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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | businessballs.com. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and sales plans. Business Planning and Marketing Strategy. Table of new world by aldous huxley essay contents. 1. business plans and marketing strategy. business plans and marketing strategy. free business planning and marketing tips, samples, examples and tools - how to write a business plan, techniques for emotions essay, writing a marketing strategy, strategic business plans and by aldous huxley sales plans.
Here are tips, examples, techniques, tools and a process for writing business plans to produce effective results. This free online guide explains how to write a marketing or business strategy, a basic business plan, and a sales plan, using free templates, tools and examples, such as SWOT Analysis, PEST Analysis, the 'Ansoff Matrix' and the 'Boston Matrix'. Separately the marketing guide offers more specific explanation and theories and essay tools for marketing strategy and brave huxley marketing planning, including techniques and tips for advertising, public relations (PR), press and us history dbq essay media publicity, sales enquiry lead generation, advertising copy-writing, internet and website marketing, etc. The sales training guide offers detailed theories and essay methods about sales planning and selling, extending to cold calling and relationships negotiation skills and techniques, especially relating to selling. Sometimes people use the term business plan when they are referring to a project.
It may or may not be appropriate to use the term 'business planning' for a project. Brave By Aldous Essay. Some projects are very substantial and equate to an autonomous (independent) business activity, in which case a business plan is entirely appropriate. Other projects are smaller, perhaps limited to internal change or development, and are less likely to require a conventional business plan, and are quite adequately planned and managed via project management methods. Business planning terminology can be confusing because much of it is used very loosely, and can mean different things. Here is us history dbq essay industrialization, a way to brave new world, understand it better: Terminology in business planning is often used very loosely. When people talk and write about business planning different terms may mean the essay, same thing, and a single term can mean different things. The term 'business planning' itself covers all sorts of different plans within a business, or potentially within a non-commercial organization.
The words 'strategy' and 'strategic' arise often in the subject of buisness planning, although there is no actual difference between a 'business plan' and brave by aldous a 'strategic business plan'. Critical. Every business plan is arguably 'strategic'. Everyone involved in planning arguably adopts a 'strategic' approach. Most businesses and plans are primarily driven or determined by market needs and aims . Brave New World. This increasingly applies to many non-commercial activities (government services, education, health, charities, etc), whose planning processes may also be described as 'business planning', even though such organizations may not be businesses in the way we normally imagine. In such non-commercial organizations, 'business planning' might instead be called 'organizational planning', or 'operational planning', or 'annual planning' or simply 'planning'.
Essentially all these terms mean the same, and increasingly the tendency is for 'business planning' to become a generic (general) term to relationships, refer to them. I should clarify that finance is of course a major and unavoidable aspect of brave essay business and organizational activities, but in terms of thinking planning, finance is a limiting or enabling factor; finance is a means to an end, or a restriction; finance in itself is not a basis for brave, growth or strategy. Markets/customers, product/service development, and sales, provide the only true basis for businesses to hemophilia essay, define direction, development, growth, etc., and thereby business strategy and planning. Business planning always starts with or revisits the essay, basic aim or need to provide products or services to customers - also called a market or 'market-place'. Consequently business plans tend first to look outwards, at resume nj, a market, before they look inwards, at finance and production, etc. This means that most business plans are driven by marketing, since marketing is the function which addresses market opportunity and need, and how to fulfil it. Marketing in this sense is also called 'marketing strategy' - or more broadly 'business strategy'. In many simple, small, and/or old traditional businesses, 'marketing' is often seen instead to be 'sales' or 'selling' (usually because in such businesses selling is the brave new world by aldous, only marketing activity), in which case a 'sales plan' may be the copier nj, main driver of strategy and new world huxley essay the business plan. Many people use the words 'sales' or 'selling' and 'marketing' to mean the us history industrialization, same thing - basically selling products or services to brave new world by aldous huxley, customers, in us history, the broadest sense. New World By Aldous Huxley Essay. In fact, marketing refers to much wider issues than sales and thinking in teaching selling. Marketing involves the strategic planning of a business (or other organizational provider) through to every aspect of customer engagement, including market reserach, product development, branding, advertising and by aldous essay promotion, methods of selling, customer service, and extending to the acquisition or development of overcoming essay new businesses.
Sales or selling is an activity within marketing, referring to brave new world huxley essay, the methods and processes of communicating and agreeing and cardiovascular essay conclusion completing the transaction (sale) with the customer. Given all this, it is hopefully easier to new world, understand why, depending on a person's role or standpoint or the copier resume, department in which they work, 'business planning' may be referrred to in many and various ways, for example as 'sales planning', 'marketing planning', 'strategic planning', etc., and that all these terms might mean slightly different things, according to huxley, the situation. If there is a technically correct definition of 'business planning', then perhaps we can best say that 'business planning' refers to the plan of the nj, overall organization, or to a unit or division within an new world essay, organization with responsibility for a trade or profit. A business plan technically contains and reflects the individual plans for the different functions within the whole operation, each of which may have its own detailed 'business plans', which might be called business plans, or more correctly departmental or functional plans according to copier resume nj, their purpose, such as a marketing plan, sales plan, production plan, financial plan, etc. Additional help regarding terminology is offered by the business planning definitions below. Other definitions and explanations are offered in the business glossary, and in the shorter glossaries of the sales and brave marketing sections. Terminology will be further explained to clarify meaning and avoid confusion throughout this article. Approached correctly, writing business plans and marketing strategy is us history dbq essay, usually simpler than first seems.
Business planning may seem complex and daunting but mostly it is common sense. Marketing strategy - which often drives the aims and 'shape' of a business plan - is mostly common sense too. Business plans, and the strategy which drives them, are based on logic, or cause and effect : I want to by aldous essay, achieve a certain result - so what will cause this to happen? Even the biggest business plan is conclusion, effectly built on by aldous huxley essay, a collection of us history dbq essay lots of causes and effects. A written business plan provides the narrative (explanation) of the numbers contained in a spreadsheet. When we see lots of numbers in a computer spreadsheet we can forget this, but the numbers are merely a reflection of scale and detail, and brave huxley essay of computerised calculations and modelling, etc. In fact often when we are confronted with a complex planning spreadsheet containing thousands of cardiovascular disease essay conclusion numbers, what we are actually being offered is by aldous, a ready-made planning tool. Dbq Essay. In many cases, where business planning is a continuation of an brave new world by aldous huxley essay, ongoing situation, the most frightening spreadsheets can provide a very easy template for future plans, especially with a little help from a colleague in the acciounts department who understands how it all works. Ironically, a blank sheet of paper - in critical thinking in teaching, other words a 'new business start-up' - is usually a much more challenging starting point. It is generally more difficult to write a business plan for new world by aldous essay, a start-up business (a new business) than for an existing business. This is because an existing business usually has computerised records of the results of past activities and disease conclusion trading (usually called 'accounts').
Spreadsheets are usually available showing previous years plans and actual results, which can be used as a template on huxley essay, which new plans can easily be overlaid. Overcoming Weakness. Writing a new business plan for the continuation or development of such an existing situation obviously enables much of the planning to new world by aldous, be based on existing figures, ratios, statistics, etc. New business start-up situations by their nature tend to overcoming weakness, have no previous results, so we often refer to this sort of planning as 'starting with a blank sheet of paper'. New business start-ups - especially if you are the owner or entrepreneur - present bigger planning challenges in some respects because we have no previous records to act as a guide, but in other respects they offer wonderful opportunities to create genuinely innovative and exciting founding principles - your own new business philosophy - on which your plans can be built and developed. On this page there is essay, specific guidance for business start-up situations.
See the hemophilia essay, simple business start-up principles. Depending on new world huxley essay, the constraints applying in the planning for existing continuous business activities, the cardiovascular, principles are very similar for start-up and existing business planning. It's essentially cause-and effect, and new world using the computer to calculate the numbers. A slightly more detailed version is on the quick business/operational plan page. , and begins with. To explore personal direction and change (for example for early planning of self-employment or new business start-up) see the passion-to-profit exercise and template on the teambuilding exercises page. See also the simple notes about starting your own business, which to an extent also apply when you are starting a new business initiative or development inside another organisation as a new business development manager, or a similar role. Here's a free profit and loss account spreadsheet template tool (xls) for relationships, incorporating these factors and financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too.
Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and brave huxley Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the emotions essay, principle is the same. Towards the end of this article there is also a simple template/framework for a feasibility study or justification report, such as might be required to win funding, authorisation or approval for starting a project, or the continuation of a project or group, in a commercial or voluntary situation. If you are starting a new business you might also find the tips and information about buying a franchise business to be helpful, since they cover many basic points about new world by aldous huxley essay, choice of business activity and early planning. (Note: Some UK-English and US-English spellings differ, for example organisation/organization, colour/color. If using these materials please adapt the spellings to relationships essay, suit your situation.) how to write strategic marketing plans, business plans and sales plans.
People use various terms referring to the business planning process - business plans, business strategy, marketing strategy, strategic business planning, sales planning - they all cover the same basic principles. When faced with business planning or strategy development task it's important to clarify exactly what is required: clarify what needs to be done rather than assume the aim from the description given to it - terms are confused and mean different things to brave by aldous huxley, different people. You'll see from the definitions below how flexible these business planning terms are. a plan - a statement of dbq essay intent - a calculated intention to organize effort and brave huxley resource to achieve an outcome - in this context a plan is in essay, written form, comprising explanation, justification and relevant numerical and financial statistical data. In a business context a plan's numerical data - costs and revenues - are normally scheduled over at least one trading year, broken down weekly, monthly quarterly and cumulatively.
a business - an new world, activity or entity, irrespective of size and autonomy, which is engaged in an activity, normally the provision of products and/or services, to dbq essay, produce commercial gain, extending to non-commercial organizations whose aim may or may not be profit (hence why public service sector schools and hospitals are in this context referred to as 'businesses'). business plan - this is now rightly a very general and flexible term, applicable to brave by aldous huxley essay, the planned activities and relationships essay aims of any entity, individual group or organization where effort is being converted into results , for example: a small company; a large company; a corner shop; a local window-cleaning business; a regional business; a multi-million pound multi-national corporation; a charity; a school; a hospital; a local council; a government agency or department; a joint-venture; a project within a business or department; a business unit, division, or department within another organization or company, a profit centre or cost centre within an an organization or business; the responsibility of a team or group or an by aldous, individual. The business entity could also be a proposed start-up, a new business development within an existing organization, a new joint-venture, or any new organizational or business project which aims to convert action into results. Us History. The extent to which a business plan includes costs and overheads activities and resources (eg., production, research and development, warehouse, storage, transport, distribution, wastage, shrinkage, head office, training, bad debts, etc) depends on the needs of the brave new world by aldous huxley, business and the purpose of the plan. Hemophilia. Large 'executive-level' business plans therefore look rather like a 'predictive profit and loss account', fully itemised down to brave new world by aldous huxley essay, the 'bottom line'. Business plans written at business unit or departmental level do not generally include financial data outside the department concerned.
Most business plans are in effect sales plans or marketing plans or departmental plans, which form the main bias of this guide. strategy - originally a military term, in a business planning context strategy/strategic means/pertains to why and how the plan will work , in relation to all factors of influence upon essay conclusion, the business entity and activity, particularly including competitors (thus the use of a military combative term), customers and demographics, technology and communications. marketing - believed by many to mean the same as advertising or sales promotion, marketing actually means and covers everything from company culture and brave by aldous huxley positioning, through market research, new business/product development, advertising and promotion, PR (public/press relations), and thinking arguably all of the sales functions as well. Marketing is the process by which a business decides what it will sell, to brave new world by aldous huxley essay, whom, when and how, and then does it . marketing plan - logically a plan which details what a business will sell, to whom, when and how, implicitly including the business/marketing strategy. The extent to which financial and commercial numerical data is included depends on dbq essay industrialization, the needs of the business. New World Huxley. The extent to disease essay, which this details the sales plan also depends on the needs of the business. sales - the transactions between the business and brave new world by aldous huxley its customers whereby services and/or products are provided in return for payment.
Sales (sales department/sales team) also describes the activities and resources that enable this process, and critical thinking sales also describes the revenues that the business derives from the sales activities. sales plan - a plan describing, quantifying and phased over time, how the the sales will be made and to whom. Some organizations interpret this to be the same as a business plan or a marketing plan. business strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the same. marketing strategy - see 'strategy' - it's the new world by aldous huxley essay, same.
service contract - a formal document usually drawn up by the supplier by which the trading arrangement is agreed with the nj, customer. See the essay, section on service contracts and trading agreements. strategic business plan - see strategy and overcoming business plan - it's a business plan with strategic drivers (which actually all business plans should be). strategic business planning - developing and brave by aldous essay writing a strategic business plan. philosophy, values, ethics, vision - these are the fundamentals of business planning, and nj determine the spirit and integrity of the business or organisation - see the guide to how philosophical and ethical factors fit into new world huxley essay the planning process, and also the principles and materials relating to corporate responsibility and thinking in teaching ethical leadership. You can see that many of new world by aldous these terms are interchangeable, so it's important to clarify what needs to dbq essay industrialization, be planned for rather than assuming or inferring a meaning from the name given to the task.
That said, the principles explained here can be applied to new world huxley essay, business plans of all sorts. Business plans are often called different names - especially by senior managers and in teaching directors delegating a planning exercise that they do not understand well enough to explain. For example: sales plans, operational plans, organizational/organisational plans, marketing plans, marketing strategy plans, strategic business plans, department business plans, etc. Typically these names reflect the department doing the planning, despite which, the planning process and content required in the document is broadly similar. Other useful and relevant business planning definitions are in the business dictionary; the sales and selling glossary; some are also in brave huxley essay, the financial terms glossary, and more - especially for industrialization, training - are in the business and training acronyms listing, which also provides amusing light relief if this business planning gets a little dry (be warned, the acronyms listings contain some adult content). when writing a business or operating plan, remember. A useful first rule of business planning is to decide what you are actually trying to brave huxley, achieve and essay always keep this in mind . Brave By Aldous Huxley Essay. Write your aim large as a constant reminder to resume nj, yourself, and to anyone else involved. Keeping your central aim visible will help you minimise the distractions and distortions which frequently arise during the planning process.
An increasingly vital and perhaps second rule of business planning is to establish a strong ethical philosophy at the outset of your planning. This provides a vital reference for decision-making and strategy from the start. A strong clear ethical code communicates your values to staff, customers, suppliers, and creates a simple consistent basis for operations which conventional financials, processes, systems and even people, do not address. It is very difficult to introduce ethical principles later into an enterprise, especially when planning shifts into brave new world essay implementation, and more so if problems arise relating to overcoming essay, integrity, honesty, corporate responsibility, trust, governance, etc., any of which can have massive impact on relationships and brave by aldous reputation. See corporate social responsibility and cardiovascular conclusion ethics and the Psychological Contract. It is easy to address issues of ethics and corporate responsibility when you are the by aldous huxley, owner of a new enterprise. It is more difficult if you are a manager in someone else's company or a large corporation. Nevertheless ethics and corporate responsibility are highly significant in planning, and strong justification for thinking, their proper consideration can now be made. There are now plenty of recent examples of corporations - indeed entire national economies and governments - which have failed because of poor regard to ethical considerations. The world is changing and learning, slowly, but it is, and anyone ignoring ethics in planning today does so at their own peril. A third crucial requirement for business plans is return on investment , or for brave huxley, public services and non-profit organisations: effective use of overcoming investment and brave new world by aldous huxley resources, which is thinking in teaching, beyond simple 'cost control'.
For the vast majority of organisations, whether companies, public services, not-for-profit trusts and charities, all organisations need to be financially effective in what they do, otherwise they will cease to function . Ultimately - whatever the organisation and aims - financial viability is brave by aldous huxley, necessary to sustain any organised activity . While it's essential to manage ethical and socially responsible aspects of organisational aims , these must allow for adequate return on hemophilia essay, investment (or in less traditional and 'non-profit' enterprises, must allow for the effective use of investment and resources , according to the financial requirements of the brave huxley, particular organisation). Remembering the need for essay, financial viability is vital also because business planning is often done - rightly - to new world by aldous huxley essay, achieve something new and special. This tends to focus thinking on creativity, innovation, ambition, quality, excellence, perhaps even social good, etc., which can easily distract planning away from the basic need to copier, be financially viable - and crucially not to make a loss. By treating return on investment as a vital requirement of planning we increase the likelihood that plans will be viable and therefore sustainable. Return on investment is however a variable feature of business planning. It is flexible according to the type of enterprise, its main purpose and philosophy. In a conventional profit-driven corporation return on brave essay, investment (at an optimal rate) is typically a strong strategic driver for local planning and weakness decisions, and by new world huxley implication also a basic requirement of the enterprise as a whole. On the overcoming weakness essay, other hand, in a business or organization less focused on shareholder reward, such as a public services trust or charity, or a social enterprise or cooperative, return on investment (at a relatively lower rate), may be a requirement simply to sustain viable operations, according to the aims of the by aldous essay, enterprise.
In the first example, return on investment is the aim; in the second example, return on copier nj, investment enables some other higher aim to be achieved. In more detail: In a traditional profit-driven corporation, return on investment tends to be the main requirement of brave any business plan and also the main aim or purpose or driver of the plan. In most traditional corporations return on copier resume, investment tends to be at the heart of all activities, since typically the corporation exists to huxley, maximize the yield (profit and growth effectively) of shareholder funds invested in the business. Emotions Relationships. Planning in traditional corporations at times forgets this basic obligation, especially when a junior manager is asked to new world huxley essay, 'write a business plan' for the first time. In traditional profit-driven corporations, when a new manager starts to write a business plan or operational plan for the first time (and for some experienced managers also, for the umpteenth time), the manager wonders: What is the aim? What am I trying to achieve?
Often when they ask their own manager, the manager has the relationships essay, same doubts. The central aim is usually return on brave new world by aldous, investment . In businesses or 'non-profit' organisations where shareholder enrichment is not the main purpose, return on investment is less of a driver in business planning, but is nevertheless a crucial requirement . Such enterprises are becoming more popular, and will continue to become so, since the collapse of the western economies in 2008, and increasing disillusionment with old-style business thinking. Here return on investment is not the primary driver or objective of the business. Instead the main driver of enterprise may be some other purpose. An example of copier nj 'some other purpose' might be the activities of a social enterprise or cooperative, or maybe an new world huxley, employee ownership company, or perhaps a trust or charity, whose main aim is (rather than the traditional profit generation for external/institutional shareholders) perhaps to benefit its members/staff, and/or to sustain local jobs, and/or to thinking in teaching, benefit the local community, or maybe to advance science or learning or health, etc. Here, while return on investment may seem less crucial or appropriate to planning and operations, the enterprise must nevertheless remain financially viable , or it ceases to be able to operate at all. In such examples, return on by aldous, investment in business planning is not usually maximized, but must still be treated as an industrialization, underpinning requirement to planning, and flexed according to new world, the fundamental aims and in teaching financial requirements of the enterprise.
Before planning, therefore, it is brave new world essay, helpful to understand clearly: What are we actually aiming to conclusion, achieve? What is our policy/position on corporate social responsibility and ethics, etc - our philosophy? And what return on investment (or alternative financial performance) does our activity/enterprise require - is this a strategic driver in brave new world huxley essay, itself, or simply the means by which we maintain our activities in copier, support of brave new world essay our (point 1) aims? The basic methodology of critical thinking in teaching business planning is identifying causes and effects , according to brave new world by aldous huxley essay, your relevant business requirements (financials and ethics) and strategic drivers (what we are actually aiming to achieve).
Here a cause is an input or action or resource; an effect is an outcome or result or consequence of some sort. We want to achieve xyz effect (for example a given return on investment, or a certain sales level or market share, whatever) - so what should we plan to essay conclusion, cause this to happen? Commonly big cause/effect elements are broken down into smaller activities, which also comprise a cause and effect. (The goal planning process and by aldous huxley tools help explain how this subdivision works - where a big aim is broken down into smaller more measurable and achievable parts). Junior managers have responsibility for plans and activities which feed into larger departmental plans and activities of hemophilia essay senior managers. The plans and activities of senior managers feed into the divisional plans of executives and directors. There is a hierarchy or tree structure of cause and effects, all hopefully contributing to the overall organizational aim. In many good businesses a substantial business planning responsibility extends now to new world, front line customer-facing staff, and the trend is increasing. In this context, the business plan could be called also be called a marketing plan, or a sales plan - all departmental plans are basically types of business planning: What you are going to sell to whom, when and critical in teaching how you are going to sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the brave new world, sales will produce, what the marketing and/or selling cost will be, and what will be the essay, return on investment. Where a department is a 'cost centre' not a 'profit-centre' - providing products or services internally to other departments rather than externally to new world, customers - then the language and planning elements may alter, but the principles remain the same.
Also, these principles and methods apply to very large complex multinational organizations, which tend to emotions relationships essay, entail more and different costs, fixed overheads, revenues, and consequently larger planning formats; more and bigger spreadsheets, more lines and columns on each, more attention and people working on by aldous huxley, the numbers, more accountants, and typically - especially at nj, middle-management level and above - more emphasis on cashflow and the balance sheet, alongside basic 'profit and loss' planning. carry out your market research, including understanding your competitor activity. 'The market' varies according to the business or organisation concerned, but every organised activity has a market. Knowing the market enables you to assess and value and plan how to by aldous, engage with it. A common failing of resume nj business planning or operational planning outside of the 'business' world, is to plan in isolation, looking inward, when ideas can seem very positive and reliable because there's no context and nothing to compare.
Hence research is critical. New World Huxley Essay. And this applies to any type of organisation - not just to businesses. See especially the guidance on marketing as it relates to business planning. Planning very much concerns processes. The principles of marketing will explain additionally how to put meaning and values into what you plan. Your market research should focus on the information you need, to help you to formulate strategy and make business decisions. Market research should be pragmatic and resume purposeful - a means to an end, and not a means in itself. Market information potentially covers a vast range of data, from global macro-trends and statistics, to very specific and brave new world huxley detailed local or technical information, so it's important to decide what is actually relevant and necessary to thinking, know.
Market information about market and industry trends, values, main corporations, market structure, etc, is important to know for brave new world huxley, large corporations operating on a national or international basis. This type of research is us history industrialization, sometimes called 'secondary', because it is already available, having been researched and published previously. This sort of information is brave new world by aldous, available from the cardiovascular disease, internet, libraries, research companies, trade and national press and publications, professional associations and institutes. This secondary research information normally requires some interpretation or manipulation for your own purposes. However there's no point spending days researching global statistical economic and demographic data if you are developing a strategy for a relatively small or local business. Brave By Aldous Essay. Far more useful would be to carry out your own 'primary' research (i.e. original research) about the local target market, buying patterns and preferences, local competitors, their prices and service offerings.
A lot of useful primary market research can be performed using customer feed-back, surveys, questionnaires and focus groups (obtaining indicators and overcoming views through discussion among a few representative people in new world by aldous huxley essay, a controlled discussion situation). This sort of primary research should be tailored exactly for hemophilia, your needs. Primary research requires less manipulation than secondary research, but all types of research need a certain amount of analysis. Be careful when extrapolating or projecting figures to avoid magnifying initial mistakes or wrong assumptions. If the starting point is inaccurate the brave new world huxley, resulting analysis will not be reliable. For businesses of any size; small, local, global and everything in between, the main elements you need to critical in teaching, understand and quantify are: customer (and potential customer) numbers, profile and mix customer perceptions, needs, preferences, buying patterns, and trends, by sub-sector if necessary products and new world by aldous essay services, mix, values and trends demographic issues and trends (especially if dependent on consumer markets) future regulatory and legal effects prices and disease values, and customer perceptions in these areas distribution and routes to market competitor activities, strengths, weaknesses, products, services, prices, sales methods, etc. Primary research is recommended for local and niche services.
Keep the subjects simple and the range narrow. If using questionnaires formulate questions that give clear yes or no indicators (i.e. New World Huxley. avoid three and weakness five options in brave new world by aldous essay, multi-choices which produce lots of uncertain answers) always understand how you will analyse and measure the data produced. Try to convert data to numerical format and manipulate on a spreadsheet. Use focus groups for more detailed work. For large research projects consider using a market research organization because they'll probably do it better than you, even though this is likely to be more costly. Hemophilia. If you use any sort of brave new world marketing agency ensure you issue a clear brief, and that your aims are clearly understood. Useful frameworks for research are PEST analysis and SWOT analysis. establish your corporate philosophy and the aims of your business or operation. First establish or confirm the cardiovascular disease essay conclusion, aims of the business, and if you are concerned with a part of a business, establish and validate the aims of essay your part of the business. These can be very different depending on relationships, the type of new world by aldous business, and copier particularly who owns it.
Refer to and consider issues of ethics and philosophy, corporate social responsibility, sustainability, etc - these are the huxley, foundations on which values and missions are built. Consider the critical, Psychological Contract and the benefits of establishing a natural balance and fairness between all interests (notably staff, customers, the organization). Traditional business models are not necessarily the best ones. The world is constantly changing, and establishing a new business is a good time to challenge preconceptions of fundamental business structure and purpose. Brave New World By Aldous Essay. A business based on a narrow aim of enriching a few investors while relegating the needs and involvement of everyone else may contain conflicts and tensions at a deep level. There are other innovative business structures which can inherently provide a more natural, cooperative and self-fuelling relationship - especially between employees and the organization, and potentially between customers and essay the organization too. When you have established or confirmed your philosophical and ethical position, state the objectives of the brave new world huxley essay, business unit you are planning to essay, develop - your short, medium and long term aims - (typically 'short, medium and long' equate to brave new world by aldous, 1 year, 2-3 years and 3 years plus). In other words, what is the business aiming to do over the next one, three and five years? Bear in mind that you must reliably ensure the success and viability of the business in the short term or the long term is merely an academic issue.
Grand visions need solid foundations. All objectives and aims must be prioritised and as far as possible quantified. If you can't measure it, you can't manage it. All businesses need a ‘mission statement'. It announces clearly and succinctly to essay, your staff, shareholders and customers what you are in business to do. Your mission statement may build upon a general ‘service charter' relevant to your industry. You can involve staff in brave new world essay, defining and essay refining the business's mission statement, which helps develop a sense of ownership and brave new world by aldous huxley responsibility. Producing and announcing the mission statement is also an excellent process for focusing attention on the business's priorities, and particularly the resume nj, emphasis on customer service. Whole businesses need a mission statement - departments and brave by aldous huxley smaller business units within a bigger business need them too. define your 'product offering(s)' or 'service offering(s)' - your sales proposition(s)
You must understand and define clearly what you are providing to your customers. This description should normally go beyond your products or services, and critically must include the way you do business , and critical thinking in teaching what business benefits your customers derive from your products and services, and from doing business with you. Develop offerings or propositions for each main area of your business activity - sometimes referred to as 'revenue streams', or 'business streams' - and/or for brave new world by aldous, the sector(s) that you serve. Under normal circumstances competitive advantage is increased the more you can offer things that your competitors cannot. Good research will tell you where the opportunities are to increase your competitive advantage in areas that are of prime interest to your target markets.
Develop your service offering to emphasise your strengths, which should normally relate to your business objectives, in thinking in teaching, turn being influenced by corporate aims and market research. By Aldous Huxley. The important process in developing a proposition is overcoming weakness essay, translating your view of these services into an offer that means something to your customer. The definition of your service offer must make sense to your customer in terms that are advantageous and beneficial to the customer, not what is technically good, or scientifically sound to you. Think about what your service, and the manner by which you deliver it, means to your customer. Traditionally, in sales and marketing, this perspective is referred to as translating features into benefits. The easiest way to translate a feature into a benefit is to add the prompt ‘which means that. '. For example, if a strong feature of a business is that it has 24-hour opening, this feature would translate into something like: We're open 24 hours (the feature) which means that you can get what you need when you need it - day or night. (the benefit). Clearly this benefit represents a competitive advantage over brave new world by aldous huxley, other suppliers who only open 9-5. This principle, although a little old-fashioned today, still broadly applies. The important thing is to understand your services and proposition in terms that your customer will recognise as being relevant and beneficial to them. Most businesses have a very poor understanding of what their customers value most in the relationship, so ensure you discover this in the research stage, and reflect it in your stated product or service proposition(s). Customers invariably value these benefits higher than all others:
If your proposition(s) cannot be seen as leading to any of the above then customers will not be very interested in you. A service-offer or proposition should be an encapsulation of what you do best, that you do better than your competitors (or that they don't do at all); something that fits with your business objectives, stated in hemophilia essay, terms that will make your customers think ‘Yes, that means something to me and brave by aldous huxley essay I think it could be good for my business (and therefore good for me also as a buyer or sponsor).' This is the first 'brick in the wall' in the process of business planning, sales planning, marketing planning, and thereafter, direct marketing, and particularly sales lead generation. write your business plan - include sales, costs of sales, gross margins, and overcoming weakness essay if necessary your business overheads. Business plans come in all shapes and brave new world by aldous sizes. Pragmatism is essential. Ensure your plan shows what your business needs it to show. Copier Resume Nj. Essentially your plan is a spreadsheet of numbers with supporting narrative, explaining how the numbers are to by aldous huxley, be achieved. A plan should show all the activities and resources in terms of thinking in teaching revenues and costs, which together hopefully produce a profit at the end of the trading year. The level of detail and complexity depends on the size and part of the business that the new world huxley essay, plan concerns. Your business plan, which deals with all aspects of the thinking in teaching, resource and brave new world essay management of the business (or your part of the business), will include many decisions and factors fed in from the thinking, marketing process.
It will state sales and brave new world by aldous profitability targets by activity. Essay. In a marketing plan there may also be references to image and reputation, and to new world by aldous huxley essay, public relations. All of these issues require thought and planning if they are to result in improvement, and particularly increasing numbers of copier resume customers and revenue growth. You would normally describe and provide financial justification for the means of achieving these things, together with customer satisfaction improvement. Brave Huxley Essay. Above all a plan needs to be based on actions - cost-effective and profitable cause and effect; inputs required to achieved required outputs, analysed, identified and quantified separately wherever necessary to be able to manage and measure the critical thinking, relevant activities and resources. quantify the business you seek from each of your market sectors, segments, products and customer groupings, and allocate investment, resources and activities accordingly. These principles apply to a small local business, a department within a business, or a vast whole business. Before attending to brave new world huxley, the detail of how to achieve your marketing aims you need to quantify clearly what they are.
What growth targets does the business have? What customer losses are you projecting? How many new customers do you need, by size and type, by product and service? What sales volumes, revenues and contributions values do you need for each business or revenue stream from each sector? What is your product mix, in terms of customer type, size, sector, volumes, values, contribution, and distribution channel or route to emotions relationships essay, market? What are your projected selling costs and net contributions per service, product, sector? What trends and percentage increase in revenues and contributions, and volumes compared to last year are you projecting? How is brave huxley, your market share per business stream and sector changing, and how does this compare with your overall business aims? What are your fast-growth high-margin opportunities, and what are your mature and low-margin services; how are you treating these different opportunities, and thinking in teaching anything else in between?
You should use a basic spreadsheet tool to split your business according to the main activities and profit levers. See the simple sales/business planning tool example below. ansoff product-market growth matrix - strategic tool. A useful planning tool in brave new world by aldous, respect of critical thinking markets and brave by aldous products is the emotions essay, matrix developed by Igor Ansoff (H Igor Ansoff, 1918-2002), who is regarded by some as the 'Father of Strategic Management'. Fully titled the Ansoff Product-Market Growth Matrix, the brave new world, tool was first published in essay, Harvard Business Review, 1957, in Ansoff's paper Strategies for Diversification. The Ansoff product-market matrix helps to understand and assess marketing or business development strategy.
Any business, or part of a business can choose which strategy to employ, or which mix of strategic options to use. This is brave new world huxley essay, a fundamentally simple and effective way of looking at cardiovascular disease essay conclusion, strategic development options. Each of these strategic options holds different opportunities and downsides for brave new world by aldous huxley essay, different organizations, so what is right for one business won't necessarily be right for another. Think about hemophilia, what option offers the best potential for your own business and huxley essay market. Think about the strengths of your business and critical thinking what type of growth strategy your strengths will enable most naturally. Generally beware of by aldous huxley essay diversification - this is, by essay its nature, unknown territory, and carries the highest risk of failure.
Here are the Ansoff strategies in summary: market penetration - Developing your sales of existing products to your existing market(s). This is fine if there is brave new world, plenty of market share to be had at dbq essay industrialization, the expense of your competitors, or if the market is growing fast and large enough for the growth you need. New World By Aldous Essay. If you already have large market share you need to weakness, consider whether investing for further growth in by aldous huxley, this area would produce diminishing returns from your development activity. It could be that you will increase the profit from this activity more by reducing costs than by cardiovascular disease essay conclusion actively seeking more market share. Strong market share suggests there are likely to be better returns from extending the brave, range of dbq essay industrialization products/services that you can offer to the market, as in the next option. product development - Developing or finding new products to take to your existing market(s). This is an attractive strategy if you have strong market share in a particular market.
Such a strategy can be a suitable reason for acquiring another company or product/service capability provided it is brave new world by aldous huxley, relevant to your market and your distribution route. Developing new products does not mean that you have to do this yourself (which is normally very expensive and frequently results in simply re-inventing someone else's wheel) - often there are potential manufacturing partners out there who are looking for their own distribution partner with the sort of hemophilia market presence that you already have. However if you already have good market share across a wide range of products for your market, this option may be one that produces diminishing returns on your growth investment and activities, and instead you may do better to seek to develop new markets, as in the next strategic option. market development - Developing new markets for your existing products. New World By Aldous Essay. New markets can also mean new sub-sectors within your market - it helps to critical thinking in teaching, stay reasonably close to brave huxley, the markets you know and which know you. Moving into completely different markets, even if the product/service fit looks good, holds risks because this will be unknown territory for you, and almost certainly will involve working through new distribution channels, routes or partners. If you have good market share and good product/service range then moving into associated markets or segments is likely to critical in teaching, be an brave new world, attractive strategy. diversification - taking new products into new markets.
This is high risk - not only dbq essay industrialization do you not know the products, but neither do you know the new market(s), and new world by aldous again this strategic option is likely to entail working through new distribution channels and routes to market. This sort of activity should generally be regarded as additional and essay conclusion supplementary to the core business activity, and should be rolled out carefully through rigorous testing and piloting. Consider also your existing products and brave new world huxley essay services themselves in terms of their market development opportunity and profit potential. Hemophilia. Some will offer very high margins because they are relatively new, or specialised in some way, perhaps because of brave new world by aldous essay special USP's or distribution arrangements. Other products and resume services may be more mature, with little or no competitive advantage, in which case they will produce lower margins. The Boston Matrix is brave, a useful way to understand and assess your different existing product and service opportunities: boston matrix model - product/service development. The Boston Matrix model (also called the BSG Matrix, Growth-Share Matrix, and variations around these titles) is a tool for assessing existing and development products in terms of their market potential, and thereby implying strategic action for products and services in each of the four categories reflected in the model. The Boston Matrix model was devised by Bruce Henderson (1915-92), founder of the Boston Consulting Group in the 1960s. It has been adapted in many ways.
A simple version is shown here below. Like other four-part 2x2 matrix models, the Boston Matrix is a very quick and easy method for analysis, thinking and decision-making, while being unavoidably limited in its handling of dbq essay subtlety and detail. Often in business and strategic thinking too much detail is by aldous huxley essay, unhelpful - instead, clarity and emotions relationships essay ease of understanding are extremely helpful, especially in communicating ideas to teams and brave groups, in which circumstances the Boston Matrix is an excellent aid. cash cow - The rather crude metaphor is based on disease, the idea of 'milking' the returns from previous investments which established good distribution and market share for the product. Products in brave, this quadrant need maintenance and protection activity, together with good cost management, not growth effort, because there is copier resume nj, little or no additional growth available. dog - This is any product or service of yours which has low market presence in a mature or stagnant market. There is no point in developing products or services in this quadrant. Many organizations discontinue products/services that they consider fall into this category, in which case consider potential impact on overhead cost recovery. Businesses that have been starved or denied development find themselves with a high or entire proportion of their products or services in this quadrant, which is obviously not very funny at brave by aldous essay, all, except to the competitors. problem child (also called question marks or wildcats ) - These are products which have a big and growing market potential, but existing low market share, normally because they are new products, or the application has not been spotted and acted upon hemophilia essay, yet. New business development and project management principles are required here to ensure that these products' potential can be realised and disasters avoided.
This is likely to be an area of business that is new world by aldous essay, quite competitive, where the pioneers take the risks in the hope of securing good early distribution arrangements, image, reputation and market share. Hemophilia Essay. Gross profit margins are likely to be high, but overheads, in the form of costs of research, development, advertising, market education, and low economies of scale, are normally high, and by aldous essay can cause initial business development in this area to be loss-making until the product moves into the rising star category, which is by no means assured - many problem children products remain as such. rising star - Or 'star' products, are those which have good market share in a strong and growing market. As a product moves into this category it is commonly known as a 'rising star'. When a market is strong and still growing, competition is not yet fully established. Demand is strong; saturation or over-supply do not exists, and so pricing is relatively unhindered. This all means that these products produce very good returns and critical profitability. New World By Aldous Huxley Essay. The market is receptive and educated, which optimizes selling efficiencies and us history industrialization margins.
Production and manufacturing overheads are established and brave huxley essay costs minimised due to high volumes and conclusion good economies of by aldous huxley scale. These are great products and conclusion worthy of new world by aldous essay continuing investment provided good growth potential continues to exist. When it does not these products are likely to move down to cash cow status, and the company needs to have the next rising stars developing from its problem children. After considering your business in terms of the Ansoff matrix and hemophilia Boston matrix (which are thinking aids as much as anything else, not a magic solution in themselves), on a more detailed level, and for many businesses just as significant as the Ansoff-type-options, what is the significance of your major accounts - do they offer better opportunity for growth and development than your ordinary business? Do you have a high quality, specialised offering that delivers better business benefit on a large scale as opposed to small scale? Are your selling costs and investment similar for large and small contracts? If so you might do better concentrating on developing large major accounts business, rather than taking a sophisticated product or service solution to smaller companies which do not appreciate or require it, and cost you just as much to sell to new world huxley, as a large organization. This customer matrix model is used by many companies to understand and determine strategies according to customer types.
Assessing product type is helped by overcoming weakness reference to the Boston matrix model. New World Huxley. There is cardiovascular essay, a lot of brave by aldous flexibility as to what constitutes 'good' and 'not so good customers' - use your own criteria. A good way to do this is to devise your own grading system using criteria that mean something to your own situation. Typical criteria are: size, location, relationship, credit-rating and payment terms, is the customer growing (or not), the emotions essay, security of the supply contract, the service and brave new world huxley support overhead required, etc. Essay. This kind of customer profiling tool and exercise is new world huxley essay, often overlooked, but it is essay, a critical aspect of brave new world huxley marketing and sales development, and overcoming weakness essay of optimizing sales effectiveness and business development performance and profitability. Huxley. Each quadrant requires a different sales approach.
The type of customer also implies the type of sales person who should be responsible for managing the relationship. A firm view needs to be taken before committing expensive field-based sales resources to 'not so good' customers. Focus prospect development (identifying and contacting new prospective customers) on the profile which appears in the top left quadrant. Identify prospective new customers who fit this profile, and allocate your business development resources (people and advertising) to this audience. Consider also What are your competitor weaknesses in terms of weakness essay sectors, geographical territory and products or services, and how might these factors affect your options? Use the SWOT analysis also for assessing each competitor as well as your own organization or department. Many organizations issue a marketing budget from the new world by aldous, top down (a budget issued by the Centre/HQ/Finance Director), so to speak, in which case, what is your marketing budget and how can you use it to produce the best return on investment, and to help the copier, company best to meet its overall business aims? Use the brave by aldous huxley, models described here to assess your best likely returns on marketing investment. The best way to begin to model and plan your marketing is to have a record of your historical (say last year's) sales results (including selling and advertising costs if appropriate and resume available) on by aldous, a spreadsheet.
The level of detail is up to you; modern spreadsheets can organize massive amounts of data and make very complex analysis quick easy. Data is vital and will enable you to do most of the analysis you need for marketing planning. In simple terms you can use last year's results as a basis for planning and modelling the nj, next year's sales, and the marketing expenditure and brave new world by aldous essay activities required to disease, achieve them. simple business plan or sales plan tools examples. These templates examples help the planning process. Split and analyse your business or sales according to your main products/services (or revenue streams) according to the profit drivers or 'levers' (variables that you can change which affect profit), e.g., quantity or volume, average sales value or price, % gross margin or profit. Add different columns which reflect your own business profit drivers or levers, and to provide the most relevant measures. Do the same for each important aspect of your business, for example, split by market sector (or segment):
And, for example, split by distributor (or route to market): These simple split analysis tools are an extremely effective way to plan your sales and business. Construct a working spreadsheet so that the bottom-right cell shows the total sales or gross margin, or profit, whatever you need to measure, and by brave by aldous changing the figures within the split (altering the mix, average prices, quantities, etc) you can carry out 'what if?' analysis to develop the best plans. If you are a competent working with spreadsheets it is normally possible to assemble all of this data onto a single spreadsheet and then show different analyses by sorting and graphing according to critical thinking, different fields. When you are happy with the overall totals for the year, convert this into a phased monthly plan, with as many lines and columns as you need and are appropriate for the business. Develop this spreadsheet by showing inputs as well as sales outputs - the quantifiable activity (for example, the brave new world essay, numbers of enquiries necessary to weakness essay, produce the planned sales levels) required to produce the planned performance. Large businesses need extensive and multiple page spreadsheets. A business plan needs costs as well as sales, and will show profit as well as revenue and gross margin, but the principle is the same: plan the detailed numbers and values of what the business performance will be, and brave huxley what inputs are required to achieve it.
Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for relationships, incorporating these factors and brave new world by aldous huxley financials into a more formal phased business trading plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and weakness essay reporting tool too. Brave By Aldous Essay. Adapt it to suit your purposes. This plan example is also available as a PDF, see the Profit and Loss Account (PL) Small Enterprise Business Plan Example (PDF). The numbers could be anything: ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. Consider also indirect activities that affect sales and business levels, such as customer service. Identify key performance indicators here too, such as customer complaints response and essay resolution levels and timescales. Internal lead referral schemes, strategic partnership activity; the performance of other direct sales activities such as sales agencies, distributorships, export activities, licensing, etc. These performance factors won't normally appear on brave new world huxley essay, a business plan spreadsheet, but a separate plan should be made for them, otherwise they won't happen. write your marketing plan or business plan. Your marketing plan is actually a statement, supported by relevant financial data, of relationships how you are going to develop your business.
Plans should be based on actions, not masses of historical data. The historical and market information should be sufficient just to explain and justify the opportunities, direction, strategy, and most importantly, the marketing actions, methods and by aldous huxley measures - not to tell the story of the past 20 years of your particular industry. What you are going to copier nj, sell to whom, when and how you are going to new world by aldous essay, sell it, how much contribution (gross profit) the sales produce, what the marketing cost will be, and what will be the return on investment. As stated above it is easiest and dbq essay best to assemble all of this data onto a spreadsheet, which then allows data to be manipulated through the planning process, and then changed and re-projected when the trading year is under way. The spreadsheet then becomes the basis of your sales and brave by aldous essay marketing forecasting and results reporting tool. As well as sales and marketing data, in most types of businesses it is also useful to dbq essay, include measurable aims concerning customer service and satisfaction. The marketing plan will have costs that relate to a marketing budget in the overall business plan. The marketing plan will also have revenue and brave new world huxley gross margin/profitability targets that relate to the turnover and profitability in the overall business plan. This data is essentially numerical, and so needs also some supporting narrative as to how the numbers will be achieved - the actions - but keep the essay, narrative concise; if it extends to more than a half-dozen sheets make sure you put a succinct executive summary on by aldous huxley essay, the front.
The marketing plan narrative could if appropriate also refer to indirect activities such as product development, customer service, quality assurance, training etc., if significantly relevant to achieving the marketing plan aims. Be pragmatic - marketing plans vary enormously depending on the type, size and maturity of business. Above all create a plan that logically shows how the business can best consolidate and grow its successful profitable areas. The marketing plan should be a working and overcoming weakness essay truly useful tool - if it is, then it's probably a good one. sample business plan, marketing plan or sales plan sample structure and example format/template. Keep the written part of the business plan as concise and brief as possible - most situations and high-ranking executives do not need to see plans that are an inch thick. If you can make your case on a half dozen pages then do so. Particularly if your plan is more than 5-6 pages long, produce an brave new world by aldous essay, executive summary (easiest to overcoming weakness, do when you have completed the plan) and insert it at the beginning of the brave new world huxley, document. If you need to include lots of reference material, examples, charts, evidence, etc, show these as appendices at the back of the document and make sure they are numbered and referenced during the weakness, main body of the plan. Each new section should start at the top of a new page.
Number the brave huxley, pages. Important plans should be suitably bound. All business plans should be professionally and neatly presented, with no grammar and spelling errors, clearly laid out in an easy to read format (avoid lots of upper-case or fancy fonts or italics as these are all difficult to read). Your business plan contents and structure should be as follows: business plans structure - a business planning template. Title page: Title or heading of the plan and brief description if required, author, date, company/organization if applicable, details of circulation and confidentiality. In Teaching. Contents page: A list of contents (basically the sections listed here, starting with the Introduction page) showing page numbers, plus a list of appendices or addendums (added reference material at the back of the document) allowing the reader to find what they need and navigate the document easily, and to new world essay, refer others to particular items and page numbers when reviewing or querying. Dbq Essay. Introduction page : Introduction and new world huxley essay purpose of the plan, terms of thinking in teaching reference if applicable (usually for formal and large plans or projects). Executive summary page: Optional and usually beneficial, this should normally be no more than a page long (or it's not an executive summary) - the key points of the whole plan including conclusions, recommendations, actions, financial returns on by aldous huxley, investment, etc., clearly readable in a few minutes. Cardiovascular Conclusion. Main body of plan: sections and headings as required, see template below.
Acknowledgments and by aldous huxley bibliography/reference sources: if relevant (only required normally for very large formal plans) Appendices: appendices or addendums - additional detailed reference material, examples, statistics, spreadsheets, etc., for critical, reference and not central to the main presentation of your plan. business plans - main body sections examples template. This sample template is typical for a sales/marketing/new business development business plan. Brave New World Huxley Essay. (A business plan for a more complex project such as an international joint-venture, or the formation of a new company including manufacturing plant or other overhead activities would need to overcoming weakness essay, include relevant information and financials about the overheads and resources concerned, and the financials would need to brave huxley, show costs and hemophilia profits more like a fully developed profit and loss account, with cashflow projections, balance sheet, etc.) Where appropriate refer to your position regarding corporate ethics and social responsibility and the Psychological Contract. Brave New World Huxley. While these aspects are not mechanisms within the in teaching, plan, they are crucial reference points. Define your market - sector(s) and segment(s) definitions Quantify your market (overview only) - size, segmentation, relevant statistics, values, numbers (locations, people/users, etc) - make this relevant to you business Explain your market(s) - sector trends, eg., growth, legislation, seasonality, PEST factors where relevant, refer to Ansoff matrix, show the strategic business drivers within sector and segments, purchasing mechanisms, processes, restrictions - what are the factors that determine customers' priorities and needs - this is a logical place to refer to brave by aldous essay, ethics and CSR (corporate social responsibility Explain your existing business - your current business according to sector, products/services, quantities, values, distributor, etc. Analyse your existing customer spread by customer type, values and copier resume nj products/services including major accounts (the 'Pareto Principle' or the new world, '80:20 rule' often applies here, eg., 80% of critical your business comes from 20% of your customers) Explain your products and services - refer to brave huxley essay, Boston matrix and especially your strategic propositions (what these propositions will do for your customers) including your USP's and UPB's (see sales training section and acronyms) Explain you routes to market, gatekeepers, influencers and strategic partners - the other organizations/individuals you will work with to develop your market, including 'what's in it for them', commissions, endorsements, accreditations, approvals, licenses, etc. Case studies and dbq essay track record - the credibility, evidence and proof that your propositions and strategic partnerships work Competitor analysis, eg., SWOT analysis of brave new world by aldous essay your own business compared to in teaching, SWOT analysis of each competitor Sales/marketing/business plan (1 year min) showing sales and margins by product/service stream, mix, values, segment, 'distributor', etc, whatever is relevant, phased monthly, in as much detail as you need. Brave New World By Aldous Huxley Essay. This should be on a spreadsheet , with as many different sheets as necessary to quantify relevant inputs and outputs.
List your strategic actions (marketing campaigns, sales activities, advertising, etc) that will deliver the above, with costs and returns. This should be supported with a spreadsheet, showing cost and return on thinking, investment for each activity. Tip: If the business plan concerns an existing activity, use the previous year's sales/business analysis as the basis for the next year's sales/business plan. Adapt as necessary according to by aldous, your new strategic plans. other business planning and marketing issues. staffing and training implications. Your people are unlikely to have all the skills they need to critical, help you implement a marketing plan.
You may not have all the people that you need so you have to consider justifying and obtaining extra. Customer service is acutely sensitive to staffing and training. Are all of brave by aldous huxley your people aware of the copier resume, aims of the business, its mission statement and your sales propositions? Do they know what their responsibilities are? How will you measure their performance? Many of these issues feed back into the business plan under human resources and training, where budgets need to be available to support the investment in brave new world essay, these areas. You should formulate a customer service charter, extending both your mission statement and your service offer, so as to inform staff and customers what your standards are. Disease. These standards can cover quite detailed aspects of your service, such as how many times the telephone will be permitted to ring until the caller is gets an answer.
Other issues might include: How many days between receipt and response for written correspondence. Complaints procedure and timescales for each stage. This charter sets customer expectations, so be sure you can meet them. Customers get disappointed particularly when their expectations are not met, and brave new world when so many standards can be set at essay, arbitrary levels, think of each one as a promise that you should keep. Business-to-business customers would expect to agree these standards with their suppliers and have them recorded as part of their contracts, or as SLA's (service level agreements). Increasingly, large customers demand SLA's to new world by aldous essay, be tailored to their own specific needs, and the process of developing these understandings and agreements is essay, absolutely crucial to the maintenance and development of large contracts. Remember an important rule about by aldous essay, customer service: It's not so much the failure to meet standards that causes major dissatisfaction among customers - everyone can make a mistake - the hemophilia, biggest cause of upset is the brave new world by aldous, failure of suppliers to inform customers and weakness keep them updated when problems arise. Not being told in advance, not receiving any apology, not getting any explanation why, and not hearing what's going to brave by aldous, be done to put things right, are key areas of customer dissatisfaction, and therefore easy areas for suppliers to focus their efforts to achieve and communicate improvements.
A special point of note for businesses that require a strong technical profile among their service staff: these people are often reactive by nature and copier so not good at taking initiative to identify and anticipate problem areas in customer service. It's therefore helpful to brave new world by aldous huxley essay, establish suitable mechanisms and thinking responsibility to pick up problems and deal with them - a kind of trouble-shooting capability - which can be separately managed and monitored at a strategic level. Do not assume that technically-oriented staff will be capable of proactively developing customer service solutions and brave huxley revisions to SLA's - they generally need help in doing so from disease essay conclusion, staff with high creativity, empathy, communications and initiative capabilities. establish systems to brave by aldous huxley essay, measure customer service and staff performance. These standards and the SLA's established for large customers need to be visible, agreed with customers, absolutely measurable. You must keep measuring your performance against them, and preferably publishing the cardiovascular disease essay, results, internally and brave by aldous essay externally. Customer complaints handling is emotions relationships, a key element: Measuring customer complaints is brave by aldous essay, crucial because individual complaints are crucial areas to resolve, and also as a whole, complaints serve as a barometer for the quality and performance of the business. You need to have a scheme which encourages, not discourages, customers to complain, to copier resume nj, open the channels as wide as possible. Most businesses are too defensive where complaints are concerned, preferring to minimise their importance, or to brave new world by aldous huxley essay, seek to justify and excuse them. Wrong.
Complaints are the opportunities to turn ordinary service into hemophilia unbeatable service. Moreover, time and again surveys suggest that anything up to by aldous huxley, nine out of ten people do not complain to the provider when they feel dissatisfied - they just keep their dissatisfaction to themselves and the provider never finds out there's a problem, even when the customer chooses to go elsewhere. But every complaining customer will tell at least a couple of their friends or relations. Every dissatisfied staff member in the customer organization will tell several of their colleagues. Unreported complaints spawn bad feelings and the breakdown of relationships.
It is imperative that you capture all complaints in order to: Put at ease and give explanation or reassurance to the person complaining. Emotions Relationships Essay. Reduce the chances of them complaining to new world huxley, someone else. Monitor exactly how many dissatisfied customers you have and what the cardiovascular disease essay, causes are, and that's even more important if you're failing to deliver your mission statement or service offer! Take appropriate corrective action to prevent a re-occurrence. If appropriate (ie for brave new world huxley essay, large customers) review SLA's and take the opportunity to thinking, agree new SLA's with the brave huxley essay, customer. implications for IT, premises, and copier nj reporting systems. Also relating to your business plan are the issues of: Information Technology - are your computers and communications systems capable of giving you the information and brave new world huxley analysis you need? How do you use email - is it helping or hindering your business and the quality of service you give to your customers? What internet presence and processes do you need?
How should your voice and data systems work together? What systems need to be available to mobile staff? What customer relationship management (CRM) systems should you have? How should you consider all these issues to see the copier resume nj, needs and opportunities? IT and communications systems increasingly offer marketing and competitive advantage to businesses in all sectors - make sure you know hat IT can do for you and for your customers. Premises - Review your premises and sites in light of your customer service, distribution, and customer relationship requirements. Pay particular attention anywhere in your organization that your customers visit - the brave new world by aldous essay, impression and copier resume service you give here is critical.
Reporting systems - If you can't measure it you can't manage it, and brave new world by aldous huxley essay where finance and business performance is concerned this is certainly true. First you must identify and essay agree internally your key performance indicators (KPI's). Identify every aspect of your service or performance that is important - then you need to huxley, be able to measure it and report on it, and where people are involved in performing to certain standards then the standards and the reporting needs to be transparent to thinking, them also. How do you report on brave new world essay, sales, marketing and business performance and interpret the results? Who needs to know?
Who needs to capture the data? communications and copier resume ongoing customer feedback are essential. Having an brave new world huxley essay, open dialogue with your customers is cardiovascular disease essay conclusion, vital. There's a double benefit to your business in ensuring this happens: You nip problems in the bud and stay aware of brave new world by aldous how you're performing. Your customers feel better about the service you provide as a result of the communications, or from the weakness, fact that the channel is open even if they don't use it - it's human nature. Try to brave new world huxley essay, devise a standard feedback form. It can double as a promotional tool as well if it's made available on critical thinking in teaching, a wider scale. The form can carry details of new world by aldous huxley your mission statement, service offer and your customer service charter.
Consider carrying out a customer satisfaction and perceptions survey. There are many ways to do this on disease essay conclusion, a small or large scale, and valuable feedback is always obtained from customer survey exercises. tips for starting a small business or self-employment - for non-financial people. Some of us are not naturally inclined towards the sort of detailed financial thinking that is required for traditional detailed business planning. If this is new world by aldous, you, you'll possess other valuable capabilities that will be useful in resume, your own enterprise, and you'll maybe find it helpful to brave new world by aldous, use this alternative approach to planning a new enterprise or self-employment. It can be stressful and counter-productive to try to use methods that are not natural or comfortable. If you are helping or advising others about starting their own enterprise or self-employment, the emotions relationships, same principles apply. Brave. Not everyone is naturally good at business planning, but everyone who dreams of being self-employed or who wants to start and run their own independent enterprise is us history, capable of doing so, provided they work to their strengths, capabilities and passions. People running successful enterprises come in all shapes and by aldous essay sizes, from all backgrounds, all ages, with skills, passions, and capabilities in any field you can imagine. Anyone can run their own business or be successful in overcoming, self-employment given the simple determination to do so.
Business and enterprise is brave huxley, not just for stereotypical 'business-types'; the benefits and essay advantages of being your own boss are available to brave new world, us all. Here are some pointers for people considering starting their own new enterprise, or for helping others to do the essay, same. First, and brave new world by aldous essay especially if you are not clear of dbq essay your own real strengths, or what direction to pursue, focus on using tools to understanding your own personality style and strengths. Brave. Then use this knowledge to imagine and realise how your natural capabilities can be used to best effect in defining and providing your own services or running your own enterprise. The VAK and Multiple Intelligences tools on this site are helpful for thinking, this purpose. They assess people's strengths completely differently to traditional IQ or academic evaluations, which are extremely narrow and generally not relevant at all for people who want to new world huxley essay, be their own boss. Understanding personality is essay conclusion, also useful since personality-type greatly influences the new world huxley essay, way that a person approaches self-employment or running an enterprise, and what sort of service or business to offer. The Personality Styles page provides a lot of explanation about this. Many people are conditioned by schools and over-cautious parents to under-estimate their own potential and capabilities, which is a big reason to take a fresh look at what you are good at, and to re-think and understand better the ways that your personality type tends to copier resume nj, be successful in life and business.
There are many ways to be successful and independent in life aside from building and running a conventional business and adhering to conventional financial planning methods. The basic economics of becoming successfully independent in any sort of venture are actually extremely simple, and focusing on the following simple fundamentals (a process really) can help many folk turn your dream or an idea into a successful enterprise or self-employment reality. New World Essay. It's usually easiest to thinking in teaching, think first of brave new world by aldous huxley these factors in terms of daily, weekly or monthly numbers and values, and overcoming weakness then to brave essay, extend the figures to give totals for a whole year: 1. Us History Industrialization. What's your product or service? (What's good/special/different about your products or service that enough people will buy it? And importantly is this something that you have a real passion for?
All successful enterprises are built on doing something the new world by aldous, owner enjoys.) 2. What does it cost to make/buy in/provide the hemophilia essay, product or service? (If you are buying and selling products or using materials consider the cost prices. If the main resource is brave new world essay, your own time then attach a cost to us history dbq essay industrialization, your labour that reflects your available time for the work and the wage you need to brave essay, draw. Divide your required annual wage by the number of work hours available to you, and this is your notional hourly labour cost.) 3. What price will the product/service sell for? (Ideally small businesses need a healthy profit margin or mark-up - doubling the cost is good if the market will accept it. A mark-up of less than 50% is in teaching, cause for concern unless you are selling products in relatively high volumes or values. Price your products/services according to what the market will pay, not according to your costs.
Take into account your competitors and brave new world what they charge and their relative quality. Service businesses that use only the person's time are often very attractive and profitable because there is no added complication of buying and holding stock - hence why window-cleaning, sign-writing, repairs, gardening, decorating, tutoring, writing, therapy, training, coaching and consultancy, etc., are such good businesses for cardiovascular disease essay conclusion, people who prefer a simple approach to self-employment and enterprise. Consider the effect of VAT especially for 'consumer' businesses - ie., selling to by aldous, the general public - assuming your business is or must be VAT registered. Private consumers of industrialization course are more sensitive to VAT than business customers who can generally reclaim VAT should you have to add it to your prices.) 4. Who will buy the product/service? (Identify your customers and market. New World Huxley. Do you know this for sure? Test your assumptions: this is a critical part of the essay, proposition and new world by aldous huxley essay generally benefits from more thought and research to confirm that a big enough market exists for your idea.
Consider your competition - what are people buying currently and why will they buy from you instead?) 5. How much/many do you need to sell in a year? And how many customers do you need? (This is a vital part of the proposition to confirm that the gross profit (the difference between costs of bought in products/labour and sales revenues) covers your/their financial needs (including a living wage and other fixed costs of running the enterprise. Again remember the affect of VAT on your selling prices if applicable.) 6. How will people know about the service/product? (You need to understand what advertising/marketing/enquiry-generation is necessary - activity and cost.
There is usually a cost for generating new customers, especially in industrialization, the early stages of a new enterprise. Once the business is established, say after six months to a year, 'word-of-mouth' referrals are for some businesses all that is required to produce new customers - especially those based in a local community, but virtually any new enterprise requires marketing at its launch. Essay. See the essay, articles on marketing and brave new world by aldous huxley essay selling.) 7. Does all this add up, and better still provide a cash surplus at the end of a year? - if so then it's probably a good business model. These basic questions represent the typical 'table napkin' business proposition that is the start of hemophilia most businesses, including very large complex ones. New World Huxley Essay. People who dislike and are not fluent in detailed business calculations might find the above process a useful starting point when thinking about how to begin a new enterprise or a venture in self-employment. If this is you, you are not alone: many visionary entrepreneurs can run a huge profitable business but have great difficulty putting together a proper business plan. Hence many highly successful business leaders rely heavily on their financial directors to cardiovascular disease, take care of the financial details, leaving them free to get on with the business activity that makes best use of their natural skill, be it creativity, selling, service-provision, people-skills, technical skills, or whatever.
Incidentally the above factors are the essential components which make up a basic Profit and Loss Account, which is the new world huxley, primary management tool for hemophilia essay, a business of any scale and complexity. Here's a free MSExcel profit and loss account template tool for extending these factors and financials into a more formal phased plan, which also serves as a business forecasting and reporting tool too. If in huxley, doubt about industrialization, this seek some help from an experienced business person or your accountant. Adapt it to suit your purposes. The example PL trading plan is new world by aldous huxley essay, also available as a pdf. The numbers could be anything - ten times less, ten times more, a hundred times more - the principle is the same. company types and financial set up - quick guide. When you have confirmed and refined the basic viability of your business idea you can then begin getting to grips with the us history, more detailed aspects of forming the business itself. This necessarily includes deciding your type of business constitution - the legal format of your company - or 'company type' as it is often described. The Psychological Contract is increasingly significant within and brave huxley relating to business constitution. Small (UK) businesses are most commonly one of the following: sole-trader - essentially a self-employed owner - no limited personal liability - relatively easy set up and hemophilia administration. partnership - essentially a group of self-employed partners/owners - no limited personal liability - easy-ish set up and administration, although ultimately dependent on brave new world by aldous huxley, the complexity of the resume, company and partnership. limited liability partnership (LLP) - as above, except that liability is limited to personal investments and guarantees. limited company (abbreviated to Ltd after the huxley essay, company name) - liability is copier resume, limited to the assets of the company - registered with Companies House and brave new world legally obliged to publish accounts.
There are less common variations of limited companies, and other business structures and constitutions, for example: social enterprise - various structures including , trusts, associations and especially cooperatives - these are not common typical or traditional business structures, but social enterprises are growing in popularity, and will be explained in more detail on this website in due course. Meanwhile here is useful information about cooperatives. public limited company (plc) - not appropriate for small companies. Sole-trader and partnership companies are very easy to set up and administer, but the owner/partners are personally liable for all business debts and potential claims, so good insurance cover (including professional indemnity and public liability) is essential especially if business liabilities are potentially serious. A limited liability partnership offers protection to relationships, partners in terms of personal liabilities, in that liabilities are limited to the extent of personal investment and any other guarantees. This is considered to be too much personal exposure by new world essay many business people, in which case a limited company is the obvious alternative. A limited company exists in its own right - a tricky concept to understand for many people - basically meaning that financial liabilities belong to the company (its shareholders, to the value of emotions essay their shares in other words) rather than the directors and executives of the business, as would apply in a partnership. Limited companies ultimately offer more flexibility for large complex businesses but can be over-complicated and brave essay administratively heavy if all you want to do is run a local shop or landscape gardening business or modest training or coaching business. Whatever, consider carefully what type of hemophilia essay company framework will suit you best.
Once established it can be quite difficult to unravel and brave huxley essay change if you get it wrong - not impossible, but a nuisance if you could have got it right first time with a bit of extra thought at the planning stage. A good accountant will help you decide what is best for emotions relationships, your situation from a legal and brave financial standpoint, although before this you should think for yourself what sort of business structure best fits your wider business situation, and especially your business aims and philosophy. Broad guidelines about business types are available from the UK Government business information Businesslink website. You'll need a business bank account. In fact it is a legal requirement of all limited companies to essay, have a business bank account. Shop around. There are wide variations in by aldous huxley essay, services and costs offered by the different banks. You must also understand and organize the tax implications for your type of business. Before starting any business ensure also that you have the information and disease conclusion controls to account for and pay all taxes due. Helpfully to learn more about this in the UK, most tax affairs are within the brave new world huxley essay, responsibilities of HM Revenue and Customs - until they too change their name to something very silly. That said, the relevance today of HM (Her Majesty's) is dbq essay industrialization, a bit puzzling when you stop to think about it and surely due for updating to the modern age.
HMRC is brave by aldous, another weird example of nj quirky UK Government departmental names and branding. God help us all, our country is brave new world by aldous, run by alien wannabe noblemen from the middle ages. VAT (Value Added Tax or your national equivalent) is an overcoming essay, issue warranting serious thought if your business is small enough to have a choice in the matter. Beyond a certain turnover (?68,000 as at 2010) any UK business must register for VAT. Brave New World By Aldous Essay. Check the HMRC website for critical in teaching, the current position. Being VAT registered means you must charge VAT on all VAT-rated supplies, which means also that the VAT you receive on brave new world essay, payments from your customers must be paid to HM Revenue and Customs. Disease. (No you cannot keep it, even though some accidentally try to, and others think they are entitled to.) Being VAT registered also enables you to brave new world by aldous, reclaim VAT that you pay on business costs, although there are some notable exceptions, like company cars. Retail and consumer businesses are especially affected by VAT. Private consumers cannot claim back VAT, so the effect of VAT on pricing and essay conclusion margins needs careful thought in planning any consumer business. Up to a certain level of new world turnover (in the UK) becoming registered for VAT is optional.
If your business turnover is likely to be below the threshold for mandatory VAT registration, you must decide for yourself if the emotions relationships, advantages outweigh the by aldous huxley essay, disadvantages. The main advantages of VAT registration are: your business will be perceived by emotions essay certain people - especially other businesses - to be larger and more credible (not being registered for VAT indicates immediately that your turnover is below the VAT threshold) you will be able to reclaim VAT that you are charged on legitimate allowable business costs. The main disadvantages of being VAT registered are: the administrative burden in keeping VAT records and submitting VAT returns (although this has been enormously simplified in recent years so that for small simple businesses it is really not a problem at brave huxley, all) risks of getting onto cashflow difficulties if you fail to set funds aside to pay your VAT bills (see the tax tips below) Information about us history dbq essay, VAT (and all other tax issues) is at the UK Government HM Revenue and Customs website: http://www.hmrc.gov.uk. VAT is brave new world by aldous essay, not the overcoming, only tax. Taxes are also due on company profits (sole-traders or partnerships profits are taxed via personal earnings of the sole-trader or partners) and on staff salaries (national insurance). A sole-trader or partnership can employ staff, in which case national insurance tax is new world huxley, due on salaries paid to employees, which is different to the tax that employees pay themselves. Failing to retain funds in overcoming, a company to pay taxes is a serious problem that's easily avoided with good early planning.
Contact your tax office. Inform them of your plans and seek their help. Tax offices are generally extremely helpful, so ask. You can even talk to a real person on the phone without having to essay, breach a six-level automated menu system. Ideally find a decent accountant too. Preferably one who comes recommended to you.
With all the greatest respect to accountants everywhere, accountants are quite commonly very intense people, like solicitors and overcoming weakness scientists, very much focused on process, accuracy, rules, etc., which in terms of personality fit can be a little at odds with the style of many entrepreneurs. So again shop around and find an accountant with whom you can share a joke and a beer or something from the human world. The relationship between a business person and his/her accountant is crucial if the business is to grow and develop significantly. Accountants might seem at times to brave by aldous huxley, be from another planet, but I can assure you the good ones are bloody magicians when it comes to business development, especially when the figures get really interesting. The statement that one stroke of an cardiovascular disease, accountant's pen is mightier than the world's most successful sales team, is actually true. For many entrepreneurs, the ideal scenario is to grow your business large enough to new world essay, support the cost of a really excellent finance director, who can take care of all the industrialization, detailed legal and financial matters for you, and new world huxley essay leave you completely free to concentrate on growing the business - concentrating your efforts and ideas and strategy externally towards markets and copier resume nj customers, and internally towards optimizing innovation and your staff. See the quick tax tips below, especially for small businesses which might not easily be able to achieve immediate and accurate control of brave new world huxley essay their tax liabilities, which is disease conclusion, one of the major early risks for a new successful small business. tax tips - understanding and accounting for taxes from the brave new world by aldous huxley essay, start.
A significant potential problem area for newly self-employed people, and for new business start-ups, is failing to copier resume, budget and huxley essay save for inevitable taxes which arise from your business activities. N.B. Emotions. These tips are not meant to be a detailed comprehensive guide to new world huxley essay, business taxation. This section merely addresses a particular vulnerability of new start-up businesses in failing to set aside sufficient reserves to hemophilia, meet tax liabilities, especially small businesses, and even more especially sole-traders and partnerships and small limited companies, which lack expertise in accounting and huxley consequently might benefit from these simple warnings and tips related to tax liabilities. In general these issues would normally be managed via a cashflow forecast, together with suitable financial processes to allocate and essay make payments for all costs and liabilities arising in the course of trading. I recognise however that many small business start-ups do not begin with such attention to financial processes, and it's primarily for those situations that these particular notes are provided. These notes in essay, no way suggest that this is the normal fully controlled approach to planning and organizing tax liabilities and other cashflow issues within any business of significant scale. This is simply a pragmatic and practical method aimed at averting a common big problem affecting small business start-ups. While your type of company and hemophilia essay business determines precisely which taxes apply to you, broadly taxes are due on sales (for VAT registered businesses in the UK, or your VAT equivalent if outside the UK), and on the profits of your business and your earnings. New World By Aldous Huxley. If you employ staff you will also have to pay national insurance tax on employees' earnings too. Generally sole-traders and partnerships have simpler tax arrangements - for example, profits are typically taxed as personal earnings - as compared with the copier resume, more complex taxes applicable to limited companies, which also pay taxes on company profits and staff salaries.
Whatever, you must understand the tax liabilities applicable to your situation, and budget for them accordingly. You must try to seek appropriate financial advice for your situation before you commence trading. Indeed understanding tax basics also helps you decide what type of brave by aldous huxley essay company will best suit your situation, again, before you begin trading. The potential for nasty financial surprises - notably tax bills that you have insufficient funds to pay - ironically tends to increase along with your success. Cardiovascular Essay Conclusion. This is brave essay, because bigger sales and profits and earnings inevitably produce bigger tax bills (percentage of copier resume nj tax increases too in the early growth of a business), all of which becomes a very big problem if you've no funds to pay taxes when due.
The risks of getting into difficulties can be greater for the self-employed and small partnerships which perhaps do not have great financial knowledge and new world essay experience, than for larger Limited Company start-ups which tend to resume, have more systems and support in financial areas. Start-ups are especially prone to brave by aldous, tax surprises because the first set of tax bills can commonly be delayed, and if you fail to account properly for all taxes due then obviously you increase the chances of spending more than you should do, resulting in not having adequate funds to cover the payments when they are due. Risks are increased further if you are new to self-employment, previously having been employed and accustomed to receiving a regular salary on which all taxes have already been deducted, in other words 'net' of tax. It can take a while to appreciate that business revenues or profits have no tax deducted when these earnings are put into your bank account; these amounts are called 'gross', because they include the tax element. Cardiovascular Conclusion. Therefore not all of your business earnings belong to you - some of the money belongs to by aldous huxley, the taxman. It's your responsibility to deduct the copier nj, taxes due, to set this money aside, and to pay the tax bills when demanded. Additionally, if you are a person who is in the habit of spending everything that you earn, you must be even more careful, since this tendency will increase the risks of your being unable to pay your taxes.
Failing to get on top of the reality of huxley taxes from the very beginning can lead to serious debt and cashflow problems, which is a miserable way to run a business. So you must anticipate and set aside funds necessary to meet your tax liabilities from the very start of your business, even if you do not initially have a very accurate idea of what taxes will be due, or you lack effective systems to calculate them - many small start-ups are in this position. Nevertheless it is too late to us history dbq essay industrialization, start thinking about tax when the first demands fall due. If when starting your business you do not have information and systems to identify and account accurately for your tax liabilities, here are two simple quick tax tips to avoid problems with the taxman: You must estimate your tax liabilities and ensure that you set aside funds to cover these liabilities while you are banking your payments received into the business. The easiest way to do this is to identify the taxes applicable to your business, for example VAT and your own personal income tax and national insurance. Identify the percentages that apply to your own situation and earnings levels. You can do this approximately. It does not need to be very precise.
Add these percentages together, and then set aside this percentage of all your earnings that you receive into your business. Put these monies into a separate savings account where you can't confuse them with your main business account, i.e., your 'working capital' typically held in a current account. Always over-estimate your tax liabilities so as to set aside more than you need. Having a surplus is not a problem. Having not enough money to pay taxes because you've under-estimated tax due is a problem; sometimes enough to kill an otherwise promising business. Here's an example to show how quickly and easily you can plan and by aldous set aside a contingency to pay your tax bills, even if you've no experience or systems to calculate them precisely. This example is based on a self-employed consultancy-type business, like a training or coaching business, in critical thinking, which there are no significant costs of sales (products or services bought in) or overheads, i.e., revenues are effectively the profits too, since there are minimal costs to offset against profits: example of estimating and setting aside money to pay taxes. 1. In the UK VAT on most products and services is 17.5%.
This equates (roughly) to 15% when calculating the VAT element within a VAT-inclusive amount. This means that you can set aside 15% of your revenues and reliably be sure of covering your VAT liabilities. 2. Brave By Aldous Essay. In the us history industrialization, UK personal income tax and national insurance combined is roughly 30% of earnings up to about ?30,000 (a little over in fact), rising to 49% - call it 50% - of earnings above ?30k - roughly. N.B. Income tax and national insurance are calculated on brave new world huxley essay, taxable earnings, which exclude money spent on legitimate business costs, and VAT received. These figures in the above example are approximate I emphasise again, which is all you need for this purpose, moreover the approximations are on the high side of hemophilia what the new world by aldous, precise liabilities actually are.
Accountants call this sort of thinking 'prudent'. Critical Thinking. It's a pessimistic approach to forecasting liabilities rather than optimistic, which is fundamental to good financial planning and management: if the pessimism is wrong then you end up with a surplus (which is good), but if you are wrong in making optimistic forecasts and estimates (over-ambitious sales, and lower-than-actual costs and liabilities), then you run out of money (which is bad). Back to new world essay, the percentages.. Knowing the income tax percentages enables you to set aside a suitable percentage of your earnings when you receive them into essay conclusion the business. Roughly speaking, for brave new world by aldous huxley, earnings up to ?30k you need to set aside 30% to cover income tax and national insurance. For earnings over ?30k you need to set aside 50% to conclusion, cover your income tax and national insurance. (Earnings below ?30k remain taxable at 30%). Remember you can arrive at these figures based on the VAT exclusive revenues, but to keep matters simpler it is easier to use an brave by aldous huxley essay, adjusted total percentage figure to apply to the total gross earnings. If it's kept very simple and essay conclusion quick you'll be more likely to do it - and/or to new world huxley essay, communicate the method effectively to thinking in teaching, your partner if they are responsible for handling the brave new world by aldous essay, financials, as often happens. Given this example, if in your first year your gross revenues (banked payments received) are say ?50,000, assuming you are VAT registered, then your tax liabilities will be (roughly): From this example you can see that setting aside 45.5% of earnings (yes it's a lot isn't it - which is why you need to anticipate it and set the money aside) would comfortably cover VAT and income tax liabilities. To be extra safe and simpler in this example you could round it up to 50%.
The tax liability will obviously increase with increasing revenues - and in percentage terms too regarding personal income tax, since more earnings would be at the higher rate. You must therefore also monitor your earnings levels through the year and essay adjust your percentage tax contingency accordingly. As stated already above, the risk of under-estimating tax liabilities increases the more successful you are, because tax bills get bigger. In truth you will have some costs to offset against the earnings figures above, but again for new world essay, the purposes of establishing a very quick principle of overcoming weakness saving a fixed percentage as a tax reserve until you know and can control these liabilities more accurately, the above is a very useful simple easy method of by aldous huxley essay initially staying solvent and on top of your tax affairs, which are for many people the most serious source of nasty financial surprises in successful start-up businesses. The above example is very simple, and is provided mainly for small start-up businesses which might otherwise neglect to provide for weakness essay, tax liabilities. The figures and percentages are not appropriate (but the broad principle of forecasting and new world huxley essay providing funds for tax liabilities is) to apply to retail businesses for weakness, example, or businesses in which staff are employed, since these businesses carry significant costs of sales and overheads, which should be deducted from revenues before calculating profits and taxes liabilities. Neither does the example take account of the various ways to reduce tax liabilities by reinvesting profits in the business, writing off stock, putting money into pensions, charitable donations, etc. A third tip is - in fact it's effectively a legal requirement - to inform your relevant tax authorities as soon as possible about brave huxley, your new business. Preferably do this a few weeks before you actually begin trading. That way you can be fully informed of the tax situation - and your best methods of dealing with tax, because there are usually different ways, and sometimes the differences can be worth quite a lot of relationships money.
I do not go into more detail about tax here because it's a very complex subject with wide variations depending on brave by aldous huxley, your own situation, for essay, which you should seek relevant information and advice from a qualified accountant and/or the relevant tax authorities. template and structure for a feasibility study or project justification report. First, and importantly, you need to clarify/confirm the criteria that need to be fulfilled in order to new world by aldous huxley essay, justify starting or continuing the essay conclusion, project or group, in other words, what do the decision-makers need to brave by aldous huxley essay, see in emotions relationships essay, order to approve the project or its continuation ? Then map these crucial approval criteria into the following structure. In other words, work through the brave new world by aldous, following template structure according to, and orientated as closely as you can to, the approval criteria . Relationships Essay. (These points could effectively be your feasibility study or report justification structure, and headings.) past, present and particularly future ('customer') need (for the outputs/results produced by group or project) benefits and outcomes achieved to brave huxley, date for what cost/investment benefits and outcomes to be produced in the future resources, costs, investment , etc., required to produce future required outcomes and cardiovascular benefits (identify capital vs revenue costs, i.e., acquisition of major assets and ongoing overheads) alternative methods or ways of satisfying needs, with relative cost/return (return on investment) comparisons (ie., what other ways might there be for brave new world, satisfying the need if the group or project doesn't happen or ceases?) outline strategy and financial plan , including people, aims, philosophy , etc (ideally tuned to meet the authorising power's fulfilment criteria) for conclusion, proposed start or continuation of project (assuming you have a case, and assuming there is no better alternative) Keep it simple.
Keep to new world by aldous huxley essay, the facts and figures. Cardiovascular Disease Essay. Provide evidence. Be clear and concise. Brave By Aldous Huxley Essay. Refer to the tips about effective writing. If possible present your case in critical thinking, person to the decision-makers, with passion, calm confidence and new world by aldous huxley essay style. Look at the tips on presentations, and assertiveness. tips on finding and working with business planning advisors and consultants. If you need help putting together a business plan, and if you want to get the disease essay, best from the engagement, it's important to find the by aldous huxley, right person to work with, and to establish and maintain a good working relationship with them. Weakness. If you are great big organisation you'll probably not need to work with outsiders, and if you do then you'll probably opt for a great big supplier, however there are significant benefits from working with much smaller suppliers - even single operators - and if you are a small business yourself, then this is probably the best choice anyway: to seek a good single operator, or small partnership of experts. Here are some ideas of huxley essay what to overcoming weakness essay, look for. You'll be best finding someone who meets as much of this criteria as possible: lives close-by you so you can work face-to-face with them and brave new world by aldous huxley essay get to know each other properly, and so that their time is efficiently used, instead of being in essay, traffic on their way to and from brave new world by aldous huxley, your place is high integrity and very discreet is relationships essay, grown-up and got no baggage or emotional triggers - wise and mature - and it needn't be an age thing can help you see and decide where and new world huxley how you want to take the business, rather than tell you where he/she thinks you need to go - a mentor not an overcoming weakness essay, instructor understands or can immediately relate to your industry sector and type of work is experienced working with small family companies, but is also a big picture strategist and brave essay visionary (advisors who've only ever worked with big corporations can sometimes be a bit free and easy with relatively small amounts of money - you need someone with a very very practical approach to managing cash-flow, and real business realities, who've worked in situations without the overcoming, protection of new world by aldous vast corporate bureaucracy and the lack of transparency that this often brings) is triple-brained or whole-brained - mostly front-brained - (see the essay, stuff on Benziger) - intuitive-creative, thinking, but also able to be personable and grounded, subject to the point below complements your own strengths and fills the gaps and weaknesses in your collective abilities (again see the stuff on Benziger and Jung etc) - ie., if collectively you need hard facts and figures and logic then seek people with these strengths - conversely if you are strong on all this, then seek the essay, creative humanist ethical strengths - he/she must work with you in a balanced team - so that the team has no blind spots, and no subjective biases in style or emphasis has two or three referees you can talk to and see evidence of past work (although if you check most of the above it will be a formality) doesn't smoke or drink too much isn't desperate for the work.
As regards finding someone like this, without doubt the us history industrialization, most reliable and quickest method is by networking introductions through trusted people. The person you seek might be three or more links away, but if it's a friend or associate of someone trusted, by someone who's trusted, by brave huxley someone you trust, then probably they'll be right for you. Start by talking to people you know and asking if they know anyone, or if they know anyone who might know anyone - and take it from there. The chances of finding the right person in the local business listings or directory, out of the essay, blue and from cold, are pretty remote. Replying to adverts and marketing material from consultants is a lottery too.
You'll find someone eventually but you'll need to kiss a lot of frogs first, which takes ages and is not the cleverest way to spend your valuable time. For something so important as business planning advice or consultancy use referrals every time. Referrals work not only because you get to find someone trusted, but the person you find has a reasonable assurance that you can be trusted too, you see: good suppliers are just as choosy as good clients. It works both ways. Be prepared to new world, reward the person in whatever way is appropriate and fair (I'm thinking percentage share of essay incremental success beyond expectations - perhaps even equity share if the person is really good and you'd value their on-going contribution and help). Often the best people won't ask for much money up front at all, but from your point of view you will attract a lot more commitment and brave new world essay work beyond the call of normal duty from them if you reward higher than they ask or need. Good suppliers are immensely motivated by good clients and lots of appreciation, even if they don't want the financial reward.
Good suppliers have usually seen too many ungrateful greedy people taking them for granted and cardiovascular disease essay conclusion penny pinching, and will tend to sack clients like these without even telling them why, and move on brave new world by aldous, to more deserving enjoyable work with people who are fair and overcoming appreciative, which is brave new world, how you'll be I'm sure. Finally, when you've found the dbq essay industrialization, right person, always continually agree expectations and new world huxley essay invite feedback about how the relationship is working, not just how the work is going. starting your own business - or starting any new business. These are the disease essay conclusion, simple rules for planning and new world huxley essay starting your own business. The principles also apply to planning and starting a new business within an organisation for relationships, someone else. In amongst the huxley, distractions and details of new business planning, it is important to hemophilia essay, keep sight of the basic rules of new business success:
Your successful new business must offer something unique that people want. Uniqueness is new world by aldous huxley essay, vital because otherwise there is critical thinking, no reason for customers to buy from brave huxley, you. Anyone can be or create a unique business proposition by thinking about it clearly. Uniqueness comes in us history industrialization, all shapes and sizes - it's chiefly being especially good and different in a particular area, or field or sector. Uniqueness can be in by aldous essay, a product or service, or in dbq essay industrialization, a trading method, or in you yourself, or any other aspect of your business which makes what you are offering special and appealing to people. You will develop your own unique offering first by identifying what people want and which nobody is providing properly. Second you must ensure that your chosen unique offering is also an extension of your own passion or particular expertise or strength - something you will love and enjoy being the new world by aldous, best at - whatever it is. Every successful business is emotions essay, built on someone's passion. new business start-ups by older people. If you already have a career behind you, and you wonder if you've got it in you to compete and brave by aldous essay succeed in the modern world, consider this.
First - you have definitely got it in you to succeed. Experience and in teaching wisdom are fundamental building blocks of success, and will be for you from the moment you start looking at yourself in this way. The reassuring wisdom that older people generally possess is extremely helpful in forming trusting relationships - with customers, suppliers, partners, colleagues, etc - which are essential for good business. Added to this, as we get older we have a greater understanding of our true passions and capabilities; we know our strengths and styles and tolerances. This gives older people a very special potency in business.
Older people know what they are good at. They play to new world by aldous, their strengths. They know which battles they can win, and which to weakness essay, avoid. Older people are also typically better at handling change and brave by aldous huxley essay adapting to new things than younger people. This is because older people have had more experience doing just this. Adapting to change and working around things are significant capabilities in achieving new business success. If you are an older person considering starting a new business, think about the things you can do better than most other people - think about thinking in teaching, your strengths and use them. business start-ups for younger people.
Younger people can be very successful starting new businesses just as much as older people can be. The essential principle of playing to your strengths applies, although the implications are different for younger people compared to older people. Younger people are likely to have lots of fresh ideas. This is an brave by aldous huxley, advantage, so avoid people pour cold water on copier, them. Test your ideas on brave by aldous essay, potential customers, rather than to take advice from relationships essay, those people who are ready with their buckets of water. Next, get the help you need. Brave Essay. It's difficult for young people to know all the answers. You'll have the ideas and the energy to make things happen, but consider the us history dbq essay, gaps in your experience, and the things you don't enjoy doing, and brave new world seek good quality reliable help for these things. Getting good help at what you can't do or don't want to do will enable you to put all your energy into what you are good at disease essay, and what you want to brave, spend your time doing. Young people sometimes try to essay, force themselves to fit into new world by aldous huxley roles or responsibilities that are not comfortable or natural. This is emotions, de-stabilising and stressful.
Learn what you love and excel at, and focus on building success from this. Which brings us back to brave new world huxley essay, playing to your strengths. All successful businesses (and people who become successful working for weakness essay, others) are based on the person using personal strengths and brave pursuing personal passions. Success in business is always based on doing something you love and enjoy, which is fundamentally related to your natural strengths and unique personal potential, whatever that is. The sooner you identify these things in overcoming weakness, yourself, the sooner will build sustainable business success. planning business success - in summary. Spreadsheets, mission statements, planning templates and other process elements of by aldous new business creation and development are tools. They enable the business to be properly structured, started and run.
They are essential of course, but in themselves they don't determine success. Business success is determined by deeper factors. Increasingly business success depends on having a solid philosophical foundation - where relevant interests, inside and outside of the organization, are balanced rather than conflicting. The bigger the business, the more widely it must consider how it relates to external interests and relationships essay responsibilities - to society and by aldous essay the world at large. A business with this sort of harmony and balance built into its shape and resume principles at the outset has a huge advantage over a business which contains tensions and competing pressures.
Within these considerations, relationships - as explained by brave essay the Psychological Contract - are crucially important in every business. Businesses ultimately depend on people, and people depend on relationships. Aside from this - and without diminishing the significance of other vital business components such as reliability, value, quality, etc., which are necessary merely to survive at a basic level - uniqueness and passion are the remaining special ingredients for success: Uniqueness (just one word, with so many implications) - so that people will want what you offer, and Passion, so that you will enjoy being and offering your best - and so that this belief and emotions relationships commitment conveys to by aldous huxley, others.
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MLA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay. MLA (Modern Language Association) style is used in writing custom essays, research and term papers in many fields. MLA essay format is most widely used in the field of humanities and liberal arts. The Modern Language Association recommendations to formatting essays were updated in 2009. Among the new rules of formatting, the Works Cited or References list is the brave by aldous huxley essay requirement of indicating the medium of publication for every cited source. It could be a Print source for books and articles or a Web source for on-line sources. MLA referencing can be a bit confusing because it can be used with either Chicago/Turabian style footnotes or APA / Harvard style in-text referencing. Since it can be used with either one, the writer must choose which reference style to thinking in teaching, use. In MLA formats, using in-text referencing is the brave new world essay more popular choice.
By doing this, in-text references will be provided, as will the source list at us history dbq essay, the end of the essay. However, if you use footnotes instead of in-text citations, you may be allowed to new world by aldous, do without Bibliography page. You may follow MLA template to easily adjust your paper to us history dbq essay, format requirements. Following this MLA template you may easily accustom your paper to MLA format requirements . You can use the by aldous MLA template for making your work look like a professional one. The text in MLA style essay format is weakness, typed with a double space. This rule concerns the basic text of your essay, along with the formatting of in-text citations and the Works Cited page. 12-font size is preferable. Times New Roman or any other standard typeface is used in the MLA format essay . One-inch margins are used on all sides of your essay, research or term paper. By Aldous Huxley? Remember that the headings in the MLA essay format are no longer underlined. According to the recommendations of the Modern Language Association, the headings have to be italicized or typed in bold. The first line of dbq essay industrialization, each paragraph has to be indented a half inch from the left side.
You should put page numbers at the top, and justify it to new world by aldous huxley essay, the right. Weakness? It is not a mandatory requirement, but it is recommended that you type your last name before the huxley page number, if the paper is cardiovascular disease essay, several pages.Using this MLA template for Word simply change the editable fields and follow the guidelines within the text. Here you may find an example of proper MLA essay formatting. While citing a book, periodical, electronic source, etc. in an essay written in MLA style , you should provide a reference after each citation. Otherwise, it would be seen as plagiarism, which is absolutely unacceptable. The same concerns indirect in-text references. Be very attentive while formatting your essay. Remember that your research may fail if MLA citations are formatted in new world, an improper way. The following rules must be observed while writing an essay in MLA style. Short citations If a citation used in the text of emotions relationships, a MLA style essay is short, it should be indicated in double quotation marks.
At the end of the citation, you have to state the author’s name and the page number where the MLA citations are from in brave new world huxley, the text. This information should be enclosed in round brackets (parenthesis) . Example : If you want to hemophilia essay, quote from a book Greenmantle of new world by aldous, John Buchan from 1916. Disease Essay Conclusion? It will look like this: “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (Buchan 154). Note : there is new world huxley essay, no comma or full stop between the authors’ last name and weakness page number. In cases when the author of a book has been already mentioned in the sentence , just indicate the page number in reference. Example: As Buchan wrote “There never has been, and there never could be a real Superman … But there might be a Superwoman” (154). Long citations. Brave New World By Aldous? When a citation takes more than three lines of a typed text, it is called a long citation and relationships essay has to be placed separately from a new line. Quotation marks are not used in this case. However, the by aldous huxley essay author’s name and the page number should still be indicated in round brackets. Example: One of the characters in Kipling’s novel Kim describes the Mutiny in the following way:
A madness ate into all the Army, and they turned against their officers. That was the first evil, but not past remedy if they had then held their hands. Hemophilia Essay? But they chose to new world huxley essay, kill the Sahibs’ wives and weakness children. Then came the Sahibs from over the sea and called them to brave new world by aldous huxley, most strict account (Kipling 77). Reducing of citation If the original citation in a MLA essay is essay, reduced or you simply omit some words in the cited sentence, you should place three periods in place of those words.
The omitting of by aldous essay, words in MLA citations is used in cases when you are directly interested in only part of the statement of the author in the original source, which is located in the middle of the quoted sentence. In this situation, you can preserve the key information and omit the hemophilia details that you do not need. Example: Lawrence was compared to “a caliph . . . who had stepped out from the pages of ‘The Arabian nights’” (Thomas 16) Adding information . In the MLA essay , it is allowable to add your own commentaries or notes within MLA citations, but they should be enclosed in new world, square brackets. Example: When discussing civil rights, it is hard to not mention Martin Luther King Jr., who was a man who was passionate about the words of the Emancipation Proclamation: “…a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of us history dbq essay industrialization, hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice” (King 813). More than one source of reference If you cite more than one book in a sentence of a MLA essay , then at brave by aldous, the end of the sentence indicate in brackets all references, dividing them with a semicolon. Example : David Lloyd George characterized Lord Kitchener as a a controversial figure who was admired as “a legend of the British empire, to whom the Orient added its greatness”, but at the same time as a man whose “brain has dried out under the hot sun of the desert” (15; 47). Books with no author mentioned When you cite this type of work, indicate the title in italics and the page number in overcoming, the parenthesis. Example: As stated by the presidential commission … (Report 4) In-text citations in a MLA essay usually provide brief information about the reference and they have to correspond to the information indicated in the Works Cited list at the end of essay.
To get detailed information about the formatting of Works Cited list in a MLA style read the paragraph devoted to MLA Works Cited List Format at P rof E ssays.com. The formatting of brave new world by aldous essay, your research or term paper may become rather difficult. Overcoming Weakness? In the MLA format essay, both the footnotes and in-text citations may be used. If you are not sure which you should choose, you may ask for professional help from P rof E ssays.com. Our writers are ready to essay, assist you in writing and formatting your MLA essay, 24 hours a day/7 days a week. P rof E ssays.com is just one click away when you want to essay, order a custom essay, research or term paper that will comply with all your requirements. The process of gathering and formatting the information for your custom essay, research or term paper is quite exhausting. Improper formatting of citations may spoil the results of brave by aldous, your hard work.
Order you paper at essay, P rof E ssays.com and be sure to get a custom essay, research or term paper that will correspond to new world by aldous, the latest recommendations of formatting a MLA Style Essay P rof E ssays.com is a custom essay writing service provider that will guide you in writing your MLA format essay . Be sure that our custom essay will correspond to all requirements of formatting both in-text citations with the Works Cited List and footnotes. P rof E ssays.com is the best place to buy MLA format essays of the us history dbq essay industrialization highest quality. The title page in the MLA essay format is not compulsory, so when there is no special requirement of writing it, never do it. However, there are specific requirements to the first page in MLA essay. Learn how to format your MLA Title Page properly with us. Type your name, the name of your instructor, the new world essay title of the course and the date in the upper left-hand corner of the overcoming weakness first page. The title of your essay should be indicated within a double spaced interval in the middle of the title page. Remember that the title of your MLA essay is never underlined, italicized or enclosed in quotation marks. The text of your MLA essay comes next to the title with a double space. If your instructor asked you to write an MLA title page , then you should comply with all the rules of formatting the brave by aldous huxley essay cover page in a MLA style.
MLA Format Outline (Click on Image to relationships essay, Enlarge) There might be a working outline , that is usually done and even submitted before writing an brave new world by aldous huxley essay, essay and a final outline that is submitted together with the essay. Us History Dbq Essay Industrialization? Needless to say that both can be done in MLA format . MLA outline should be done on a separate page. The title of the essay should be typed at the top of the page and centered. Introduction and conclusion are numbered in the MLA format outline . Use different types of numbers/letters for different levels of MLA outline . If you want to new world by aldous, reflect your sub-points in resume, MLA outline , remember that the section of brave huxley, outline can’t have only one sub-section. So, logic requires that at each level of the outline if you have sub-section “A” in your paper, you need to have a “B”; or if you have point “1”, you need point “2”, etc. MLA Works Cited List Format (Click on Image to weakness essay, Enlarge) The detailed information about the author, the title, the year of publication, the by aldous publishing house and hemophilia the overall number of pages in new world by aldous, a book, periodical, etc. is provided at dbq essay industrialization, the end of brave new world huxley, your research in the part called Works Cited, References or Bibliography. Us History Industrialization? The MLA format sets specific rules of formatting the Woks Cited list.
Every essay or manuscript written in MLA style has to implement these rules. All books, periodicals, electronic sources, etc. in brave new world by aldous huxley, cited within the MLA essay format must be arranged in alphabetical order by critical the last name of the author. In cases when there is no author, the by aldous references must be listed alphabetically by their titles. When you are citing several books by the same author , arrange them in the Works cited list alphabetically by their title. When you do the references of this kind, you should put the author’s last name in front of emotions relationships essay, his first name which shouldn’t be shortened. The title of the book is listed after the author’s name, and brave huxley essay then the place of dbq essay, publication, the publishing house and new world by aldous the year of publication. Do not forget to weakness essay, italicize the title of a book. Example: Buchan, John. Greenmantle.
London: Abacus, 1916. Print. Note: According to the update in brave new world huxley, 2009 for the rules of formatting MLA style essays, the medium of publication has to be represented too (for example, print or web sources). Referencing a publications of several authors. When you deal with a book that has more than one author, the name of the first author in the MLA essay format must be inverted and the names of the second and the third ones have to be placed in the direct order.
So be attentive to how you place the essay first name and then only the last name of the second author. In cases when there are more than three authors of the book, you can choose to by aldous essay, list all names in the Works Cited list of your MLA essay or just indicate the inverted name of the first author and us history industrialization add et al . Example: Lowi, Theodore, Benjamin Ginsberg, and Steve Jackson. Analyzing American Government: American Government, Freedom and Power. Brave By Aldous Huxley? 3rd ed. New York: Norton, 1994. Print. Some books are published by disease essay organizations, commissions, associations, committees and other corporate authors.
When there is no single author distinguished on the cover page of a book, put the name of the corporate organization in the first place. Example : Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art. A Guide to brave, the Herbert F. Johnson Museum of Art, Cornell University. Ithaca, NY: Cornell U, 1973. Print. Referencing newspaper/journal articles. The formatting of newspaper articles in copier, a MLA essay differs a lot from the new world by aldous formatting of weakness essay, cited books.
The general scheme of citing a newspaper article is the following: at first you should indicate the by aldous author’s inverted name, then the title of article enclosed in double quotation marks, then the title of newspaper, magazine, journal or any other periodical, then the day, month and year of in teaching, publication, followed by the number of pages. Additionally, the medium of the brave by aldous publication has to critical thinking in teaching, be indicated in the Works Cited list in regards to the MLA style. Example : Smith, Lewis. “Leading scientist urges teaching of creationism in schools”. The Times. London, 2008, Sept 12. 6. Print. Note: Do not forget that while you are listing a book cited in new world by aldous essay, your MLA essay, you have to italicize the title of hemophilia essay, a book, and in the case of a periodical, italicize the title of the brave new world by aldous huxley periodical and not the title of the hemophilia essay article.
The month of publication has to be abbreviated (For example, Jan., Dec., etc.). Only May, June and July are never abbreviated. The qualified writers of P rof E ssays.com will help you to format your MLA essay according to the adopted rules. The general rules of formatting on-line sources in MLA style written essays coincides with that established to new world huxley, formatting books and periodicals. The former requirement of copier resume nj, representing the URL address of cited on-line source is simplified in the last edition of the MLA format rules. By Aldous Essay? However, if your instructor still wants to see the hemophilia essay URL in your MLA format reference list, you may include this information. The URL has to be indicated as additional information after the author’s name, article title, publisher’s name and year of edition. Some on-line sources may not provide all the above-mentioned information.
In such cases, list the available information. When indicating the medium of publishing, put Web for on-line sources. Example : “MLA Format: Help with Writing Your Essay.” ProffEssays.com.. 2011, January. http://www.professays.com/info/mla-essay-format/ . Web. Note: Be sure the on-line source provides reliable information that will not mislead you. The preference in the choice of on-line sources is given to the official web sites of new world by aldous, organizations, associations, libraries, museums, art galleries, etc. Emotions Relationships Essay? URL is indicated in brave by aldous essay, angle brackets. P rof E ssays.com can easily assist you in writing and formatting MLA essays . Our professional writers always use reliable sources of information and format MLA essay in accordance with the standard rules.
Though the preferable format of a MLA essay includes the in-text citation, the us history dbq essay industrialization Footnotes and Endnotes may still be used in the custom essay, research or term paper that is written in the MLA style. Footnotes and Endnotes are marked out in the text by Arabic numbers in superscript. The footnotes are indicated at the foot of every page and the endnotes are indicated at the end of your paper on a separate page. Custom essay writing service providers, such as P rof E ssays.com , will help you to format the MLA footnotes and endnotes and to write an excellent custom essay, research or term paper. Please do not confuse headings with a header ! A header with author’s name is typed next to the page number at the top of each page. While heading refer to the title of your paper and the the titles of its sections. MLA does not have strict regulations regarding the use of headings, just some general norms: The headings of the MLA essay are usually typed in same font and size as the brave by aldous huxley essay rest of the paper, however you are free to italicize them or type in bold.
The title of the MLA paper should be centered. Each word in the title should start with a capital letter. Emotions Relationships? All headings of the sections in brave by aldous huxley essay, MLA essay should be numbered, including Introduction and Conclusion .
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An essay on brave new world by aldous huxley
A Car Salesman Resume to Get the brave new world by aldous huxley, Job. Resume Nj. Whether you are just starting to look for work as a car salesman or you have been selling cars for years a car salesman resume can set you apart from the competition. Not all car dealerships and brave by aldous managers that hire salespersons’ depend heavily on resumes to make their selection, but it can make a good first impression. Sales managers that hire car salesmen are typically very cynical by nature and rely more on the skills they use to read people both for selling cars and hiring sales staff plus the car sales interview. Resume Nj. However a written resume may be just the ticket to new world by aldous huxley essay get you to the top of the list of emotions, potential car sales hires. Some car dealerships don’t even look at the average applicant#8217;s car sales resume they receive because they know that the applicant has prepared the document himself or herself.
However the new world by aldous essay, more professional and experienced hiring managers know that a resume can say more about a person than just the words that are printed on the paper. The need for a car salesman resume cover letter is a matter of personal choice, but not nearly as critical as it is copier with other professions. Preparing Your Car Salesman Resume. A car salesman resume description includes the brave new world by aldous huxley essay, name, address, contact information past work experience including the resume, dates and brave new world by aldous essay education. Even if you have never been a car salesman this work experience is hemophilia still important and it should be included. I have included several resume templates for car salesmen that you can use to prepare your resume (see below). I have also posted some resume samples you can use as a reference to new world huxley formulate your document. Of course you can have someone write your resume for you for a price, but remember you are looking to land a job selling cars.
If you can’t put together a simple resume maybe you should rethink your desire to sell cars for a living. Overcoming Weakness. The resume is your first chance to sell yourself to your prospective dealership. Huxley. A quick tip here, it doesn’t need to copier nj be a book or even a chapter in new world a book, but it should sell you in as few words as possible. Resume Tips for Becoming a Car Salesperson. When you write your automotive sales resume follow these simple tips that are specific for critical the automobile industry and the way sales managers or hiring managers read resumes for future car salesmen and brave car saleswomen. Limit your resume to one page. Use quality paper for us history printing your resume.
It should be easy to new world by aldous huxley read. Use bullet points and headers. Include all contact information, home phone, cell phone and email. Dbq Essay Industrialization. Include computer familiarity because today’s car salesman will be using online CRM systems and email to brave by aldous huxley perform the job. Don’t use specific dates for work experience and education only years. Have a friend or family member read your resume for an objective appraisal. Explain any gaps in copier nj employment. Its OK to omit some work experience when it’s over ten to new world by aldous huxley fifteen years in the past and not critical to the position for which you are applying. If you had ten jobs in the 10 years you better have a good explanation prepared.
Don’t lie and make things up on your resume. Use a template to create your car salesman resume by adding your information and then adjusting for readability. Hemophilia Essay. Sections of a the Car Salesman Resume. Information : This section is self-explanatory you just need to brave include all your personal information, name, address, zip code, home phone, cell phone and email address. Objective: This section of the hemophilia, resume is brave by aldous where you tell prospective employers why you are applying to work at their dealership. It should be simple and consist of one or two sentences.
If you never sold cars before you should address your desire to emotions start a car sales career. If you have sold cars before you should be looking for a bigger, better dealer that will allow you to excel and put your sales skills to good use. Experience: This is where you will list your work experience and the years worked. The most recent will be first and huxley essay the rest listed in reverse chronological order. Cardiovascular Essay Conclusion. If you are an experienced car salesperson you will list the dealerships where you sold including the address or at least the by aldous huxley, city and state. However if you have never been a car salesman your work history is still important and should be included on your resume. Skills: This section will include anything that you think might be of value to a car salesperson. If you have sold automobiles in the past you could list any special training that was provided by the dealer and/or auto manufacturers. Include any automaker certifications or awards you may have received or skill levels achieved.
You could list average cars sold per month over the past year, ranking at current dealership and your average car salesman salary if appropriate. For those of you that never sold a car in your life list any skills, experiences or special training that could be transferred over to the profession of car sales or anything skills listed in emotions relationships essay the car salesman job description. Good buzzwords to use on brave essay, your car salesperson resume are consistency, positive attitude, goals, energetic, communication skills and disease essay conclusion computer skills such as Microsoft Office and new world by aldous huxley email. Education: This section contains a chronological list of your formal education like college, high school, tech schools and essay any special skills training even if it does directly pertain to car sales including the by aldous essay, years completed. References: In most cases you car resume should say “References available upon request”. However if you have some personal references in the business and especially at the dealership where you are applying for a sales position by all means include them. In Teaching. If you were referred by a current employee that could influence the person that is doing the hiring include them. If you have a recommendation letter for car salesman by all means include with your resume. When it comes to hiring car salespeople the car salesman resume will rarely be the deciding factor, but if it is brave by aldous huxley easy to relationships read and on one page it will be read. If it contains pertinent information and it looks like it has been prepared by brave essay, a potential employee that is willing to go the extra mile it will make you stand out from the crowd. Anything to improve your chances of becoming a car salesman should be worth the effort.
If you have a computer with word processing capabilities you can use the salesperson resume templates below. Later Fresh Up on cardiovascular essay conclusion, the Lot. Sample Car Sales Resume Examples. 2017 Car Sales Professional. All Rights Reserved.
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Archaeology/ King Tut's Tomb term paper 19039. What does the tomb of tutankhamen and its contents show about the brave new world Egyptian concern for the afterlife? Tutakhamen's tomb, and the artifacts inside are an indication of the thinking in teaching concern the Ancient Egyptians held for the after-life of their king. In 26th Nov. 1922, the English archaeologist Howard Carter opened the virtually intact tomb of a largely unknown pharaoh: Tutankhamen. This was the first, and to by aldous huxley essay date the finest royal tomb found virtually intact in essay, the history of Egyptology. Brave New World? It took almost a decade of meticulous and painstaking work to emotions relationships essay empty the tomb of Tutankhamen. Around 3500 individual items were recovered.
When the brave new world by aldous huxley essay Burial Chamber of Tutankhamen was officially opened, on resume nj 17 February 1923, the Antechamber had been emptied. It had taken near fifty days to empty the Antechamber; the new world by aldous huxley essay time required to dismantle and restore the us history industrialization contents of the Burial Chamber including the gilded wooden and by aldous huxley the sarcophagus was to be greater, and the work was not completed until November 1930, eight years after the original discovery. One must examine both the tomb itself, and its contents, to see the connection between the tombs and burial rituals and the doctrine of eternal life. The royal tombs were not merely homes in cardiovascular essay conclusion, the hereafter for brave, the kings, as are the private tombs of commoners and nobility. Instead the tombs are cosmological vehicles of rebirth and deification as much as houses of eternity. As the king is supposed to become Osiris in a far more intimate way than commoners, he is equipped with his very own Underworld.
And as the king is supposed to become Re in a way entirely unavailable to commoners, he is equipped with his very own passage of the sun, whether this is thought of in teaching, as the way through the underworld or through the heavens. Tutankhamon's tomb, hurriedly prepared for the premature death of the by aldous essay king at the age of only about 18, is, as Romer says, a hole in the ground, compared to a proper royal tomb. The theme of fours is conspicuous in Egyptian religious practice. Tutankhamon's tomb contains four chambers. The burial chamber, with a ritual if not an actual orientation towards the disease essay West, is the chamber of departure towards the funeral destinies.
The internment of the body certainly is the beginning of the sojourn of the dead, and the Egyptians saw the dead as departing into the West. The room called the Treasury is then interpreted to have a ritual orientation towards the North as the chamber of reconstitution of the body. Since the most conspicuous object in new world huxley essay, the Treasury was a great gilt sledge holding the shrine containing the weakness essay canopic chest, which holds the king's viscera, this could well suggest the new world by aldous essay problem of us history industrialization, reassembling the king's living body. That task, indeed, has a very important place in Egyptian mythology. After the goddess Isis had retrieved her husband Osiris's murdered body from Byblos, their common brother, Seth, the original murderer, stole the body, cut it into pieces, and tossed them in the Nile. Isis then had to retrieve the parts of the body before Osiris could be restored to life.
Her search through the Delta, which is in the North of Egypt, seems to parallel the sacred pilgrimage to huxley cities of the Delta that Desroches-Noblecourt relates as one of ritual acts of the funeral, as many of the other objects in the Treasury seem to be accessories for that pilgrimage. For the sovereign to be reborn it was necessary that a symbolic pilgrimage be made to the holy cities of the delta. The principal halts of the journey corresponded almost exactly to the four cardinal points of the delta where these cities were situated. Sais, to cardiovascular disease essay the west, represented the necropolis where the body was buried; Buto to brave by aldous the north, with its famous canal, was an essential stage of the transformations within the aquatic world of the primordial abyss, evoking the water surrounding the unborn child; and Mendes to the east whose name could be written with the essay two pillars of Osiris, the djed pillars, evoking the new world essay concept of air. There, said the old texts, the gods Shu and Tefenet were reunited, or again, according to the 17th chapter of The Book of the essay Dead, that was where the souls of Osiris and Re had joined. Finally, the southern-most city which completed the cycle of Heliopolis, the city of the sun, symbolizing the fourth [sic] element, fire, where the heavenly body arose in youth glory between the two hills on the horizon. [Christiane Desroches-Noblecourt, 1963, p. 238-9] As these four cities parallel the four rooms of the tomb itself, we seem to have a nice series of parallel symbols.
If Sais, in the West, was significant for its necropolis, then Sais, like the by aldous burial chamber, can represent the departure into the West. Buto itself, the thinking in teaching northernmost city, then represents the site of the brave new world by aldous actual reconstitution of the body. What followed Isis's reassembly of hemophilia, Osiris's body was its revivification. Mendes, in the East, where the brave by aldous huxley essay sun rises, would then seem to be the locus for that, with the associations, especially with Osiris. In the tomb, the small Annex is then associated with this ritual stage, the hemophilia chamber of rebirth. The ritual pilgrimage then ends at Heliopolis in the South, where the king, having been reborn, reassumes his throne, as Desroches-Noblecourt views the Antechamber of the tomb as the chamber of eternal royalty. Overall, the tomb may be divided into three parts: The Inner Tomb, which means the brave huxley burial chamber and its side rooms, however elaborate; the Middle Tomb; and dbq essay industrialization the Outer Tomb.
In the new world by aldous essay Outer Tomb, six parts may be distinguished: four passages, the copier nj Well, and the optional well room. The four passages originally consisted of two deep stairs and new world essay two sloping corridors. The outer stair might not now be considered part of the tomb proper, since it merely led up to the sealed entrance of the tomb; but the Egyptians saw it as already part of the essay tomb and named it the god's first passage, or the god's first passage of the sun's path. All the corridors, indeed, were thought to huxley represent the passage of the sun god Re through the twelve caverns of the hemophilia essay underworld in the hours of the night, prior to his rebirth at new world by aldous essay, dawn--the precedent for the rebirth of the king. Consequently, when decorated, they at first held excerpts from the us history dbq essay Amduat, the book of That Which is in the Underworld, or the later Book of Gates. As the emphasis slowly shifted with time from the association with the underworld to an association with Re himself, another work, the Litany of Re made its appearance. The stair of the god's third passage was thus originally a room with the brave new world by aldous huxley stair in its floor. As the stairs later became ramps, and as the descent of the passages leveled out by the XX Dynasty, the critical thinking god's third passage was revealed as having a ritual as well as a practical meaning; for the flat spaces of the by aldous original room were preserved, even when they had been reduced to no more than long niches in part of the walls of the weakness third passage.
These were called the sanctuaries in which the gods of East and brave essay West repose. East and West refer to the ritual orientation of the passage, East on the Left when facing out of the tomb (as the Egyptians saw it), West on the Right. The fourth passage eventually acquired two niches at the end, called the doorkeepers' niches. The Well itself is a feature that has excited considerable interest. The Egyptians called the Well the hall of copier, waiting or hindering. The function of such a room, as symbolic of the brave new world by aldous huxley essay whole tomb, provides a ritual locus for rebirth. The Ba soul in earlier representations flies up the shaft of the essay tomb and out into the world. Brave Essay? All that is added in the royal tomb is the king's trip through the underworld, the four entering or, as the Egyptians also saw them, exiting passages.
The Hall of Waiting, with or without the hemophilia essay well itself or the lower well room, typically shows scenes of the king meeting the gods--one of the motifs of the burial chamber in Tutankhamon's tomb--and this is often shown when decoration has not been completed elsewhere in the tomb, as in that of Thutmose IV. This would indicate some importance to the function of such a part of the brave by aldous essay tomb. This brings us, through the sealed door, to overcoming weakness the Middle Tomb. As the Chariot Hall or Hall of Repelling Rebels, it contains the equipment needed for the king to live an ordinary life and perform his kingly duties once reborn, i.e. actual chariots, beds, clothing, etc. Some have labeled it the chamber of brave new world essay, eternal royalty. One might call it the living room of the tomb, the opposite of the burial chamber with its uniquely funereal equipment. It then may be significant that the rest of the tomb is accessed through the stair or ramp dropped from the floor. If the spirit of the king comes up from the crypt, entering the Chariot Hall is like rising into the upper world.
It is at that point that we might divide the whole tomb into the Upper Tomb and the Lower Tomb. The Lower Tomb is about death and rebirth; the Upper Tomb is about the new life and access to the world (the Chariot Hall and the Outer Tomb, both the shaft of the Well and the outer passages). Relationships Essay? Significantly, the wall of the Chariot Hall above the passage down (the another god's first passage), often displays an Osiris shrine, which signal an emphasis on Osiris. Once freed of its contents, it became possible to examine the wall paintings in the only brave, decorated room in the entire tomb, the burial chamber. Overcoming Weakness? The walls had a yellow background, almost the colour of gold, as if underline the name that ancient Egyptians gave to the burial chamber - the 'Golden Room'. The surface of the paintings was in an excellent state of preservation though it was speckled with innumerable tiny circular stains due to the development of colonies of micro-organisms. The decoration quite simple and ordinary in new world by aldous huxley essay, style: the northern wall, seen on entering the room, features Tutankhamen in the centre, wearing the dress of living, holding the sceptre and the ritual mace, before the goddess Nut, depicted in the act of performing the nyny ritual.
This central scene is flanked by two others: on the Tutankhamen's is shown dressed Osiris in the presence of Pharaoh Ay, his successor. Ay, wearing the costume of the sem-priest and the distinctive skin of hemophilia essay, a panther, officiates at the rite of the by aldous essay 'Opening of the critical thinking Mouth', through which the deceased is revived. Tutankhamen is shown with his head draped in the nemes, and, followed by his ka, standing before Osiris. By Aldous Huxley? On the adjacent western wall, are illustrations of passages taken from the Book of Amduat, showing the voyage of the sun barque through the 12 hours of the night, represented by 12 deities with the faces of baboons. The eastern wall illustrates the transport of the royal sarcophagus, set inside a shrine mounted on a sledge, drawn by 12 characters, of whom two are dressed differently from the others, indicating a superior social standing.
The south wall was painted last, and is a scene of Tutankhamen, accompanied by Anubis, in the presence of the goddess Hathor. The centre of the room is now occupied by the quartzite sarcophagus containing the outermost coffin. The last part of the essay tomb, the Annex, appears not to serve any ritual function. The contents of tomb are also an indication of the importance the Egyptians placed on the afterlife. It is not necessary to examine all the contents of the tomb, as this would be a painstakingly long and arduous task. To see the significance the Egyptian's placed on the after-life, one need only examine a few of the articles found. One of the two life-sized statues which stood guard at the sealed door of the Burial Chamber, on huxley essay the north side of the resume nj Antechamber. The two statues, almost identical except for their headgear, are made of wood, painted with black resin and overlaid with gold in parts. They depict the pharaoh, or rather the pharaoh's ka, in a striding pose and holding a mace in one hand and brave new world by aldous huxley essay a long staff in the other. On the gilded triangular skirt, is written that this is the 'royal ka of Harakhty', the Osiris Nebkheprure, the copier nj Lord of the Two Lands, made just. Brave Huxley? Two life-sized wooden statues intended to protect the eternal rest of the Pharaoh.
Tutankhamen's mask, made of hemophilia essay, solid gold, was placed directly upon the pharaoh's mummy, and had the function of magically protecting him. This beautiful object weighs 10 kg and is decorated with semiprecious stones (turquoise, cornelian and lapis lazuli) and coloured glass paste. The pharaoh is portrayed in a classical manner, with a ceremonial beard, a broad collar formed of twelve concentric row consisting of inlays of turquoise, lapis lazuli, cornelian and amazonite. The traditional nemes headdress has yellow sripes of solid gold broken by brave huxley, bands of glass paste, coloured dark blue. On the forehead of the emotions essay mask are a royal uraeus and a vulture's head, symbols of the two tutelary deities of Lower and Upper Egypt: Wadjet and Nekhbet. A very fine shabti of Tutankhamen, portrayed holding the heqa-sceptre and the nekhakha-flail, and inscribed with a text from Chapter 6 of the Book of the Dead. By Aldous Huxley? This passage specifies the in teaching functions of these mummiform statuettes, made of brave new world huxley, wood, terracotta, faience or metal, and in some cases left in the tomb in their hundreds.
The shabtis (a name that means 'answerers') were intended to work in the Afterlife in place of the deceased, who could command them by reciting a special spell. In the New Kingdom especially the shabtis were considered as chattels, not unlike slaves. In Tutankhamen's tomb, a staggering total of 413 shabtis was found, arranged in thinking in teaching, 26 coffers placed in the Annex and in the Treasury, but only 29 of them were inscribed with the text of the formula from the Book of the Dead. With the canopic chest, as seen in brave new world by aldous huxley essay, fig 1, the theme of fours in Egyptian thought and ritual is the most conspicuously manifest. While the embalmed heart was returned to weakness the chest of the deceased, the liver, lungs, stomach, and intestines were separately packaged, coffined, and stored. Each of these was then under the protection of by aldous huxley, one of the Sons of Horus, Imset (or Amset) for the liver, Hapi for the lungs, Duamutef for resume nj, the stomach, and Kebekhsenuf for the intestines. Stone canopic chests typically have four chambers for the four coffins, closed with four stoppers, which themselves are either in new world huxley essay, the form of four human or of one human and three animal heads.
With Tutankhamon we are fortunate to have the further equipment of the gilt shrine and sledge for the canopic chest, and the four guardian goddesses who watch over the whole, each identified by a symbolic device on her head: Isis watching over the liver from the southwest, her sister Nephthys watching over the lungs from the northwest, Neith, the ancient goddess of copier, Sais, watching over the stomach from the southeast, and brave by aldous huxley essay finally Serket, a scorpion goddess, watching over hemophilia the intestines from the northeast. The figures of brave new world huxley, these goddesses are masterpieces of art, now available in endless reproductions. Tutankhamen's royal Golden Throne was found in the Antechamber. The throne was made of wood covered with sheet gold, and adorned with semiprecious stones and coloured glass paste. Emotions? His wife, Queen Ankhesenamun, whose head is new world huxley adorned with two tall plumes and a sun disk, stands before the pharaoh, languidly seated on a throne; the queen places one hand on his shoulder while in her other she proffers a vase of scented unguents. The rays of the sun god Aten shine upon the royal couple and endow them with vital energy. The influence of Amarna art and religious conceptions can be clearly seen in the sensitivity and naturalism of this scene. There was also a wooden shrine covered with thick gold foil, set on a wooden sledge encased with silver leaf, found in the Antechamber of the tomb. Originally it must have contained a gold statuette of the pharaoh, stolen during one of the two episodes of tomb-robbery which took place in relationships, antiquity.
The walls of the shrine are covered with scenes executed with exquisite craftsmanship depicting scenes of hunting and everyday life, featuring the pharaoh and his wife, Ankhesenamun. A ivory headrest, depicting the god Shu, the god of air and breath, was found in the annex. It was there to by aldous huxley essay ensure a supply of hemophilia, air for the sleeper (dead or alive). It was a symbol of brave by aldous huxley, resurrection, because it enabled the head to breath, by lifting it up from the prostrate position of death. There was also a pair of wooden sandals, overlaid with marquetry veneer of bark, green leather and gold foil stucco. The sole was decorated with figures of Asiatics and Negroes where the king could trample on us history dbq essay them. These shoes, however are very uncomfortable to wear and it seems they were constructed for the king to wear in his next life. A number of brave huxley essay, lamps were found in the burial chamber, placed there for the King to hemophilia essay use as he made his journey to the underworld. They were amazing works of art, decorated with detailed paintings of the king and queen. This was also the resting place of the three coffins, and of course, the new world huxley mummy. The mummy itself is an excellent example of the Egyptians belief in the after-life.
The concept of mummification was practiced because of the belief that after death the soul would return to the body and give it life and breath. Household equipment and food were placed in industrialization, the tomb to provide for a person's needs in the afterworld. The ceremony opening of the mouth was carried out by priests on both the mummy and the mummy case in new world huxley essay, order to resume nj prepare the deceased for the journey to the afterworld. Brave New World Huxley? This was an elaborate ritual which involved purification, censing (burning incense), anointing and incantations, as well as touching the mummy with ritual objects to restore the senses. Inside the bandages that wrapped the mummy, lay a number of different objects the King was supplied with for use in his after-life. He was supplied with a gold dagger and sheath to protect him during his journey to the after-life, and 143 amulets and pieces of jewelry were scattered through the overcoming weakness essay several layers of essay, bandages that wrapped his corpse.
In conclusion it is possible to say that Tutankhamen's tomb gave the modern world an excellent insight into the Egyptian's belief in the after-life. Both the tomb itself, and its contents, show how much importance the Egyptians placed on the doctrine of critical thinking, Eternal life, and how strong their belief was that their King would be resurrected as a god. Brave Huxley Essay? Thus, the tomb of Tutankhamen and its contents show that the Egyptian concern for the after-life, was very strong, and that they went to copier resume great lengths to ensure that the eternal life of their kings. Gardiner, Sir Alan. 1966 Eygpt of the Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press.
1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the Ancient Mysteries. Great Britain: Thames and Hudson. Chronology of the New Kingdom. Tombs of the Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on brave by aldous the Tomb of Menna. Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D. All Rights Reserved)
Gardiner, Sir Alan. 1966 Eygpt of the Pharoahs. Great Britain: Oxford University Press. 1977 The Complete Pyramids, Solving the Ancient Mysteries. Great Britain: Thames and us history dbq essay industrialization Hudson. Chronology of the New Kingdom.
Tombs of the Valley of the Kings. Model tomb in the American Museum of Natural History. Manchester Metropolitan University's site on the Tomb of Menna. Philosophy of History. Philosophy of Religion (Copyright (c) 1997 Kelley L. Brave New World? Ross, Ph.D.
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