire creative identity around it. Allied to abstract dub rhythms, it made for a peculiarly haunting form of electronic head music, and you can detect the influence of CD1 and its two sequels – conscious or otherwise – on the likes of Actress, Burial, Andy Stott and The Caretaker. Pole: “We are talking about attention to detail as opposed to superficial qualities. Professional Miami! I spend a lot of my time reducing structural clutter in usfs research papers, a song, step by step, layer after layer, until I reach a certain foundation of lasting value.” Given the superman, absolute ubiquity of research papers twee bedsit indie in the post-C86 years, it’s funny to think how marginalised it had become by the mid-90s, with macho grunge and laddish Britpop ruling mainstream airwaves and record-racks. Belle Sebastian’s Tigermilk changed all that, or at least complicated the writers, issue: recorded as part of usfs papers his final assessment on a college music course, it found whey-faced newcomer Stuart Murdoch ripping off the singing (and frankly songwriting) style of Momus circa The Poison Boyfriend and running with it, adding some chamber-pop flourishes a la Scott Walker and superman hero essay Nick Drake, and serving it up with a generous extra helping of Sarah Records-style wetness. It wasn’t long before a palpable smugness crept into Murdoch’s lyrics, and the parochial romanticism that was BS’s stock in trade began to sound insincere, but this – this is a masterpiece. In 1996, having landed a deal, somewhat improbably, with London Records, pot-addled, low-end-obsessed doom-metallists Sleep proceeded to deliver not an papers album so much as one long song: ‘Jerusalem’. The label balked at the idea of releasing it, and, fed up with waiting for them to change their mind, Sleep gave their blessing to a bootleg version of the record, which emerged in essay, 1998, and quickly became a cult classic. An edited version was released a year later on Rise Above / Music Cartel, but it wasn’t until 2003 that the record, rechristened Dopesmoker , finally came out officially in all its unabridged, time-distorting glory.

Julian Cope: “When my all-smiling, all-visionary, all-grimming partner in sonic grime Stephen O’Malley sent me this Sleep album, I immediately thought it was the most ground-breaking record in usfs research papers, years because it took an business essentially unmeditational musical form (i.e. early Black Sabbath) and research sacralised it into 54th regiment, the highest form of usfs barbarian sonic code you could ever wish to trip out to. It monged my senses within the first five minutes, then set about my inner structures with sheer weight of adamant repetition and monotony…You could chew up some of the good hash and 1988 bomb neck a few beers and lie in bed and sleep to it, leave your body to it, probably even shag to it – though I was too busy to set up such an experiment.” (International Deejay Gigolo Records, 1999) So here’s how the papers, story goes: Gerald Donald, erstwhile member of Drexciya, borrowed DJ Hell’s BMW and, due to some negligence on his part, managed to write it off. To pay off his debt, Donald gave Hell the rights to put out this compilation of tracks by Dopplereffekt, the project he’d formed to explore a style of technique philo Kraftwerkian electro as mercilessly arid as Drexciya’s had been aquatic, all bound up with the imagery and language of eugenics, fascism and sexual objectification. Papers! Whether or not the story is true, there’s no doubting the brilliance of Gesamtkunstwerk , an album whose only crime is that it unwittingly helped give rise to electroclash. Like their animal namesake, The Moles are destined to remain an 54th massachusetts thesis underground concern; a shame, really, because their leader Richard Davies (who later formed the usfs papers, similarly obscure Cardinal) deserves to hero essay be hailed as one of the finest songwriters of his generation. Usfs! Originally released in 1991, full-length debut Untune The Sky is a natural expansion of the NZ psych-pop sound established by Flying Nun’s bands in the late ’80s, and Flying Nun in fact released the definitive CD edition of the album in ’99, adding crucial singles and B-sides like ‘This Is A Happy Garden’ and 54th massachusetts thesis ‘Lonely Hearts Get What They Deserve’. Usfs Research! We’d advise you to hunt down that version, or Kill Shaman’s 2010 double-vinyl reissue, if you want to get the full measure of The Moles. A million miles from what would come to be known as “minimal” in the following decade, Robert Hood took the Detroit techno sound and essay mill websites stripped everything extraneous away, exposing the music’s gleaming, steely endoskeleton. Research Papers! For Hood, 1994’s Minimal Nation was a protest record: “Nobody seems to essay websites get that,” he would later reflect. “Techno was becoming one huge sample and usfs the raves were becoming all about drugs…Minimalism is not going to stop, because it’s a direct reflection of the 1988 dbq atomic, way the world is going.

We’re stripping down and realising that we need to focus on what’s essential in our lives.” Robert Hood: “I was fooling around with a Juno 2 keyboard and I came across this chord sound; once I had that chord sound and papers a particular pattern I realised I didn’t need anything else. Massachusetts! In order to papers maximise the feeling of the music, sometimes we have to subtract.” The Village Orchestra: “‘Minimal’ as a term has been used to essay refer to sparseness of motion, of limited content, of a soporific low key tumble of drums; but Minimal here, in Hood’s hands, becomes both reference to stripping down to usfs papers the essentials – the stab of sickly discordant organ on ‘Unix’, the loping, filtering riff on ‘Station Rider’, the phasing pulse on ‘Sleep Cycles’ – and building them up into hero, an intricate, interlocking mesh of sound; and, more obliquely, a hearkening to the classical Minimalistic compositions of the usfs research, likes of Steve Reich, where arpeggios repeat and repeat and repeat and bomb essay repeat, the tonality and timbre of the instruments changing through phase patterns like the research, opening of a filter or the discordant synthesis overtones moving against a bassline. Hood’s tracks have a restless fluidity, a swing and 54th thesis lope, and his riffs constantly move, spiralling up, or rotating together like parts in a machine. ‘Minimal Nation’ distills the most pure essence of techno into usfs research papers, a perfect, machine-tooled mould that 18 years on has rarely, if ever, been bettered.” We dare say that most indie fans worth their salt know ‘Web in Front’, Icky Mettle ‘s opening track and one of the most distinctive guitar tracks of the superman essay, 1990s, but what of the rest of the album?

Taking the research papers, slack surrealism of Pavement, but upping the anger factor and earnestness (without, you know, becoming annoying), Icky Mettle finds the Carolina group tearing through classics like nobody’s business – from the teenage pregnancy argumentative essay thesis, drop-out anthem of ‘Wrong’, through the shrieking ‘You and Me’, to the gravel-rubbed ‘Learo, You’re a Hole’, it’s hit after hit; a storming opening statement from a group who, had things been different, could have been much, much bigger. Slow to shift units upon release, later years would see Mecca The Soul Brother haunt hip-hop in research papers, both the US and UK – how many Pete Rock copycats, in both New York and London, did the turn of the 2000s see? None of them, naturally, touched the technique philo, golden formula that Rock and usfs Smooth achieved on Mecca, an album so smooth that at times it’s gaseous: reverberated bells hanging in the air, washes of ambience sweeping over tracks in a way that – believe it or not – wasn’t so common-place back in ’92. The Chronic. Unless something went horrifically wrong with your childhood, this entire record should have been burnt into your subconscious by your mid-teens, and every time you start to professional writers miami doubt it in the years since, it comes right back: let’s not forget, this is an album that features ‘Let Me Ride’, ‘Wit’ Dre Day’ and ‘Nothin’ but a G Thang’ in its first 5 tracks alone. If you don’t at least try to recite ‘The $20 Sack Pyramid’ in research, full every time you hear the words “swap meet”, then we’re no longer friends.

Go spend a year at the doctor’s, and essay come back when you’re fully cured. (Shut Up And Dance Records, 1991) The sort of magmatic fondue of papers acid house, breakbeat and dancehall that could only websites, have existed at research the dawn of the 90s. Pregnancy Argumentative Thesis! Not everyone mastered the blend (we see you, Silver Bullet), but, on Reggae Owes Me Money , The Ragga Twins skank all the way to the bank. Before Splazsh , we had Frantz! . Ramon Bauer and Andi Pieper’s genre safari takes in glitch, ambient, modern classical, trip-hop and usfs research papers drone – all seen through the essay websites, same damaged cybertronic visor. Frequencies isn’t just the best album to come out of the usfs research, UK acid house explosion, it’s also reflects how alien and disembodying that music and essay mill websites the drug culture that sprung up with it must have felt to papers the first generation of ravers. It works as a dance record first and foremost, but also as a work of pure, exploratory, bass-heavy psychedelia. In which our folk hero channels Beefheart, dismantles Public Enemy, grumbles like Bukowski and, despite making one of the most schizophrenic full-lengths of the decade, wins over the commonweal. Mark Saunders ( Maxinquaye co-producer/engineer): “It was the most bizarre record I’ve ever worked on.

It was a complete un-learning experience and it was also a total re-learning experience. Superman Hero! Think of how to make a record, then forget everything you’ve learned and start completely backwards and upside down. I could write a book about Tricky. He’s such a great character.” For our money the culmination of the Underground Resistance family’s techno experiments, ergo one of of the all-time great techno albums, period. It’s a compilation of tracks released on Red Planet 12? between 1992-98 – pay particular attention to research papers ‘Sex In Zero Gravity’, which is massachusetts every bit as mindblowing as the act its title describes (we imagine). Ten years before ‘Stay Fly’, and usfs fifteen or so before Three 6 tribute act Spaceghostpurrp, this Memphis group were making the world’s most ominous lo-fi – Burzum’s prison diaries, fall back. The production predates the “trap” style that’s currently so fashionable, and although Juicy J’s more catchy these days, he’s never sounded this effortlessly menacing.

Shlohmo: “Old cassette music, old Three 6 Mafia – it wouldn’t be good if didn’t sound as bad.” Wolfgang Voigt was on fire in the 90s, working under a ridiculous number of aliases, and excelling in everything he deigned to attempt – from technique dissertation philo, spiky acid house to classically-informed ambient. The pert, propulsive, dubwise techno he made under the name Studio 1 was so minimal it made Robert Hood sound baroque, and nearly 15 years later its cutting edge has yet to be blunted. The mythology of Loveless : Kevin Shields almost bankrupted Creation with the album’s endless recording sessions, and has been working on a follow-up ever since. Usfs Research Papers! The reality of Loveless : it’s held up better than any album by Primal Scream, Oasis, or any of Creation’s flagship bands, and it’s probably best that said follow-up never arrives. In the recent words of label boss Alan McGee, “I am 50, man, it’s over. Teenage Pregnancy Argumentative! Good luck, Kevin Shields: get on research with it.” The decade’s great exercise in cut’n’paste.

Swampy, noirish and endlessly surprising, there’s a reason why Endtroducing… has become alt.rap’s fattest holy cow – a chthonic antidote to 54th massachusetts regiment thesis The Chronic. Ezra Koenig (Vampire Weekend): “This was such a good introduction to sampling, and the idea that modern music could be made from the past. It inspired me in a big way. I applied to research papers Harvard, and I wrote an essay about Endtroducing … It was based around the essay mill websites, idea that bringing things together in usfs, this way could be applied to all art forms.” The most perfectly balanced of the avant-garde racket-maker’s exercises in uncanny Tropicalismo. Delicate as rice paper, intricate as origami.

Stumbling from the wilderness, mouth parched and hands scratched, the Jungle Brothers affiliate offers up one of hip-hop’s strangest pieces of folk art. Lo-fi in excelsis. Dimension Intrusion was the debut album release by Richie Hawtin, and bomb captures him at his superhuman best, before his pursuit of extreme minimalism squeezed pretty much all vestiges of soul and funk out of usfs his music. Released as part of dissertation philo Warp’s IDM-defining Artificial Intelligence series, its vision of usfs research papers ambient techno continues to sparkle and essay seduce today. Dominick Fernow (Prurient, Vatican Shadow): “The first time I heard F.U.S.E. Usfs Research! was 19 years ago in rural Wisconsin. Professional Business Plan Miami! The last time I listened to F.U.S.E.’s Dimension Intrusion I was driving from the port of L.A. through downtown at night amidst the usfs research papers, illuminated skyscrapers. Essay! A perfect chess piece balancing the morning drive through south central set to Godflesh’s Streetcleaner . I was in an aerodynamic futuristic white rental car convertible with degrading subwoofers, subconsciously applying the usfs, gas. 1988 Dbq Atomic! Before I knew it I was slamming on the brakes.

The true ‘nitedrive’.” MF DOOM’s decade reads like a morality play: a steady rise to fame with KMD; label chicanery and personal tragedy; years pottering in obscurity; a cussed reinvention; and, to research close, Operation: Doomsday , a triumph of superman hero essay automatic writing and the first act in his masterful second career. Oswald’s mission – to chop and cram the entire history of usfs research pop music into a 20 minute suite – is essay mill a daunting one, and usfs research the results are akin to technique dissertation staring directly into a bit-torrent. Oswald darts from Girl Talk tomfoolery to proto-gabba to genuinely terrifying sonic overload. In a world where more and more fingers are grafted to usfs papers the skip button, Plexure plays like the most prescient record of the decade. Dan Lopatin (Oneohtix Point Never): “For me, John Oswald’s plunderphonics project wasn’t just about vandalism or detournement: it was about the aesthetics of a cut, and how Oswald was able to so craftily reframe the fabricated hubris of pop music into dissertation philo, something sardonic and telling.” Enabled by the not inconsiderable engineering talents of papers Rob Playford and 4Hero, Timeless didn’t just define drum’n’bass in the eyes of the mainstream, and while its unapologetic grandiosity wears a little thin across its overlong duration, at its best (‘Timeless’, ‘Sea Of Tears’) it soars higher than any music we’ve encountered before or since . Timeless still stands today as a future-facing, visionary work, and it feels as much a part of the prog/fusion tradition of ’70s Miles, Coltrane and Mahavishnu Orchestra as of the UK hardcore continuum. Loefah: “You know, Timeless didn’t need jungle; if anything jungle needed Timeless . That album stood alone.

It didn’t need its scene, it didn’t need anything; it was incredible. The mastering, the professional business plan, packaging, the production…that’s what we need to be doing. Usfs Papers! We need to be rolling with those levels of quality.” Not just one of the 1988 bomb, ’90s’ best indie albums, but its greatest break-up album too. Rick White and usfs Julie Dorion wrote Love Tara while in the process of breaking up – so Rick could be with another musician named Tara S’Appart, no less – and it tells: a spellbinding world of tape hiss, answer-phone messages, awkward silences and exclamations of rage that should be as widely known as the Sebadoh and Pavement albums of the same era. It’s been plundered by the ad agencies, scalped for chill-out comps and bent over and branded with the ‘dinner party album’ stamp – so how does Portishead’s unit-shoveller still sound sound so brittle, so eerie, so downright other ? Gonjasufi: “Beth Gibbons.

Just from where she’s singing from, man. The pain that’s in essay, it. I feel like I’m in usfs research papers, a room when I hear her voice, I can smell, I can see the whole setting, the 1988 essay, ambience…A lot people are trying to usfs research be different, and they start trying to sound like her. There’s a whole genre of everyone trying to sound like Bjork and Portishead. 54th Massachusetts Thesis! But what makes them so special is that they don’t sound like anyone. Usfs Papers! It’s okay to not sound like anyone, but don’t sound like them and then try to pretend you don’t sound like them, you know what I’m saying? Has an album ever delivered lyrics as bloodcurdling as “look deep into the eyes of your motherfucking killer / I want you to witness your motherfucking murder, nigga”, or, indeed, the timeless “I can’t talk to argumentative essay thesis my mother, so I talk to my diary”, with such casual, nonchalant bounce?

Three 6 Mafia, Esham et al aimed for menacing, and that’s the difference: The Diary ‘s so far gone, so heartless that its tales of murdering families and crippling paranoia attacks are delivered with the same cadence as sex jams like ‘Goin’ Down’. In 2012 you can’t throw a pebble without hitting a “dark ambient” album of some kind, but in research, 1995 Stalker felt like an act of brooding dissent amidst the fluffy chill-out that had come to dominate the teenage argumentative thesis, post-rave musical landscape. Usfs! Lustmord, an artist whose technical prowess had by this point taken him from the teenage pregnancy essay thesis, UK industrial underground to the more salubrious world of Hollywood sound design, collaborated with veteran space-case Robert Rich on this sumptuous set, loosely inspired by Tarkovsky’s film of the same name. Forbidding though it may seem, its magic in fact lies in its tempering of darkness – it is, in the end, a piece of work poised improbably between the New Age and the gothic. Lustmord: “It’s one of the few albums that I’ve worked on that I still liked after finishing it…it is remarkably effective, and I suppose that’s because we had a very good idea of usfs research papers what we wanted to achieve before starting on it.”

Music Has The Right To Children isn’t just a great record: it’s arguably the most influential (and we’d wager, best-loved) album Warp have ever released. The Sandison brothers’ debut proper isn’t quite their masterpiece – we’d argue that 2002’s Geogaddi takes that crown – but it’s still an astonishingly sensitive, remarkable focused collection of eerie miniatures and Betamax fantasias. Dbq Atomic Essay! A holy text for 2012’s motley crew of cloud-rappers, chill wavers and synth revivalists, Music Has The Right To Children is electronica’s own Miss Havisham – dolorously strolling through memory’s mirrored corridors, and chancing across all manner of cobwebbed treasures on the way. Full to bursting with ideas, Ishii’s mercurial debut – a set running the usfs research papers, gamut from piebald techno to professional business submerged acid house – is one of research RS’s most lucent buried treasures. Millions Now Living Will Never Die. Purists swear by the Chicago group’s self-titled debut, but wild horses couldn’t drag us from the mill, certainty that Millions Now Living Will Never Die is Tortoise’s greatest achievement.

It’s wasn’t so much post-rock as post-everything: we can’t think of papers any band since that has made such a definitive break with the superman essay, past. Doug McCombs (Tortoise): “It was pretty ambitious and usfs we did a good job of hero essay it but it was never really completely finished, we didn’t have the resources. Papers! There was a sense of ‘this is what we have and this is going to miami have to do.’ There are some successful experiments on usfs research papers it, and some loose ends.” The fifth album by this Oakland, CA sextet was at the time merely a mind blowing slab of post-hardcore/sludge/industrial metal, its 12-minute songs and sensory overload alienating more listeners than it seduced. In hindsight, it seemed to set the scene for all post-metal ever, but none of those records would ever capture the philo, combination of research papers ambience, crushing heaviness, layers of samples and outright malice of dissertation philo this living, breathing, relentless 70-minute beast. Strip away the guest instruments and the loops, and research papers you’re left with some of the argumentative essay thesis, finest riffs as tectonic shifts known to humanity.

Steve Von Till (Neurosis): “The making of it is not negative. The making of it and the channelling of it is the usfs research papers, positive part. It’s the shit behind it that’s negative. There’s negative shit in pregnancy argumentative thesis, life. There’s negative shit in usfs research papers, the universe. There’s negative shit preying on professional miami people’s minds and usfs research papers hearts all the time. And this probably more than any other record was a direct confrontation with that, as younger men, without the professional miami, knowledge that we would survive it…It was punishing. Papers! It was furious. It was completely aggressive and destructive. If you want to subject yourself to this music, you are going to be subjected to this music . It used to make people sick, and that’s an appropriate response!

“I can’t get back into 54th thesis, the mindset we were in papers, back then, nor would I want to.” Richard D. James’ only full-length as Polygon Window is, to hero all intents and purposes, an album of openings. His first release on Warp, and the first full-length proper in that label’s peerless Artificial Intelligence series, it clears the ground for James’ astonishing 1993-7 run of releases – arguably the finest run of form by anyone, anywhere, all decade. Musically, it’s airy and expansive; creatively, it takes acid/ambient into unchartered new territories. More than anything, though, Surfing On Sine Waves is open-hearted . Research Papers! From top to pregnancy argumentative essay thesis tail, it’s a haunted, hurting, melancholy record: an album of vistas glimpsed through dust-flecked double-glazing. Ravey one moment, stately the next – but somehow still one of James’ most coherent statements. Wu represented a slight point of contention while compiling this list: how many albums can you viably include from hip-hop’s greatest group?

On any given day, Return to the 36 Chambers, Only Built for Cuban Linx, Tical and research maybe even Bobby Digital in Stereo could have made this top 100, but for essay, once, we decided to be sensible and restrict the Clan’s individual members’ output to just the one record. Once we’d made that choice, it wasn’t a difficult call: with each year that passes since its release in 1995, Liquid Swords’ status as the greatest Wu solo album seems less and less in doubt – as brutal, cold and quotable as it ever was. The brutal truth is that most avant-garde musicians choose experimentation over pop because they lack the confidence, ability and perhaps even the human touch to usfs research pull off the latter. Not so Jim O’Rourke, who, having spent most of his career working with the likes of Phil Niblock, Keiji Haino, Tony Conrad and Evan Parker, tried his hand at left-of-centre song craft on 1999’s Eureka and massachusetts regiment proved to be more than up to the challenge. Whether transforming Ivor Cutler’s ‘Women Of The World’ into a cyclical folk-rock symphony, delivering a splendidly faithful cover of Burt Bacharach’s ‘Something Big’ or offloading timeless originals of his own, O’Rourke’s every move on Eureka made our teenage selves swoon, and our appreciation of his achievement has only research papers, deepened in the intervening years. Jim O’Rourke: “The record has the appearance of being cheerful…but it’s fairly misanthropic underneath the surface.” James Stinson and Gerald Donald’s word as Drexciya could never be summed up by one record: it’s too vast for mill websites, that, too drenched in mystery and back-story, too damn deep (aquatic punning unintentional – honest), but Neptune’s Lair is probably the best introduction a wave-jumping novice could have to techno’s all-time most mythologised group.

Plus, obviously, it features ‘Andreaen Sand Dunes’. Serge (Clone Records): “Fortunately Drexciya still needs to be introduced to usfs papers general music listeners, mainly due to their self chosen anonymity and their productions being made in the pre-internet and early internet era. I say fortunately because I think their music is special and should be discovered by the listener, rather than being pushed or promoted as a product. Dbq Atomic Bomb Essay! These guys have played such an important role in research papers, the development of techno and electronic music in general that I hope everyone will discover them at some point in their life. “With no documented information about the producers, their thoughts and ideas, the lack of interviews, the mystery became bigger with each release. Who are these guys, why did they make music they made, how did they make it and actualy who did make it?

Questions that are still not completely answered. From their first releases on Submerge and Underground Resistance to the later ones on Tresor and Clone they always managed to massachusetts come with releases covered in mystery. Papers! And instead of having technology or “the future” as influence like so many techno producers they had their own unique approachs and imagination which – I assume – sprouted from their frustrations, experiences, interests and life in 54th massachusetts, general being young (non-stereotype) afro-Americans in Detroit. “Their later releases such as the usfs research papers, great Neptune’s Lair and Grava4 stand on websites their own as concept and perfectly showcase the beauty and research papers warmth, but also the hero, rawness and non-conformist spirit of Drexciya.” Jackmaster (Numbers): “Anyone who follows Numbers or follows me is probably sick to the back teeth of usfs hearing about Drexciya, but it’s one of the things that really draws us together. If you were ask any of the people behind Numbers, we’d all put them in our top one or two influences, or favourite groups.” (Death Row Records/Interscope, 1993) People talk about professional business writers miami, Doggystyle like it’s a laugh, and it is – as anybody who saw Snoop’s absurd start-to-finish live performance of usfs papers it in mill websites, London last year, complete with ‘The Bathroom’ acted out on the big screen, will testify – but it’s also sort of a tragedy. For 19 tracks, Snoop rips through verses like he doesn’t know any other way: in terms of a rapper sounding like an unstoppable force, it’s easily up there with Notorious B.I.G.’s Ready to Die, or prime Ghostface, leaving you with the usfs papers, impression that the only way to stop Snoop rapping would be to shoot him there and then. Passion, skill, power, it’s all there; what a shame he got bored so quickly. Flying Lotus: “My whole life was Doggystyle . I wasn’t allowed to listen to it but I knew an older kid who had it on CD, so I made a tape of it. I had the ugliest yellow waterproof tape player ever.

It was like this industrial brick. But that’s what I listened to Doggystyle on.” Yes, ‘IDM’ was the daftest tag of the decade, but surely ‘glitch’ gets an easy ride? 94diskont .’s a case in point – if there’s a bug in this serene, somatic, and impossibly graceful record, we’ve yet to spot it. Markus Popp (Oval): “Even though the entire game has substantially changed since 1992, I still consider myself first observer, then artist/musician.” Was there a greater, more affecting rock ‘n roll album than Teenage Snuff Film released in the 1990s? It’s the essay, barbed, bleak but ultimately redemptive sound of a booze and drug-ravaged romantic, one who happens to be the most gifted guitarist of his generation, coming to terms with the mistakes he’s made, the love he’s lost and the man he’s become. “I choke on this heart of hate,” he declares on research papers ‘Breakdown (and Then…)’, before admitting, “Sometimes I find it hard…to get things straight.” Rowland S. Howard died of technique philo cirrhosis of the liver in 2009.

He is nothing less than a martyr, and Teenage Snuff Film is his lasting monument. Regis: “Rowland S. Howard quite simply is usfs beyond comparision. His guitar-laying could penetrate the soul in a way that no one else’s could. His stage presence was remarkable and for thesis, me unforgettable in every way and detail – no man has ever looked as good, or ever will look as good, playing a Fender Jag. Research! Teenage Snuff Film is technique dissertation where, thanks to Mick Harvey, he was able to refine his sound and transform the film noir torment that he displayed with The Birthday Party and These Immortal Souls into glorious, widescreen technicolor.” Carl Craig might not have been one of Detroit techno’s earliest originators, but he has done arguably more than any of the Belleville Three to develop the sound, and enjoyed a rangier, more prolific and frankly more consistent career. Usfs! His releases between 1991-94 as 69 were what fixed him in the world’s eyes as an artist of professional plan writers miami major stature – from the soaring, post-Skynet soul of research papers ‘Desire’ to the priapic dancefloor funk of ‘Jame The Box’, via the pure sub-bass tone poetry of ‘Sound On Sound’, it’s a visionary, effervescent body of work, and The Sound Of Music , a compilation released by RS in ’95, groups the best of it together in one place.

Steve Albini may be best known as one of rock music’s most in-demand engineers – not to mention one of the plan miami, genre’s most infamous bastards – but in between recording albums by Nirvana, Pixies, PJ Harvey and more in research papers, the early ’90s, he also slipped out one of its most brilliantly angular rock records. Combining Minutemen-esque grooves that feel like they could last forever with spit-riddled, sneering vocals and a storming rhythm section, there are few albums that sound as simultaneously doomed and business writers miami driven as At Action Park. Timeless, Modus Operandi and New Forms might have made more of an impact, but it’s the relatively undersung Icons who made the finest drum ‘n bass album of the usfs research, decade. On Emotions With Intellect , Tony Bowes and Conrad Shafie – much-loved for 1988 dbq atomic, their work as Blame Justice – combined breathtaking atmospherics worthy of the usfs research, loftiest Detroit techno with rugged, streetwise drum programming, and somehow managed to avoid self-indulgence while they were at it. A stone cold classic – let the essay websites, revival start now. A world without light, soundtracked by washes of oxidised piano, growling basslines and usfs papers guitar licks distorted beyond recognition, Mezzanine is, and plan writers miami always will be, the best Massive Attack album.

From the jet-black drowning pool of ‘Angel’ onwards (yes, we’ve all heard it far too many times, but to deny its status as a masterpiece is just silly at this point), its journey through the red-eyed introspection of ‘Risinson’, the murmuring undergrowth of ‘Inertia Creeps’, the echo chamber hip-hop of ‘Black Milk’ and the stirring ‘Mezzanine’ simply doesn’t let up – a miracle indeed, when you consider some of the dodgy lyrics it contains. Robert Del Naja (Massive Attack): “I was the only one at usfs the particular time that had a vision of how this album could sound as a whole. Everyone else had fragmented ideas and that’s good sometimes and dangerous other times. We’d been fucking around for a long time and pregnancy essay thesis it was about time to research papers finish the dissertation, album, d’ya know what I mean? It wasn’t fucking easy. It was painful—the arguments and research papers everything else. But it had to be done, otherwise we’d still be fucking around now discussing what kind of essay album we’re gonna do.” Earth 2: Special Low Frequency Version. Don’t believe what Patrick Moore tells you: Sunn couldn’t exist without Earth. Usfs Research Papers! So inspiring to Stephen O’Malley’s doom powerhouse that he named two bands after them (SunnO))), after their amplifier of dissertation philo choice, and usfs research papers Teeth of Lions Rule the Divine), Earth 2 finds the group stripped down to professional a two-man team – Joe Preston and the ever-present Dylan Carlson – and remains their genre-defining masterpiece, an album that moves like a island being slowly submerged in usfs, magma.

Raime: “Literally the professional business plan miami, sound of metal – in both senses – being melted down. It’s like someone physically manifesting their intentions in frequencies. Some metal guys weren’t into it, too simple or cosmic perhaps. But to us thats the point, it’s way out usfs research papers there but feels somehow innate and essential. Metal had always had sense of dynamism that made aggression cathartic through action, but this was the opposite, this just said fuck it, be swallowed by the void, let go…”

Superlative amniotic techno from Wolfgang Voigt’s grandest, most enduring and most prophetic project. The illegitimate father to Clams Casino and Claro Intelecto alike. Fred Macpherson (Spector): “As someone who grew up listening to overly compressed ’90s pop and variously inane and obnoxious indie rock bands, the first time I heard Wolfgang Voigt’s GAS was nothing short of an epiphany. Like the forests that adorn most of the GAS covers, the music is essay natural, immersive and endless – almost as if it wasn’t recorded to be listened to, but to be breathed.” Wolfgang Voigt (GAS): “ When I was working on research Konigsforst , I was envisioning a sound body ranging somewhere between Schonberg and Kraftwerk, between bugle and bassdrum. For me Konigsforst is Glamrock as Wagner, Hansel and Gretel on Acid. Teenage Pregnancy Argumentative Essay Thesis! An endless march through the papers, undergrowth – into the disco – of an imaginary, misty forest. When I look back on massachusetts thesis it today, the most joyful and surprising thing about it, is that so many people world-wide obviously understood the record exactly the way I intended it to be heard.

I never expected that when I made it.” Woebot: Stunts, Blunts Hip-Hop was one of the most satisfying manifestations of usfs what will remain to many the plan writers, true Golden Age of Hip-Hop. Although it was produced by Diamond D, legends Large Professor, Q-Tip, Jazzy J, Showbiz and DJ Mark the 45 King also lent a hand. At that point in time, before lawyers limbered up and the seam became exhausted, digging in the crates (an activity enshrined in the crew’s moniker D.I.T.C.) must have seemed like it would be an eternally rewarding experience. Edging past the usfs papers, first wave of samples dug by Marley Marl and Eric B, often well-known James Brown fare, suddenly it seemed there was an ocean of juicy funk and jazz breaks that had never been used before. The delight and excitement is palpable. Dbq Atomic! As if that wasn’t enough, Diamond’s lyrics are witty and often moving, the title track in particular, a paean to what hip-hop meant as a way of research life, has been known to draw tears and pregnancy essay gives the papers, LP the edge on professional business plan the other masterpieces of the period – Low End Theory, Runaway Slave, Mecca and The Soul Brother, Breaking Atoms and Enta Da Stage. For a record of such mighty ambition, Laughing Stock still feels oddly humble. Maybe it’s context: arriving in the same year as some proper Mega-Albums ( Nevermind ; Loveless ; Achtung Baby ), it’s frequently – and inexplicably – cropped out of usfs research papers history by many less-than-rigorous retrospectives. 54th Massachusetts Thesis! Or maybe it’s just that Talk Talk’s final transmission is too immaculate, too delicate, to waste its time on hollow bombast and self-promotion.

Sprung from the same batch of papers magic bean as Spirit Of Eden , it outclasses its predecessor in just about every category: everything about Laughing Stock – New Grass” coruscating reverb-play, ‘Ascension Day”s hidden temper, the all-enveloping organs on technique dissertation philo ‘After The Flood’ – speaks restraint, elan and immaculate taste. The marginal masterpiece of the decade. Is there a better named record on the list? An incunable, if you’re wondering, is usfs research papers a broadside produced in the immediate wake of the development of the printing press. Fittingly, Manchester duo Autechre’s 1993 debut delights in mill websites, – fetishes, even – the research papers, shock of technology.

Incunabula is a symphony of whirrs, cranks and rattling spokes; its formal ingenuity and sheer, brute intensity have sealed its status as a set text for the ages. Zola Jesus: “I first listened to Autechre in high school, I don’t even know how I discovered it but I liked how for some reason it made sense to me, even as someone who mostly listened to punk and noise. Autechre have always had this unique sense of 1988 essay intuition and innovation in what they do. It feels very raw and revolutionary. The repetitions and movements move like a body would. “ Incunabula really represents this.

It feels like a body, every song has a heartbeat with the beat or hi-hats, and then everything around it moves and pushes and weaves and creates micropulses. Some sounds are stark and clinical and others are languid and thick like blood pushing through veins. Research Papers! It is singlehandedly the most organic and undeniably synthetic electronic music I have ever heard, and that’s what I think has made that duo one of the 1988 dbq atomic, most seminal electronic acts of our time.” Harleys, leather, doo-wop harmonies, doe-eyed jive talk… Twin Peaks was set in the ’90s, but if sure felt like the ’50s. Same goes for Angelo Bandalamenti’s landmark soundtrack: this is detourned library music, kitsch gone wrong, all American cherry pie left to curdle.

Few records have quite as much Pavlovian pull; in the next ten years, no other OST would come close. Angelo Badalamenti: “The fact that people are still talking about it is a tribute to my great friend David Lynch. The music was such an important part of that show, almost as if it was a major character.” It may be a far cry from the chain-pounding aggression of records like Filth, but 1992’s Love of Life hardly finds Swans optimistic. If there’s a stance to be found here, it’s band leader Michael Gira as observer, touching on ideas of commitment, hope and, yes, love, but never quite committing to them. Research! ‘The Other Side of the World’, voiced by 54th massachusetts thesis Jarboe, narrates a continent-shifting moment of closeness; likewise, ‘Her’ finds Gira dedicating himself to a mate, but the overall feeling of both tracks – and much of Love of Life – is usfs research papers that these moments are powerful but temporary, an impression echoed by 54th massachusetts thesis the recording of the lovestruck girl at the end of ‘Her’. The CD version of the album closes on ‘No Cure for the Lonely’, a final reminder of the usfs research papers, mortality of both humans and relationships, and one of the very best individual songs in Swans’ vast back catalogue. Robert Hampson remains best known for hero, his first band, Loop, a space-rock unit whose work, for all its virtues, always sounded pedestrian when compared to the work of their contemporaries, Spacemen 3 and papers My Bloody Valentine. In his post-Loop work with Scott Dowson as Main, however, Hampson would create the era’s most singular guitar music – deconstructing the instrument, gradually divorcing it entirely from its rock associations. Motion Pool , the first Main full-length, was a leap into radical, dub-wise repetition and essay abstraction that made Pete Kember, Jason Pierce and Kevin Shields look like pussies, quite frankly; its brooding, sensuous textures and tonalities all the more remarkable amid the vestigial presence of vocals and conventional song-structure. Is this a rock album? Yes, perhaps, but one that sounds more alien and futuristic than any “electronic” music released the same year.

Robert Hampson (Main): “ Motion Pool was a very definite and usfs research papers deliberate statement. I said to our then manager and record company, ‘This is what it’s going to be. It’s literally the tail-end of what people know, and thesis then it’s a whole new ballgame after that.” Illmatic was one of usfs few breakthrough hip-hop albums that is professional plan writers utterly solid from papers, start to finish, the kind of hip-hop opus you can’t bring yourself to skip through. No wonder Nas’s career has been haunted by the spectre of almost-brilliance ever since – this is the kind of 1988 bomb essay debut that is simply impossible to better, packed with memorable lines, evocative lyricism, and a roll-call of papers outstanding producers at the top of their mid-nineties game, from Premo to L.E.S. to Large Pro . An early version of this record surfaced recently on the net called “Nasty Nas – 1991 Demo”, and it seems from listening to the prototype that many of the standout moments here were in development for quite a while, from the filtered loop of Michael Jackson on ‘Ain’t Hard To Tell’, to the gritty visions of Queensbridge life that adorn ‘NY State Of Mind’. The truth is, few on planet earth can rhyme like this, and few ever will again. El-P: “New York kinda has it tough. We are always the subject of superman essay film, music, art, etc. but rarely does the New York we know really get portrayed. It’s always some corny shit.

Some half assed exaggeration or myth that doesn’t really match up to the truth or the usfs research papers, feeling of massachusetts thesis NYC. Anyone who grew up in New York City can tell you there are things about New York City that cant really be explained directly. Research! You have to talk around them. Show them. Paint the scenery around the details and hope that the intangible, gritty, beautiful things that we see and feel here can be invoked, not described. Regiment Thesis! As New Yorkers we get very excited when anyone portrays New York and New Yorkers from the inside out. Research! When the characters talk the way New Yorkers really talk. When the settings portrayed feel like New york Feels.

Smell like they smell. There have been a handful of pieces of art that have, in 1988 dbq atomic bomb essay, my life, made me feel like my city makes me feel. Henry Chalfant’s 1983 documentary Style Wars is one of them. Wild Style is another. Illmatic by Nas is another.

Fitting that nas chose to set off this amazing record with a sample of usfs papers dialog and music from Wild Style . It immediately connected him to a spirit and superman hero essay intention born of legend, art and usfs papers the truth of New York. “Before Illmatic dropped everyone knew who Nas was, but no one knew what the kid who said “when I was twelve, I went to hell for snuffing jesus” was going to sound like when given his own album. The mystery surrounding the project was palpable and real. Argumentative Thesis! What was this going to to be? Some story shit? Some dope but exaggerated shit? Punch lines?

Gangster shit? Thoughtful shit? No one knew. Remember? “I remember my friend Tom came through with the tape (yes, tape) and $25 worth of weed. Usfs! I don’t know how he got it.

It wasn’t out yet and The Internet basically didn’t exist. We listened to hero essay that shit for about four straight hours. Papers! Silently. Flip the tape again. 54th Regiment Thesis! And again. Again. Holy shit either I’m way too high or this motherfucker might the usfs research papers, best rapper alive. “A truth speaker. A historian. A bad and good kid.

A smart, tough, slick kid, soaked in hip hop. Technique! Talented as all Hell and thinking his way out of a hard place. Usfs Research! Flawed and fly and sharp witted and here to argumentative be nothing more than what the research papers, truth of the city is. “Illmatic is one of the last great rap records attached directly to websites the lineage of the history of rap culture in our city. It was inhabited by the spirits of a just passed era and a radiant, moody and raw signifier of the usfs research, next one. Nas earned his legend status immediately.” Techno reimagined as the logical conclusion of Jamaican dub.

This is music that almost instantly changed the way that people make music, changed the way people that hear music and even the way that people feel music – Hell, in sonic terms, it represented a revolution in consciousness, one that we’re still trying to catch up with and writers still struggling to usfs research papers find the language to describe. Pinch: “I’m a long-standing fan of Basic Channel and the lineage of 54th massachusetts thesis music that followed from both Moritz [von Oswald] and usfs papers Mark [Ernestus] – particularly their Rhythm Sound project. Essay Websites! Even though the BC records are 20 years old now, I still find them fresh and often more relevant than the majority of research papers contemporary dub techno records. “The textures in their music are not only deep and involving, sonically speaking, but the way the sounds actually move and develop throughout a given track create these endless, journey-like polyrhythms that can induce jaw-dropping, meditative states. I’ve often found myself drifting off into a headspace that sits somewhere just in front of the dream state – and not really coming out of it until the needle hits the centre run-out groove! Makes me sound like I’ve been partially lobotomised – but it’s true! BCD is philo music you have to interact with to usfs research papers fully experience; it’s music that tells a story but leaves you to regiment thesis paint your own picture to it. You can keep finding new and interesting sub-plots with every listen!” Sure, everybody has their own favourite Outkast album: Stankonia captures them on top of the usfs research papers, world, perfectly poised between the worlds of hip-hop and pop (and with admirers in every other musical sector, to 1988 dbq atomic essay boot), Speakerboxxx at their most ambitious, Southernplayalisticadillacmuzik at their rawest.

But Aquemini, quite simply, has their best songs. ‘Rosa Parks’ is the most heart-breaking track the group ever wrote, despite a) the usfs research papers, verses basically being about nothing, and b) it featuring a hoedown, while ‘Spottieottiedopalicious’ must surely rank as Outkast’s greatest moment, a seven minute toast to love, the universe and professional business plan writers miami everything. Elsewhere, George Clinton stops by to drool all over ‘Synthesizer’, ‘Chonkyfire’ pairs hard verses with tearful piano, and ‘The Art of usfs research papers Storytellin’ melts like butter in the Savannah sun. The sort of album you wish you could listen to bomb for the first time every day. Mark Fisher: A Guy Called Gerald was actually the first person I ever interviewed, way back in 1989 – around the usfs research papers, time he released his first album, Hot Lemonade . This was in the wake of thesis his hit ‘Voodoo Ray’, perhaps the best example of the way in which, in the late ’80s, English Northerners could absorb influences from Detroit and Chicago and synthesize them into usfs papers, something new. By 1995, like many of us, Gerald has been swept away by essay jungle. Hailing from Moss Side, he came from outside jungle’s heartlands in London and research papers the Midlands, and there’s something slightly askew about his take on the genre. All of technique dissertation philo jungle’s signatures are there – soul-diva vocals, juddering sub-bass, foreboding timestetched vocal samples, high-end electronic flutters and of course digitally manipulated breakbeats – yet Black Secret Technology feels strangely, subtly different from usfs research, practically anything else in the genre. Gerald’s genius was to shift jungle from being street science fiction music into a sound that could confidently fill an album, without falling back into retrograde ‘musicality’, a trick that his friend Goldie (with whom he collaborated on BST ’s ‘Energy’) couldn’t manage. It isn’t so much BST ’s celebrated rhythmic intricacy – the sumptuous involutions of the breakbeats – that sets it apart. It’s more the essay, way that Gerald transforms jungle sound into a kind of dreamy OtherWorld music.

Three of the titles make some reference to dreams, and usfs research the album projects an oneiric landscape, jungle as in Max Ernst’s jungle paintings: humid, tropical, full of strange bird cries, seething with nonhuman sentience, verdant with exotic vegetation. In feel and superman hero vibe, if not in terms of instrumentation, BST recalls Herbie Hancock and Jon Hassell, whilst also looking forward to the likes of papers Shackleton’s fourth world percussion excursions. The production on Black Secret Technology was famously murky, and, even though the professional business miami, digital remaster has cleaned things up, there’s still a mottled and monochrome quality to the sound, as if you’re seeing a kaleidoscope in black and usfs research white. It’s impossible to dissertation think that something wouldn’t be lost if the album had a fully vivid production. Goldie called his doomed folly of an album Timeless , but it’s actually Black Secret Technology that succeeded in simultaneously being of usfs papers its moment and transcending it, so that, nearly two decades on, it still offers up new details to the ear.

Over 20 years on plan writers from Spiderland ‘s release, it should really have been bettered by now. Usfs Research! The narration, the story – on paper, it feels like the essay mill, sort of album that should be admired for what it did, but doesn’t hold up against what it inspired. And yet, listening to Spiderland now, it simply hasn’t been topped. Usfs Research! It’s as perfect as this kind of long-form rock comes, from the loud-quiet / stop-start dynamism of ‘Breadcrumb Trail’, to ‘Washer’, which feels spooky without once falling into cliche, to ‘Good Morning Captain’, as phenomenal as it ever was, and arguably the superman, album closer of the era. What’s perhaps most remarkable about Spiderland is that, despite becoming the usfs research, touchstone for 1988, several generations of (mostly) instrumental rockers, it comes without predecessor: sure, there are elements of Gang of Four and more to Spiderland ‘s ripped-out bursts of usfs research papers guitar, eerie spoken word and regiment thesis irregular rhythms, but what records released prior to Spiderland honestly sound like it? Enter The Wu-Tang (36 Chambers)

When the Wu burst onto the scene in ‘93 they brought with them the research papers, uniquely dusty, monochrome, quirky authorial vision of RZA, whose rich tapestries of forgotten Stax soul loops and kung-fu movie snippets captivated audiences instantly. The enduring appeal of the Wu is 1988 essay thus – nine emcees at the height of their talents, trading bars that most rap fans can recite word for word to usfs research papers this day, nine duelling voices that were all gruffly distinct, nine characters each with their own style, modelling their wordplay on professional business miami the shaolin sword-masters of Chia-Liang Liu’s martial arts epics. The result is the ultimate posse album. Papers! Listening to professional it now, it’s not hard to understand why each member went on usfs to have a substantial career in its own right, and there can be no doubt that 36 Chambers is business plan not just one of the best albums of the ’90s, but one of the greatest albums ever made, one that will continue to captivate rap fans for decades to come. Joe Muggs: Very early on, I think before this album even, I remember reading an NME review of an Aphex Twin release that described his sound as “very ancient and very futuristic at the same time.” And really, I’ve yet to research see a better summation of the appeal of professional business writers miami Richard D. James’s best work. Listening back to Selected Ambient Works 85-92 now, just as then, it feels way ahead of usfs papers its time, able to mill do things that producers with far more sophisticated technology are still struggling to grasp – but also like it has been around for usfs, ever, as if you could blow the dust away and essay have revealed the geometries of a whole other civilisation. That “dust” is vital to how this music works. We think of Burial or Tri Angle releases as being new, but RDJ was performing the same tricks with mist and shadows 20 years ago: everything is drenched in reverb and hiss, obscuring and blending, forcing the imagination to work. Usfs Papers! It was said of superman Debussy that he was able to papers turn the piano from a mechanism with 88 hammers, each producing a separate note, into massachusetts thesis, his own personal orchestra from which great waves of usfs research papers sound and melody emerged – and this is the massachusetts regiment, trick RDJ manages too. Papers! Whether on the soft and melodic tracks drenched in the hiss of the pregnancy, cassette tapes on which they were recorded live, or on the hyper-real clarity of the belches and blurts of the research papers, pool of 1988 acid lava that is the album’s centrepiece ‘Green Calx’, everything flows into everything else. Everything is a part of a whole, not just because of the dust and usfs papers blurring, but because every chord, every rhythm, every unwinding melody is technique dissertation philo locked into every other part with uncanny rightness.

It’s a psychedelic record in usfs research, the truest sense, alarmingly evocative of acid’s synaesthesic and pregnancy essay thesis glossolalic qualities, full of the ecstasies of usfs floating free and the terrors of complete disconnect from reality. The thought of the number of technique dissertation philo serious sessions it must have soundtracked over the years in itself fries the brain – but like other great drug music – from usfs research papers, Sgt Pepper to Sly Stone, Chris Cosey to Gaslamp Killer – it doesn’t require drugs. Massachusetts Thesis! It also, far from research papers, being “ambient” in the true sense, has both feet on the dancefloor, extraordinarily heavy bass throughout, and a surprising understanding of black American music given how white and geeky its legacy has been seen as being. Listen now to websites ‘Pulsewidth’, ‘Ptolemy’ and usfs research papers ‘Delphinium’ and you hear a teenager from Cornwall who has managed to grasp the mechanisms of Todd Terry, Jamie Principle, Derrick May, Larry Heard and co better than almost anyone else in Britain bar A Guy Called Gerald. In short, for all its mindmelt and dbq atomic bomb harmonic sophistication, it grooves like a mother. Every so often through the album, the usfs papers, spell is technique dissertation broken for a second when you hear an element in the track faded in or out a little roughly and realise someone is actually mixing the usfs papers, track live – but this in fact makes the magic more powerful. It’s these moments when you realise this was made in a bedroom with jerry-rigged keyboards, solder and cable, and hands shoving faders up and down as the tracks are recorded live to regiment thesis tape, rather than gigabytes’ worth of usfs research processing power, that its singularity becomes even more boggling. Superman Hero Essay! But then each time the usfs, gaps in the scenery close up as quickly as they opened and essay you’re swept back away from the usfs, reality of superman essay circuitboards and gaffer tape, and back into the high cosmic drama of the sound and melody, where scale is always uncertain and time is elastic.

Because this album’s appeal then and now is not about papers, technique or cultural reference points, it’s about getting swept up in those waves of sound and melody that keep on coming and superman are still a pleasure to have wash over you, 20 years on.

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can i write a Elizabeth Moon, Science Fiction and usfs research papers, Fantasy Writer. Help! I can't write! or How to Identify the Dread Writer's Block and business, Its Relatives. So--you can't write today, and you're wondering if you're blocked?

And what to do about it if you are? Well, here's some diagnostic and therapeutic help. No guarantees--you may have come up with an usfs papers entirely new form of writing trouble--but others have found the following ideas useful. First, the dissertation taxonomy of can't write. I like to divide the problem up by time of onset (in the writer's career and in the particular project), duration, and symptoms. This produces three main diagnoses, only one of which is true writer's block. I call them Novice Nerves, Stuckness, and Block. Usfs Papers? Each has a characteristic pattern, and teenage argumentative, each responds best to different treatment. Time of usfs research onset: if you are just beginning to write seriously (with intent to finish a novel, or to get published), your inability to write is 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, not block, but a condition I call Novice Nerves. You cannot have writer's block until you are a confirmed writer (that is, you've been writing for a substantial length of time, at a rate consistent with steady, daily application.) If you're a confirmed writer who has just changed the kind of usfs writing you're doing (from short stories to novels, or vice versa; from one genre to another; from on-spec to on-assignment), your difficulty is very likely Novice Nerves in relation to your new performance demand. Novice Nerves is characterized by an inability to start a project (can't get a thing on paper in spite of wonderful ideas in the head), and by professional business plan writers miami, intrusive concerns about your talent, your reputation, your future reviews, your future sales--in fact, by intrusive ideas about everything but the story at hand. (Intrusive concerns about the story itself are characteristic of another form of usfs writing difficulty.) Experienced writers who have changed writing areas know that the only cure for novice nerves is the writing itself, with a firm yank of the mental leash whenever the thought of readers, publishers, reviewers, friends, or parents intrudes.

Exercises normally proposed for breaking writer's block may help, but may also allow you to evade the project. Occasionally, working two projects at thesis, once can help with Novice Nerves, since you can displace the anxiety about Project A to the times you're working on Project B, and usfs research papers, vice versa. If the onset of massachusetts thesis a writing problem occurs while you are well into a project (say, eight chapters into your new novel) Novice Nerves is unlikely to be the problem. Usfs? If your intrusive thoughts about the problem center on the project itself (How am I going to deal with the family reunion from Pete's viewpoint? If I change viewpoints, it will suck the tension out. ) then it is certainly not Novice Nerves. What's happened? You've run into essay, the part of writing which is not fun--into the usfs research papers hard work of writing.

I call this being stuck and other writers may call it getting lost or being off-track. Stuckness has several causes, but the most important thing about it is bomb essay, that the usfs research papers story you were telling is still alive--it's just stuck. You can feel that the story is alive, that the professional business writers characters are eager to move on. You, the writer, are the one with the problem. If you work at it, stuckness resolves in research papers, less than a week (for one problem--a novel may have several patches of stuckness. I usually spend the middle months of bomb a novel stumbling from one sticky patch to another.) Early in your writing life, the research commonest cause of stuckness is your own lack of technical skill in writing.

You know what needs to be said, but you can't figure out teenage pregnancy thesis, how to do it. Research? Like a beginner trying to build a house with only a hammer and saw and a pile of lumber, you have to work harder to accomplish the business plan writers miami same structure. Usfs Research Papers? Writers can't go out and buy a new writing tool--there's no store that sells a viewpoint transition chisel or a flashback installation kit. So, when you get stuck this way, you have to make your own tools--by writing through the problem. Identify what it is that you can't do, then read books in hero, which it is done well--and then go do it. The exercises often proposed for usfs, getting past writer's block may also work because many of them actually sharpen your writer's tools.

It's fine to figure out technique dissertation, a way to work around a skill you haven't developed yet (such as the ability to handle multiple major viewpoints) as long as you keep working. Sometimes you can jump past the stuck point, and leave it to be solved later--by the time you finish the papers rest of the book, you may have developed the websites skill you need to clean up that bit. Another cause of stuckness hits writers with a trickle-feed imagination, those who can't outline because they don't know what happens until they write it. If you have this kind of usfs papers imagination, and teenage essay thesis, you are an energetic writer, then you can expect to overrun your inspiration repeatedly. When you do, you will feel lost or empty.

Two strategies may help. First, be sure to stop writing before you run out of steam every day--save a little for the next day, so that you know what's happening when you start the next session. Second, when you've overrun your primary vein, jump ahead in research papers, the story and see if you can find another vein to follow for awhile. You may end up having to circular-file a chapter or so, but you will enjoy writing something more than sitting there waiting for the bucket to technique philo, fill. Another, potentially more serious, cause of stuckness arises from external, non-writing causes in research papers, a writer's life. It's potentially more serious, because if untreated these things can lead to a full, formal writer's block. If you have been a solid, productive writer for some years, and you run into increasing problems with things which used to require less effort, then the cause of your writing difficulty lies outside your talent.

Any serious life stressor--physical, emotional, social, economic--can suck away the energy, courage, and discipline which you need for essay, your work. You may produce a year or so beyond the usfs research initial problem, but--if you don't take care of it--it will catch up with you eventually. One symptom that the problem is external to your talent is the dbq atomic bomb feel of the story. Research Papers? if the problem is external, the story will have less impulsion--less oomph. Thesis? You will find yourself trying to usfs research, put oomph into essay mill websites, the story, rather than being energized yourself by the story's energy. A story should not need daily resuscitation to stay alive. if it does, something is wrong. Which leads us to the actual writer's block. To distinguish a block from stuckness or novice nerves, you have to have experienced the first two. Remember--if it's novice nerves, you have lots of usfs research papers ideas but can't get started, and 1988 dbq atomic bomb, if it's stuckness, the story is alive--it wants to be written and the pressure from the story being stuck is painful. In the true writer's block, there is usfs papers, no pressure from a live story that wants to be written.

The story is dead, and you have the feeling that it never was alive. Hero? A very horrible feeling, rather like coming home to find an empty lot where your house was when you left. Writer's block comes in usfs, two forms, a specific block (which affects only one project, or one type of writing) and philo, a general block (which affects all writing.) The only usfs papers, way to tell the dbq atomic bomb essay difference is to try writing something other than the research papers story that died on you. Luckily, the general block (where you can't write anything, even a note to technique dissertation, a friend) is usfs, much rarer than the specific block. The story-specific block is easy to handle if the 1988 bomb story isn't on research, contract to someone--you drop it as soon as you realize it's dead, and go write something else. But if it's a story you promised an editor, you feel anxious and ashamed and 1988, guilty. You'll be tempted to try to do CPR on the dead story--the longer you've been a professional, and usfs papers, the more reputation you have, the more you'll be tempted to pretend that the corpse is still breathing on its own. After all, you're a professional; you should be able to write no matter what, right? Wrong. The longer you drag that dead story around, trying to breathe life into professional miami, it, the more it will stink and the worse you will feel. Pretty soon the thought of writing anything will nauseate you--or at research papers, the very least you will lose confidence in your ability to tell live stories from dead ones.

When a story dies totally, give it a death certificate. Tell the editor as soon as you know it's gone, and superman, bury it deep. Papers? Don't bother with an autopsy, either--it's much more important--right now--to find out that you can still write, than to know why that particular story died. Try something different. If the story that died was funny, write something serious; if it was serious, write something funny. Go for short (because long works always involve some snags, and professional business plan miami, when you're testing the size of usfs your block, you don't want to borrow trouble.) Branch out; try different genres. If you're lucky, you'll find that the story that died was a story-specific block, and the next thing you try will pop out full of energy. (This happened to me, when a novel died, and I spent six months trying to revive it--almost as soon as I quit on that, and started a funny short story, the energy returned.) If you can write at essay, all, and the new stories are coming with no more difficulty than those before the block, you may have experienced a one-story block. In that case, wait several months and then do a cold-hearted analysis of the story elements so that you have some idea what kind of story died on you. Research Papers? (Maybe you really can't write a story about a flamboyant prostitute in 16th c. 1988 Essay? Paris. Papers? maybe you will never succeed with a police procedural. so the next time you think of professional starting one, you might want to think twice.) However, be aware of things affecting your life which may be affecting your creativity.

A dead story is usfs, a signal (I have had two novels die completely--each time, I was able afterwards to identify significant major additional stressors.) No successful writer I know has a totally stress-free life, but you can at least learn to recognize things that tie your creativity in knots. But what if you can't write at all? You buried the dead story. and nothing happened. Essay Websites? No ideas. No images. Oh, maybe you hacked out a funny letter to a friend. but you couldn't write the next letter. you couldn't even post to your favorite newsgroup. Research Papers? An occasional idea drifts through your mind, but dies when you start to write, like a butterfly crushed by 54th massachusetts thesis, a clutching fist.

This is the big one. This is the true writer's block in usfs research, its most extreme form. And the problem is not in dbq atomic bomb essay, your writing, or your sales figures, or your reviews, or the state of publishing. Usfs Research Papers? Writer's block of this magnitude means that something is draining away all the energy you used to apply to professional business plan writers, writing. The commonest cause is clinical depression (see my article on Depression and the Writer.) Depression is treatable, and despite the usfs research pervasive myths about creativity, you will write better, with more emotional intensity, when you are not depressed. Another cause is a change in priorities, which you have not yet recognized consciously. Dissertation Philo? Even a writer who has been convinced for years that writing is his life may--as the result of some life experience--change his mind. Usfs Research? You may want to put your creative energy into something else for awhile--you may have fallen in love with a person, with an technique dissertation philo idea, with a cause.

If you try to keep writing the way you've always written, when your heart has changed direction, your writing will dry up like a stream when its water is diverted upstream. Serious physical illness, in the writer or a family member, death of a loved one, head trauma, relentless persecution or danger or poverty--all can sap creative energy. So, if you really can't write anything, look at your life. If you are depressed, work on usfs research, that. If you are nursing a dying friend or family member, work on that. If you're recovering from essay, a head injury, work on that.

And if your priorities have changed, admit that. It is research, no shame to quit writing in order to do something you'd rather do (most people do something else, because they would rather dig holes or drive trucks or bag groceries than struggle to get words on paper.) Try not to torment yourself with guilt: in the catalog of great sins, not writing a novel is pretty far down the list. If you still want to write more than anything (really? OK.) then start reorganizing your life to nurture your enfeebled creativity. Take care of regiment your physical and psychological health. If the papers word block is scary to you (it is to most of us) express your non-writing to yourself in terms of the real cause: I'm not writing a book this year because I can't generate the 54th regiment energy while learning to cope with the aftermath of that car wreck or I'm not writing because I'm still using everything I have to usfs research, survive day by day as a recovering alcoholic. Writing takes immense reserves of energy, courage, and discipline--if you're using up your reserves somewhere else in your life, what's left for writing? If you recover from whatever blocked your talent, your talent will come back. When it does--when you first feel that familiar tickle in the brain--don't overload it with a big project.

Tempt it with something easy (easy for you, whatever your level of competence is.) Be alert to any signs that the current project is going under. and abandon anything that turns flabby. Technique Dissertation? Give yourself a chance to play, to recover the fun, the joy, of making things up, before you put a harness on your talent. Usfs? Let it grow naturally, as it grew when you were a child. Don't be surprised if it looks different, or feels different, or wants to do different things. It's had a near-death experience and essay mill, its priorities may have changed.

Now. get off the Internet, open up a file in your word processor, and GO WRITE SOMETHING. (Or not, as the case may be.) Contents of usfs these pages 1996-2016 Elizabeth Moon.