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SparkNotes: Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Study Questions &…
“Beauty is tess, truth, truth beauty” Essay. Keats begins this depiction of beauty in the first stanza by describing the woman show more content In the third stanza, Keats repeats the word happy six times and “for ever” five times. The purpose of this is to exaggerate his message of timeless beauty. The urn will forever show the same scene of the trees in full bloom, never to “bid the Spring adieu”. “More happy love! More happy, happy love!”; describing the love of the lamb young couple, Keats says that they will be “for ever warm”, “for ever panting”, and tess, “for ever young”. In this, the in society essay speaker rejoices in the still moment, the love that will for ever remain frozen.
The repetition of happy and exclamation points also seem to show Keats’ overly sentimental feeling for the trees’ condition, almost as if he is envious of essay their everlasting beauty (Trumann). Until this point the reader has seen a single side of the urn. Laws Of Life? The fourth stanza of “Ode on a Grecian Urn” begins to show us other side of the urn, as if the speaker is tess, holding the urn in work scholarships his hand and turning it over to view the rest of the design. Full of questions, this stanza gives the feeling of tess essay confusion. The speaker is contemplating the purpose of the priest, the drtv business plan “garlands drest” heifer, and tess essay, wondering about their destination.
Another part of this scene depicts a town “emptied of its folk,” leaving the speaker to wonder what Primarily, it says that Lucy probably valued at drtv business the very least some type of human interaction. The letters setting is that Lucy was living in Provincetown, a town described as boring and lifeless in the winter which was not a suitable condition for Grealy. She had a dream and she wished it to be real so much that she was able to fool herself into thinking it was true. Tess Essay? This definitely shows that Lucy is for english essays charles sure different than other people because she self-imposed what she wanted to tess, be real, not what Nevertheless, I also consider truth to on exothermic and endothermic reactions, be absolute, and therefore, it is never right to essay, do wrong. Truth is the purity that differentiates between right and wrong. “Absolute Truth” is true regardless of what we believe and think. Absolute truth stands on its own. Choice Theory? In the sense, absolute truth is absolutely true no matter what evidence there is for it. Truth is tess, what corresponds to the facts. Truth does not change just because we learn something about problem essay, it. Also, truth is not always good to say.
If I've come to this point where I only believe in facts. Essay? Because we can see from the point of telling the truth, half of the truth is not the and endothermic reactions truth, what we are told is not completely true. But when you really believe in the truth, when you know for certain that something is true, you are in a position where you don't have to tell anyone else, because you know what the truth is and you don't have to care who'll believe in you or not. We can take love for instance, when I know our eyes”. Our “eyes” help us create and change what we believe is true.
If we try to define the essay “truth” from introduction a different perspective as an ultimate objectivity, or universality that holds for everyone, then our opinions or what we have “inside” could never be the “truth” since one person’s thoughts will never be the same as anyone else’s. The problem rises when people define the tess “truth” as an objective and that they see, know or understand it while everybody else is wrong. This is a great Physical Beauty vs Inner Beauty Essay examples. change who they are for anyone. The people who have inner beauty show love, strength, power, and hope in their lives. The inner beauty of women is stronger than, physical beauty but what do other people notice first? If one person that has characteristics of physical beauty and one person that has inner beauty traits both walk by problem in society, the same guy, which one do you think he will talk to first? You can’t see the beauty within a person. Tess Essay? If that beauty on the outside is not up to one’s standards, of course He doesn’t see the beauty his wife found in introduction it. Suddenly his eyes caught something shining from the tess moonlight that found its way in in society through some small crack in the ceiling.
It was a hammer he forgot in the attic years ago. He grabbed it like a child would grab a lollipop; his eyes glowed with excitement like a child would at a sight of a new toy. He showed it to his wife who just shrugged him off. To her it was just another one of his collection of tools. The quote “beauty is in the eye of the “Story Truth” and “Happening Truth” in the Things They Carried. Brave and handsome, all that stuff.
Best platoon leader ever’” (29-30). Like stated before, it is nearly impossible for a blind reader to distinguish the essay “happening truth” from “story truth”, but it is possible that Tim O’brien and Jimmy Cross did in fact meet and talk for a day, but the honest facts may be twisted by “story truth”. For example, O’Brien may not remember his and Jimmy Cross’ conversation throughout that entire day in great detail; therefore he may have had to laws introduction, formulate and make Women, Beauty and Self-Esteem Essay. Essay? Different Perceptions of Beauty in Nature Essay. In Society? lover of tess uncontained and immortal beauty” (6). By becoming part of God, one may leave the cave of ignorance. The people that remain in the cave are forgotten and unnecessary. The transcendence results into an enlightenment and perception, of problem in society essay not Beauty, but of God. Beauty is the medium used to perceive God. A crucial difference between Emerson and Plato’s thinking is that Emerson believes the beautiful things in nature are representative of God and hence truth and tess, wisdom, whereas Plato believes Essay on Beauty Pageants are a Harm to Society.
Beauty pageants may seem the best way to increase confidence in young women and become their first step to success. They give women of many minority cultures a voice. Not only that, they also help increase their contacts, thus enabling more job opportunities in the fields of acting, business, music, and dance. This may all seem quite convincing but research shows otherwise. Beauty pageants are harmful not only to ordinary women but also to the entire society because they give women the feeling
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SparkNotes: Tess of the d’Urbervilles: Study Questions &…
Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland. Un article de la revue Meta. Volume 59 , Numero 2 , Aout, 2014 , p. 260–277. Tous droits reserves © Les Presses de l’Universite de Montreal, 2014.
Salons. Un eclairage sur la societe par les revues savantes. This paper offers an overview of the tess development of Legal Translation Studies as a major interdiscipline within Translation Studies. It reviews key elements that shape its specificity and work scholarships constitute the shared ground of tess essay its research community: object of laws introduction study, place within academia, denomination, historical milestones and key approaches. Essay! This review elicits the different stages of evolution leading to the field’s current position and its particular interaction with Law. Of Life! The focus is placed on commonalities as a means to identify distinctive reference points and avenues for further development. A comprehensive categorization of legal texts and the systematic scrutiny of contextual variables are highlighted as pivotal in defining the scope of the discipline and in proposing overarching conceptual and methodological models. Analyzing the applicability of essay these models and introduction their impact on legal translation quality is considered a priority in order to reinforce interdisciplinary specificity in line with professional needs. Le present article propose un tour d’horizon du developpement de la traductologie juridique, une interdiscipline majeure de la traductologie.
Il passe en revue des elements-cles qui ont faconne sa specificite et qui constituent pour les chercheurs un terrain commun : son objet d’etude, sa place dans le monde universitaire, sa denomination, ses etapes historiques et ses principales approches. Les differents stades de son evolution sont decrits jusqu’a son etat actuel, ainsi que son interaction particuliere avec le droit. L’accent est mis sur les points communs afin d’identifier des reperes distinctifs et d’etablir des pistes pour son futur developpement. La categorisation exhaustive des textes juridiques et l’examen systematique des variables contextuelles sont mis en valeur pour delimiter le champ de la discipline et proposer des modeles conceptuels et methodologiques integraux. L’analyse de l’applicabilite et de l’impact de ces modeles sur la qualite des traductions juridiques est consideree comme une priorite pour consolider la specificite interdisciplinaire en accord avec les besoins professionnels. Las innovaciones mas originales y fecundas resultan de la recombinacion de especialidades situadas en el punto de confluencia de varias disciplinas. 1. Legal Translation Studies: (inter)discipline, subfield or specialization?
After decades of essay consolidation and expansion, Translation Studies (TS) is experiencing a marked trend towards increasing specialization by area of practice and of life research (see, for tess, example, Brems, Meylaerts et al . 2012). An initial emphasis on building self-assertive conceptual models beyond linguistic-oriented theories paved the way for more sophisticated approaches to specific branches of problem in society translation in tess, contact with other disciplines. Since the english essays lamb empowering “cultural turn” (Snell-Hornby 2006) of the 1980s and tess essay 1990s, TS has progressively engaged in drtv business plan, an “interdisciplinary turn” (Gentzler 2003) characterized by new paths of inquiry, and a “technological turn” (Cronin 2010) favored by new computer tools and tess essay interaction with Information Technology. In fact, given the intrinsic nature of business plan translation as carrier of knowledge across fields and the myriad of tess influences shaping the emergence of its modern theories (Holmes 1972/1988), TS is “genetically predisposed” to interdisciplinary development. It is through the shared concern with communication that other disciplines engage with translation; in turn, the need to grasp and convey nuances ultimately lead translators and social work scholarships TS scholars to enrich their analytical models with insights from the domains that underpin specialized discourses. This has been the tess essay case of legal translation over the last three decades, to the point that, as few would question nowadays, Legal Translation Studies (LTS) has become one of the most prominent fields within TS.
LTS will be understood here as an (inter)discipline concerned with all aspects of translation of legal texts, including processes, products and english charles agents. Linguistic mediation between legal systems or within multilingual legal contexts (such as international or multilingual national systems) and the academic study of such mediation require the coherent integration of concepts from TS, Linguistics (as drawn upon through TS) and tess Law. Without these elements, it can be argued that legal translation as a problem-solving activity would be an unreliable exercise, and LTS would not stand where it stands today. This intermingling is an example of hybridization, which, according to laws introduction Dogan (1997b: 435), implies “an overlapping of tess segments of disciplines, a recombination of knowledge in new specialized fields” that constitutes a major source of knowledge production and innovation in all sciences. The consideration of an interdisciplinary field like LTS as “discipline” or “interdiscipline” tends to depend on the recognition of scholarly work by academic institutions (McCarty 1999, Munday 2001), and on laws essay introduction the degree of autonomy of the field: New disciplines emerge not only as knowledge grows and spreads but also as power relations and reputations change within academia. Historically, new disciplines have often emerged at the interface of existing ones, and so at first they inevitably have the nature of interdisciplines. Essay! […] Each of these new fields could be called an interdiscipline rather than a discipline: they have started life as hybrids, as cross-border areas between neighbouring fields. Indeed, these new fields query the very borders they straddle, challenging us to think in different ways. Chesterman 2002: 4. Whether the interdisciplinary nature of a field is made explicit or not, most disciplines nowadays engage with others to some extent. Laws Essay Introduction! However, this communication might not be unproblematic between new and long-established disciplines, and as shown by the history of TS, academic emancipation might take considerable effort.
Even if this process is still relatively recent, and full recognition is yet to be achieved in some academic constituencies, LTS has clearly benefited from the consolidation of tess essay TS in work, general. If the overriding priority was once to claim TS’s own territory in between adjacent fields, scholars in specialized branches such as LTS are now taking interdisciplinarity into new territory on the basis of TS-specific paradigms. In this “turn,” the interdisciplinary vocation of TS is unfolding, far beyond the discussions and influences that put TS on tess essay the academic map. The study of legal translation as part of academic training and research programs has grown exponentially and evolves comfortably within TS. In this context, terms such as “subfield,” “subdiscipline,” “branch” or “specialization” are often used to refer to drtv plan legal translation and LTS as subdivisions or categories of translation and tess essay TS, respectively. Although the question of denominations will be addressed in plan, section 3, it is worth noting at this point that “legal translation” is used here to refer to essay the area of practice and the subject of study, while “Legal Translation Studies” (“LTS”) is reserved for the academic discipline, even if “legal translation” is commonly used to refer to the same discipline. In other words, it is presupposed that legal translation is to LTS what translation is to TS. In the next sections, we will focus on problem in society essay the key elements that shape the identity of LTS today: object of study, place within academia, denomination and tess historical evolution. For young and dynamically-changing disciplines, this kind of stocktaking exercise can be particularly useful and drtv business plan even a necessity.
Chesterman (2002: 2), making this point in relation to TS, suggested that “scholars tend to focus on their particular corners, and tess essay communication between different sections of the field may suffer, as people stress more what separates approaches than on what unites them – at least in the initial stages.” Indeed, after a period of intense growth, surveying the common ground of the drtv business plan LTS research community can help to underpin the collective vision and specificity of this maturing field. Situating an emerging discipline across academic boundaries is essentially a question of identifying its specific problems and methods. In the case of LTS, the consideration of essay legal translation as a category in essay and endothermic reactions, its own right has been rarely challenged in the past few decades (Harvey 2002, Mayoral Asensio 2002). The distinctive concern of LTS with all aspects of legal translation systematically draws scholars’ attention to the long-debated issue of what defines legal texts. These have been variously classified according to main textual functions (for example, Bocquet 1994, Sarcevic 1997), or according to discursive situation parameters (for example, Gemar 1995, Borja Albi 2000, Cao 2007). These classifications converge on the identification of three major groups of texts: normative texts, judicial texts and legal scholarly texts (from more prescriptive to more descriptive and/or argumentative in nature). However, models based on situational elements understandably offer further subdivisions. For instance, contracts are included within normative texts in categorizations according to primary function, whereas they are classified under a separate heterogeneous group of “private legal texts” (for example, Gemar 1995, Cao 2007) or “texts of application of essay law” (Borja Albi 2000) in problem in society essay, the latter models. The addition of more specific categories according to situational elements seems to be a natural evolution in the scrutiny of essay legal texts. On the one hand, the blend of essays lamb functions in legal texts (for example, judgements with a normative value in common law systems) and their high degree of intertextuality (with the essay typical role of problem written sources of law as primary references in language use across legal text typologies) call for further differentiation. On the other hand, what matters most for legal translation is the characterization of groups of texts corresponding to specific varieties or styles of legal language, and this is generally a question of essay text producers and purposes in communicative situations.
Since legal language is “a set of related legal discourses” (Maley 1994: 13) and not a uniform language, legal translators need to discriminate the features of the different styles reflected in original texts as part of translation-oriented analysis. And Endothermic Reactions! As highlighted by essay, Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002: 103) when advocating “a more systematic awareness of text typology,” “the translator who has taken the trouble to recognize the formal and stylistic conventions of a particular original has already done much to translate the lamb text successfully.” Apart from the language of legislators, judges or scholars, it is essay possible to identify, for laws of life essay, instance, a category of texts characterized by the “language of notaries” ( langage des notaires ; lenguaje notarial ), which accounts for a considerable number of legal texts in tess essay, certain countries. Texts drafted by legislators, judges, scholars or notaries on a particular aspect of probate law, for scholarships, example, will share key concepts and phraseology (the legislative text normally conditioning and impregnating the essay other uses), but purposes and laws essay discursive conventions will certainly vary by text type. As in other social sciences, subdivisions are ultimately determined by the lens through which textual realities are observed. In turn, legal text typologies comprise a variety of legal genres and subgenres (for example, different kinds of contracts). In the case of essay legal scholarly writings, texts usually take shape as subcategories of general genres such as journal articles or academic textbooks. Essay Choice Theory! They are not always addressed to legal experts (for example, a press report on the details of tess a particular legal reform, comparable to a report on economic affairs written by an economist), and their stylistic features can be rather heterogeneous, but they all share a minimum degree of thematic specialization in descriptive and argumentative functions. The prominence of different typologies will mirror the peculiarities of each legal system, while specific legal genres will not always match across jurisdictions. Problem! Overall, the more specific the categorization gets (textual function, text type and genre), the more layers of information are activated on discursive conventions, but also the tess less universal and essay choice the more culture-bound those layers become. Beyond the differences between categorization models, there is consensus around the hybridity of legal texts, which reflects the high interdisciplinarity of law in dealing with all aspects of tess life.
A piece of legislation on financial products, an agreement on the provision of chemical engineering services or an arbitration award on the conditions of trade within the lamb shipbuilding industry will require research on essay technicalities associated with other specializations. While thematic crossings between fields in different branches of law and legal settings are countless, those encountered in the area of business and essay reactions finance are traditionally highlighted to illustrate how often two specializations can merge in specific texts; and this can result in the classification of legal texts with predominantly non-legal specialist language under other branches of essay translation. However, in the examples provided, the social work scholarships text would remain of a legal nature and the subject of essay legal translation, as would be the essay theory case in instances where legal discursive features are minimal (for example, in certain private legal instruments) or intentionally tempered with non-specialist discourse (for example, through plain language movements). In mapping the “textual territory” of essay LTS, discrepancies persist at its fringes, particularly regarding the place assigned to texts not dealing with legal matters but used in essay reactions, legal settings. These texts can hardly be considered legal texts if they were not intended for legal purposes, even when they are subsequently used in legal settings. For instance, a personal letter or a scientific report which becomes evidence in court proceedings could be translated by essay, a legal translator or be required for certified or sworn translation, but this would not make them legal texts, as claimed by some authors (Abdel Hadi 1992: 47, Harvey 2002: 178).
It is precisely “non-authoritative statements” by lay participants in the legal process that Harvey (2002: 178) evokes in order to question the “supposed special status of legal translation.” He includes contracts, wills, expert reports and court documents in what he calls “ ‘bread and butter’ activities for lawyers and legal translators,” and considers that a “more inclusive definition of what constitutes a legal text would cover documents which are, or may become, part of the judicial process.” Echoing this view, Cao (2007: 11-12) identifies “ordinary texts such as business or personal correspondence, records and certificates, witness statements and expert reports” as part of “legal translation for general legal or judicial purpose,” and emphasizes that “ordinary texts that are not written in legal language by legal professionals” constitute “a major part of the problem translation work of the legal translator.” However, while these texts could be submitted to a legal translator in legal settings analyzed in LTS, they cannot be systematically considered legal texts. A scientific expert report on the use of hormones in cattle production with no trace of tess legal matters or legal language will not lose its scientific nature in a legal setting; and a further distinction must be made between non-lawyers’ texts initially intended for legal purposes (such as private agreements) and drtv ordinary texts produced for other purposes but later used in tess essay, legal settings (for example, personal correspondence). This distinction helps to delimit the boundaries of legal translation: as opposed to the latter texts, private legal instruments prepared by laypersons, even if more unpredictable in style than other legal text types, include certain performative discourse features in drtv, more or less formal provisions, and tend to essay follow certain legal genre conventions with frequent influences from professional legal models. Adopting a pragmatic and conciliatory approach, it can be concluded that the link between legal theme and/or function and linguistic features is confirmed as minimum common denominator of legal texts (even if at varying degrees):
Legal texts constitute or apply instruments governing public or private legal relations (including codified law, case-law and contracts), or give formal expression to specialized knowledge on legal aspects of such instruments and essay theory relations; These functions follow certain linguistic patterns that are characteristic of varieties of legal language in different discursive situations, allowing for the identification of legal text types (according to text producers and purposes), as well as legal genres (according to more specific textual functions and conventions); Legal texts can also contain a great amount of essay specialized language from non-legal fields covered by law, while legal scholarly writings comprise a wide range of subcategories of general genres such as journal articles and on exothermic and endothermic reactions textbooks. Categorizations based on legal function, theme and discourse serve to differentiate “legal translation” from other categories reflecting context or type of translation and including legal texts but not exclusively: “judicial translation” (even if the bulk of texts in this setting will be comprised under the legal judicial text type); “sworn/official/certified translation” (albeit predominantly reserved for texts of a legal nature); or “institutional translation” (with a traditionally high presence of legal and administrative text subtypes, but a diversity of themes and other specialized discourses). Categorization of legal texts. Notarial instruments can be considered as a specific category in essay, civil law countries. Table 1 integrates the criteria outlined above as a way of overcoming the traditional emphasis on civil law systems in the translation-oriented categorization of legal texts. Despite differences in the relevance and legal effects of particular text types by legal system, and despite the difficulty in proposing comprehensive categorization models, it is most useful to situate specific genres within general text types in order to better frame the comparison of discursive features.
For instance, the lawmaking role played by judicial decisions in common law countries cannot be equated with that of most judicial rulings in civil law systems, and their discursive features vary by work scholarships, genre and jurisdiction. Yet, they share certain core elements (associated with text producers and essay purposes) that are paramount to the legal translator’s comparative analysis. The complex reality summarized in essay on exothermic and endothermic reactions, Table 1 delineates a vast scope which demands enormous versatility of legal translators and must be acknowledged in LTS as a condition for tess, building universally-valid conceptual models. LTS scholars have often focused on particular legal relations and social work scholarships text types (predominantly legislative) as a basis for generalizations on legal translation.  The variability of legal linguistic phenomena and translation settings requires not only flexibility but also regular updating on discursive features, particularly in relation to the more dynamic branches of essay law and the impact of laws of life supranational convergence processes on such features. 3. Disciplinary contours and denominations. As mentioned above, LTS comprises the study of essay processes, products and agents of translation of legal texts as a professional practice, including specialized methodologies and competence, quality control, training and essay on exothermic and endothermic sociological aspects. Against the above background, once the “textual territory” of legal translation has been defined, the position of tess LTS between TS, Linguistics and Law can be pinpointed as represented in Figure 1 below. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS  LTS builds on the core concepts of TS theories common to all translation specializations, including all aspects of translation methodology, that is, declarative and operative knowledge of the translation process and problem-solving procedures (translation-oriented analysis, translation strategies and competence). These concepts and metalanguage lie at the heart of any branch of translation as subject of study, including LTS.
In turn, in developing its own communicative, cultural and drtv business cognitive approaches, among others, TS has drawn on notions from Communication Studies, Cultural Studies and Psychology, while studies in Translation Pedagogy, Translation Sociology and Translation Technology emerge as a result of crossings with other disciplines. However, the tess essay major neighboring discipline from which TS has borrowed most heavily is Linguistics, particularly subfields or approaches within the english essays charles lamb realm of Applied Linguistics which offer relevant variables on tess essay language use and tools for translation-oriented and contrastive analysis: Text Linguistics, Discourse Analysis, Contrastive Linguistics, Corpus Linguistics, Terminology, Pragmatics, etc. LTS marries such insights to essay legal theory and practice in the dissection of legal discourses, terminology, genres and texts for translation from a TS perspective. It is in tess, the interface between TS (with its diverse influences) and Law that LTS finds its natural place in scholarships, the academic landscape. Tess! LTS crucially relies on networks of legal knowledge in order to business build interdisciplinary theories and methods. Categorizations and analysis of the different systems and tess branches of law are indeed a key component of research for and on in society essay legal translation. In the case of international law, translation plays a central role in rendering legal instruments multilingual in institutional settings, which attracts considerable attention in tess, LTS, as has been traditionally the case with multilingual national systems.
In the scrutiny of the different branches of law for translation purposes, Legal Hermeneutics and Comparative Law stand out for their functionality: they offer useful techniques for the interpretation of legal texts and for the contrastive analysis of legal concepts and sources across systems. Social Work! Legal comparative methodology has proved particularly relevant to legal translation, and its importance for LTS is essay nowadays uncontested (see section 4). Even if the purposes of legal comparative practice and legal translation practice are different (shedding light on legal issues as opposed to applying adequate translation techniques), both share the same interest in deconstructing semantic elements in their legal contexts in order to determine degrees of correspondence for english essays, decision-making (see, for example, works by tess, legal experts De Groot 1987, Sacco 1992, Vanderlinden 1995, Brand 2007). A mutually instrumental relationship can be identified: comparative methods are paramount in linguistic mediation between legal systems, while translation is often necessary in the comparison of such systems by legal experts (see, for example, De Groot 2012). It is plan largely by merging general translation methodology with such legal analysis that LTS’s methodological specificity is reinforced. The interdisciplinary concern with legal language is shared by the adjacent field of Legal Linguistics, which analyzes features of legal discourses at large, including comparative studies in Contrastive Legal Linguistics (see, for example, Mattila 2013), but lacks the tess essay distinctive TS core of LTS. As opposed to the latter, Legal Linguistics can be monolingual and not necessarily concerned with the processes of of life essay linguistic mediation which have led to the recognition of LTS as a separate discipline.
In other words, Legal Linguistics is to tess essay LTS what Linguistics is to TS. Although the laws essay distinction between Legal Linguistics and tess essay LTS is already well-established (in parallel to the distinction between Linguistics and TS), their shared interest in legal language explains the drtv business overlap of certain definitions and denominations, particularly in French. Essay! In this language, “ jurilinguistique ” is often used to essays charles lamb refer to studies on both legal language and legal translation. This is largely due to tess the origin of the term in in society essay, the Canadian context, where concerns about linguistic rights, and the quality of Canada’s French-language legal texts in particular, led to growing linguistic awareness since the 1960s, and eventually resulted in a tailor-made system of essay co-drafting of drtv business Canadian legislation (see, for example, Covacs 1982 and Gemar 2013). The challenges of bilingual legal drafting, beyond the confines of traditional perceptions of legal translation, became the object of scholarly work under the label of essay “ jurilinguistique ,” as coined by Jean-Claude Gemar (1982),  and essays charles translated as “Jurilinguistics” for the same volume. It was defined as follows: Essentiellement, la jurilinguistique a pour objet principal l’etude linguistique du langage du droit sous ses divers aspects et dans ses differentes manifestations, afin de degager les moyens, de definir les techniques propres a en ameliorer la qualite, par exemple aux fins de traduction, redaction, terminologie, lexicographie, etc. selon le type de besoin considere. Gemar’s conception of tess essay Jurilinguistics matches standard definitions of Legal Linguistics (“ linguistique juridique ”) as a field within Applied Linguistics, but with a marked comparative dimension (that is, along the lines of Contrastive Legal Linguistics) suited to the Canadian origin of the term: “ etude du langage (langue et discours) du droit comme objet de recherche et d’analyse par les methodes de la linguistique (appliquee). Au Canada, cette etude est le plus souvent comparative (anglais-francais) ” (Gemar 1995, II: 182). From this perspective, jurilinguistique is drtv business plan considered as a disciplinary expansion from and transcending legal translation: “ La terminologie et la jurilinguistique, entre autres, procedent directement de la traduction – de l’anglais vers le francais, plus particulierement – et des difficultes qu’elle pose dans le contexte d’un Etat (federal) bilingue et bijuridique ” (Gemar 1995, II: 2). 
Considering these nuances, and as rightly noted in essay, the Termium database, “ jurilinguistique ” and theory “ linguistique juridique ,” and “Legal Linguistics” and “Jurilinguistics” in English, are not always regarded as perfect synonyms. In any case, the debate on the overlap between Legal Linguistics ( linguistique juridique ) and LTS ( traductologie juridique ) should not hinder the distinction between these complementary sister interdisciplines and essay their denominations. Essay! In English, the use of “Legal Translation Studies” has grown significantly with the expansion of the subject field;  “Legal Linguistics” is also well-established,  and tess “Jurilinguistics” commonly refers to choice the Canadian tradition. In French, “ jurilinguistique ” is widely used for the reasons explained above, often as interchangeable with “ linguistique juridique ” (despite the persistent connotations of each term; see, for example, Cacciaguidi-Fahy 2008), and co-exists with the specific term for LTS “ traductologie juridique ” and its variant “ juritraductologie .” In the case of Spanish, the use of “Traductologia Juridica” is rather limited to date; “traduccion juridica” (the name of the activity) is tess essay predominantly preferred to refer to the discipline. This use, mentioned in section 1 and also found in English and english essays charles French, seems particularly frequent in Spanish. Finally, “Linguistica Juridica” and “Jurilinguistica” follow the same pattern as in English, with the latter mostly linked to the Canadian tradition. Even if these names are all compatible, and essay different culture-bound scholarly labels are a healthy sign of academic diversity, the consolidation of uniform denominations for LTS in line with its status within TS would contribute to its clear identification and drtv business plan further cohesion. In this sense, “ traductologie juridique ” and “ Traductologia Juridica ,” by analogy with “ traductologie ” and “ Traductologia ,” as well as “Legal Translation Studies,” would be expected to find increasing echo within the academic community, together with general denominations of “legal translation” as object of study. Let us briefly delve into the historical evolution which has led to the position of LTS outlined above. Rather than an exhaustive review of approaches and authors, an tess essay, overview will be outlined with focus on major stages and illustrative markers of development. In spite of its relatively short history, there is already enough perspective to identify a few stages in the emergence and consolidation of LTS.
Its recognition as academic field has been associated with that of TS in general since the 1970s, and essay stimulated by tess essay, the school of on exothermic and endothermic reactions Jurilinguistics in tess, Canada. As a prelude to jurilinguistique , in the first Meta volume ever devoted to LTS, Gemar (1979) already presented legal translation as a new discipline, and highlighted the constraints and specificity of its subject matter. While recognizing that “ il reste encore trop d’inconnus ,” he regarded his own contribution at the time as a possible “ point de depart a l’etablissement d’une veritable methodologie ” of legal translation, and identified the need for in society essay, an interdisciplinary approach: “ toute approche devrait s’inspirer d’une forme de logique juridique, seul facteur essentiel de la marche epistemologique parce qu’il part d’un fait etabli, celui de la realite du droit et passe par la methodologie qui represente le moyen entre la pratique et la theorie ” (Gemar 1979: 53). In the same special issue of the tess journal, Michel Sparer’s views on the cultural dimension of legal translation illustrate how an emphasis on culture-bound communication was crystallizing as a means of empowerment of problem essay professionals in Canada: “ Nous nous sommes debarrasses depuis peu de la fidelite litterale pour adopter avec profit une conception plus affinee et plus autonome du role du traducteur, celle qui consiste a traduire l’idee avant de s’attacher au mot ” (Sparer 1979: 68). Legal experts such as Pigeon (1982), also from essay Canada, and essay De Groot (1987) contributed to the debate on the implications of incongruities between legal systems for legal translation, and tess essay vindicated the relevance of functional equivalence and essay comparative legal methods, respectively. In the same period, Sarcevic (1985), in a specific journal article, and Weston (1991), in a legal linguistic analysis of the French legal system, made new inroads into the analysis of translation techniques as applied to legal texts. After this initial period of increasing focus on specific issues and transition from traditional theories, LTS entered into a crucial stage in the mid-1990s as a result of several converging factors. Firstly, three monographs were entirely devoted to tess essay paradigms of legal translation by leading representatives of the first generation of LTS scholars: Bocquet (1994, later expanded in 2008), Gemar (1995) and plan Sarcevic (1997), subsequently followed by Alcaraz Varo and Hughes (2002) and tess Cao (2007) over essay choice the span of a decade. In spite of differences between their approaches, they all analyze features of legal language and translation problems resulting from conceptual incongruency, taking pragmatic and legal considerations into tess essay, account, and defending the active role of the legal translator.
These theories contributed to further defining the scope and academic profile of the field, and have inspired many contemporary researchers and translators. In fact, this period can be considered as catalytic for the development of drtv business plan shared conceptualizations in LTS and for the formation of a global LTS community. This was favored by two additional factors: 1) the essay use of in society essay new electronic communication media, which gradually made the dissemination of research results much more dynamic and tess accessible, as opposed to on exothermic reactions the slower-moving and geographically-limited expansion in the initial period; and tess essay 2) the flourishing of TS in general, with the proliferation of academic programs including legal translation and the exponential increase in the number of researchers in LTS. As the first and most comprehensive work of its kind in work scholarships, today’s lingua franca , Sarcevic (1997) soon became a particularly influential landmark. Tess! Her contribution to work scholarships the progress and internationalization of LTS was pivotal in that she integrated into her analysis new TS communicative theories, especially those by German-speaking scholars (such as Holz-Manttari, Reiss, Snell-Hornby, Vermeer or Wilss), as well as several contexts of translation not bound to any single language pair. As Sarcevic (2000: 329) put it herself, “by analyzing legal translation as an act of communication in the mechanism of law,” she attempted “to provide a theoretical basis for legal translation within the framework of tess modern translation theory.” However, Sarcevic (1997: 18-19; 2000: 331-332) remained critical of the universal applicability of Vermeer’s skopos theory to legal translation. It was the next generation of researchers that tested and fully embraced functionalist theories, particularly Nord’s version of skopos theory (Nord 1991a, 1991b, 1997), as a useful general framework in LTS (for example, Prieto Ramos 1998 and 2002, Dullion 2000, Garzone 2000). Equally receptive to these theories, Peter Sandrini and Roberto Mayoral Asensio should also be mentioned as major proponents of LTS applied research in the German-speaking countries and in the Spanish context over english essays charles the same period, especially for their work on comparative analysis of legal terminology (Sandrini 1996a, 1996b) and the translation of official documents (Mayoral Asensio 2003). Another milestone of that period was the international conference “Legal Translation: History, Theory/ies, Practice” held at tess, the University of Geneva in February 2000. Introduction! Its proceedings, probably the most frequently quoted in LTS, epitomize the field’s dynamism at the turn of the millennium and the role played by the Geneva school of tess LTS (within Geneva’s School of business plan Translation and Interpreting, ETI, today FTI).
As noted by tess, Bocquet (2000: 17), legal translation had been ETI’s main pole of excellence in translation since its foundation, and a communicative approach (“ la methode communicative axee sur le produit de traduction ,” as described in Bocquet 1996) had been applied there in previous decades. This is not surprising considering that: 1) the debate on problem in society the spirit versus the letter of the law had originated in multilingual Switzerland at the beginning of the 20 th century (that is, even earlier than in Canada), in the context of the translation of the Swiss Civil Code from German into the other national languages (see thorough analysis by Dullion 2007); and essay 2) ETI’s programs had been designed to respond not only to the needs of national institutions but also, crucially, to those of Geneva-based international organizations, some of whose professionals also contributed to work training in various language combinations. Essay!  This multidimensional orientation continues to shape the Geneva school of LTS as strongly pragmatic (with emphasis on improving models for essays lamb, practice on the basis of professional evidence)  and inclusive (of multiple influences, target languages and purposes, including a prominent institutional component and a long-standing combination of translation and legal expertise in training and tess research). In the “catalytic period” reviewed, the Geneva school was a key player in advocating LTS’s specific approaches and denominations “ traductologie juridique ” and “ juritraductologie ” (see, for example, Bocquet 1994 and essay and endothermic reactions Abdel Hadi 2002), and established itself as an academic crucible in the field. The leading figure of the essay Canadian school, Jean-Claude Gemar, joined the english lamb ETI in tess essay, 1997 and took part in drtv business plan, the creation of the essay GREJUT  research group on legal translation with Claude Bocquet and Maher Abdel Hadi a year later. Essay! The subsequent introduction of a legal translation specialization at postgraduate level (today MA) in 2000 and essay the abovementioned conference the same year also illustrate the new momentum in LTS. Since the mid-2000s, a growing constellation of researchers have continued to expand the interdiscipline by choice theory, applying cross-cultural paradigms to different branches of law, legal genres and settings in many jurisdictions and languages, and by tess essay, broadening cross-cutting topics, such as specific competence models, pedagogical issues, or the use of corpora and new resources in essay introduction, legal translation (for example, Biel 2010). While computer-assisted translation tools have attracted growing attention in tess essay, the context of the “technological turn,” machine translation in scholarships, particular has not been a primary focus in LTS. Tess Essay! This does not seem surprising in a field in english essays, which the complex layers of essay system-bound legal meaning and interpretation make automatic semantic processing a real challenge (see, for example, Hoefler and english essays Bunzli 2010) for the machine production of tess essay usable drafts.
As predicted by Mattila (2013: 22), “legal translation will remain an essentially human activity, at least in the near future.” Nonetheless, further computational developments and of life essay introduction statistical-based experiments on well-defined areas could trigger new interdisciplinary insights. More interestingly, the relationship between legal translation and comparative law is being further advanced from an tess, LTS perspective (see, for example, Engberg 2013 and Pommer 2014), while legal experts such as Ost (2009) and Glanert (2011) have recently acknowledged the new status of problem TS and the relevance of its paradigms in studying processes of legal convergence. Tess Essay! If we adopt Kaindl’s (1999) model of analysis of essays charles lamb interdisciplinary development of TS in general, the increasing dialogue between LTS scholars and comparatists can even be regarded as a symptom of tess transition from LTS’s “importing stage” of development to theory one of more “reciprocal cooperation” on issues of shared interest. The academic self-confidence gained by tess, LTS internationally is essay choice also apparent in scholars’ perceptions of its autonomy. The following definitions illustrate the evolution: “Far from being recognized as an independent discipline, legal translation is essay regarded by translation theorists merely as one of the many subject areas of plan special-purpose translation, a branch of translation studies” (Sarcevic 1997: 1); “ La traduccion juridica, una disciplina situada entre el derecho comparado y la linguistica contrastiva ” (Arntz 2000: 376); “ La juritraductologie est une nouvelle discipline qui cherche a determiner les regles methodologiques applicables a la traduction juridique ” (Abdel Hadi 2002: 71); “ La traductologie juridique est un sous-ensemble de la traductologie au sens large ,” “ un domaine encore balbutiant ” (Pelage 2003: 109, 118); “The debate on the relationship between Legal Translation Studies and the overarching discipline of Translation Studies is still in its infancy, with positions varying according to the degree of specificity or commonality ascribed to the new discipline” (Megale 2008: 11) (translated by the author);  “legal translation studies is an interdiscipline which is situated on the interface between translation studies, linguistics, terminology, comparative law, and cultural studies” (Biel 2010: 6). The intensification of scholarly work in LTS is reaching areas where the impact of previous academic advances has been more limited to date. At the same time, the impressive number of voices and publications on LTS has brought a certain sense of dispersion, which is tess compounded by the (paradoxically) insufficient communication still persistent between LTS researchers in different languages (Monzo Nebot 2010: 355) in spite of increasing internationalization since the mid-1990s. The remarkable expansion of LTS in the past three decades explains the keen interest in stocktaking that has motivated this paper. A review of the field’s development has led to the identification of choice theory three historical periods: 1) an essay, initial stage of transition from traditional translation theories since the late 1970s, mostly marked by legal linguistic approaches and the Canadian school of Jurilinguistics; 2) a catalytic stage between the mid-1990s and the mid-2000s in which LTS’s conceptual paradigms were solidified under the influence of choice theory cultural theories in TS; and 3) the current period of consolidation and expansion, dominated so far by a strong emphasis on applied research and multiple ramifications on the basis of LTS’s own theories. Through this accumulative process of fertilization, LTS has found its current place at the crossroads between TS, Law and Legal Linguistics. Tess! The intersection between linguistic and legal analysis for translation has been a research continuum and essay choice theory a driving feature in that process of fertilization, reshaped by essay, the assimilation of new TS approaches.
Our analysis has focused on the elements that articulate LTS’s specificity around that core intersection, with a view to identifying common denominators and avenues for further cohesion and advancement. 1) Since LTS is concerned with all aspects of legal translation as object of study , the definition of essay reactions its scope relies on our ability to essay characterize legal texts. The complementary nature of various classifications has been highlighted and english a conciliatory approach proposed in tess essay, which the combination of legal functions, themes and discursive situations serves to determine the legal nature of a text and to cluster linguistic features by english essays charles, text types and essay genres. This multidimensional categorization, permeable as it must remain to the dynamic and hybrid reality of texts and discourses, provides predictable criteria to outline the scope of legal translation and to avoid questionable generalizations on it. 2) The number of specific issues tackled in LTS has multiplied as research in the field has flourished. Legal translation theories are being applied to multiple corpora of legal texts and mediation contexts around the world, and there is still much to essays be done in order to shed light on specific genres and tess essay translation problems at of life, both national and international levels. Although this might cause some overlaps and a certain sense of fragmentation, such studies are essential to stimulate good practices and further research on existing problems and emerging needs, as apparent in the multiple training, sociological or technological issues being addressed in LTS. 3) Among those challenges, the development of specific methods continues to be of essay critical importance to english lamb disciplinary specificity.
Most approaches converge on the need to integrate legal theories and tess essay comparative legal analysis into legal translation methodology as a hallmark of the field. Plan! Although LTS paradigms have become increasingly sophisticated in examining the “ingredients” for that integration, the synthesis into overarching operational models, however complex this might prove, remains a priority for further maturation of the discipline. As noted by Munday (2001: 188) in relation to TS in general, one of the traditional difficulties in “the construction of an tess, interdisciplinary methodology” is “the necessary expertise in a wide range of subject areas” whereas “the original academic background of the social scholarships individual researcher inevitably conditions the focus of their approach.” This applies to LTS to the extent that it is still relatively young as a specific academic discipline and truly interdisciplinary training is not yet the norm. An additional difficulty in building universally-valid methodological models in LTS is the tess enormous variability of situational factors in legal translation, which explains the limited applicability of in society many theoretical frameworks, already pointed out by Garzone (2000: 395): “so far most studies have had their starting point in a specific experience in one area of this very broad field, so that the theoretical concepts proposed, however viable, have tended to be all but comprehensive in their scope of application.” Against this backdrop, and tess given the plan shared pursuit of tess essay “adequacy” in varied communicative situations, modern functionalist considerations have become widely accepted in LTS, even if to different degrees. 4) As regards scholars’ perceptions of common markers of on exothermic and endothermic reactions disciplinary identity and tess essay development, their metadiscourse shows a constant progression from more hesitant to more self-confident views on choice LTS’s status as a subdiscipline or interdiscipline within TS. Tess! Denominations reflect this trend in the recognition as academic discipline, although identification patterns are not identical in the languages analyzed. Of Life Essay Introduction! In this respect, further consistency in the use of distinct terminology to tess essay refer to the discipline (“Legal Translation Studies,” “ traductologie juridique ,” “ Traductologia Juridica ”) can only contribute to strengthening its cohesion. All the above interrelated elements depict a vast common ground that needs to be acknowledged in order to bring heightened focus to and endothermic new advances. LTS stands today as a maturing discipline whose thematic body resembles that of Law, with specific issues addressed on tess different “legal textual branches” at national and social scholarships supranational levels, and it continues to expand through its interaction with other disciplines. Its TS-based methodological core must be fine-tuned to the specific legal texture of that thematic body with the tess essay common goal of generating knowledge to enhance legal translation quality. In a context of rapid expansion, it is indeed worth ensuring that research on legal translation methodology progresses by keeping the forest, and not just its trees, in sight.
Such research on professional problem-solving fits a paradigm in which observation and of life experimentation yield results for improving the observed practice. Tess! It is no coincidence that LTS blossomed earliest in countries or regions where the social scholarships professionalization of translation, and tess the concomitant institutional concern with translation quality, stimulated research and training in the field. In the case of the Geneva school of LTS (today under its Centre for Legal and theory Institutional Translation Studies, Transius), emphasis remains on methodology as a fundamental bridge between theory and practice. Essay! In line with this school’s pragmatic and inclusive tradition, holistic approaches are advocated in which legal and discursive parameters of contextualization of legal translation are integrated, systematized and put to work in decision-making and competence-building (Prieto Ramos 2011, 2014; Dullion 2014) as the basis for testing applicability and impact on translation quality. This cycle of essay choice integration, systematization and testing starts with observation of methodological gaps in practice and consideration of professional requirements in diverse contexts (for an essay, updated overview, see Borja Albi and Prieto Ramos 2013).
From this perspective, LTS scholars should not only be up-to-date with quality standards in the translation settings investigated but also contribute to raising those standards through research and training based on solid empirical foundations. Essays! As practitioners confronted with changing “textual symptoms,” legal translators can only benefit from tess such academic insights if these respond to the requirements of effective legal communication. In turn, this implies embracing the multifaceted nature of legal translation and determining its purpose under each set of communicative conditions, rather than adopting oversimplistic or static conceptions. Only by building on this kind of empowering vision and on exothermic proving its practical benefits can LTS reinforce the tess true relevance of its specificity within and beyond academia, and thereby enhance both disciplinary and professional recognition.  Throughout this article, some quotations are provided in French and business Spanish (the other two official languages of the tess essay journal) that are not translated for the sake of brevity. Essay On Exothermic Reactions!  Even nowadays, some authors claim that legal translation is tess essay limited to normative texts or texts that “regulate relations.” For example, for work scholarships, Ferran Larraz (2012. 345), legal translation is tess essay “ la traslacion de los efectos juridicos esenciales del documento, en tanto que [sic] su finalidad es siempre cumplir una funcion social mediante la regulacion de comportamientos .”  The figure focuses on theory primary disciplinary relations and intersections relevant to LTS. Essay! Therefore, it does not include the of life essay introduction relation of TS or linguistic disciplines with fields other than Law. In reality, the intersections between TS (through its other branches) and other disciplines are numerous, and some of the fields drawn upon in TS are interdisciplines themselves (for example, Terminology). Arrows indicate key influences in tess, the formation of LTS, while particularly influential branches are underlined. Plan!  According to Termium, the Government of Canada’s terminology and linguistic data bank, the tess essay term actually derives from “ jurilinguiste ,” used in the late 1970s by Alexandre Covacs, then in charge of French language services at the Legislation Section of Canada’s Department of Justice. He referred to “ jurilinguistes ” (translated as “jurilinguists”) and drtv business a “ groupe de jurilinguistique francaise ” within his Section (Covacs 1982: 98, based on a paper presented at a conference in 1980). However, it is Jean-Claude Gemar who first defined the term and has led scholarly work on the subject on the basis of the Canadian experience.  A decade later, in an overview of the field, Gemar described Jurilinguistics as “ avant tout un savoir-faire personnel qui a evolue en pratique professionnelle ” (2005.
5. and as a “field of endeavor” which had taken shape “in the wake of translation” and “transcends linguistic barriers and tess legal traditions” (2005. 2).  Trends on denominations mentioned in laws of life, this section have been confirmed through quantitative and qualitative analysis of results of online searches carried out between October 2009 and January 2013.  “Legilinguistics” is used as a synonym at the Adam Mickiewicz University’s Institute of Linguistics in Poznan, Poland (for example, in the Comparative Legilinguistics journal), where the term was coined. Tess Essay!  Translation was thus conceived as “ le support d’un dialogue interculturel, interinstitutionnel et international ” (Bocquet 1996: 72). On the distinctive features of the Geneva School tradition of essays charles training and theory-building in legal translation, see also Bocquet (1996: 70-74, 2008. Tess! 77-79). Scholarships!  On the “evidence-based approach to applied translation studies” in general, see Ulrych (2002). Tess!  Groupe de recherche en Jurilinguistique et Traduction .  “ Si trova invece ancora agli inizi la discussione sui rapporti fra la traduttologia giuridica e il genus traduttologia, con posizioni che oscillano in base al grado di specificita o di comunanza che gli uni e gli altri assegnano alla nuova ” (Megale 2008: 11). Abdel Hadi , Maher (1992): Geographie politique et traduction juridique, le probleme de la terminologie. Terminologie et traduction . 2/3:43-57. Disciplinary boundaries of LTS  Categorization of legal texts. Wilson, Rita and Gerber, Leah (2012): Creative Constraints: Translation and Authorship . Clayton, Victoria (Australia): Monash University Press, 166p.
Par Eusebio Llacer. Oakes, Michael P. et Ji, Meng ( dir.) (2012): Quantitative Methods in Corpus-Based Translation Studies. A Practical Guide to Descriptive Translation Research . Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins, 361p. Par Genevieve Has. Legal Translation Studies as Interdiscipline: Scope and Evolution. Par Fernando Prieto Ramos.
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essay kant reason Essays On Immanuel Kant. Select any paper below and receive it TODAY! Free excerpts available upon request. Immanuel Kant was born in essay 1724 in Konigsberg, Germany. He is undeniably one of the most influential philosophers in the realm of moral and political thinking. In The Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals, Kant defines and elucidates the concept he calls 'categorical imperative'. Kant's philosophy deals with the ethical duties of the individual moral agent and bases his system upon drtv business plan, principles of universality. This 5 page paper examines the Kantian concept of tess, categorical imperative a it relates to the Universal law of freedom and it's applicability to the testing of maxims. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Kant And Hume On The Metaphysics Of Moral And The Nature Of Reason and Empiricism. This 5 page paper considers the arguments of both Hume and in society essay, Kant regarding the nature of reason and essay, empiricism, while also reflecting on Kant's categorical imperative and the empirical reasoning of Hume. This paper evaluates these considerations in Kant's Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals and Hume's An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and drtv, A Treatise on Human Nature. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kant and essay, Hume: A comparison of views on Ethics : The study of Ethics is an inquiry into laws introduction, the foundations of values. It is a concern with the tess eventual outcome of the action and experience of every day life. Ethics is inherently connected with every science : economic, political, religious and spiritual, to name only a few. This 6 page paper argues that Kant's ideas were, in effect, superimposed by the theories presented by Hume.
Hume built on the empirical foundation of Kant and added the belief that morality is essay choice theory a consequence of emotion and tess, exceeds the reasoning abilities in scope and essay, function. Essay. Despite Kant's opposition to this view of morality, Hume has presented a wider and more comprehensive understanding. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Kant John Stuart Mill / Terrorism and essays charles, the Moral and Political Rationales. This 5 page paper considers the tess essay issue of terrorism, first by relating how a terrorist might defend their actions using the arguments of Kant and the Utilitarian perspective of John Stuart Mill, then considers who a both a Kantian and Utilitarian opponent to terrorism might relate to this issue.
This paper utilizes the text of Kant's Political Writings and choice theory, arguments from Mill's Utilitarianism. No additional sources cited. Kant and Autonomy. It is difficult to address any study of ethical behavior without addressing the work of Immanuel Kant. He addresses morality through the interpretation of autonomy. In The Grounding for tess essay, the Metaphysics of business, Morals, Kant defines the concept he calls 'categorical imperative'. He sets his thoughts within the parameters of the rights and essay, duties inherent in essay the autonomy of man. This 8 page paper argues that autonomy is the utilization of the tess will inherent in the nature of the animal while free choice is the utilization of the problem essay a priori 'soul' that the religionists would say governs the essay higher thoughts of man in his relation to God. In this manner, Kant is in agreement with Stanley Jaki's representation of scientific history and philosophical rationality in the book, Angels, Apes, and Men.
Bibliography lists 5 sources. The Case of Stella Liebeck and Tort Reform as Supported by the Works of Kant. A 5 page paper that seeks to prove that Immanuel Kant would support both Stella Liebeck's case and Congress' subsequent tort reform laws, simply because they meet his altruism ideals for citizens and government under his laws of citizen duty to act under the laws and slow government reform. This paper claims that Kant would not support McDonald's egoism in retaining their hot coffee policy because of the number of complaints received prior to work scholarships, Liebeck's case--and also his 'mine and thine' policy on dual responsibility. Kant was a supporter of tess, free-will as long as the individual agreed to plan, avoid chaos by lending itself to government's laws, and a supporter of government as long as it made slow reforms that did not incite revolutionaries.
Bibliography includes 6 sources . The Two Prefaces of Kant?s Critique of Pure Reason: Kant?s Grounds for the Necessity of a Critique. This 4 page paper provides an overview of the basic arguments presented in the two prefaces of Immanuel Kant?s Critique of Pure Reason. Essay. This paper outlines the nature of the arguments for the necessity of the critique and considers them as they are also reflected in english essays the arguments within the body of the Critique itself. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Critical Analysis of Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative, in Terms of essay, Lying to Protect a Potential Murder Victim. A 4 page paper which critically assesses the validity of Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative, which states that lying is wrong in all circumstances, including to protect a person whose whereabouts are being sought by a murderer.
Specifically considered are arguments by Barbara Herman who defends Kant's position, and Christine M. Korsgaard who asserts that lying to a murderer does not violate Kant's first or second Categorical Imperative formulations. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Immanuel Kant?s Vision of Morality and business plan, ?Political Moralists? This 5 page report discusses the philosopher Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and his understanding of what constitutes morality and tess, how it cannot be applied to a concept that would be called ?political moralist.? In Kant?s opinion, the moral point of essay theory, view is impartial and favors no particular individual. Morality requires an individual, according to Kant, that he or she act on a maxim that they can universalize, in other words that his or her reasons for a certain action could be considered valid for anyone in tess a comparable situation. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Utilitarian Ethics by Mills and Kantianism Ethics by Kant. A 5 page paper which summarizes, compares and contrasts, and analyzes, for weaknesses, the two forms of choice theory, ethical thought as presented by Mills and Kant. No additional sources cited.
How Kant and Hume Would React To Plato's 'Euthyphro' A 6 page paper that discusses the tess possible reactions of Immanuel Kant and David Hume on Plato's 'Euthyphro.' Of major consideration is the reactions of work scholarships, Kant and Hume to the concepts of piety, love and family duty as presented within the story of the dialogue between Euthyphro and tess essay, Socrates. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Kant and The Ethics of Choice. A 5 page paper that investigates significant aspects of intention or consequences on the moral and ethical decisions of individuals. This paper supports Kant's theory that though man may incorporate personal and sometimes selfish considerations into the process of introduction, ethical determinations, this does not negate the moral applications of essay, these choices. At the and endothermic same time, Kant's theories call in to question whether the effects of essay, moral choices, whether good or not, are considered good simply becasue of the intention of the individual making the determination.
Bibliography lists 2 sources. Immanuel Kant's Concept of laws of life essay, Good Will Analyzed. A 5 page paper which examines German philosopher Immanuel Kant's good will principle as articulated in his 1785 work, The Fundamental Principles of the tess essay Metaphysics of Morals (also known as The Grounding For the Metaphysics of Morals. Specifically analyzed is english why good will is considered to be good, according to tess essay, Kant, and how it is expressed. Introduction. Bibliography lists 2 sources. The Practical Application of the Theories of Kant and Mill. Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill are philosophers who addressed the issues of morality in terms of how moral traditions are formed.
Kant's theory of categorical imperative states that humanity is of ultimate value and should be regarded as an end in essay itself. Mill's 'principle of utility' or 'the greatest happiness principle' sought for in society, the systematic coherency of essay, ethical philosophy through the consequences of actions as the consideration determining their morality, presupposed by the acquisition of in society essay, happiness as opposed to the avoidance of pain. This 6 page paper examines the practical application of the two theories. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Hume Awakes Kant from Dogmatic Slumber. (5pp) Our challenge in this discussion is to determine the influence of Hume on Kant.
Why would Kant say that Hume had awakened him from dogmatic slumber? And how did this awakening influence Kant. These questions will be answered based upon Kan'ts Prologomena for the Future of Metaphysics (1787). Bibliography lists 4 sources. Immanuel Kant?s A Priori Knowledge and Time. This 5 page report discusses Immanuel Kant?s meaning regarding the ?two pure forms of sensible intuition? being ?a priori knowledge? and ?time? as discussed in his Critique of Pure Reason published in 1781. Kant (1724-1804) believed individual thought to be the tess essay framework by scholarships, which the individual was able to determine the appropriate category into which one thought process or pattern would fit over tess, another.
One of his first statements in the Critique is that: ?In the order of choice theory, time, therefore, we have no knowledge antecedent to experience, and with experience all our knowledge begins.? This paper looks at what he means by tess, such a ststaement and how it relates to the nature and relaity of essay, space and time. Bibliography lists one source. Immanuel Kant?s Grounding of the Metaphysics of Morals. This 5 page paper considers the tess essay nature of Kant?s arguments regarding the categorical imperative and suggest that while Kant claims that there is only one categorical imperative, that he actually gives three distinct formulations in work his work. This paper attempts to answer the question of why these formulations actually describe the same fundamental moral law. No additional sources cited. Air Traffic Controllers Dismissal And Its Relation The Works Of Kant. A 6 page paper discussing Kant's imperatives to government and the governed people as they relate to the firing of the Air Traffic Controllers by Ronald Reagan. The paper postulates that Reagan's decision was short-sighted, because his actions have potentially lead to that which he sought to prevent--a socialistic public labor pool.
The paper discusses the affects of his decision in tess relationship to both the public and private sector, and how it may have resulted in the quiet revolution affecting the private sector. Although Kant specifies that altruistic citizens subject themselves to their sovereign, they must also police their sovereign, and therefore, the long-term results of Reagan's decision are in essay and endothermic reactions the hands of the people. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Immanuel Kant and David Hume -- The Cause of Events and The Human Soul. This 5 page report discusses two philosophical propositions: first, every event has a cause; and, second, an essay immortal soul exists distinct from the body. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) and David Hume (1711-1776) were two of the 18th century Western world?s philosophers who were particularly concerned with issues relating to what is ?right? or ?good? and what best serves the needs of humankind both collectively and individually. The two separate philosophical propositions may be considered that will allow a greater understanding of the thinking of Hume and Kant Bibliography lists 5 sources. Immanuel Kant and the Copernican Revolution. This 20 page paper relates the basic elements of Kant's philosophical perspective, related to his Copernican Revolution, his analytical principles, quantum mechanics, ethics, theory of space and time and his general world view.
This paper outlines some of the basic theories of laws essay introduction, Kant and relates them to the texts of his major works, including his Critique of Pure Reason. Bibliography lists 10 sources. Causality in Western Philosophical Thought Since Descartes / The Perspectives of Kant, Locke Nietzche. This 5 page paper considers the perspectives of philosophers like Kant, Locke and Nietzche regarding the nature of causality in understanding human existence and perspectives on issues like idolatry and religion. This paper relates the perspectives of Kant in works like 'Critique of Pure Reason' to Locke's 'An Essay Concerning Human Understanding' and Nietzche's 'Twilight of the Idols.' The Philosophies of Kant and Mill. Throughout time man has attempted to understand the motivations of moral conduct.
The associations between the individual and the establishment of society have been the subject of numerous debates and discourses that included the essay primary consideration of moral or ethical beliefs in the instigation of laws of life, laws and, or the ethical meaning of community. Immanuel Kant has presented one viewpoint in tess The Foundations Of The Metaphysics of Morals that is founded on his belief that the worth of man is business plan inherent in his ability to reason. This 5 page paper asserts that John Stuart Mill holds another opinion as presented in tess the book, Utilitarianism that is seemingly at work odds with the thoughts of Kant. Tess Essay. No additional sources are listed. Kant's Moral Law And Mill's Utilitarianism. A 5 page paper discussing beginning differences in laws essay introduction Kant's and Aristotle's views of the individual's rights and whether those of the individual are higher than those of the state in which he lives. Kant maintains that the rights of the state overrides those of the essay individual; Aristotle's view is that the highest rights are those of the individual.
Bibliography lists 2 sources. Kant and Mill on Moral Duty. This 5 page paper considers the views of both Immanuel Kant and the Utilitarian perspective of laws essay introduction, John Stuart Mill, as they apply to the concept of moral duty and moral worth and the appproaches to determining ethical approaches. This paper utilizes the text of tess essay, Kant?s Political Writings and and endothermic, arguments from Mill?s Utilitarianism. No additional sources cited. Kant on Doing One's Duty.
This 6 page paper assesses Kant's view on the assertion that one should do their duty. This paper assesses his views in the Goundwork for the Metaphysics of Morals, and considers the nature of Kant's arguments regarding imperfect and tess essay, perfect duties. No additional sources cited. Kant and plan, Mills; A Comparison. This 6 page paper considers the philosophical differences and similarities between Kant and Mills. The issue of ethics is discussed by using a hypothetical case where a decision needs to be made and tess essay, the ways in problem essay which the applications of the tess essay thoughts of of life, Kant and Mills may determine a different outcome. The bibliography cites 4 sources. Kant and Mill on Euthanasia. This 5 page paper provides an tess overview of the central views of work scholarships, Kant and tess essay, Mill as they apply to perspectives on euthanasia, also known as assisted suicide. Laws Of Life Essay. This paper considers the tess ethical reasons behind the use of euthanasia as they are defined by an understanding of Kant's Critique of essays lamb, Practical Reason and Mill's Utilitarianism. Tess. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
The Idea of Government: The Comparable Views of Locke and Kant. A 5 page discussion of the similarities between John Locke's philosophy of essay on exothermic and endothermic reactions, government and tess essay, that of Immanuel Kant. Notes that each had very definitive ideas of individual rights and the relation of problem, those rights to law and government. Contends that in practically every respect John Locke's idea of government can be demonstrated to be fully compatible with Immanuel Kant's thesis in Idea for a Universal History. No sources are listed. Karl Marx and Immanuel Kant. This 5 page report discusses the philosophers Karl Marx (1818-1883) and Immanuel Kant (1724-1804). Tess. Simplistically reduced, Marx held to work, the pronouncement that all events are determined by economic forces. Marx was always well-aware that it was not the working class but the middle class that drove history along its ever-progressing path. Immanuel Kant believed individual thought to be the framework by which the individual was able to determine the appropriate category into which one thought process or pattern would fit over another.
Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kant/ Transcendental Deduction. A 9 page essay that analyzes Kant's The Critique of Pure Reason, which concerns the possibilities inherent in the topic metaphysics (i.e., philosophical knowledge that transcends the parameters of sense experience). According to Kant, this sort of knowledge should be considered to be both synthetic and tess, a priori. No additional sources cited. Immanuel Kant's Doctrines and Their Relation to Religion. A 12 page paper outlining the basic doctrines of Immanuel Kant. The writer examines his beliefs about goodness and people's responsibility to be good people, and relates that to Utilitarianism and Catholicism.
Bibliography lists 3 sources. Immanuel Kant's 'Critique Of Pure Reason' A 5 page paper that provides an analysis of essay choice theory, Kant's work and focuses on the ideal of pure reason as a central development. Tess Essay. No additional sources cited. Euthanasia / A Kantian Perspective. In this 4 page paper, the writer outlines philosophical perspectives on euthanasia as they would most likely be presented by Kant. The writer then advocates euthanasia in this same light. Bibliography lists 3 references.
Kant vs. Sartre on Moral Freedom. A 5 page paper which examines the concept of moral freedom of essays charles, Immanuel Kant and Jean Paul Sartre and provides a philosophical argument based on their individual conclusions. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Plato, Hobbes Kant / A Fictional Discourse On Crime Punishment. A 6 page paper that provides a hypothetical discourse between Plato, Hobbes and Kant regarding their take on crime and tess, punishment. Problem. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Kant?s Categorical Imperative and the Case of the Ford Pinto. 10 pages in length. Compares the Categorical Imperative of Kant to the case of the faulty gas-tank design in the Ford Motor Company Pinto.
Makes reference to utilitarianism as well as the virtue theory and the rights theory. Essay. Looks at the ethics, the solution, cost-benefit analysis and alternative solutions. Immanuel Kant?s ?Categorical Imperative,? As Described in ?Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals? A 5 page paper which examines Immanuel Kant?s assertion in 'Grounding for the Metaphysics of Morals' that there is only one categorical imperative, but yet defines three formulations of this imperative. Specifically considered is whether or not all three of these formulations describe the same moral law. Human Nature and Political Theory / Comparisons of Hobbes, Rousseau, Marx, and Kant. This 9 page paper reflects upon charles, the arguments of Hobbes, Rousseau, Marx and Kant regarding the nature of mankind, human nature in general, and the impact on the development of the best possible regime based on the assumptions presented. This paper considers the philosophers? views of goodness, selfishness and depravity (or evil) and the way in which these elements impact a perspective on tess, political theory. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Does Immanuel Kant's Categorical Imperative Prove That Lying (or Breaking a Promise) is Never Morally Justified? A 5 page paper which evaluates whether or not Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative proves that lying or breaking a promise is never morally justified, even when it is done to save an of life innocent life. Bibliography lists 3 sources. TGkantci.wps. Ethical Issues of Performing Unnecessary Surgery Versus returning an Unfit Leader to Battle -- Arguments of Aristotle Versus Kant. This 5 page report discusses the hypothetical situation put forth in tess essay a episode of the television show M*A*S*H. One of the doctors decides to theory, perform an unnecessary surgery on essay, a battle officer whose record carried an english essays unreasonably high number of casualties. The logic was the longer he was kept out of tess essay, command on english essays charles lamb, the battlefield, the fewer soldiers under his command would die.
This report makes the argument that the ethical theory of Aristotle would have supported him in that decision while the tess essay ethical theory of Kant would have denounced the doctor?s logic. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Immanuel Kant's 'Supreme Principle of Morality' This 6 page research paper examines the morality principle of German philosopher Immanuel Kant. English Essays Lamb. Specifically discussed are the definition of this principle, its intention, and the necessary components to tess, ensure this 'supreme morality.' Bibliography lists 4 sources. Plato, David Hume, John Stuart Mill Immanuel Kant on Capital Punishment. A 7 page paper which examines the work ancient Greek philosophical view of capital punishment, as espoused by Plato, and then considers the European perspectives of David Hume, John Stuart Mill, and Immanuel Kant. Bibliography lists 6 sources. Immanuel Kant and Julien Offray de La Mettrie.
This 5 page report discusses concepts of Kant and de la Mettrie and how they compare in terms of mental activity, human knowledge, monism versus dualism, and the human formation of tess, ideas. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Ethical Theory / Kantian Perspective -- Abortion Is Not Always Wrong. A 5 age paper arguing that abortion is not always wrong from the english charles perspective of Immanuel Kant. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Adultery / A Kantian Perspective. A 7 page paper positing that desire is a mental construct, that curtailing desire is natural to human nature and is formulated by reasoning, that reasoning leads to both individual and community ethics based on moral principles established for the good of the tess essay community, and that obligation and essay choice, duty of individuals within the essay community establish an ethical foundation for living within the community, therefore we can assume that Kant would support the theory that adultery is social scholarships disallowed, and therefore unethical. Bibliography lists 4 supporting sources.
Kant's Critical Philosophy. This 10 page paper outlines Kant's critical philosophy, exploring concepts such as transcendental knowledge and the transcendental unity of apperception. The 1787, or B version, of tess, his Critique of Pure Reason is used. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Social Welfare Kant / A Philosophical Perspective. A 7 page paper that considers the philosophical question of societal and individual moral determinations of the welfare system.
This paper demonstrates that the current welfare system is based on the moral and ethical choices of society and social, of the individual, and considers Kant's perspectives on tess, moral obligations in its development. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kant, Suzuki, The Philosophy Of Zen Buddhism. A 6 page paper on in society, the differences and similarities between the theories and philosophies of Immanual Kant, and Suzuki Roshi. It gives some insight into each of these two philosophies, explaining how they work in practice and in theory.
The writer also discusses how each effect life today. No bibliography. David Hume's 'An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding' vs. Immanuel Kant's 'Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals' A 5 page paper which examines the differing views of the tess foundation of moral judgment offered by David Hume in An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding and Immanuel Kant's Foundations of the charles lamb Metaphysics of Morals. After both arguments are considered, there will be a discussion as to essay, how each would disagree with the of life essay other's assessments, and conclude with whose argument proved most convincing and why. Bibliography lists 2 sources. Kant's Categorical Imperative.
This 5 page paper provides an overview of the central elements of Kant's categorical imperative and then compares them to the moral arguments in both African philosophy and Feminist theory. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Utilitarianism vs. Kant. A 6 page paper on the theories of Immanuel Kant and John Stuart Mill. The writer gives an example of an ethical problem and describes what each philosopher would choose to do. Bibliography lists four supporting sources.
Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason: Distinctions Between Analytical and Synthetic Judgments and Between A-Priori and A-Posteriori Judgments. A 5 page overview of Kantian philosophy. Examines the analytical and synthetic approaches to judgments and defines each. Further distinguishes between the a-priori and essay, the a-posteriori approaches. Provides guidance as to why Kant equated the possibility of metaphysics with the possibility of synthetic a-priori judgments. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Questions regarding Kant and Mills. This 6 page paper considers the way that Kant and Mills look at issues of ethics and morality. The paper answers seven questions raised by problem essay, the student. The bibliography cites 4 sources. Aristotle And Immanuel Kant: Happiness.
5 pages in length. What is tess essay happiness if not a state of mind? In order to reach such a state of mind, one must engage in activity ? either spiritual or social ? that elicits this particular sentiment. Aristotle and Immanuel Kant believed that ethics and thought were the fundamental basis for happiness, inasmuch as one cannot truly be happy if he is not cohesive with world around him. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Kant on Goodness. This 5 page paper looks at Kant's philosophy on Goodness including the 'categorical imperative' and his theory of summum bonum. The paper explains the ideas and the way they may be used in measuring goodness by and duty and that which 'ought' to be done rather than actions and results. The MLA style bibliography cites 3 sources.
Nature and of life introduction, the Social Contract in tess essay Hobbes, Locke, and Kant. A six page paper comparing and contrasting these three philosophers in terms of their views on natural law and its implications to in society, society. Hobbes believed living in a state of nature was dangerous, and people should submit to the authority of social contracts for tess essay, their own protection; Locke believed government had more potential for being dangerous, and the individual should rebel if he felt his rights were being violated; and Kant believed strife is inherently unnatural, and man's social contracts should teach him the of life ways of peace. Bibliography lists three sources. Aquinas, Kant and Others. This 6 page paper focuses on St. Thomas Aquinas and Immanuel Kant by incorporating comments and answering questions posed by essay, a student. Several issues are discussed including the existence of God.
Bibliography lists 5 sources. The Philosophy of Kant and Contemporary Education. (5 pp) Educators confront philosophical issues on a daily basis. Business. Yet in the hustle and bustle of everyday classroom experiences, there are times when basic philosophy, even of the greats such as Immanuel Kant seem to elude us. It is important to take time and review our philosophical origins. We will examine critical philosophy which focuses on essay, criteria supporting educational judgment. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Aristotle, Hume and Kant. A 5 page essay that compares and contrasts the problem essay metaphysical philosophies of Aristotle, David Hume, and Immanuel Kant. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Capital Punishment: The Philosophies of the Ancient Greeks, Kant, Mill, and Contemporary Thinkers.
A 10 page examination of the moral acceptability of tess, capital punishment. Explores the opinions of Pythagoras, Socrates, Kant, Mill, and others to determine if their is a common consensus of the morality of taking another life as a matter of plan, punishment of one's deeds. Concludes that there is tess essay no consensus and that the in society essay true answer to the morality of such a practice lies in essay a fully developed moral consciousness. Bibliography lists 6 sources. The Enlightenment in the Works of Smith, Locke, Wollstonecraft, and Kant. A five page paper looking at social work the very different contributions made by these four Enlightenment thinkers. The paper notes that although Smith wrote about economics, Locke about politics, Wollstonecraft about feminism, and essay, Kant about morality, they all used reason as the foundation for their thought. Bibliography lists four sources. The Differences of Kant and Hume; Causation.
This 6 page paper looks at the problem of knowledge and the causal relationship. The paper considers the ideas of english essays, David Hume, which Immanuel Kant claimed awoke him from his dogmatic slumber. The development of these ideas by Kant are then considered and compared to those of Hume with a discussion as to which may be seen as the most accurate. The bibliography cites 4 sources. The Concept of Justice as Viewed by tess, Plato, John Stewart Mill, and Immanuel Kant.
A 7 page contention that justice is more than just law, justice is the product of morals and ethics. Utilizes the Platonic model from Plato's Republic, John Stewart Mill's theory of utilitarianism, and Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative of reason to illustrate this contention. In Society. Bibliography lists 3 sources. Didn't find what you're looking for? here to have us create a brand-new, customized research paper example instead.
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Essay: Persons with mental illnesses and the criminal justice system. Persons with mental illnesses who come into tess essay, contact with the criminal justice system bear a double burden from the stigma associated with their mental illness and the stress of potential arrest and confinement. Involvement with the criminal justice system may exacerbate the isolation and essay on exothermic and endothermic distrust often associated with mental illnesses. Mental Health Courts place less emphasis on behind bars punishment and more emphasis on identifying ideal treatment candidates and enforcing treatment to eliminate the root causes of criminal behavior. Despite the heavy focus on treatment and good intentions of criminal justice professionals, mental health courts are not without their critics. Much of the criticism has focused on tess legal rather than medical issues. A large amount of and endothermic reactions criticism has involved the blurred line between traditional criminal justice roles and the move from a focus on protection of essay a person. s due process rights to considering the best interests of a person with mental health issues in the criminal justice system. Introduction to Mental Health Courts. The first Mental Health Court was created in 1997 in Broward County, Florida.
Currently, there are more than 200 Mental Health Courts, including at least one in a federal jurisdiction (Hiday #038; Ray, 2010). Mental Health Courts are a variant of problem-solving courts that divert mentally ill offenders from the criminal justice system into community-based treatment services. Diversion programs exist with the intent to reduce criminal recidivism, to bring some relief to an overcrowded criminal justice and jail system, and to reduce homelessness and laws of life psychiatric hospitalizations. Mental Health Courts operate under the theoretical framework of therapeutic jurisprudence with clear treatment goals to improve the tess essay quality of life and functioning of its participants (Hughes and Peak, 2012). Therapeutic jurisprudence . emphasizes that the and endothermic law should be used, whenever possible, to tess essay promote the mental and physical well-being of the individuals as they are affected by the law. (Lamb and Weinberger, 2008, p.723). Mental Health Courts differ from traditional criminal courts in several ways: (1) a dedicated judge that presides over the court proceedings; (2) a separate docket for defendants with mental health issues; (3) dedicated prosecution and defense counsel; (4) collaborated decision making between the essay on exothermic and endothermic judge, counsel, and other Mental Health Court staff; (5) voluntary participation with agreement to accept treatment; (6) intensive monitoring of defendants; and (7) dismissal or reduction of charges or sentence for successful compliance with treatment. Mental Health Courts deal with similar issues, but there are significant differences in approach among jurisdictions.
Some courts only accept defendants with misdemeanor offenses, while others also accept felony defendants. The courts do not have a uniform standard as to which mental illnesses make a defendant eligible to tess essay participate. Broad criteria are often used in and endothermic reactions, the eligibility determination process. The courts use a non-adversarial team approach to tess essay decision making which utilizes rewards and sanctions for compliance and noncompliance, but differences exist between the courts with regard to work what they consider to be a reward or a sanction. Tess Essay! Some courts will use incarceration as a sanction while others only do so on rare occasions. All Mental Health Court participants may opt out of the program to drtv business plan have their cases heard in traditional criminal court, but only some Mental Health Courts allow the defendants to return to their programs after they are convicted. Some Mental Health Courts dismiss a defendant. s charges after successful completion of the program, and others may reduce charges or offer less severe sentences. Some offenders may start Mental Health Court programs with the goal of avoiding jail time, but end up completing the program with real feelings of motivation to continue treatment. Challenges of Mental Health Courts. The first challenge of Mental Health Courts is determining whether defendants are competent to essay proceed in the criminal process. Defendants who are referred to Mental Health Courts have varied levels of english essays charles lamb understanding and ability to meaningfully participate in the court proceedings.
Competence is especially important in post-plea or post-adjudication Mental Health Courts because defendants are presumed to understand and tess essay consent to the conditions of participation. Any competency concerns should be addressed early and very thoroughly. Another thing to consider is that defendants may gain or lose competency while in the Mental Health Court. A study was done in the Akron Ohio Mental Health Court during its first three years of choice theory operation. The study consisted of 80 misdemeanor defendants referred by the court for evaluation of essay competency to of life essay stand trial. The results indicated that seventy-eight percent were adjudicated incompetent to stand trial, significantly more than the 50 percent hypothesized by the researchers (Stafford and essay Wygant, 2005). In another study, almost half of those rejected from Brooklyn. s Mental Health Court were . considered incompetent or too unstable at that time to essay on exothermic and endothermic make the decision to enroll and to participate in the court. s proceedings. (Steadman, Redlich, Griffin, Petrila and Monahan, 2005, p. 222).
The second challenge of tess Mental Health Courts is english lamb, assessing participant competency. . Most research has demonstrated a strong relationship between competence determinations and psychotic diagnoses or symptoms. (Rosenfeld and Wall, 1998, p.444-445). Findings suggest that psychosis is most likely to limit a defendant. s ability to assist in their defense, whereas cognitive difficulties impede ability to understand charges, proceedings, or both. The third challenge of essay Mental Health Courts is determining whether the decision of participants to enter into those courts is voluntary. . From a legal standpoint, entry into essay, the courts must be voluntary; if they were not and all offenders with mental illness were required to partake in a Mental Health Court, the equal protection guarantee of the 14th amendment would be violated in that a certain subgroup of tess essay offenders would be singled out and reactions treated specially. (Redlich, Hoover, Summers and tess Steadman, 2008, p. 92). The fourth challenge of Mental Health Courts is determining whether the decision of participants to enter into those courts is made knowingly and intelligently. As stated by Susan Stefan (Stefan and Winick, 2005), . Laws Essay! The people don. t go into the process understanding what mental health court is all about, and no one explains it to them in terms of essay benefits and drawbacks. this is not an on exothermic and endothermic reactions, atmosphere that is conducive to knowing and intelligent decision making. (p.516). Tess! A knowing and intelligent decision to enroll in a Mental Health Court is important for two reasons: (1) the in society essay target population consisting of people with serious mental illness is known to have deficits in legal comprehension, and (2) the essay Mental Health Court entry decision may be made under conditions of high stress and instability (Redlich, et al., 2008).
Two considerations are important in making a knowing and intelligent decision to enter a Mental Health Court: (1) general legal knowledge . most importantly adjudicative competence (competence to stand trial), and (2) specific knowledge relating to the Mental Health Court itself. The standard for social work competence is the Dusky standard, which mandates that defendants have a rational and factual understanding of the proceedings against them, as well as the ability to consult with their attorney (Dusky v. Tess Essay! U.S., 1960). . Business! An informed decision would entail knowledge of essay Mental Health Court procedures, requirements, confidentiality releases, consequences for compliance and problem essay non-compliance, alternatives to tess essay participation, and what happens upon graduation and termination. (Redlich, et al., 2008). Essay On Exothermic! For the essay most part, defendants are presumed competent unless the question is raised and the leading reason to lamb raise questions of competence is for psychiatric reasons (Pinals, 2005). The fifth challenge of Mental Health Courts is that many of the offenders most in need of psychiatric treatment are least likely to believe that they need it and adhere to tess it. . Social Work Scholarships! If the incidence of violence in offenders with severe mental illness is to be reduced, a means must be found to involve them in treatment. (Lamb, et al., 2008, p.724). The courts can require treatment, including medications, structured housing, and substance abuse treatment. Doing so may enhance the structure in tess, the lives of mentally ill offenders. A Mental Health Court. Essay! s enforcement of treatment programs could increase adherence to therapy. Case managers could monitor the treatment programs of those under their supervision and have them return to tess court for periodic review of english their treatment progress. Benefits of Mental Health Courts. The first benefit of Mental Health Courts is. Research literature on Mental Health Courts has grown over the last several years, but it still has a way to go until it can compare to essay the relatively large and well-developed collection of literature regarding Drug Courts.
Most of the existing literature on Mental Health Courts consists of simple descriptive studies, process evaluations, and theoretical papers, rather than outcome studies. When compared to Drug Courts, considerably less information is known about the operations and effectiveness of Mental Health Courts. Essay! Additionally, . mental health courts often present unique challenges, including the tess essay nature of the population (i.e. offenders with mental health disorders) and variations among courts, which make it difficult for researchers to examine the effectiveness of these interventions in an empirically defensible manner. (Higgins and Mackinem, 2009, p.100). Research on Access to essay theory Services. One area of research was whether the essay Mental Health Court impacted offenders. access to essays lamb behavioral health services.
A study was conducted with 121 offenders from the Broward County (Florida) Mental Health Court and 101 offenders from a traditional misdemeanor court in essay, another Florida county. Essay Theory! It was determined that the tess percentage of offenders from the Mental Health Court who received behavioral health services increased from business, 36 percent during the eight months prior to their initial court appearance to 53 percent during the eight months after their initial court appearance (Boothroyd, Poythress, McGaha, and Petrila, 2003). For the traditional criminal court offenders, the chance of receiving behavioral health services remained virtually unchanged during the same time periods (29 percent vs. 28 percent). The researchers concluded that the Broward County Mental Health Court was successful in increasing access to essay treatment services. Research on Recidivism. Another area of research was whether Mental Health Courts reduce recidivism by treating mental disorders that underlie or contribute to essay on exothermic reactions criminal behavior. Evidence was mixed within this area of research. One of the studies in this area compared misdemeanants with mental health disorders who participated in Seattle Washington. s two Mental Health Courts to offenders who chose not to participate in Mental Health Court.
Mental Health Court participants had significantly fewer arrests over tess essay, a follow-up period of nine months after entry into the court than they did before entry. Mental Health Court participants had significantly fewer arrests than non-participants (Trupin and Richards, 2003). A Broward County (Florida) Mental Health Court study concluded that arrests for Mental Health Court participants significantly decreased from of life essay introduction, one-year pre-entry to one-year post-entry into the court. The study also found that the mean number of arrests, felony arrests, proportion arrested, and average time to essay arrest did not differ much from that of non-participants (Christy, Poythress, Boothroyd, Petrila and Mehra, 2005). The study raised questions on the effectiveness of Mental Health Courts in relation to traditional courts. A Santa Barbara (California) Mental Health Court study randomly assigned 235 offenders with misdemeanor or felony charges to Mental Health Court with intensive treatment or traditional court with less intensive case management services for 18 months. A one-year post-entry follow-up revealed that the Mental Health Court participants had fewer convictions for new offenses, and their charges were mostly for probation technical violations rather than new criminal offenses. Conversely, criminal charges were mostly for problem essay new offenses for the traditional court participants (Cosden, Ellens, Schnell, Yamini-Diouf and Wolfe, 2003). A two-year follow-up on the study participants appeared less promising. Essay! All study participants, regardless of which program they participated in, showed increased arrests and no change in either the laws introduction number of essay convictions or days in essay, jail (Cosden, Ellens, Schnell and Yamini-Douf, 2005).
A closer look revealed that a small group of Mental Health Court participants accounted for 54 percent of all post-mental health court jail days. According to researchers, . The program was not able to hold or help all participants; for some offenders, continued criminal activity resulted in essay, prison or levels of jail time higher than had been the case before entering the program. (Cosden, et al., p.206-207, 2005). Existing research presents mixed views with respect to clinical improvement and reductions in essay choice theory, criminal recidivism among Mental Health Court clients. Some research suggests that Mental Health Courts are effective in increasing access to and utilization of behavioral health services. Tess Essay! With respect to criminal recidivism, some existing research suggests that Mental Health Courts reduce recidivism, while other research suggests few differences in recidivism rates between offenders in Mental Health Courts and offender in traditional courts. Additionally, one study that included a longer follow-up period suggested that the beneficial effects of Mental Health Courts decline the longer offenders are out of the court after graduation (Higgins, et al., 2009). Research on Voluntariness. A study conducted on the Broward County (Florida) Mental Health Court examined enrollment decisions and perceptions of coercion. Court transcripts of scholarships initial hearings were collected and essay coded. Boothroyd et al. (2003) reported that the primary purpose and focus of the court was explicitly mentioned in only 28 percent of transcripts, explicit statements of laws of life introduction voluntariness in 16 percent of tess transcripts, and any mention of competence-to-proceed in 29 percent of problem in society essay transcripts.
After obtaining self-reported perceptions of Mental Health Court voluntariness, Boothroyd, et al. (2003) found that approximately 75 percent of Broward County clients either reported not being told that court participation was voluntary or reported being told only after their first hearing. This study concluded that the majority of Mental Health Court participants will claim not to be aware that the decision to enroll in essay, the Mental Health Court was voluntary. Very little information exists to show whether enrollment in Mental Health Courts is voluntary, even though they are intended to be. Research on Knowing and Intelligent Enrollment. The biggest limitation in making conclusions regarding the effectiveness of Mental Health Courts is the in society relatively small body of existing research.
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