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Comparison Essay: outline, format, structure, topics,…
Ban boxing – it#8217;s demeaning and dangerous. Essay. A sport whose sole aim is to cause brain damage to another person is not a noble art. It has no place in a civilised society, says a leading neuroscientist. (Image: Andrzej Krauze) WHEN the 2013 National Football League season kicks off in the US next month, players will have an added layer of protection to go with their helmets and shoulder pads: an independent neurologist at every game to assess them for signs of concussion after receiving a blow to the head. Head injuries are an occupational hazard for American footballers and student a major issue for the NFL. Descriptive Essay. Thousands of retired players are suing the league for papers, negligence and fraud, claiming that the descriptive, league knew about the long-term risks but hid them. The condition they fear is online, chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), previously called punch drunk syndrome, boxer#8217;s dementia or dementia pugilistica. This causes progressive memory problems, personality change and slowness of comparison movement. It afflicts many former sportsmen (it has, until now, been largely men), mostly boxers.
The pathology of CTE is well known. In the 1980s, John Corsellis of the Maudsley Hospital in London documented it in grad student, a series of papers, culminating in a 1989 review in essay, the BMJ . He found that many nerve fibres showed evidence of tearing, with some being completely torn, and also reported widespread brain degeneration. He also described how many neurons were filled with tangles of protein, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer#8217;s disease. Your Favorite. Other researchers later showed that the brains of men with CTE had a second type of protein deposit called amyloid, another hallmark of Alzheimer#8217;s. While there is no doubt that these problems are caused by repeated blows to the head, until recently it wasn#8217;t known how. Blows to the head cause two different kinds of injury. Descriptive Comparison. The face is cut and bruised by direct impacts, but damage to the brain is caused largely by rotational acceleration of the cerebral cortex around the essay, much smaller midbrain and spinal cord. This damage may be aggravated by boxing gloves since they add weight and thus energy to comparison essay punches, causing more rotational acceleration. Brain tissue is mba custom papers, largely a soft mass but the blood vessels within it are fibrous and essay strong, like wires across cheese.
When the head is hit, especially with a rotational movement, one of two things can happen. Either a blood vessel can snap, leading to essayer rire a haemorrhage, or there can be microscopic tearing of the tissue around the vessel. Large haemorrhages are what cause boxers to fall into comas and occasionally die during bouts, but the microscopic tears to blood vessels can be no less damaging in the long run. The first thing to note is that sportsmen who were frequently injured in comparison essay, this way in their youth often develop characteristic behaviour patterns as they get older. These are the problems often reported in lurid stories about essay place, troubled ex-boxers: depression, drug and descriptive comparison essay alcohol abuse and violent tempers. All are consistent with underlying damage to the frontal cortex, which controls executive functions such as impulse control. This is not to say that all ex-sportsmen with these problems have CTE, but it is clear that in some cases it is a contributing factor. What#8217;s more, recent experiments in mice have indicated that protein tangles and amyloid deposits can slowly spread from neuron to neuron. Papers. The distribution of the tangles in descriptive essay, CTE is consistent with this, forming first around blood vessels before spreading. With these findings we can now formulate a plausible hypothesis as to why repeat head injuries to young men in their teens and 20s lead to coursework is correct personality changes later in adult life and dementia in old age: rotational head injury induces damage, especially around blood vessels, leading to local tangle formation, followed by a slow spread of destruction.
Clearly, considerable effort should be expended in all sports to minimise head injuries. Soccer has already done the right thing by replacing heavy leather balls with lighter plastic-coated ones. American football appears to be going in the right direction. But other sports have some way to descriptive comparison go. In ice hockey, the role of the #8220;enforcer#8221;, whose main job appears to be beating up the opposing team#8217;s players, should be abolished. And in all sports where there is any risk of head injury – rugby for essay 2, example – players should be monitored to keep an descriptive comparison eye on the damage. Clearly, all who play and coach these sports should be aware of the risks. Resume Grad. Boxing, however, is a special case.
No other sport has the express goal of causing injury to essay the brain. Resume Grad. That is certainly the aim of professional boxing. Even in amateur boxing blows to the head are crucial, and descriptive comparison protective headgear may not stop injury from rotational acceleration. #147;Boxing is papers, a special case: no other sport has the express goal of inflicting injury on the brain#148; Corsellis put it best: #8220;My opinion is that the descriptive comparison essay, brain should not be the target in any sport, and no amount of juggling with the regulations can take away the risk. Experienced and outstanding boxers are themselves aware of the risk, difficult as it may be for them eventually to call a halt. Barry McGuigan said #8216;Boxing damages your brain: don#8217;t let anybody tell you different#8217;.#8221; No doubt I will be called a killjoy for espousing the view that boxing should be banned. But it is essayer rire, worth considering the motives of those who make this charge. Many people profit from boxing, especially the promoters and the media who report on fights and then gossip about the later travails of descriptive essay boxers and their families.
I would return the charge: nothing can be more killing of joy than personality changes, violence, substance abuse and dementia. I also think it is demeaning as a society for mba custom, people to get pleasure out of watching others fight and descriptive essay that we should consign this public spectacle, as we have done public executions, to the dustbin of history. More on these topics: John Hardy is a neuroscientist at buy school, University College London. Magazine issue 2929, published 10 August 2013. Ballooning size of world#8217;s second-largest refugee camp.
If it isn#8217;t life-threatening, don#8217;t call it cancer.
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Descriptive Essay Lecture 8 Recap The following types…
resume withdrawal Protracted Withdrawal Syndromes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Vol. 8 pp. 19-28 · 1991. Professor C Heather Ashton DM, FRCP. School of descriptive, Neurosciences. Division of Psychiatry. The Royal Victoria Infirmary. Queen Victoria Road.
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 4LP. Abstract: The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is de me faire rire, a complex phenomenon which presents serious difficulties in definition and measurement. It is particularly difficult to set out precise limits on its duration. Many withdrawal symptoms are a result of pharmacodynamic tolerance to benzodiazepines, some mechanisms for which are discussed. Such tolerance develops unevenly in different brain systems and may be slow to reverse. Withdrawal symptoms occurring in the first weeks after cessation of comparison, drug use tend to buy school online, merge with more persistent symptoms that may last for many months.
These prolonged symptoms do not necessarily constitute true pharmacological withdrawal symptoms, but are nevertheless related to long-term benzodiazepine use. Such symptoms can include anxiety, which may partly result from a learning deficit imposed by the drugs, and a variety of sensory and motor neurological symptoms. The protracted nature of some of these symptoms raises the possibility that benzodiazepines can give rise not only to slowly reversible functional changes in the central nervous system, but may also occasionally cause structural neuronal damage. Keywords: benzodiazepines; withdrawal syndrome; tolerance; protracted symptoms; tinnitus; brain mechanisms. Drug withdrawal syndromes, in general, tend to consist of descriptive, mirror images of the drugs' initial effects. Place. Thus, abrupt withdrawal from chronic usage of beta adrenoceptor antagonists such as propranolol may give rise to tachycardia and palpitations; abrupt withdrawal from antihypertensive doses of comparison essay, clonidine may be followed by hypertension, anxiety, and other signs of increased sympathetic activity.
Benzodiazepines are no exception: On sudden cessation after chronic use, anticonvulsant effects may be replaced by epileptic seizures, muscle relaxation by increased muscle tension, hypnotic effects by increased anxiety. The same symptoms can occur in attenuated form when the drugs are withdrawn slowly. However, all of faire rire, these symptoms are not inevitable in any individual patient. The particular features of the withdrawal syndrome and their time of descriptive essay, onset, duration, and severity are greatly modified by many other factors. Such factors include pharmacokinetic variables, dosage and mba custom, duration of drug use, rate of withdrawal, the presence or absence of the original disorder (such as anxiety) for comparison, which the drug was prescribed, personality characteristics, physical makeup and susceptibility, and the use of concomitant treatments. These variables alone make it difficult to characterise specific features of the withdrawal syndrome. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that, as long-term medication, benzodiazepines have mainly been prescribed for anxiety and insomnia, disorders which themselves include most features of the drug withdrawal syndrome. Essayer De Me. When such patients undergo reduction of benzodiazepine dosage, especially slow reduction, how can one specify which emergent symptoms are true, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, which are pseudowithdrawal symptoms (Tyrer, Owen, Dawling, 1983), which represent a return of the descriptive comparison original anxiety state, and which are the natural reactions of an anxious personality undergoing the stress of withdrawal? In circumstances such as these, the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome becomes largely a matter of definition.
Nevertheless, the existence of mba custom, a benzodiazepine withdrawal reaction, from both high and low (therapeutic) doses of benzodiazepines, is no longer in dispute, and many attempts have been made to define and measure it and to estimate its incidence and duration. Definitions and descriptive essay, Measurements. Symptoms occurring during benzodiazepine withdrawal have been described by mba custom, many authors (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto, Sellers, Naranjo, Cappell, Sanchez, Sykora, 1986; Hallström Lader, 1981; Murphy, Owen Tyrer, 1983, 1984; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Smith Wesson, 1983; Tyrer et al ., 1983; Tyrer, Rutherford, Higgett, 1981; Winokur, Rickels, Greenblatt, Snyder, Schatz, 1980; among others). Commonly described symptoms are shown in Figure 1. None of these symptoms are specific to descriptive, benzodiazepine withdrawal: They include all of the psychological and somatic symptoms of mba custom papers, anxiety, although certain symptom clusters are characteristic. Owen and Tyrer (1983) and Petursson and descriptive comparison essay, Lader (1981a b) emphasised the appearance of new symptoms, not experienced before withdrawal and uncommon in anxiety states. These new symptoms include hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli (sound, light, touch, taste, and smell) and perceptual distortions (e.g., sensation of the floor undulating, feeling of motion, impression of walls or floor tilting). There also appears to be a higher incidence than usually seen in anxiety of student, depersonalisation, derealisation, paraesthesiae, and comparison, extreme dysphoria, an amalgam of mba custom papers, anxiety, depression, nausea, malaise, and depersonalisation (Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b). Comparison. Visual hallucinations, distortion of body image, psychotic reactions, formication, muscle fasciculation and twitching (occasionally resembling myoclonus), and considerable loss of weight are also described during benzodiazepine withdrawal and are unusual in anxiety states. Smith and Wesson (1983) and Ashton (1984) drew attention to the characteristic fluctuation of self, symptoms, which may wax and comparison essay, wane without obvious psychological provocation.
Smith and self essay, Wesson (1983) suggest that this wavelike symptomatology is an important marker for distinguishing the low-dose benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome from symptom re-emergence. However, since symptoms may fluctuate in comparison essay, the course of the day or over coursework periods of days or weeks, accurate recording is difficult. Since no particular symptom is exclusive to benzodiazepine withdrawal, how can one define the syndrome? Tyrer et al . (1981, 1983) have attempted various methods in placebo controlled studies: The appearance of descriptive, two or more new symptoms during the withdrawal period. New symptoms in one study included perceptual disturbances, sensory hypersensitivity, and reliance 2, fear of imminent death (1981), and in another study (1983), psychotic symptoms, depression and dysphoria, muscle twitching, and abnormal sensations of movement. The choice of two new symptoms as the minimum number necessary to qualify as withdrawal is clearly arbitrary. An increase in comparison essay, self-rated symptoms (Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale) to greater than 50% of baseline levels, followed by a return to faire rire, lower values. Symptom resolution is clearly an comparison, important feature in differentiating between symptoms due to withdrawal and symptom re-emergence, emergence, or overinterpretation. Is Correct. As Smith and Wesson (1983, p. 88) point out: Withdrawal symptoms subside with continued abstinence, whereas symptoms of other aetiology persist. However, a measure of symptom resolution is not applicable to patients who drop out of withdrawal studies, perhaps because of intolerable true withdrawal symptoms.
It is descriptive, noteworthy that 45% of patients dropped out of one study (Tyrer et al ., 1981). A combination of methods (1) and (2) so that a withdrawal reaction is defined as the appearance of new symptoms that resolved before the end of the study (20 and 14 weeks after the essay favorite end of withdrawal [Tyrer et al ., 1983]). More recently Tyrer, Murphy, Riley (1989) have produced a questionnaire of symptoms that are relatively specific to comparison, benzodiazepine withdrawal in chemistry which equation, that they mainly occur during periods of drug withdrawal and return towards baseline levels after withdrawal. Pseudowithdrawal symptoms were defined as symptoms occurring when patients thought they were reducing but their drug consumption and blood concentrations of benzodiazepines were unchanged. Such definitions, derived from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, have been extremely helpful in the recognition of benzodiazepine dependence, especially low-dose dependence. However, they are of descriptive comparison, necessity arbitrary and can only be approximate, since the appearance or severity of any particular symptom or symptom cluster may actually represent a variable combination of true withdrawal, pseudowithdrawal, and re-emergence of anxiety, and the same patients liable to pseudowithdrawal reactions are also likely to be most vulnerable to true withdrawal effects. Furthermore, definitions based on differences from prewithdrawal symptoms do not take into resume student account the possibility that, due to the development of tolerance, withdrawal symptoms may already be present while patients are still taking benzodiazepines. Such a situation is most clearly seen with relatively short-acting benzodiazepines.
For example, patients taking triazolam as a hypnotic commonly develop daytime anxiety (Oswald, 1989) and descriptive essay, even hallucinations or psychotic reactions. Buy School Reports. These are almost certainly withdrawal effects since they are immediately relieved by descriptive comparison, taking the drug but eventually disappear after the drug is stopped (Ashton, 1987). Similarly, with lorazepam and alprazolam (Hermann, Brotman, Rosenbaum, 1987) patients often develop increasing anxiety and panic as well as craving between doses (Ashton, 1984). They appear to buy school, undergo a miniwithdrawal between each dose, which is temporarily relieved by the next tablet, but disappears after total cessation. An analagous condition is seen with alcohol: alcoholics commonly complain of tremor and insomnia, symptoms which are temporarily relieved by alcohol but which only disappear after a period of comparison, abstinence. Even with long-acting benzodiazepines such as diazepam, there is online, usually a history in long-term users of steadily increasing anxiety, with the development over the years of new symptoms such as agoraphobia, often with perceptual distortions and comparison, depersonalisation, despite continued usage of these supposedly anxiolytic drugs. Favorite Place. These symptoms have often been temporarily alleviated by a moderate increase in dosage or the descriptive essay addition of another benzodiazepine, but eventually re-emerge during further chronic use and only disappear after the buy school reports benzodiazepine is stopped (Ashton, 1984, 1987).
Mechanisms of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms are discussed below, but tolerance is difficult to descriptive, demonstrate in clinical practice. Because of these many immeasurable factors, it is coursework equation is correct, doubtful whether the boundaries of a true benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome can ever be clearly demarcated. The overall incidence of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is unknown. As with cigarette smokers (Ashton Stepney, 1982), there may be a large, uncounted population who quit regular benzodiazepine usage after months or years without ever coming to descriptive comparison essay, medical attention. De Me Faire Rire. Tyrer (1990) notes that it is surprising how many patients in ordinary practice have no difficulties whatsoever in reducing their benzodiazepines, and the incidence of a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in general practice appears to be around 30% (Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983; Tyrer, 1989; Tyrer, Murphy, Riley, in press; Tyrer, 1990). On the other hand, in selected patients referred for specialist treatment, the incidence may be 100% (Ashton, 1987; Lader Olajide, 1987; Petursson Lader, 1981a). It is also worth noting that withdrawal syndromes in the form of comparison, rebound insomnia (Kales, Scharf, Kales, 1978) or more general symptoms can occur in experimental subjects and in nonanxious patients prescribed benzodiazepines for sports injuries (Lader, 1988). In addition, a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome has been described in neonates whose mothers took therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines during pregnancy (Rementeria Bhatt, 1977). Not surprisingly, the observed incidence of benzodiazepine withdrawal reactions depends not only on patient selection but also on the criteria used for measurement.
In the study of Tyrer et al . (1983), when definitions of reliance, withdrawal (1) and (2) (see above) were used singly, the comparison essay incidence of pseudowithdrawal reactions was around 20%. With the combined definition (3) (see above) the incidence of true withdrawal symptoms was 44% and there were no pseudowithdrawal reactions. This incidence of course only applies to those consenting to take part in the study and managing to finish it. It cannot account for dropouts during withdrawal or for individuals declining to undergo withdrawal (45.5% of eligible patients in the study of Tyrer et al ., 1981). Thus the incidence of chemistry which equation, benzodiazepine withdrawal, like its diagnosis, becomes largely a matter of definition. The identification of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is difficult enough; its duration is even more difficult to delineate. Most estimates suggest a duration of approximately 5-28 days, with a peak in descriptive comparison, severity around 2 weeks post withdrawal, after which most symptoms return to prewithdrawal levels (Busto et al ., 1986; Murphy et al ., 1984; Owen Tyrer, 1983; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983).
To a large extent the apparent duration depends upon how long the self reliance patients are followed up, and descriptive comparison, several authors have drawn attention to 2, the prolonged nature of postwithdrawal symptoms in some cases. For example, Smith and Wesson (1983) observed that symptoms after withdrawal from low-dose benzodiazepine typically take 6-12 months to subside completely. Prolonged symptoms included anxiety, insomnia, paraesthesiae, altered sensation, muscle spasms, and psychosis. Ashton (1984, 1987) reported a similar protracted time-course. Tyrer (1990) refers to a post-withdrawal syndrome in the 6 months after withdrawal. Hallström and descriptive, Lader (1981) found the Hamilton Anxiety Score still raised above baseline levels by follow-up several months later when successfully withdrawn patients had resumed their normal life (Hallström Lader, 1981 p. 237). Olajide and Lader (1984) suggested that depression may be an integral part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and may last several months after withdrawal in susceptible individuals; this phenomenon was also observed by Ashton (1987). Busto, Fornazzari, and Naranjo (1988) described two cases in whom severe tinnitus first appeared during benzodiazepine withdrawal and essayer de me faire rire, persisted for 6 and 12 months after discontinuation before finally diminishing or disappearing. In one of these cases the tinnitus was immediately alleviated by diazepam in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted over comparison 1 week, 6 months after withdrawal; after a further 6 months of abstinence the tinnitus had became tolerable. In a recent study of grad student, 68 patients who were withdrawn from benzodiazepines over a 6-week period and followed for a further 4 weeks, Tyrer et al . (1989), using a self-report scale, found a wide variation in comparison essay, the time at which individual symptoms peaked.
Mean scores for some symptoms (depression, dizziness, paraesthesiae, feeling of unreality) peaked early, while mean scores for mba custom, others (nausea, memory impairment, faintness, touch sensitivity, and motor impairment) were maximal 8 weeks after the start of withdrawal. Although individual patient's scores were not reported, and 30% withdrew from the study, these findings suggest that symptoms can persist beyond the 5-28 days usually regarded as the duration of the withdrawal syndrome. Ashton, Rawlins and Tyrer (1990) used the descriptive comparison essay rating scale shown in Figure 1 to record the essayer de me faire rire symptoms of patients undergoing diazepam withdrawal under double-blind placebo controlled conditions. Withdrawal took place over 4 weeks, and patients were followed for 8 weeks after the end of withdrawal. Descriptive Comparison Essay. Half the patients received placebo and the other half withdrawal. Analysis of the time-course of selected symptoms in the 11 out of 12 patients in mba custom papers, the placebo group who successfully completed withdrawal is shown in Table 1. Eight weeks after the end of withdrawal, mean scores for headache, dizziness, depression, tinnitus, paraesthesiae, and motor symptoms remained higher than prewithdrawal scores; other symptoms had declined although few had disappeared. These findings again show that duration of essay, symptoms after benzodiazepine withdrawal is often a matter of chemistry, months rather than weeks. Different symptoms persisted in the Tyrer et al . (1989) and Ashton et al . (1990) studies, which differed also in size of sample, patient selection, and rate of withdrawal.
To what extent such persistent symptoms are true withdrawal symptoms is unknown. A further problem in assessing the duration of the descriptive comparison withdrawal syndrome is the interpretation of the baseline (prewithdrawal) symptoms and anxiety scores. Patients presenting for benzodiazepine withdrawal often have high levels of anxiety and many psychological and somatic symptoms. Chemistry Which Equation. Figures 2 and 3 show Hospital Anxiety Depression (anxiety) (Zigmond Snaith, 1983) and symptom rating scores for descriptive comparison, 12 patients on benzodiazepines compared with the scores of de me faire, 18 healthy university students approaching their exams. Both groups took placebo tablets and were followed for 20 weeks. The benzodiazepine group withdrew from the benzodiazepines between weeks 8 and 12. Essay. It is clear that the patients had considerably higher scores than the normal subjects on both scales, even at mba custom papers the beginning of the study while they were still taking benzodiazepines. Certainly in these patients the descriptive essay benzodiazepines were not effectively controlling anxiety and, as argued above, it is essayer de me, possible that at descriptive essay least some of the presenting symptoms were due to withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of the equation is correct drug, as a result of the descriptive development of self reliance essay 2, drug tolerance.
Such symptoms would be expected to disappear after withdrawal, but they could be slow to resolve. There was no evidence of resolution below baseline levels 8 weeks after withdrawal, but unfortunately (as in descriptive, most studies) formal assessment stopped at this point. However, continued clinical contact with most of these patients has shown that anxiety symptoms have declined over time. Self Reliance Essay 2. This slow improvement bears out the comparison observations quoted above (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto et al ., 1988; Hallström Lader, 1981; Olajide and essayer de me faire, Lader, 1984; Smith Wesson, 1983) that symptoms improve gradually for many months after withdrawal, and descriptive, some patients are able to mba custom papers, resume normal lives after years of descriptive, incapacity before withdrawal. Which of essayer de me faire rire, these long-lasting symptoms can one attribute to true drug withdrawal effects? Is it possible to pinpoint a time at descriptive essay which the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome ends and to say with certainty that any residual symptoms must be due to other factors? The problem is similar to that of designating which effects of a bout of chemistry coursework which is correct, influenza or infectious mononucleosis can be attributed to essay, the specific virus. Do such effects include only mba custom, those of the comparison viral toxaemia? Do they include secondary bacterial infection consequent upon the impact of the virus? Do they include the period of postviral lethargy and chemistry which, depression which, like benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms, tends to recur in wave-like fashion for several months? Once again, the descriptive comparison benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome appears to grad student, slip through the essay fingers and grad, one is descriptive, led back to a question of definition.
Probably a clear definition of duration is essayer de me rire, impossible because drug-induced perturbations of central neurotransmission merge imperceptibly into the background of descriptive comparison, individual, genetically determined, and learned patterns of brain activity. Protracted Symptoms After Benzodiazepine Withdrawal. All the problems of favorite, definition discussed above are multiplied in descriptive, any attempt to describe protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes. Yet anyone observing patients for long periods after withdrawal cannot fail to be struck by which, the persistence of certain symptoms in some patients. Comparison. These may not be true benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms; nevertheless they are possibly related to benzodiazepine use and often present a clinical problem.
Listed below are examples of some protracted symptoms that from personal observations and chemistry coursework, other reports appear to be relatively common after benzodiazepine withdrawal. Comparison. Unfortunately, there are no data available on the incidence and duration of de me faire, such symptoms in descriptive comparison essay, comparable patients not treated with benzodiazepines, nor of their relative incidence in patients undergoing benzodiazepine withdrawal. Favorite Place. Nor are there any known predictive factors to comparison essay, indicate which patients might be especially vulnerable. Anxiety: As discussed above, anxiety may persist for many months after benzodiazepine withdrawal, yet slowly decline below prewithdrawal levels after 1-2 years (Ashton, 1987). Buy School. One reason for descriptive, the slow resolution may be that benzodiazepines inhibit the learning of stress-coping strategies. Buy School. Such effects have been demonstrated in animals and man (Gray, 1987). Consequently there is essay, a long period after benzodiazepine withdrawal when patients have a decreased ability to cope with stressful situations (Ashton, 1989; Murphy Tyrer, 1988; Owen Tyrer, 1983).
Recovery may require many months of learning new strategies of essay favorite place, stress control to replace the years of coping with stress by means of exogenous drugs. Hence persisting anxiety after benzodiazepine withdrawal does not necessarily imply the re-emergence of an anxiety state existing before benzodiazepine treatment; it may represent the uncovering of descriptive essay, a type of learning deficiency induced by your, long-term benzodiazepine use. People who take benzodiazepines tend to have high ratings for trait anxiety (Ashton and Golding, 1989; Golding Cornish, 1987; Golding, Harper, Brent-Smith, 1983) which may confer a particular vulnerability to the stress of withdrawal. Descriptive Essay. Nevertheless, even without formal treatment, protracted anxiety symptoms, including agoraphobia and panic, may gradually resolve after benzodiazepine withdrawal (Ashton, 1987) although the process may be hastened by behavioural treatments. Depression: Depression can be caused or aggravated by rire, chronic benzodiazepine use (Lader Petursson, 1981), yet it also appears to be a feature of the withdrawal syndrome (Olajide Lader, 1984). It may be severe enough to qualify as a major depressive disorder (Ashton, 1987) and may persist for some months. Olajide and Lader (1984) suggest that the mechanisms for postwithdrawal depression may be central serotonin depletion, but there is no direct evidence for this.
Clinically, the depression is essay, not different from depressive illness in general, and self reliance essay, it responds to antidepressant drugs. It is not clear whether protracted depressive symptoms are more common in patients with a previous history of descriptive comparison, depression or whether it recurs in subsequent years after withdrawal. Tinnitus: Tinnitus is a common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal and may initially result from the characteristic general hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli. It usually resolves in a few weeks, but occasionally qualifies as a protracted symptom. Busto et al . (1988) describe two cases in which tinnitus persisted for 6 and 12 months after withdrawal and mention a third patient who was unable to withdraw from benzodiazepines because of severe tinnitus at each attempt. Further cases of protracted tinnitus personally observed are described below. Case 1: Female, aged 54. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 8 years. Withdrawal slowly from oxazepam 45mg daily in reliance 2, 1986. Right-sided tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal; became severe after final withdrawal and is still constantly present and severe 2 years later, remaining mainly unilateral.
No abnormality detected on skull x-ray, CAT scan, EEG, or ENT examination, apart from slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Comparison Essay. Not clinically anxious or depressed; all other withdrawal symptoms resolved quickly. Self Essay. Taking no medication. Case 2: Female, aged 62. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 18 years. Withdrawn slowly from diazepam 15mg daily in 1988. Bilateral tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal, becoming severe after final withdrawal, and still present, severe, and continuous 1 year later.
ENT investigation: moderate bilateral high-tone deafness; wears hearing aid. No clinical anxiety or depression; no other withdrawal symptoms; no medication. Case 3: Female, aged 58. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. Withdrew from diazepam 20mg daily over 4 weeks in 1988. Developed acute psychotic reaction, which resolved in one week. First noticed left-sided tinnitus 1 month after withdrawal. Three months later restarted diazepam 20mg daily because of unremitting tinnitus, but experienced only slight improvement. Second withdrawal over one year 1988-9. Left-sided tinnitus severe throughout withdrawal and still persisting though becoming intermittent.
ENT examination negative except for slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Medication: mianserin 30mg daily, started after onset of tinnitus; carbamazepine recently added with no effect on essay tinnitus. Case 4: Female, aged 70. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. First noticed tinnitus, mainly right-sided, on withdrawal from flurazepam 30mg daily in 1985. Tinnitus continuous ever since, not relieved by favorite place, a course of diazepam. ENT examination normal. Drugs: no psychotropics; inhalers for asthma. Tinnitus is fairly common in descriptive essay, the general population and the apparent relation to benzodiazepine use may be incidental, but these cases raise the chemistry coursework is correct suspicion that benzodiazepines may occasionally cause permanent or only slowly reversible brain damage. Essay. Such damage may not be detectable on CAT scans; one study (Lader Petursson, 1984) suggested a mild degree of cortical shrinkage in papers, chronic benzodiazepine users, but this finding was not confirmed in a later study (Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987).
Two of the above patients also complained of unilateral headaches. Paraesthesiae: Paraesthesiae, in the form of descriptive essay, tingling, pins and needles or numbness of the extremities or circumoral region, is another common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal. Essayer. The symptom also occurs in anxiety and comparison, possibly results from hyperventilation. Benzodiazepines depress the sensitivity of the favorite respiratory centre to carbon dioxide (Gilmartin, Corris, Stone, Veale, Gibson, 1988) and it is possible that the respiratory centre becomes hypersensitive during withdrawal, triggering hyperventilation. Resolution of descriptive, paraesthesiae usually occurs within a few weeks of withdrawal.
Occasionally, however, patients complain of numbness or of buy school reports online, a burning sensation affecting the fingers, feet, and legs that may be protracted for months or years. Comparison Essay. The symptoms suggest a peripheral sensory neuropathy and there may be demonstrable sensory impairment to light touch. 2. Two patients summarised below typify several similar cases personally observed at descriptive comparison essay a benzodiazepine withdrawal clinic. Case 1: Female, aged 56. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 15 years. Severe continuous burning pain of feet first noticed in 1984 during slow reduction of lorazepam 7.5mg to 1.5mg daily. Changed to diazepam and slowly withdrawn over 1 year 1987-8. Burning feet persisted for a further year, gradually decreasing in intensity and now almost disappeared.
No abnormal signs; good peripheral pulses. Medication; promethazine 50mg nocte since 1988. Case 2: Female, aged 67. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 12 years. First noticed severe burning pain in feet and legs in 1981 during reduction of medazepam 15mg to 5mg daily. Pain persisted during diazepam substitution and slow withdrawal in your place, 1985. 1986: still severe burning pain in legs not relieved by descriptive essay, chlordiazepoxide. 1989: pain still present. Resume Grad. Neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, serum foliate and comparison, B 12 levels normal; peripheral pulses present and normal. Formication is also common during benzodiazepine withdrawal, and many patients temporarily complain of essayer faire, a feeling of insects crawling on the skin or of descriptive, lice or nits in the hair. Occasionally, more bizarre sensations are reported, such as a feeling of slime or water running over essay your place the body, a sense of inner vibration, or a feeling of trembling inside, and these symptoms may be protracted.
Such symptoms may be variants of the burning sensations described above or may possibly be psychotic, but have a temporal relationship to benzodiazepine withdrawal. Motor Symptoms: Increased muscle tension, hyperreflexia, tremor, fasciculation, and muscle jerking are common features of benzodiazepine withdrawal but usually resolve within weeks. Occasionally muscle jerking persists for a year or more after withdrawal, and the clinical picture may suggest myoclonus, tics, or exaggerated startle reactions. Shoulder girdle and limb muscles are usually affected, but blepharospasm can occur. Some patients complain of violent jerking of the whole body at the onset of sleep, which may occur 20 or more times a night. Restless legs syndrome may also be protracted. Essay. Some of these symptoms may result from increased peripheral sympathetic tone since they are often improved by mba custom, propranolol. Others may be centrally generated and at least partially respond to descriptive, carbamazepine. Blepharospasm can be controlled by local injection of botulinum toxin at 3 monthly intervals.
Protracted motor symptoms such as these raise the possibility that benzodiazepines are capable of causing long-term hyperexcitability of coursework which equation, motoneurons or central motor pathways. Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms are extremely common during chronic benzodiazepine use and in withdrawal. Comparison. Many chronic benzodiazepine users have been investigated by gastroenterologists and found to have irritable bowel syndrome (Ashton, 1987). Gastrointestinal symptoms may be aggravated by hyperventilation (Lum, 1987) and may disappear completely after benzodiazepine withdrawal, even in patients who have had irritable bowel syndrome for years. Nevertheless, there remains a sizeable core of patients who complain of food intolerance and gaseous abdominal distension which first appears during withdrawal and is protracted for many months. Tests for resume grad, specific food allergies almost always prove negative, and the condition is unresponsive to conventional treatment. Descriptive Essay. Patients often turn to alternative or fringe medicine, undergo various forms of essayer de me rire, diet, and become convinced that they have intestinal candidiasis or damage to the immune system. None of these claims have scientific support, although Lum (1987) reports that hyperventilation provokes histamine release and that the incidence of descriptive comparison, food intolerance and pseudo-allergic reactions is high in online, chronic hyperventilators. Essay. The effect of benzodiazepine withdrawal on gastrointestinal function and on coriocosteroid and papers, immune responses (known to be affected by descriptive essay, stress) perhaps merits further attention. Brain Mechanisms of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms. The primary effect of benzodiazepines is enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity on postsynaptic GABA-A receptors in the brain.
The effect results from an interaction with specific benzodiazepine binding sites on the GABA-receptor complex (Möhler Okada, 1977; Squires Braestrup, 1977), which increases the affinity of the receptors for GABA (Costa, 1981). GABA neurons consist of small interneurons forming local circuits which exert a powerful influence on the excitability of other neurons passing through their spatial domain (Bloom, 1985). Such local GABA circuits are widely distributed throughout the papers brain, including the reticular formation, limbic system structures, cerebral and cerebellar cortex (Young Kuhar, 1980). GABA is descriptive, a universal inhibitor of essay, nervous activity and also inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters (Benton Rick, 1976). Comparison. Thus the actions of benzodiazepines include not only enhancement of GABA activity at resume grad many brain sites but also decreased release of acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin (Faefely, Pieri, Pole, Schaffer, 1981). The clinical effects of benzodiazepines probably result from a combination of these primary and secondary effects at critical sites. Descriptive Comparison Essay. For example, the anxiolytic effects may be due to decreased serotonergic and noradrenergic activity in septo-hippocampal pathways (Gray, 1981).
Thus benzodiazepine actions are by no means confined to a particular neurotransmitter or brain pathway. Any chronically used drug gradually engenders a series of self reliance essay 2, homeostatic responses which tend to restore normal function despite the presence of the drug. Essay. With chronic benzodiazepine use, compensatory changes occur in GABA receptors. Reports Online. Such changes consist of decreased sensitivity of these receptors to GABA, probably as a result of alterations in descriptive essay, affinity state and decreased density (Cowan Nutt, 1982; Nutt, 1986). Which Equation. In addition, there are changes in the secondary systems controlled by descriptive essay, GABA, so that the output of excitatory neurotransmitters tends to coursework, be restored, and/or the sensitivity of their receptors increases.
The whole complex of primary and secondary changes eventually results in benzodiazepine tolerance. This pharmacodynamic tolerance develops unevenly to different benzodiazepine effects. For example, tolerance appears more rapidly to hypnotic and anticonvulsant than to anxiolytic effects (Sepinwall Cook, 1979). Tolerance to different effects may also vary between individuals, possibly due to variations in essay, intrinsic GABA activity in different parts of the brain, which are in reports, turn reflected in descriptive, personality characteristics and susceptibility to stress. Tolerance is reliance 2, never complete and probably never reaches a perfect equilibrium in all brain systems, which may be one reason for the high morbidity amongst chronic benzodiazepine users (Ashton, 1987).
Acute tolerance, especially to comparison essay, hypnotic effects, can be manifested rapidly, but chronic tolerance develops over a time-course of several weeks. Once established, chronic tolerance can last for months or even years after cessation of some central nervous system depressants such as alcohol (Cicero, 1979) and essayer de me rire, probably also benzodiazepines. The development of pharmacodynamic tolerance sets the scene for the withdrawal syndrome. Cessation of the drug exposes all the adaptations which have accrued to descriptive comparison, counteract its presence, releasing a rebound of unopposed activity involving many neurotransmitters and reliance essay 2, their receptors and descriptive comparison essay, many brain systems. Clinically this state is manifested as the withdrawal syndrome, consisting of effects that are largely the opposite of those originally induced by the drug. The distribution, duration, and severity of symptoms depend on the particular systems that have undergone adaptive modulations and the degree of the adaptive changes induced, as well as on the rate of drug withdrawal.
Some authors distinguish between rebound and withdrawal effects, but the mechanism is the same for both (Lader, 1988) Acute withdrawal effects are reversed by an appropriate dose of the drug, which restores the essayer faire status quo . As the descriptive homeostatic changes slowly reverse, withdrawal symptoms decline. The process of reversal, like that of tolerance acquisition, does not necessarily proceed evenly in student, all systems. The variable time of emergence and duration of individual symptoms during benzodiazepine withdrawal noted by Tyrer (1989) and Ashton et al . (1990) (Table 1) may reflect this uneven course. The perturbations of brain function induced by descriptive comparison, benzodiazepines are exceedingly complex, and it is not surprising that withdrawal symptoms are many and place, variable. Different symptoms may reflect disturbance of the descriptive comparison balance between different neurotransmitter systems as suggested by Ashton (1984) and are likely to show large interindividual differences depending on personal characteristics and resume grad, susceptibilities. As discussed above, it is difficult to set a definite time limit on the reversal of tolerance and, therefore, the end of the withdrawal syndrome.
In general, tolerance declines over a matter of weeks, but in some cases it may endure for a year or more (Cicero, 1979). Delayed or slow reversal of tolerance may account for descriptive, some protracted withdrawal symptoms. However, some changes induced by benzodiazepines may be permanent or only very slowly reversible. Since benzodiazepines apparently inhibit learning, especially for reliance essay, coping with stress strategies (Gray, 1987), cessation after many years of use may expose a learning deficit, especially in the ability to cope with stress. Descriptive Essay. This may persist as protracted anxiety, and may possibly be related to protracted depression. Anxiety symptoms are likely to endure until new learning has induced the appropriate synaptic changes, which probably involve modification of endogenous GABA activity. Finally, there remains the question of whether benzodiazepines can cause structural neurological damage.
Like alcohol, benzodiazepines are lipid soluble, are highly concentrated in the brain, and mba custom, impair cerebral cortical, cerebellar, and limbic system function. It is possible that use over many years could cause physical changes such as cortical shrinkage, which may be only partially reversible. Such changes have been demonstrated by CAT-scan studies in young alcoholics (Lee, Möller, Hardt, Haubek, Jenson, 1979; staff, British Medical Journal, 1981) although not conclusively in essay, chronic benzodiazepine users (Lader Petursson, 1984; Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987). However, such techniques may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle changes. Online. Nor are standard tests of intellectual function sensitive enough to detect minor degrees of cognitive impairment that may persist after withdrawal in some long-term users. Descriptive Essay. It remains possible that some protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms (including tinnitus and other neurological and psychological symptoms) could result from physicochemical neuronal damage. These symptoms would not be fully relieved by restarting benzodiazepines. There are still many puzzling features of benzodiazepine withdrawal, and the benzodiazepine story remains unfinished (Ashton, 1984). Ashton, H. (1989). Risks of dependence on student benzodiazepine drugs: A major problem of long-term treatment.
British Medical Journal , 298, 103-104. Ashton, H., Golding. Comparison. J.F. (1989). Tranquillisers: Prevalence, predictors and possible consequences. Data from a large United Kingdom Survey. Reliance Essay. British Journal of Addiction , 84,541-546. Ashton, H., Rawlins, M.D. Tyrer, S.P. (1990). Descriptive Comparison. A double blind placebo controlled study of buspirone in diazepam withdrawal in chronic benzodiazepine users.
British Journal of Addiction, 157, 232-238. Ashton, H., Stepney, R. (1982) Smoking: Psychology and reliance essay 2, pharmacology , London: Tavistock Publications. Benton, D., Rick, J.T. (1976). The effect of essay, increased brain GABA produced by amino-oxyacetic acid on arousal in rats. Psychopharmacology , 49, 85-89. Bloom, F.E. (1985). Neurohumoral transmission in the central nervous system. In A.G.
Gilman, L.S. Goodman, T.W. Rall, F. Muland (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (pp. 236-259). New York: Macmillan. Busto, U., Fornazzari, L., Naranjo, C.A. (1988). Protracted tinnitus after discontinuation of long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 8, 359-362.
Busto, U., Sellers, E.M., Naranjo, C.A. Cappell, H.P., Sanchez, C.M., Sykora, K. (1986). Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of papers, benzodiazepines. New England Journal of Medicine , 315, 654-659. Cicero, T.J. (1979). Descriptive Essay. Tolerance to and physical dependence on alcohol: Behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms. in Brain and pituitary peptides (pp.1603-1617). Chemistry. Munich: Ferring Symposium 1979.
Costa, E. (1981). The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the action of 1,4 benzodiazepines. In J.W. Lamble (Ed), Towards understanding receptors (pp. 176-183). Descriptive Comparison Essay. Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland. Cowen, P.J., Nutt, D.J. (1982).
Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal from tranquillising drugs: Is there a common neurochemical mechanism? Lancet ,2,360-362. Gilmartin, J.J., Corris, P.A., Stone, T.N., Veale, D., Gibson, G.J. (1988). Effects of diazepam and chlormethiazole on ventilatory control in normal subject. Essayer. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 25, 766-770. Golding, J.F., Cornish, A.M. (1987).
Personality and life-style in medical students: Psychopharmacological aspects. Psychology and Health , 1, 287-301. Golding, J.F., Harper, T., Brent-Smith, H. (1983). Personality, drinking and drug-taking correlates of descriptive, cigarette smoking. Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 703-706. Gray, J.A. (1981). Anxiety as a paradigm case of emotion.
British Medical Bulletin , 37, 193-197. Gray, J. A. (1987). Favorite Place. The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In S.M. Stahl, S.D. Comparison. Iverson, E.C. Goodman (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp.171-190). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Haefley, W., Pieri, L., Pole, P., Schaffer, R. Essay Favorite Place. (1981). General pharmacology and neuropharmacology of essay, benzodiazepine derivatives. In H. Chemistry Coursework Which Is Correct. Hoffmeister, and G. Stille (Eds.), Handbook of experimental pharmacology (Vol.
55, 11, pp. 13-262). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Hallström, C., Lader, M. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal phenomena. International Pharmacopsychiatry , 16, 235-244. Hermann, J.B., Brotman, A.W., Rosenbaum, J.F. (1987). Essay. Rebound anxiety in panic disorder patients treated with shorter-acting benzodiazepines.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry , 48 (suppl. 10), 22-28. Kales, A., Scharf, M.B., Kales, J.D. (1978). Self. Rebound insomnia: A new clinical syndrome. Science , 201, 1039-1041. Lader, M. (1988). Descriptive Comparison. The psychopharmacology of addiction - Benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence.
In M. Lader (Ed.), T he psychopharmacology of addiction (pp. 1-14). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lader, M.H., Olajide, D. Chemistry. (1987). A comparison of buspirone and placebo in relieving benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 7, 11-15. Lader, M.H., Petursson, H. (1981). Benzodiazepine derivatives - Side effects and dangers. Biological Psychiatry , 16, 1195-1212.
Lader, M.H., Ron, M., Petursson, R.H. Descriptive Essay. (1984). Computed axial brain tomography in long-term benzodiazepine users. Psychological Medicine , 14, 203-206. Lee, K., Moller, L., Hardt, F., Haubek, A., Jenson, E. Chemistry Coursework Which Equation. (1979). Alcohol-injured brain damage and liver damage in comparison, young males. Lancet 2, 759-761.
Lum, L.C., (1987). Buy School Online. Hyperventilation syndromes in medicine and psychiatry: A review. Comparison Essay. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine , 80, 229-231. Möhler, H., Okada, T. (1977). Chemistry Is Correct. Benzodiazepine receptors: Demonstration in the central nervous system. Science 198, 849-851.
Murphy, S.M., Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P.J., (1984). Withdrawal symptoms after six week’s treatment with diazepam. Lancet , 1389. Murphy, S.M., Tyrer, P. (1988). The essence of benzodiazepine dependence. (pp. 157-167). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nutt, D. (1986). Descriptive Comparison. Benzodiazepine dependence in the clinic: Reason for anxiety? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 7, 457-460. Olijade, D., Lader, M. (1984). Depression following withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine use: A report of four cases.
Psychological Medicine , 14, 937-940. Oswald, I. (1989) Triazolam syndrome 10 years on. Lancet 1, 451-452. Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P. Your Place. (1983) Benzodiazepine dependence: A review of the evidence. Drugs , 25, 385-398. Perera, K.M.H., Powell, T., Jenner, F.A. (1987). Computerised axial tomographic studies following long-term use of benzodiazepines. Psychological Medicine , 17, 775-777.
Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. Descriptive. (1981a) Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. Grad. British Medical Journal , 283, 634-635. Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. (1981b). Benzodiazepine dependence. Descriptive Comparison. British Journal of Addiction , 76, 133-145. Rementeria, J.L., Bhatt, K. (1977).
Withdrawal symptoms in neonates from intrauterine exposure to papers, diazepam. Journal of Paediatrics , 90, 123-125. Sepinwall, J., Cook, L. (1979). Mechanisms of action of the benzodiazepines: Behavioural aspects. Federation Proceedings 39, 3024-3031. Smith, D.E., Wesson, D.R. (1983). Benzodiazepine dependency syndromes.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , 15, 85-95. Squires, R.F., Braestrup, C. (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors in the rat brain. Nature , 266,732-734. Staff. (1981). Minor brain damage and alcoholism. British Medical Journal , 2, 455-456. Tyrer, P. (1990) Diagnosis of benzodiazepine dependence . Descriptive Comparison Essay. Unpublished manuscript. Tyrer, P., Murphy, S., Riley, P. (1989). The benzodiazepine withdrawal symptom questionnaire.
Journal of Affective Disorders , 19, 53-61. Tyrer, P., Owen, R., Dawling, S. (1983). Resume Grad. Gradual withdrawal of diazepam after long-term therapy. Essay. Lancet 1, 1402-1406. Tyrer, P., Rutherford, D., Higgett, T. Grad Student. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms and propranolol. Lancet , 1, 520-522. Winokur, A., Rickels, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Schatz, N.J. (1980). Withdrawal reaction from long-term low dosage administration of diazepam.
Archives of General Psychiatry , 37, 101-105. Young, W.S., Kuhar, M.J. (1980). Radiohistochemical localisation of benzodiazepine receptors in rat brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , 212, 337-346. Zigmond, A.S., Snaith, R.P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 67, 361-370. FIGURE 1. WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS RATING SCALE. Ratings: 0=none 1=mild 2=moderate 3=severe.
FIGURE 1. Withdrawal Symptoms Rating Scale. FIGURE 2. Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale scores for anxiety over 20 weeks in descriptive comparison, 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5 SD 4.6 daily). Patients and students took placebo tablets until week 20. Patients withdrew from diazepam during weeks 8-12. One patient dropped out de me after 12 weeks for domestic reasons. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. FIGURE 3. Withdrawal symptoms scores over 20 weeks in 18 healthy students and essay, 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5mg SD 4.6 daily).
Patients and procedures as in Figure 2. Symptom rating shown in essayer de me rire, Figure 1. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. TABLE 1. Comparison. Scores for selected symptoms before, during, and after diazepam withdrawal. ( n = 11; mean total scores on withdrawal symptoms scale shown in Figure 1. (postwithdrawal score equal. to or less than prewithdrawal. greater than prewithdrawal. Sensory hypersensitivity: to light, sound, taste, smell. Anxiety: Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale (anxiety) scores. Paraesthesiae: tingling, numbness, altered sensitivity in limbs, face, trunk.
Motor symptoms: total score for stiffness, weakness, tremor, muscle twitches, ataxia.
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Abstract Noun Essays and Research Papers. old clothes and noodles to the fire victims.” Which is the abstract noun in the given sentence? A. children B. kindness C. . fire 2. Which sentence has an abstract noun ? A. The children decorated their classroom. B. The lady ordered pizza and pasta. C. The man feels the descriptive comparison essay, pain on his leg. 3. Which is the correct abstract noun for the adjective different? A. differ B. difference C. differently 4. Favorite. Which group has all abstract nouns ? A. simplicity, family, poverty, friendly B. richness, tiredness. Adjective , Happiness , Noun 276 Words | 2 Pages. ? NOUN : GENERAL The categorial meaning of the noun is “substance” or “thingness”. Nouns directly name various . Descriptive Essay. phenomena of reality and which equation is correct, have the strongest nominative force among notional parts of speech: practically every phenomenon can be presented by a noun as an comparison, independent referent, or, can be substantivized. Nouns denote things and objects proper (table), abstract notions (life), various qualities (bitterness), and essayer faire rire, even actions (movement). All these words function in descriptive comparison speech in the same way. Adjective , Compound , German language 1298 Words | 4 Pages.
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For example, Japanese has as many as three classes of chemistry coursework equation is correct adjectives where English has. Comparison. Adjective , Grammar , Grammatical number 768 Words | 3 Pages. subject is the buy school online, single noun or pronoun which identifies what the sentence is about or produces the action of the sentence act - The simple . predicate is the main sentence verb · Types of nouns A noun identifies a person, place, thing, or idea. Nouns are introduced with definite or indefinite articles, or with a limiting word (like a number, a demonstrative pronoun, or a relative pronoun). Some generic or abstract nouns take no introducing element at all. a. [proper nouns ] Judge Thompson ruled against. Adjective , Grammatical number , Noun 1252 Words | 4 Pages. which is generally defined by the syntactic or morphological behaviour of the lexical item in question.
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My daughter takes ballet. Descriptive Comparison. The tall man read a newspaper. 2. Essayer Faire. PRONOUN- A pronoun is a word that takes the place of a noun or another pronoun in descriptive comparison essay a sentence or a phrase. Examples and its kind: personal pronouns; I, you, we, he, she, it, me, us, him, her. Adjective , Noun , Participle 591 Words | 4 Pages. Advanced textual analyses: E.E. Essay Your Favorite Place. Cummings – When Life Is Quite Through With. alas/pass/grass and closes/dozes/roses. Phonological parallelism occurs in both series. In the first one, the long vowel a followed by the consonant s is . present in the interjection that rhymes with a verb and a noun ; in descriptive the second, the first two words are verbs in the third person singular rhyming with a noun in the plural. The poet has not chosen such a symmetrical structure by de me faire accident.
The poem may be easily put to music, as shown by the same number of syllables found in the first two lines of each stanza. Adjective , Grammatical number , Linguistics 793 Words | 3 Pages. function. NOUN : Naming word [ (common noun )- ordinary everyday things (proper noun )- names of people places etc. ( . collective nouns )- names a collection or group (absract noun )- something which is not visible or tangible ]. PRONOUN: Stands in place of the noun i.e she, it etc. Descriptive Essay. ADJECTIVE: Describing word. VERB: Doing word.
ADVERB: Modifies the verb. Essayer De Me Faire Rire. CONJUNCTION: Joining word. Essay. PREPOSITION: 'small words' which relate phrases or words together. ARTICLE: 'a' 'an' or 'the' which precede nouns or. Figure of speech , Noun , Object 760 Words | 3 Pages. Assignment 1 Lexicology And Etimology. been traditionally classified into eight lexical categories or parts of speech (and are still done so in chemistry is correct most dictionaries): Noun -Any . abstract or concrete entity; a person (police officer, Michael), place (coastline, London), thing (necktie, television), idea (happiness), or quality (bravery) Pronoun-Any substitute for a noun or noun phrase (them) Adjective-Any qualifier of a noun or pronoun (big) Verb-Any action (walk), occurrence (happen), or state of being (be) Adverb-Any qualifier of an adjective. Descriptive Comparison Essay. Adjective , English language , Etymology 754 Words | 3 Pages. “Of all the arts, abstract painting is the most difficult. Mba Custom Papers. It demands that you know how to draw well, that you have a heightened sensitivity . for composition and for colors, and that you be a true poet. This last is essential. Descriptive. -- Wassily Kandinsky.
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Simile: . couldn’t find any 15. Abstract nouns : Freedom is descriptive one of the big ones, as you cannot touch freedom yet it is the very basis of his speech. By using these abstract nouns such as freedom, dreams and character he connects with the audience on mba custom papers a spiritual level and uses feelings to show empathy to descriptive comparison them. 16. Pace: MLK keeps a slow, deliberate pace throughout. Abraham Lincoln , Audience , Black people 908 Words | 3 Pages.
Introduction to Abstract Expressionism Abstract Expressionism started in America as a post World War II art movement. It was . the first art movement that arose from America and essay favorite, put New York at the center of the art world. Descriptive. The term Abstract Expressionism was first applied to American art in 1946 by which is correct art critic Robert Coates. It is most commanly said that Surealism is descriptive essay it's predecessor because of the resume, use of spontaneous, automatic and descriptive, subconscious creations. Abstract Expressionism gets its name from. Abstract expressionism , Barnett Newman , Emotion 1511 Words | 5 Pages. Example: Color not Colour - if a word has more than one accepted spelling, the shortest one is preferred. Example: Judgment, instead of Judgement . Capitalization - the first letter of the sentence is essayer always capitalized - Proper nouns are capitalize, common nouns are not Example: Singer Regine Velasquez - small letters are usually used for title or position Example: Mrs.
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Vowel and comparison, Introduction Onomatopoeia. Onomatopoeia Abstract ????????????????????,???????????,??????????????????????,???,???,???????????????????,?????????,??????????? . Key words: Onomatopoeia, Function, Origin, Nature of Onomatopoeia. Introduction Onomatopoeia is very important not only in our oral language but in our literary language like poets. Your. It is not easy to have a study on them because of its tremendous number and complex pronunciation system. This small article mainly focus on the origin of onomatopoeia, the. International Phonetic Alphabet , Language , Noun 1591 Words | 4 Pages. the author's style - Functioning of comparison essay gerund in resume certain syntactic roles and frequency of descriptive comparison essay their use in resume grad student the book Introduction: The relevance of our research: . Gerund - is impersonal form of the verb, which is endowed with the qualities of a verb and a noun . Comparison. In the Ukrainian language there isn*t similar form that’s why it*s difficult to determine what to use as a object after some certain words. Depending on the author of the textbook we can distinguish different word lists after which we should use. Favorite. Gerund , Grammar , Noun 1227 Words | 4 Pages. a preposition (such as in, at, by, for, to, over, etc.), have a noun or pronoun object of the preposition, and may also have other modifiers. . Descriptive Comparison Essay. Prepositional phrases function as adjectives, adverbs, or nouns . 2.1 The announcement for the play arrived after it was over. (As adjective) 2.2 He walked into the meeting just as the president arrived. (As adverb) 2.3 For you to pass your test is the reason for having a tutor. (As noun ; in chemistry coursework which equation this case, the subject) 2.4 She gave the information to. Adjective , Gerund , Latin 879 Words | 3 Pages.
Ardor ( noun )- passion; enthusiasm Ex: The cheerleader had a lot of ardor for her sport, and the crowd loved that. Descriptive Essay. Bored . (verb)- made a hole in Ex: The spy bored the wall with a laser to get inside the building. Contrived (verb)- thought up; devised Ex: The mastermind contrived an resume, idea to take over the capital city. Divers (adjective)- several, various Ex: There was a divers choice of ice cream at the parlor. Descriptive. Equity ( noun )- fairness, justice . Adjective , Cheese , Curd 626 Words | 27 Pages. 11._________________ A person, place, thing, or idea (school, Joey, anger, pencil) 12._________________ It takes the place of a noun (he, . she, it, we, they) 13._________________ It shows state of being (am, is, are, was, were) 14._________________ It shows the action of the subject (run, flies, brushes, told) 15._________________ It describes a noun or a pronoun--tells what kind, how many (pretty, seven) 16._________________ A special kind of adjective (a, an, the) 17._________________ . Adjective , Adverb , Noun 413 Words | 3 Pages. Reports. SENTENCE PRONUNCIATION SYNONYMS Word form 1 Media ( noun ) The main means of mass communication (television, radio, and newspapers) . regarded collectively.
The media has a big impact in the modern lifestyle. Descriptive Essay. /?mi?d??/ 2 Customer ( noun ) A person who buys goods or services from a shop or business. Customers constitute a significant aspect in markets. /?k?st?m?/ shopper, consumer, buyer, purchaser, client 3 Product ( noun ) A product is essay 2 anything that can be offered to a market that. Advertising , Entrepreneur , Entrepreneurship 378 Words | 3 Pages. little bit,well…I will talk about…. ? ???????????,?????? ? ???????,??????,?????,????????? ? ???INTRODUCTION???????????,?????THESIS . STATEMENT,?????????????????? ? ???????????? ? ????????????,???????150 ? ??????,??????? ? ???????,???? Abstract ?????????? ? ??1.5?,Basic Font:Times New Roman 12pt ? ????????????????,???????? Reference???? ?????????????????????,????????????????????? ????????????,?????????????????????????????????????,????????????????,???????????,????????,??????. A Little Bit , Abstract , Citation 381 Words | 4 Pages. here. | agenda noun | list of objectives to cover in essay a meeting | Please forward the papers, agenda to descriptive comparison essay anyone who is speaking at the meeting. | AGM . noun (abbr.) | Annual (yearly) General Meeting | We always vote for essay your, a new chairperson at the AGM. | allocate verb | assign roles/tasks to certain people | I forgot to allocate someone to bring refreshments. | AOB noun (abbr.) | Any Other Business (unspecified item on agenda) | The last item on comparison essay the agenda is resume AOB. Comparison Essay. | apologies noun | item on agenda announcing. Adjective , Board of directors , Chairman 1067 Words | 4 Pages. Semasiology: Linguistics and essay your favorite, Grammatical Meaning. may be defined ,as the component of meaning recurrent in comparison essay identical sets of individual forms of different words, as, e.g., the tense meaning in essayer rire the word-forms . of verbs (asked, thought, walked, etc.) or the case meaning in the word-forms of descriptive essay various nouns (girl’s, boy’s, night’s, etc.). In a broad sense it may be argued that linguists who make a distinction between lexical and grammatical meaning are, in fact, making a distinction between the functional (linguistic) meaning which operates at various. Essay Your. Linguistics , Meaning of life , Noun 2425 Words | 7 Pages. ?How to write an annotation (http://legacy.earlham.edu/library/content/resources/writing/annotations.html) An annotation is a brief summary of descriptive essay a book, . article, or other publication. An abstract is grad also a summary, but there is a difference between the two.
An abstract is simply a summary of descriptive essay a work, whereas the purpose of an annotation is to describe the work in such a way that the reader can decide whether or not to read the work itself. The following points provide guidance for writing annotations. Student. Abstract , Annotation , Language acquisition 1499 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptive Comparison. tyrant spell has bound me, And I cannot, cannot go’ end focus is used on the words ‘cannot go’ in each verse. Also the contraction ‘cannot’ is repeated which . is called repetition. The repetition emphasises her entrapment. Text A uses pre-modified noun phrases ‘wild winds’; ‘tyrant spell’ and ‘giant trees’. Parallelism is essay used of the conjunction ‘cannot go’. The technique of parallel syntax is used ‘clouds above’ and ‘wastes below’ in the poem. Similarly text D also uses a declarative mood which. Comparison. Adjective , Emily Bronte , Grammatical person 1163 Words | 2 Pages. : a. Prepositions/Prepositional Phrases b. Mba Custom Papers. Tenses of Verbs (Simple Past Tense) A. Prepositions/Prepositional Phrase * A preposition is a . word that shows the descriptive essay, relationship of a noun or a pronoun to resume student some other word in descriptive essay a sentence.
Rule : A preposition always introduces a phrase. The noun or pronoun that ends a prepositional phrase is the object of the preposition which introduces the phrase. Examples : aboard along behind by about amid below down above among beneath during . Adjective , Grammatical conjugation , Grammatical tense 567 Words | 3 Pages. ------------------------------------------------- Parts of Speech Exercise 1 Directions: Identify the underlined part of speech as a noun , . pronoun, verb, adjective, article, adverb, conjunction, preposition, or interjection. 1. English is my second language. 2. My father lives in Scarborough, Ontario. Essayer De Me. 3. After I got home yesterday, I took my dog for descriptive comparison essay, a walk. Essay Favorite. 4. The other day I saw a bear. Comparison. 5. Reports Online. Although I am quite brave, that movie scared me.
6. Essay. I like hockey, but my brother likes basketball. Adjective , Grammatical number , Latin 321 Words | 3 Pages.
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Aarkstore - Global Contactless Smart Card Market 2015-2019. Smart Card Market 2015-2019 About Contactless Smart Card A smart card is a pocket-sized card , made of plastic, which is embedded with integrated circuits or microchips. It is used for authentication, identification , data storage, and application processing. Smart cards are classified. team guard them. In Army regulation 670-1 it requires that a soldiers carry a milatary-issued ID card at all times. Whether in descriptive essay, or out of uniform.If a military personnel were to lose accountability of a military weapon, that weapon could make its way over to the enemies hands on where they can duplicate and. Definition of the Military Term Accountability. There is a big difference of the definition between the papers, civilian and military meaning of accountability. Comparison Essay. The definition of accountability in the military is the obligation imposed by law or lawful order or regulation of an reports, officer or other person for keeping accurate record of property, documents.
reporting through ULLS-G • 5–6, page 133 DA Form 2408–9 • 5–7, page 133 DA Form 2408–20 (Oil Analysis Log) • 5–8, page 140 DD Form 1650 (Ammunition Data Card ) • 5–9, page 140 Equipment logbook binder (historical records) • 5–10, page 140 Records that go with equipment • 5–11, page 141 Chapter 6 Watercraft. The military issued personal identification card ,and cac card , are a very important thing. There are many things that you have to comparison essay do in favorite, the military that require you to essay have one on your person at all times. Things such as going to chow; you have to approach the buy school online, gate guard and present him with your cac. PREFACE Every day women make significant contributions to the missions of today’s military forces. Comparison. Female Soldiers make up 14 to 15 percent of the Active Duty Army supporting nearly every Area of Concentration and Military Occupational Specialty. Online. Just as the Army has always championed health promotion. School. Descriptive Comparison. This regulation applies to all IET Permanent party attatched to any military instalation.
Violation or attempted violation of this policy and regulation provides a basis for punitive action under the Uniform Code of Military Justice. Traditionally, the Army has demanded a respect for coursework authority by. The Importance of the Military I.D. A United States Uniformed Services Privilege and Identification Card (also known as U.S. military ID, Geneva Conventions Identification Card , or less commonly abbreviated USPIC) is an identity document issued by the United States Department of Defense to identify. CAC Card Your Common Access Card , otherwise known as a CAC card , is an important piece of identification that should always be carried around with you especially on and around military bases and facilities. The CAC card has many functions and information that is all personal to you as a military member. Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) Chips. continues to become smaller and less expensive, engineers are finding an descriptive comparison, infinite number of applications for these versatile devices. Radio Frequency Identification tags (RFID) are the latest information storage microchip in research today. Chemistry Coursework Equation. RFID microchips store information, which are read by transmitting.
United States Marine Corps General Orders. post as a military police officer at comparison Marine Corps Air Station New river. Mba Custom Papers. I will list all the general orders from descriptive comparison essay 1 to 11 and give a description of your, how they apply on the flight line and comparison, how i will enforce them. The General Orders are a set of rules governing duty in the united states military , they are. The military utilizes a unique set of identification cards . These cards are for any person related to the armed forces, whether it is active duty or retired. They are also issued to family members of the resume grad student, armed forces, and civilian Department of Defense workers. Military identification cards are required. traditional crimes that been conducted with the access of Internet. Descriptive Comparison Essay. For example hate crimes, telemarketing Internet fraud, identity theft, and credit card account thefts. In simple word, computer crime can be defined as any violence action that been conducted by using computer or other devices with the. History of Fingerprint Identification.
we now know as arches, tented arches, loops, whorls, and twin loops. Like the previous researchers, he did not focus on using fingerprints for identification . In the buy school online, late 1800’s, Sir William Herschel, the comparison, chief magistrate of the Hooghly district in Jungipoor, India, began imprinting fingerprints onto. Importance of your, Your Military I.D Card. SPC. Barksdale 4 January 11 THE IMPORTANCE OF A MILITARY IDENTIFICATION CARD In Army regulation 670-1 it requires that soldiers carry a military -issued identification card at essay all times, whether in or out of uniform. It also mandates that soldiers traveling or living overseas wear dog. “the Cost of Losing a Military Identification Card” “The Cost of Losing a Military Identification Card ” Losing a Military Identification Card has multiple downsides.
There is no good in losing a Military Identification Card regardless of the situations. Here are a few reasons why it is not good to online lose a Military Identification Card . Descriptive Comparison. One, someone can. physically taking possession of and looking at their military or DOD ID card , state driver's license, or another form of a state or federal government-issued photo ID card . (1) Compare the photo to the person and inspect the ID card to ensure that it is valid and has not been tampered. Re-organization and self reliance, Layoff: Issue and essay, Problem Identification Paper. ? Re-organization and Layoff: Issue and papers, Problem Identification Paper Learning Team D PHL/320 8/10/15 Re-organization and Layoff: Issue and comparison, Problem Identification Paper Losing one’s job can be a very traumatic experience.
Whether it is resume grad through layoffs, re-organizations, or termination it. Benefits of Radio-Frequency Identification (Rfid) Technology on Transpiration. Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) Technology on Transpiration Assignment: Final Research Paper Amber Kramer/3086392 TMLT331, D001, Fall 12 John Ensor 20 January 2013 Benefits of Radio-frequency Identification (RFID) Technology on Transpiration Radio-frequency identification (RFID) is evolving. keeping positive control of my military i.d and how it Hinders the army’s OPSEC I won’t sit here and say losing my i.d card was completely out of descriptive comparison essay, my reach but things happen I’m only essayer faire human. But I can assure you that it won’t happen again. But Losing a Military Identification Card has a lot of downsides. There. Mortgage equity wasn’t the descriptive comparison, only crime involved, there was also credit cards frauds etc. The men were able to impersonate customer through a process known as “social engineering” where they used technology to resume disguise caller identification information and descriptive comparison essay, change customer address information in grad, bank files. Credit Card Fraud Now a days everyone has a credit card . Most people have multiple credits cards . With the rise of people paying with plastic everywhere they go, there will be a rise in credit card fraud.
Through the years thieves have come up with many ways to steal credit cards and charge hundreds. Why Is Your Cac Card So Important. WHY IS YOUR CAC CARD IMPORTANT? It is important to protect the descriptive essay, CAC because it is government issued property and also serves as each member's military identification card . If someone left their CAC in a computer unattended, that is a small window of time that someone else. they can only choose one. These products are the Instant Rewards Credit Card or the Small Business Card . This paper will help identify what is the papers, best solution for UWB. Descriptive Comparison. Situation Analysis Issue and Opportunity Identification UWB has several issues and opportunities facing them. Coursework Equation Is Correct. One of the issues. Transparency Market Research Smart Cards Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 - 2020 Published Date 2014-12-04 133 Page Report Buy Now Request Sample Press Release Smart Cards Market: Rising Demand from Asia Pacific Countries to essay Result. An Unnecessary Proposal: National Identification Cards As a response to essay place investigations after the World Trade Center, Pentagon, and Flight 93 attacks on September 11, 2001, America and four supporting countries invaded Iraq in March of descriptive comparison, 2003 to grad student remove weapons of mass destruction and end Saddam Hussein's. data stolen by descriptive, hackers were at least 45 million credit and debit cards numbers from faire its IT systems.
More personal information was also stolen from more customers such as driver’s license, military identification and state identification numbers. The article also mentioned that although TJ Maxxhad taken. official travel in connection with emergency leave and upon completion of your leave and travel will return to comparison essay home station (or location) designated by military orders. You are directed to report to the Aerial Port of Embarkation (APOE) for onward movement to faire rire the authorized international airport designated. Doctor, Congressman, Jedi Master: The many roles of Ron Paul By: Kris Dunlap “What if someday it dawns on essay, us that losing over 5,000 American military personnel in the Middle East since 9/11 is not a fair trade-off for the loss of nearly 3,000 American citizens, no matter how many Iraqi, Pakistani. affects the unit in many ways. AR 710-2 and AR 735-5 both cover the Army policy for property accountability. Some sensitive items are your weapon, military ID card , commo equipment, etc. Your Place. Sensitive items are anything that can be used by opposing forces or the descriptive comparison essay, enemy to de me faire rire counter attack, weaken forces, and gain.
in handy when you ha The CAC card , its a simple item, but as simple as it is the importance of keeping with the person to whom it belongs cannot be undervalued. As a CAC card carries the ability to view both sensitive information about the person but also to our military . Comparison. As small as it may seem to papers leave. accountability and sensitive items in comparison essay, the military Sensitive items are those items which are attractive for personnel use, attraction to the wrong kind of chemistry coursework which is correct, people who like to steal sensitive items, (for example weapons, Military Identification Cards , Thumb Drives, and military equipment), and the equipment can. Global Radiofrequency Identification Market Size to Exceed USD 22.0 Billion by 2020. Published By: Zion Research Radiofrequency Identification (RFID) (Tags, Reader, Middleware) Market for descriptive essay Retail, Supply Chain, Aviation, Healthcare, Smart cards , Public Transit and Other applicationsGlobal Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Segment, Trends and Forecast. MISUSE OF GOVERNMENT TRAVEL CHARGE CARDS.
Government travel charge cards Members of the which, Army are provided Government travel charge cards to facilitate official travel and official travelrelated expenses away from the Soldier’s official duty station. Comparison. Individual accountability for 2 the management of the Government travel charge card is vital for essay the. digherjlgh;aeiohboifbhiofhb;aidfb;dfibhfdob Problems with Foreclosure or Eviction? Get free, confidential help from: Military OneSource at 1-800-342-9647. Your military legal assistance office closest to you. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Travel. items, (for example weapons, Military Identification Cards , Thumb Drives, and military equipment), and the equipment can be very hazardous. Therefore, it requires a greater degree of control and accountability. Which. If a military personnel were to comparison lose accountability of a military weapon, that weapon could. accountability and sensitive items in the military Sensitive items are those items which are attractive for mba custom papers personnel use, attraction to the wrong kind of descriptive comparison essay, people who like to reliance essay steal sensitive items, (for example weapons, Military Identification Cards , Thumb Drives, and military equipment), and the equipment can.
Why I'M Still in the Military Service. 12 Felix Cortez Why I am still in the Military Service? The Second one are the risk and danger; we are all aware that the military is a risky profession since we are the comparison, protector of the self essay 2, people and the state, we are exposed to all kinds of lawless elements of our society such as insurgent, terrorist. 1. American Express® Preferred Rewards Gold Card • Earn 10,000 Membership Rewards® bonus points when you spend $500 in 3 months - redeemable for essay a $100 gift card • No Pre-Set limit • First Year no annual fee - $125 each year after first year • Membership Rewards® 1 point / dollar spent • Exclusive. Smart Cards Market: Rising Demand from Asia Pacific Countries to essay your place Result in CAGR of 9.0% from 2014-2020. Transparency Market Research Smart Cards Market - Global Industry Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends and Forecast 2014 - 2020 Published Date 4-Dec-2014 133 Page Report Buy Now Request Sample Press Release Global Smart Cards Market Expected to Reach USD 11.9 Billion in comparison essay, 2020. because they cost more money or they hold a very importance in what they may do or what how they may help in the time of coursework which is correct, war on the battle field. Descriptive Essay. In the resume grad student, military it is instilled in our heads that our weapon is the most valuable thing you will ever have. You train with it, you eat with it, you sleep with it.
allow any third party anything in descriptive comparison essay, association with the de me faire, military or any of it’s governmental functioning counter parts ala. national guards, reserves, commission corpse, naval reserves , marines reserves etc… DODD rule 8750 insures that all military servicemen must be certified in comparison essay, their prospective fields. Importance of self reliance, Securing Your Equipment. The importance of securing military vehicles and military equipment Making sure you properly secure and comparison essay, have accountability of your sensitive items is extremely important.For if you lose any piece of military equipment , this careless mistake that should never be made can put a lot of people at. Responsibility In the world of the military , there are many tasks and a single person alone cannot do all the roles that need to be fulfilled. The responsibilities that leaders and their subordinates have can range from one to reports online one thousand and comparison, the importance of the essayer de me faire, missions or tasks should.
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Homophobia: The Fear Behind The Hatred. I f you look up homophobia in the dictionary, it will probably tell you that it is the fear of homosexuals. While many would take issue with that definition, it is nevertheless true that in descriptive comparison essay many ways, it really is a fear of homosexuality or at least homosexuals, as we will see in this essay. Homophobia is chemistry equation, widespread in America, far more widespread than most heterosexuals realize, and it is far more subtle, too. The discrimination it inspires touches the lives of many Americans, not just gay Americans, but all Americans. And America pays a very dear price for it as we shall see. The Effects of Homophobia On American Society. There are the essay, obvious murders inspired by hatred. In the self essay 2, U.S., they number in the dozens every year. Abroad, the numbers run to descriptive comparison, the hundreds to essayer de me rire, thousands, no one knows the precise number for sure, as in comparison many countries, the deaths of homosexuals are not considered worth recording as a separate category. But there are other ways in which homophobia kills.
There are countless suicides every year by gay men and lesbians, particularly youth, which mental health professionals tell us 1 are not the your favorite place, direct result of the victim's homosexuality, but is actually the result of how the homosexual is treated by society. When one lives with rejection day after day, and society discounts one's value constantly, it is difficult to maintain perspective and descriptive realize that the problem is others' perceptions, not one's own, which is why suicide is several times as common among gay men as it is chemistry coursework, among straight men. Perhaps the highest price is paid by youth. The young person just emerging into adulthood who has begun to descriptive essay, realize that he is different, and the difference is not approved of, finds acceptance of self particularly difficult. This is especially true when others perceive the young person as different, and persecute him as a result, with little effort made by authority figures to stop the torment. This is why gay youth commit suicide at a rate of about seven times that of straight youth. Yet it is surprising how often homophobes actually try to prevent intervention by teachers in the schools!
The Reasons Homophobes Give For Their Hatred. Among humans, homosexuality is found in all cultures and with about the same frequency it is found in America. Cultural norms seem to have little influence on the incidence of homosexual behavior. So the claim that it isn't natural becomes rather difficult to support. It's a perversion. This is really a variation of the resume, it's not natural argument, and descriptive so there's no need to reiterate what has been said in the above paragraphs, other than to say that it is the reliance essay, 'natural' argument with a religious overtone. And being essentially a religious argument, it has little place in a society that believes in the separation of the powers of church and state.
It's against God's law. Well, of course this is a purely religious argument, and it presumes that the homosexual is or should be bound by the religious principles that are propounded here by the religionist. The fact of the matter is that since this society and its government were founded on descriptive essay, the notion of the separation of church and state, to encode in a secular law an idea that has purely religious purposes, is buy school, a clear violation of the principle of the separation of church and state. Until the essay, religionist can come up with a sound reason why society benefits by the outlawing of homosexual activity, then there is no moral basis for essayer de me faire rire, such a law if one accepts the principle of religious freedom as encoded in the doctrine of the separation of church and state. It's disgusting. Has the person who says that ever watched sausage being made? There are many things that go on in society that we would consider disgusting, but we don't outlaw them just because of descriptive essay, that. Place. In fact, many of these activities are quite essential to the functioning of a modern society, but we simply turn our minds to descriptive comparison, other matters and don't concern ourselves with them.
Heterosexuals need to remember that they themselves are 'disgusting' to many homosexuals; it will come as quite a surprise for equation is correct, them to discover that the feeling is mutual. Yet it would be ludicrous for the gay person to suggest that heterosexuality ought to be persecuted; why shouldn't it work just as well the other way around? Isn't respect and tolerance a two way street? The Real Reasons Behind Their Hatred. Obviously, this reason is an emotional reaction rather than a reasoned argument. Descriptive. Yet the fact that it is simply an emotional reaction is not relevant to mba custom papers, the bigot; he believes that since he believes it, it must be true. Comparison. And that is good enough.
No evidence is neccessary. Loss of control: It has been my experience that the chemistry which equation, more conservative an individual he is, the more concerned he is about being able to control his environment. Someone who lives life in a manner quite different that oneself represents a threat to that individual. Descriptive Essay. The threat is a threat to the ego in the sense that one's own choices may prove not to be optimal; it is favorite, also a subconscious threat to one's security in the sense that the other may prove to be more successful. Again, the threat here is an emotional one, not a real, tangible threat. And again, there's no real-world evidence to support it. But emotion is what drives the descriptive comparison, bigot. The reason for the emotion is de me rire, actually a primal instinct. When one examines the dominance-submission behaviors in other species, they often have sexual overtones, especially in other primate species.
If a dominant male wants the comparison essay, food or mate posessed by a subordinate, he'll often bite the subordinate, causing him to yelp in de me faire rire pain and drop the food or the comparison essay, female, and then present his rump. It is the presentation of the rump that is key here. It's saying to the dominant male and the rest of the troupe that the subordinant male is submissive and that the dominant male can have his way with him, regardless of the extent that may take. It's essentially a submission to rape, should the dominant male desire to do so. It is that instinctual fear of rape that drives much of homophobia. Straight men often instinctually see gay men as a threat, and they instictively fear that threat. It's a fear of a loss of control, of dominance, of status. The threat is very real - in some rare, isolated circumstances. This instinctive means of asserting dominance is the faire rire, source of prison rape. Comparison Essay. It's why men, who on the inside of prisons rape other men with brutal frequency become promiscuous heterosexuals on papers, the outside. Such men almost never have sex with other men as a means of emotional sharing, it's rather a violent act, intended to control, assert dominance and force other men into a subordinate position.
Well, straight men, you can relax. The vast majority of descriptive essay, us gay men don't want our way with you. We have sex for the same reason that most of you do - as a part of the expression of love, caring, concern and commitment. Since we're not likely to get it from you, you're not attractive to us and you have nothing to fear from us. The small minority (and it's a very small minority) of gay men who actually do enjoy seducing straight men invariably do so with understanding and respect for the straight man's concerns and fears. Such encounters are conducted in reliance 2 an atmosphere of equality of the shared emotional experience, and a recognition and respect for the straight man's need for descriptive essay, parity and discretion. Threat to one's world-view: When someone has held to the same ideas and has staunchly advocated them all of resume, his life, someone else who says he's wrong can be rather threatening.
The notion that that old time religion is descriptive comparison, good enough for me is one that is a lot more than just an old song, it represents a fundamental attitude towards one's roots that make it difficult to essayer faire, accept that one has been wrong all of essay, one's life. If a gay person comes along and reliance 2 says, hey, look at me, I'm a productive, contributing member of society with values and ideals that make me little different than you, that person is a threat to someone who has believed all his life what he may have been told since he was young; that gay people are somehow perverted, miserable, lonely people who live short, desperate lives. Yet to essay, the amazement of your favorite place, many, as the AIDS epidemic has forced thousands of gay people out of the closet, these gay people have proved not to be the stereotypes people had believed; but rather ordinary folks like themselves. Another unsupported emotional reaction, not a real threat. Again, not worthy of consideration as a real reason for being the basis of descriptive essay, public policy. Fear of rape: This is probably the most emotional and irrational of all of the homophobe's fears, but is probably the most universal.
It is the origin of the old saw about 'covering your butt' and numerous other similar admonitions. Yet the fact is that there are very, very few gay men who would prefer to have sex with heterosexual men, particularly those who would not be willing to reports, cooperate. Why go to the trouble? Only a narcissist would believe that forced sex with himself would be preferable to cooperative and appreciated sex with someone else. Yet it is amazing to me how many heterosexual men actually, subconsciously, at least, feel this way. Descriptive Essay. Maybe this says something about the universality of narcissism!
This is resume student, obviously an emotional reaction. Again, there are very few incidents of homosexual rape of heterosexuals, and the chances of descriptive essay, becoming a victim are far less than being struck by lightening. Mba Custom. But that doesn't assuage the fear. Fear that one may actually be homosexual himself: Homosexuality is, by even the most conservative estimates, far more common than the number of open homosexuals would imply. And with the descriptive comparison essay, realization that bisexuality is actually fairly common, particularly among women, there is a genuine fear among the more conservative that they, themselves, may be homosexual, particularly if they have had a homosexual experience in their past which they actually enjoyed. And since surveys indicate that approximately 64% of adult males in the United States have, there are lots of candidates out there for that fear. Chemistry Equation Is Correct. Compounding this can be religion-based guilt, often promoted by comparison televangelists who have made a career of promoting homophobia. The fear leads to a subconscious reaction: hate and/or kill the queer and you're not like him, because you've distanced yourself from self reliance him. Essay. Irrational, isn't it? Yet that's the subconscious logic involved.
One robin does not a summer make and one homosexual experience does not a queer make. It's really that simple. Buy School. For me, being gay means that I prefer relationships with men. I've had them with women, but I prefer them with men. Both sexually and emotionally. That's what qualifies me as being gay. Descriptive Comparison Essay. So all you heterosexual men who've experimented at papers some time in your youth: relax. Just because you have, even if you enjoyed it, it doesn't mean you're gay. Even if you are, isn't it important to know yourself?
Why are people so afraid of accepting themselves as they really are? Doing so is the descriptive comparison essay, Buddhist path to nirvana; knowing and accepting yourself is resume grad student, one of the greatest achievements of life. Why fight it? Fear? If fear is the reason, what does this say about the descriptive comparison, person who's allowing his life to self reliance essay 2, be governed by it?
Isn't that the definition of 'coward?' Personally, I'd be much more concerned about being a coward than being gay. Used by permission of The Star Tribune. Most social conservatives fail to essay, consider the essay your favorite, effects. of homophobia. The special rights argument wouldn't. be applied to religious minorities, but is liberally.
applied to descriptive comparison essay, the one group it is still acceptable for. them to hate. This Steve Sack cartoon commented on. the murder of chemistry which is correct, Matthew Shepard, a crime which shocked. the world with its brutality and callousness. Descriptive Comparison Essay. It was. inspired by homophobia. Consider that the outright fear of homosexuality skews how our culture deals with sex, sexuality, relations with strangers, co-workers and essay others, dealing with public health issues, and the untold opportunities it presents unscrupulous religionists with the opportunity to descriptive essay, appeal to prejudice and call it religion. The cost to your, society is enormous.
In the simple matter of sex, the fear of comparison, homosexuality among heterosexuals, particularly heterosexual men fearing that they themselves may be gay, has been the resume student, cause of a great deal of sexual dysfunction. Many a marriage has broken up because the man was unable to perform simply because of this fear. Businessmen face the comparison essay, problem of sexual harassment and intimidation against their gay workers, and the resulting loss of productivity costs business an enormous amount of money every year. Buy School Reports Online. It may not seem like much when you're not faced with it, but a gesture, a joke, an innuendo can have a very disturbing effect when you're not always sure what the essay, other person meant. And this can lead to serious loss of self esteem, which in turn, leads to loss of productivity. Intimidated employees are less likely to try to be innovative and forward thinking in problem solving; someone suffering from self esteem problems will be more conservative and essayer faire unwilling to risk being innovative. Descriptive Essay. So business loses. The U.S. Your Favorite. military spends about descriptive, $30 million a year hunting down and essayer de me faire expelling homosexuals from descriptive comparison essay its ranks, in a clear and open defiance of the don't ask, don't tell, don't pursue law, even though its own studies, from the 1950's to the present, have shown time and time again that they do not represent the threat to unit cohesion that is the reason usually given for expelling them. 2. In spite of the essay, military's insistence that unit cohesion is a problem, the fact remains that during times of war, expelling homosexuals from the ranks goes way down (and was practically halted during the Gulf War), when unit cohesion is actually of greatest importance. If unit cohesion were really the motivator, why do they quit expelling that 'threat' when the need for cohesion is greatest?
No one at the Pentagon has ever answered that question. The answer is obvious to any thinking person: it's institutionalized homophobia. Descriptive Comparison. And this is a case where homophobia directly costs the essayer faire, taxpayers $30 million each and every year it is descriptive comparison essay, allowed to govern military policy. And that doesn't count the cost in thousands of destroyed lives caused by the illegally issued general discharges that sully the reputations of these honorable men and women. The AIDS epidemic has cost tens of thousands of Americans their lives. Millions of Americans have lost someone they know, often a close and loved family member, to this terrible scourge. Yet few people know that when this epidemic first got started, the president of the United States actually obstructed efforts to halt it. 3 Because of the narrow-mindedness of one politician, now hundreds of thousands have suffered and died, many of them not even gay, and millions have known grievous personal loss. And the essayer faire rire, frightening thing is that the comparison, homophobia of coursework equation is correct, one politician is responsible. The reason that the famous gay ghettos of San Francisco, West Hollywood, Provincetown, Massachusetts and others have come into essay existence is simply that gay people have felt much more safe and secure among their own kind.
This is the same reason that for centuries, Jews, Native Americans, blacks, Latinos, Chinese and many other minorities have gathered together in their own ghettos. The cost of this ghettoization has been high -- families are torn apart, talented people end up chronically underemployed, friendships lost and loneliness and a sense of essay, rejection become lifelong companions. But it need not be this way. Descriptive. The gay ghettos wouldn't exist if gay people felt at home in a heterosexual world. And that would be possible, if the fears that drive heterosexuals to reject homosexuals, didn't exist. Clearly, it is time to drop our silly notions that homosexuals somehow aren't worthy of full, unreserved participation in American life, and recognize that there are no exceptions in the 14th Amendment for gay people.
Homophobia: How We All Pay The Price is Warren Blumenfeld's analysis of this problem and why everyone concerned with the decline of civility in America needs to be concerned about it. Created Equal: Why Gay Rights Matter to America by Michael Nava and Robert Dawidoff is an excellent analysis of why homophobia is a costly problem and how America in general, not just the grad, gay community, would benefit by ending it. And The Band Played On by Randy Shilts is comparison, one of the great classics of investigative journalism, showing how the AIDS epidemic could have easily been halted in its early days if the politics of homophobia hadn't been allowed to prevent the Center for Disease Control from is correct doing its job. Conduct Unbecoming: Gays and Lesbians in descriptive the U.S. Military by Randy Shilts. Essay 2. His last book and one of descriptive essay, lasting importance to self, the debate over essay, gays in the military.
Shows conclusively why the opposition to allowing gays to serve openly in the military is really based on the homophobia of the online, Pentagon brass. 2 Conduct Unbecoming, by descriptive comparison Randy Shilts (p. 280). Not just one suppressed Pentagon study, but many, have concluded that there is no rational reason for banning openly gay men from serving in the U.S. military. 3 And the Band Played On by Randy Shilts, describes in great detail how President Reagan, falsely believing that AIDS was a disease only of homosexuals, obstructed every attempt by the Center for student, Disease Control to halt the AIDS epidemic early on, when it was still feasible to do so. Source URL: http://www.pe.net/
Copyright © 1997, 2000 by Scott Bidstrup. Descriptive Comparison. All rights reserved.