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Book Reports/ Beowulf book report 19906. The Anglo-Saxon epic Beowulf is the most important work of Old English literature, and is well deserved of the distinction. The epic tells the story of a hero, a Scandinavian prince named Beowulf, who rids the Danes of the writing essays in theology monster Grendel, a descendent of Cain, and of frankenstein of his exploits fighting Grendel's mother and a Dragon. Throughout the epic, the Anglo-Saxon story teller uses many elements to writing essays in theology build a certain depth to analytical essay the characters. Just a few of the important character elements in writing essays in theology, Beowulf are Wealth Honor, Biblical Paganistic, and Man vs. Wild themes. Many of the characters in essay about, Beowulf are, like in most epics, defined by their status.
But, in addition to status, the Anglo-Saxon culture also adds an element of honor. To the Anglo-Saxons, a character's importance, as well as their wealth and status, where measured not only in monetary terms, but it was also measured in terms of honor, fame, and accomplishments. Hrothgar, king of the in theology Danes, is one example of the Anglo-Saxon measurement of importance in Beowulf. In Canto 1 the hallows story teller describes his wealth and importance, not as mounds of gold or jewels, but instead as his ability to [lead] the Danes to such glory. and as his tendency to In battle, [leave] the common pasture untouched, and taking no lives. Through this display of compassion for the commoner who doesn't fight in battles, Hrothgar proves the full extent of his honor and therefore the extent of his wealth and status. Beowulf, the hero-prince, also proves his true wealth and status through his deeds as defender of the Danes. As he fights and defeats Grendel, Beowulf Earns Fame and wealth from his companions, and from the Danes, but more importantly, he earns honor raising him to the level of an archetypal hero. Grendel, on the other hand, is the writing in theology total opposite of Beowulf.
He has no wealth, no honor, and he in infamous as an essay questions for harry potter and the deathly, evil killer. This lack of wealth and honor defines Grendel as a symbol of evil and essays in theology corruption. In addition to using Honor and wealth to define a character's character, the story-teller(s) have incorporated alternating Biblical and Paganistic motifs in the epic-poem. Culture. The original Epic was obviously Paganistic due to the time period of it's creation. But, as time wore on, the rewriting and touching up of the manuscripts by various sources including religious monks, caused the characters to writing essays have slight Christian characteristics. These Christian themes have become very important to the epic to add am element of essay, depth that wouldn't be possible in modern times due to the lost of the Anglo-Saxon culture and beliefs. An example of the Biblical motif in Beowulf is Grendel.
Grendel it biblically described as evil in this excerpt: [ Grendel] was spawned in writing in theology, that slime, Conceived by a pair of those monsters born. Of Cain, murderous creatures banished. By God, punished forever for the crime. Of Frankenstein. Of Abel's death. The Almighty drove. Those demons out, and their exile was bitter, Shut away from men; they split. Into a thousand forms of evil-spirits. And feinds, goblins, monsters, giants, A brood forever opposing the writing essays in theology Lord's. Will, and again and again defeated.
The Biblical reference in the epic has become a modern day archetypal motif, and serves to give the listener an idea of the extent of eth thesis repository, Grendel's pure evil and gives a logical explanation for Grendel's murderous behavior. This example, not only shows the evil in Grendel's nature, but also the torture in his heart caused by his Banishment from God. It serves to essays in theology give the reader an idea of why Grendel would kill the Danes for essay about culture no reason other than their happiness. Beowulf also has a religious motif to his character. One example of this is in Canto 6 line 381 in in theology, which Hrothgar states, Our Holy Father had sent [Beowulf] as a sign of His grace, a mark of His favor, to help us defeat Grendel and analytical of frankenstein end that terror. This religious description shows Beowulf as a sort of messiah sent by god to save man from evil. But, more than that, since Beowulf is in fact not a messiah, this description shows the good in Beowulf's heart and the purpose of his mission.
Another Biblical reference in Beowulf is shown in the tower of Herot which is very similar to the tower of Babel in the fact that it's built as a sign of superiority and accomplishment. Like Babel, though, Herot only serves as a symbol of writing, downfall more than one of glory because it causes many deaths and the coming of Grendel. Apart from Wealth, Honor, and Paganistic vs. Biblical themes and motifs, character is also shown through a certain Man vs. Culture Of Afghanistan. Wild motif. This motif shows the difference between mankind's ways (good), and in theology evil's wild nature (evil). Grendel for one, is totally wild and is therefore shown as evil.
His wild home, Grendel, who haunted the moors, the questions potter and the deathly wild marshes, and made his home in a hell not hell but earth. shows his wild, untamed, and therefor evil nature. Grendel's wilderness is countered in mankind's ways, especially Beowulf's. Beowulf is tame and civilized, the epitomy of goodness and writing essays purity. Beowulf doesn't fight evil in a wild manner, rather, as shown in his first battle with Grendel. First off, Beowulf is pure and shows this before his battle when he removes his armor and vows not to use a weapon to defeat Grendel. Bibliographical Steven. Defeating Grendel, he shows that man, without armor and weapons, can defeat evil in writing in theology, any form including that of his foe Grendel.
This deed serves throughout the epic serves as a symbol of bibliographical steven, Beowulf's Goodness. Beowulf has many other such archetypal, symbolic themes and motifs, but the most important themes that serve to add depth to the characters are the wealth, honor, religious, man, and wildness themes. These themes don't only writing essays serve to define a character, but they also factor in as a motive for their ac. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in short review, most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is writing essays written from scratch based on your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind.
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nature essay thoreau By Elizabeth Witherell, with Elizabeth Dubrulle. Henry Thoreau was born in 1817 in Concord , where his father, John, was a shopkeeper. John moved his family to Chelmsford and Boston, following business opportunities. In 1823 the family moved back to Concord where John established a pencil-making concern that eventually brought financial stability to the family. Thoreau's mother, Cynthia Dunbar, took in boarders for many years to help make ends meet. Thoreau's older siblings, Helen and in theology, John, Jr., were both schoolteachers; when it was decided that their brother should go to Harvard College, as had his grandfather before him, they contributed from their teaching salaries to help pay his expenses, at that time about $179 a year.
Harvard put heavy emphasis on the classics--Thoreau studied Latin and Greek grammar or composition for three of his four years. He also took courses in mathematics, English, history, and mental, natural, and intellectual philosophy. Modern languages were voluntary, and Thoreau chose to take Italian, French, German, and Spanish. He was never happy about the teaching methods used at short Harvard--Ralph Waldo Emerson is supposed to have remarked that most of the branches of learning were taught at Harvard, and Thoreau to have replied, Yes, indeed, all the branches and none of the roots (Walter Harding, The Days of writing, Henry Thoreau [New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1970], 51)--but he did appreciate the lifelong borrowing privileges at Harvard College Library for which his degree qualified him. He returned to Concord after his graduation in 1837 and took up the profession of teaching, first at the district school and then in a school he opened with his brother John. He had already begun to think of himself as a writer, however, and short movie, when he and John had to writing in theology, close their school in 1841 Thoreau accepted an offer to stay with neighboring Emerson's family and earn his keep as a handyman while he concentrated on his writing.
Thoreau knew himself to movie, be a writer from the time he graduated from writing essays in theology, Harvard. He had begun keeping a journal in 1837 and had probably started writing poetry earlier than that; he also wrote and published essays and reviews. He soon found, however, that he would have to other, earn his living in some other way. For a steady income, he relied on two sources: the family pencil business and his own practice as a surveyor. The Thoreau family became involved in manufacturing pencils in the 1820s, and Thoreau used his talent as an engineer to improve the product. He invented a machine that ground the writing essays in theology, plumbago for the leads into a very fine powder and developed a combination of the finely ground plumbago and clay that resulted in movie review, a pencil that produced a smooth, regular line. He also improved the method of assembling the casing and essays in theology, the lead. Thoreau pencils were the first produced in America that equaled those made by essay about culture of afghanistan the German company, Faber, whose pencils set the writing in theology, standard for quality. In the 1850s, when the electrotyping process of printing began to be used widely, the Thoreaus shifted from pencil-making to supplying large quantities of their finely ground plumbago to printing companies. Thoreau continued to run the company after his father's death in 1859.
Characteristically, Thoreau put the business letters and invoices associated with the company to other parts of essay, a second use as scrap paper for lists and notes, and writing essays, drafts of his late unfinished natural history essays. Thoreau taught himself to survey; he had, as Emerson noted in his eulogy, a natural skill for mensuration, and he was very good at the work. In addition to working for the town of Concord, he surveyed house and wood lots around Concord for of frankenstein landowners who were having property assessed and those wanting to settle boundary disputes with their neighbors. In 1859, he was hired by a group of farmers who filed suit against the owners of the writing essays in theology, Billerica Dam, claiming that the dam raised the water level in the river and destroyed the farmers' meadow lands. To help support the claim, Thoreau collected evidence from many sources. He interviewed people with long experience of the river, took extensive measurements of the water level at bibliographical various points along its course, and inspected all of the river's bridges. Writing In Theology! He recorded his findings in a large chart and transferred appropriate information to an existing survey of the river that he had traced. Analytical Essay! The dispute was a bitter one, arousing ill-feeling in the town: Thoreau reported in his February 17, 1860, journal entry that one of those he interviewed testified in court that the river was dammed at both ends and cursed in the middle.
He also collected specimens for Louis Agassiz, who had brought the study of essays, natural history to Harvard after Thoreau graduated, but he was not compensated for this work. He lectured several times a year at lyceums and private homes from Maine to New Jersey. These lectures were important in eth thesis repository, his process of composition--most of the ideas and themes in his essays and books were first presented to the public in lectures--but they were not lucrative. In 1847, responding to a request from the secretary of his Harvard class, he described his various employments: I am a Schoolmaster--a Private Tutor, a Surveyor--a Gardener, a Farmer--a Painter, I mean a House Painter, a Carpenter, a Mason, a Day-Laborer, a Pencil-Maker, a Glass-paper Maker, a Writer, and sometimes a Poetaster ( The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau , ed. Walter Harding and Carl Bode [New York: New York University Press, 1958], 186). He generalized about the advantage of writing, making just enough money to supply his limited needs in parts, the essay Life without Principle: Those slight labors which afford me a livelihood, and by which it is allowed that I am to some extent serviceable to my contemporaries, are as yet commonly a pleasure to me, and I am not often reminded that they are a necessity ( Reform Papers , 160). Thoreau and in theology, the Transcendentalist movement in New England grew up together. Thoreau was nineteen years old when Emerson published Nature , an repository, essay that articulates the philosophical underpinnings of the movement. Transcendentalism began as a radical religious movement, opposed to the rationalist, conservative institution that Unitarianism had become. Many of the movement's early proponents were or had been Unitarian ministers, Emerson among them. They had found Unitarianism wanting both spiritually and emotionally, and, beginning in the late 1820s, had expressed the need for and conviction of a more personal and intuitive experience of the divine, one available to every person.
The foregoing generations beheld God and nature face to in theology, face; wrote Emerson in analytical essay, Nature , we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and writing in theology, a religion by revelation to us, and not the essay culture, history of theirs? The Transcendentalists assumed a universe divided into essays in theology two essential parts, the soul and nature. Emerson defined the soul by defining nature: all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men and my own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE.
A belief in the reliability of the human conscience was a fundamental Transcendentalist principle, and this belief was based upon a conviction of the immanence, or indwelling, of God in the soul of the individual. We see God around us, because he dwells within us, wrote William Ellery Channing in 1828; the beauty and short review, glory of God's works are revealed to the mind by a light beaming from itself. This conviction of immanence enabled Thoreau to write, in Civil Disobedience, The only writing essays in theology obligation which I have a right to assume, is to do at any time what I think right ( Reform Papers , 65), and it supported his intense and particular interest in nature, in which the bibliographical essay steven, divine force is also revealed. As a reflection of God, nature expressed symbolically the spiritual world that worked beyond the physical one. Transcendentalism can be seen as the religious and intellectual expression of American democracy: all men had an in theology, equal chance of experiencing and expressing divinity directly, regardless of wealth, social status, or politics. Initially because of Emerson's presence, Concord was a significant intellectual and cultural center in Thoreau's time. Nathaniel Hawthorne and Bronson Alcott lived there, as did William Ellery Channing the Younger. Margaret Fuller visited Emerson often, and Franklin Sanborn boarded with the Thoreau family in the 1850s. Theodore Parker, George Ripley, Thomas Wentworth Higginson, and Horace Greeley were also members of the circle of friends.
Thoreau was respected within this circle, but he was always a prickly individualist. He cared little for group activities, whether political or religious, and even avoided organized reform movements until the moral imperative of abolition commanded his attention. In eulogizing Thoreau, Emerson said, There was somewhat military in his nature, not to be subdued, always manly and able, but rarely tender, as if he did not feel himself except in eth thesis, opposition. In Civil Disobedience, Thoreau expressed his belief in the power and, indeed, the obligation of the individual to determine right from wrong, independent of the dictates of society: any man more right than his neighbors, constitutes a majority of one ( Reform Papers , 74). While many of his contemporaries espoused this view, few practiced it in their own lives as consistently as Thoreau. Thoreau exercised his right to dissent from the writing in theology, prevailing views in many ways, large and small. Short Movie! He worked for pay intermittently; he cultivated relationships with several of the town's outcasts; he lived alone in the woods for two years; he never married; he signed off from the First Parish Church rather than be taxed automatically to support it every year.
Thoreau encouraged others to assert their individuality, each in his or her own way. When neighbors talked of emulating his lifestyle at essays the pond, he was dismayed rather than flattered. I would not have any one adopt my mode of living on any account; for, beside that before he has fairly learned it I may have found out another for myself, I desire that there may be as many different persons in the world as possible; but I would have each one be very careful to essay questions potter deathly, find out and writing, pursue his own way, and not his father's or his mother's or his neighbor's instead. The youth may build or plant or sail, only essay about culture of afghanistan let him not be hindered from doing that which he tells me he would like to writing, do. It is by a mathematical point only of essay that we are wise, as the sailor or the fugitive slave keeps the polestar in his eye; but that is sufficient guidance for writing all our life. We may not arrive at our port within a calculable period, but we would preserve the true course. ( Walden , 71) If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer. Let him step to the music which he hears, however measured or far away. ( Walden , 326) Thoreau also believed that independent, well-considered action arose naturally from bibliographical, a questing attitude of mind.
He was first and foremost an writing essays, explorer, of both the world around him and the world within him. be a Columbus to whole new continents and worlds within you, opening new channels, not of trade, but of thought. ( Walden , 321) Thoreau's celebration of solitude was a natural outgrowth of his commitment to bibliographical steven, the idea of individual action. His neighbors frequently saw him heading out for his regular afternoon walk which took him to every stream and meadow in Concord and the surrounding towns. Contemporaries attest that Thoreau was gregarious, and he left an extensive correspondence which demonstrates the depth and perseverance of his friendships. And although he had many visitors at Walden, much of the time he was alone, a condition he savored.
I never found the companion that was so companionable as solitude. ( Walden , 135) the man who goes alone can start today; but he who travels with another must wait till that other is ready ( Walden , 72) Allying himself with an ancient tradition of writing essays, asceticism, Thoreau considered the ownership of material possessions beyond the basic necessities of analytical essay of frankenstein, life to be an obstacle, rather than an advantage. He saw that most people measured their worth in terms of what they owned, and stood this common assumption on its head. I see young men, my townsmen, whose misfortune it is to have inherited farms, houses, barns, cattle, and farming tools; for these are more easily acquired than got rid of. Better if they had been born in the open pasture and suckled by essays in theology a wolf, that they might have seen with clearer eyes what field they were called to bibliographical, labor in. ( Walden , 5) a man is rich in writing essays, proportion to the number of eth thesis, things which he can afford to let alone. ( Walden , 82) Thoreau proposed to essays, determine what was basic to human survival, and then to live as simply as possible. By the words, necessary of other parts of essay, life , I mean whatever, of writing in theology, all that man obtains by potter his own exertions, has been from the first, or from long use has become, so important to human life that few, if any, whether from savageness, or poverty, or philosophy, ever attempt to do without it. ( Walden , 12) Most of the luxuries, and many of the essays in theology, so called comforts of essay, life, are not only not indispensable, but positive hinderances to the elevation of mankind ( Walden , 14) my greatest skill has been to want but little. ( Walden , 69) He grew some of essays in theology, his own food, including beans, potatoes, peas, and turnips. Essay Questions For Harry Potter And The Hallows! He ate wild berries and apples, and occasionally a fish that he had caught, and once killed and cooked a woodchuck that had ravaged his bean-field. He so arranged his affairs that he had to work only essays a little at a time for short his upkeep, and essays in theology, he kept a broad margin to his life for reading, thinking, walking, observing, and about, writing.
For more than five years I maintained myself thus solely by the labor of my hands, and I found, that by writing working about six weeks in a year, I could meet all the expenses of living. The whole of my winters, as well as most of my summers, I had free and movie, clear for study. In Theology! ( Walden , 69) It is not necessary that a man should earn his living by the sweat of his brow, unless he sweats easier than I do. ( Walden , 71) Thoreau, himself an inventor and questions for harry deathly hallows, an engineer of sorts, was fascinated by technology, and the mid-nineteenth century saw a series of inventions that would radically change the world, such as power looms, railroads, and the telegraph. Essays! But these inventions were products of a larger movement, the industrial revolution, in which Thoreau saw the potential for the destruction of nature for the ends of essay, commerce. In Thoreau's view, technology also provoked an excitement that was counterproductive because it served as a distraction from the writing essays, important questions of life. perhaps we are led oftener by the love of novelty, and a regard for the opinions of movie, men, in procuring it, than by a true utility. ( Walden , 21) Our inventions are wont to be pretty toys, which distract our attention from serious things. Writing Essays! They are but improved means to an unimproved end, an end which it was already but too easy to bibliographical essay steven, arrive at; as railroads lead to Boston or New York.
We are in great haste to essays in theology, construct a magnetic telegraph from analytical of frankenstein, Maine to Texas; but Maine and writing essays in theology, Texas, it may be, have nothing important to communicate. ( Walden , 52) The railroad was made the symbol of analytical, technology, and the language Thoreau uses to essays, describe it expressed his ambivalence. I watch the passage of the morning cars with the same feeling that I do the rising of the sun, which is parts hardly more regular. Their train of clouds stretching far behind and writing essays in theology, rising higher and higher, going to heaven while the essay about culture, cars are going to Boston, conceals the writing essays, sun for a minute and casts my distant field into the shade, a celestial train beside which the petty train of cars which hugs the essay for harry and the, earth is but the barb of the spear. The stabler of the iron horse was up early this winter morning by the light of the essays in theology, stars amid the mountains, to fodder and harness his steed. Fire, too, was awakened thus early to put the essay about, vital heat in him and get him off. If the enterprise were as innocent as it is early! If the writing in theology, snow lies deep, they strap on his snow-shoes, and with the giant plow, plow a furrow from the mountains to the seaboard, in which the cars, like a following drill-barrow, sprinkle all the restless men and essay of afghanistan, floating merchandise in the country for writing in theology seed. All day the fire-steed flies over the country, stopping only that his master may rest, and I am awakened by his tramp and defiant snort at midnight, when in some remote glen in the woods he fronts the elements incased in ice and snow; and short movie, he will reach his stall only with the morning star, to start once more on his travels without rest or slumber. Or perchance, at evening, I hear him in his stable blowing off the essays in theology, superfluous energy of the day, that he may calm his nerves and cool his liver and short, brain for a few hours of iron slumber.
If the enterprise were as heroic and commanding as it is protracted and unwearied! ( Walden , 116-117) Thoreau was a dedicated, self-taught naturalist, who disciplined himself to in theology, observe the repository, natural phenomena around Concord systematically and to record his observations almost daily in his Journal. The Journal contains initial formulations of ideas and descriptions that appear in Thoreau's lectures, essays, and books; early versions of passages that reached final form in Walden can be found in the Journal as early as 1846. Thoreau's observations of nature enrich all of his work, even his essays on political topics. Images and comparisons based on his studies of in theology, animal behavior, of the life cycles of plants, and of the features of the changing seasons illustrate and enliven the ideas he puts forth in and the hallows, Walden . All day long the red squirrels came and went, and writing, afforded me much entertainment by their manoeuvres. One would approach at first warily through the shrub-oaks, running over eth thesis repository the snow crust by fits and starts like a leaf blown by the wind, now a few paces this way, with wonderful speed and waste of energy, making inconceivable haste with his trotters, as if it were for a wager, and essays in theology, now as many paces that way, but never getting on more than half a rod at a time; and then suddenly pausing with a ludicrous expression and a gratuitous somerset, as if all the bibliographical essay steven, eyes in the universe were fixed on him,--for all the motions of a squirrel, even in writing, the most solitary recesses of the forest, imply spectators as much as those of a dancing girl,--wasting more time in essay questions for harry potter and the hallows, delay and circumspection than would have sufficed to essays in theology, walk the whole distance,--I never saw one walk,--and then suddenly, before you could say Jack Robinson, he would be in the top of a young pitch-pine, winding up his clock and chiding all imaginary spectators, soliloquizing and talking to all the universe at the same time,--for no reason that I could ever detect, or he himself was aware of, I suspect. Eth Thesis! ( Walden , 273-274) The grass flames up on the hillsides like a spring fire,--et primitus oritur herba imbribus primoribus evocata,--as if the earth sent forth an inward heat to writing essays, greet the returning sun; not yellow but green is the color of other parts of essay, its flame;--the symbol of perpetual youth, the grass-blade, like a long green ribbon, streams from the sod into the summer, checked indeed by the frost, but anon pushing on again, lifting its spear of last year's hay with the fresh life below. . . . So our human life but dies down to its root, and writing essays, still puts forth its green blade to eternity. ( Walden , 310-311) Once it chanced that I stood in bibliographical essay spielberg, the very abutment of a rainbow's arch, which filled the lower stratum of the atmosphere, tinging the grass and leaves around, and dazzling me as if I looked through colored crystal. It was a lake of rainbow light, in which, for a short while, I lived like a dolphin. If it had lasted longer it might have tinged my employments and writing essays, life. ( Walden , 202) The love of nature that is evident in Thoreau's descriptions in Walden is one of the most powerful aspects of the book.
The environmental movement of the past thirty years has embraced Thoreau as a guiding spirit, and he is valued for his early understanding of the idea that nature is made up of interrelated parts. Movie Review! He is considered by many to be the father of the environmental movement. Walden is Thoreau's best-known book, but other works of essays, his written both before and after Walden have met with favorable responses. All of his writing except his poetry is steven spielberg expository--he wrote no fiction--and much of it is built on the framework of the journey, short or long, external or interior. A Week , The Maine Woods , Cape Cod , and the essays A Winter Walk, A Walk to in theology, Wachusett, and other parts of essay, A Yankee in Canada, for example, are all structured as traditional travel narratives. The speaker--and it is useful to remember that almost all of Thoreau's published essays and books were first presented as lectures--sets out from home in each case, and the reader experiences the wonders of each new place with him, sharing the meditations it inspires, and finally returning with him to Concord with a deeper understanding of both native and foreign places and writing, of the journeying self. Other essays take the analytical essay of frankenstein, reader on different kinds of journeys--through the foliage of writing, autumn (Autumnal Tints), through the of frankenstein, cultivated and writing essays in theology, wild orchards of history (Wild Apples), through the life-cycle of a plot of land as one species of tree gives way to another (The Succession of Forest Trees).
Nature is Thoreau's first great subject; the question of how we should live is his second. One series of his essays deals with issues of eth thesis repository, personal exploration and renewal. In Theology! In the 1830s and 1840s a wave of and the deathly, reform movements of writing in theology, all kinds swept New England. Parts Of Essay! The issues involved ranged from women's rights to temperance, from education to religion, from diet to sex. In general, Thoreau did not support reform movements; after he was invited to join the model community at writing in theology Brook Farm, he wrote in his Journal, As for these communities--I think I had rather keep batchelor's hall in hell than go to board in heaven.-- The one movement with which he finally could not resist an alliance was abolitionism. Although he wrote in Walden , I sometimes wonder that we can be so frivolous, I may almost say, as to attend to the gross but somewhat foreign form of servitude called Negro Slavery, there are so many keen and subtle masters that enslave both north and south. It is hard to have a southern overseer; it is repository worse to have a northern one; but worst of all when you are the slave-driver of yourself. (7) and was at first reluctant to speak at abolitionist rallies because he felt he was expected to follow certain formulas, he later gave several impassioned lectures in response to the enforcement of the Fugitive Slave Law and in support of the activities of writing essays, John Brown. Analytical! Considering his neighbors' dismissive responses to Brown at the news of his death, Thoreau wrote, I hear another ask, Yankee-like, What will he gain by it? as if he expected to fill his pockets by this enterprise.
Such a one has no idea of writing, gain but in this worldly sense. If it does not lead to a surprise party, if he does not get a new pair of about, boots, or a vote of thanks, it must be a failure. But he won't gain any thing by writing in theology it. Well, no, I don't suppose he could get four-and-sixpence a day for being hung, take the of essay, year round; but then he stands a chance to writing essays, save a considerable part of his soul--and such a soul!--when you do not. No doubt you can get more in your market for a quart of milk than for a quart of movie, blood, but that is not the market that heroes carry their blood to. (A Plea for writing Captain John Brown, Reform Papers , 119) Thoreau's most famous essay is Civil Disobedience, published in movie, 1849 as Resistance to writing essays, Civil Government. The incident that provoked him to write it took place in July 1846, while he was living at analytical Walden. Coming into town to have a pair of writing essays, shoes repaired, he was arrested for analytical essay non-payment of the poll tax assessed against every voter, and writing essays in theology, spent a night in jail.
He was released the essay culture, next day, after one of his relatives, probably an aunt, paid what was owed, but the event gave him the impetus to writing essays in theology, attack the government in a classic antiwar, antislavery piece that gave support to the passive resistance of short, Mohandas Gandhi, Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other twentieth-century conscientious objectors. Some critics now consider Thoreau's Journal his most innovative and in theology, exciting work. For Harry Potter And The! In it he was able to show his thoughts in their natural relation to one another, not forced into a thematic arrangement, or stretched or lopped to fit the constraints of formal exposition. Writing In Theology! The natural alternation of observation and reflection provided a rhythm that suited his temperament and style. He usually walked in the mornings and, using field notes that were almost a shorthand to remind him of eth thesis, what he had observed, wrote in the afternoons, although he sometimes postponed the composition and writing essays, wrote several days' entries at once. Thoreau's careful observations of the cycles of of essay, growing plants, of water levels in the local rivers and writing in theology, ponds, of fluctuating temperatures, and parts of essay, of many other natural phenomena are recorded in his Journal. They became the basis for a series of lists and charts that provided precise information for several essays in Transcendental natural history that remained unfinished at his death, and that show him developing another kind of writing--more scientific than his excursions but no less poetic.
This essay was written in in theology, 1995 for an exhibit commemorating the bibliographical essay, 150th anniversary of Thoreau's move to Walden Pond and his writing of the American classic, Walden ; it has been updated for inclusion here. References are to Walden , ed. J. Lyndon Shanley (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1971) and to Reform Papers , ed. Wendell Glick (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1973). For a version of this essay in Estonian, translated by writing Karolin Lohmus in 2017, go to essay potter and the deathly, ELU LPUKS KORDA HENRY DAVID THOREAU.
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Sports Complex: The Science Behind Fanatic Behavior. Only one month after April 3rd’s opening day, baseball fans from writing, Boston to Oakland are beginning to hear a familiar cry: “Yankees suck!” These words — chanted in and the deathly hallows, unison, with clapping hands and writing in theology, stomping feet — are the mantra of many spectators who support opposing teams. Such vocal expressions of bibliographical steven intergroup rivalry are just one facet of sports fans’ fascinating and often perplexing behavior. Husband-and-wife team Beth and Lefty (who have asked their last name not to essays in theology, be disclosed) learned this firsthand after they launched the essay steven Web site, Yankeessuck.com. Writing In Theology! Though established for essay for harry and the deathly hallows the sake of “irony and humor,” the site has many times fallen victim to crashes, threats, crude posts, and, once, hacking from writing essays in theology, a self-proclaimed Yankees fan who left an expletive-laced message in his wake. “There’s an expression I’ve heard,” says Beth “that ‘sports don’t build character, they reveal it.’ That’s what’s happening here. If they’re angry people, this gives them an outlet. Essay Of Frankenstein! Where else in writing in theology, the world can you just pick an enemy and just hate them?”
Inflaming the Fan. While it may seem understandable that an other athlete becomes attached to writing, teammates and spielberg, being part of a team, it is clear that sports spectators — those regulars sitting in the stands — can also become so passionate about their team that it becomes part of their identity and affects their well-being. Research shows similarities between a fan’s identification with a sports team and writing essays, how people identify with their nationality, ethnicity, even gender. Essay About Culture Of Afghanistan! Team identification “is the extent to which a fan feels a psychological connection to a team and the team’s performances are viewed as self-relevant,” says Daniel Wann, professor of psychology at Murray State University, who has spent much of his career dedicated to research about sports spectators. In watching the action, people do indeed identify with teams, and for some, team identification is both important and powerful to their sense of self.
“People are tying up a lot of who they are in their identity as fan of X-team,” says Edward Hirt, associate professor of writing psychological and brain sciences at Indiana University- Bloomington, who has also conducted research on the psychology of sports fans. “A huge part of who they are, where they derive a lot of their positive and negative affect, is from what their team is doing.” Perhaps the of afghanistan most basic question — a genuine mystery for some non-sports-fans — is why people follow sports so ardently. What is it about watching sports that possesses otherwise composed individuals to scream, obsess over writing essays statistics, and paint their faces — particularly when they know that there’s a very good chance that their team is going to lose? Sports fan researchers emphasize this point: that sporting events are competitions in which it is guaranteed that one team must lose, which means that half the fans will be upset with the result. In other activities, those odds might not seem like a worthwhile investment of parts one’s time. “It’s a voluntary activity where half of the people aren’t going to essays in theology, like the product when they’ve finished consuming it,” says Wann. “You wouldn’t go see a movie if you thought there was a 50/ 50 chance you wouldn’t like it.” So being a fan can’t be all about a team’s winning performance. “Everyone is eventually going to lose,” says Hirt. About Of Afghanistan! “It’s clear that has to be other benefits that people are accruing.” Perhaps no fans understand loyalty to a losing team better than followers of the Chicago Cubs. Essays In Theology! The Cubs have not won major league baseball’s top prize, the World Series, for nearly 100 years (that’s even without Bambino’s Curse that plagued Boston). Essay Questions For Harry And The Deathly! Yet the team cultivates an overwhelming fan base and maintains a legendary bleacher-section community.
Ask a Cubs fan why he or she likes the writing essays team and, according to Wann, they won’t say because of all the championships. “They’ll say, ‘I love Wrigley Field, I love the bleachers and essay questions for harry and the hallows, the community in writing essays in theology, the outfield bleachers,'” says Wann. “Identification is essay about not just with the team — that might be the target or the focal field — but what draws with that is the identification that comes with it.” John McDonough, senior vice president of writing essays in theology marketing and of frankenstein, broadcasting for the Cubs, couldn’t agree more. “We’re marketing the experience more than other teams,” he says. “Maybe they won the division or the World Series. Here, it’s really about the unique mystique of the Chicago Cubs. What resonates the loudest with the fan base is the experience.” A Need to writing essays in theology, Belong. Although people report many reasons for following a favorite team, social connectedness is eth thesis among the writing most frequently cited, as Wann finds in his research on college and professional sports fans. “When we look at motivation for following a sport team, group affiliation is one of the top ones,” says Wann. “Identifying strongly with a salient local team where other fans are in of essay, the environment — that’s a benefit to social-psychological well-being.” In a series of studies, Wann has surveyed hundreds of undergraduate fans, who vary in their fanaticism for their college teams. Essays! After measuring levels of sports team identification and psychological well-being, he found that the results are correlational but consistent: Higher identification with a team is associated with significantly lower levels of alienation, loneliness, and analytical, higher levels of collective self-esteem and positive emotion.
Seeing another person wearing the team emblem on a shirt allows for an instant connection. This shared identity might facilitate communication among individuals or just increase a feeling among fans that they have shared values. “If you take away the socialness, it would lose something for some people,” says Wann. “Part of identifying with the sport team is not just with the team, but with the fan base.” Sports might be a particularly enticing means of fostering belongingness for several reasons. “One reason is the way the activity lends itself to large audiences,” says Wann. Writing In Theology! The venue, he says, provides an easy way of interacting with other spectators, and the vast majority of fans, about bibliographical spielberg, 95 percent, attend games with friends. In addition, highly identified fans tend to be socialized to in theology, sports early and view it not just as a game but also as a nostalgic or emotional experience. Of Essay! Many say that they can remember going to games as a child, or that games remind them of pleasant childhood memories. The repetition of the sports seasons may be another thing that draws fans to the game. “There’s always the next season,” says Hirt, repeating a mantra sports fans are fond of repeating after an unsuccessful season. In Theology! “Everyone has a chance in spring training.
There’s always the sort of opportunity that next season it can happen.” An Extension of Self. Team identification not only fosters a sense of social belonging, but also it impacts individual self-esteem. In a study published in the Journal of Personality and other of essay, Social Psychology in the early 1990s, Hirt and colleagues examined the effects of team allegiance on individuals’ beliefs about their own competence and self-esteem. They brought participants who reported being highly identified with their college basketball teams into the lab and showed them a tape of their teams either winning or losing. Afterwards, each participant was asked to predict how well he or she thought the in theology team would do in the future.
Participants were also asked to make seemingly unrelated estimates of their own performance on motor, mental, and social-skills tasks. “The most powerful thing we found was that for highly allied fans, they really did view the team’s success akin to how they would view a personal success,” says Hirt. Fans who watched their team win reported significantly higher estimates of the team’s future performance, their own task performance, and personal self-esteem than did those who watched their team lose. The boost that the questions for harry potter deathly winning-team group received was similar to in theology, the boost that participants received when they personally succeeded or failed at a task. “The team is an of afghanistan extension of the self,” says Hirt. Belonging Is More Important than Winning. Another facet of essays in theology sports fandom is just how dedicated many fans are. “The whole idea behind identification is eth thesis repository that it’s really part of in theology how we see ourselves and repository, that doesn’t change easily,” says Robert J. Fisher, professor of marketing at writing essays, The University of Western Ontario, whose research emphasizes the effects of potter and the hallows social expectations on managerial and consumer decision making. “If you see yourself as a member of a family, that role doesn’t change.
Those types of connections are very long-lasting and very strong.” He and colleagues published a 1998 study examining how fans of essays winning teams versus those of losing teams explained their allegiances. Surveying fans at hockey games, they found that for a successful team, performance was cited as a main reason for identification. But for fans of continually losing teams, that relationship didn’t exist. Instead, members of unsuccessful groups turned their attention to other aspects of their team, such as how much they liked the individual players. “We actively choose to find people or organizations that enable us to about culture, have a certain kind of view of ourselves, to represent ourselves to others,” says Fisher. Like our choice of spouses or friends, “we want to essays in theology, see ourselves as making good choices and being smart and proud of being who we are,” says Fisher. “We have to find ways to essay for harry potter and the deathly, work around their failings to keep them close to us.”
The annual Cubs Convention demonstrates how teams can capitalize on fans’ desires to remain affiliated. When McDonough joined the writing in theology organization in 1983, he wanted to analytical, keep the Cubs on the minds of fans year-round, so he set about making the essays team appear more personal to the fans. The first of its kind in baseball, fans were invited to join players, management, and other fans for parts a weekend in writing essays, the off season, both to about culture, celebrate the previous season and to anticipate the essays in theology upcoming one. Now 22 years in for harry potter deathly, the running, the convention attracts 15,000 fans in the dead of winter, and has spawned copycat events by in theology other major-league baseball teams. McDonough cites a breaking down of barriers as the main reason for the Convention’s success. “Previously in sports you were never able to ask the manager of your favorite team a question, former players, or current players about short review, their experience,” says McDonough. The Convention “humanized the writing essays in theology game. Analytical Of Frankenstein! It broke down those barriers of the players being unapproachable. Winning and losing was not an issue.” McDonough is right on, according to essays, the sports-marketing literature. Bibliographical Essay Spielberg! Winning is the best marketing tool, but beyond that, “one of the big recommendations is making the team accessible,” says Ryan Zapalac, Rice University, who researches marketing to writing, sports fans. “If you provide accessibility to the community, you make people feel as though that player is a part of the community.”
In fact, marketers over the past decade have notably targeted the sports fan psyche by using relationship-building marketing strategies, says Jeff James, associate professor of sports marketing at essay and the deathly, Florida State University. Rather than exclusively trying to attract new fans, they are attempting to build longer lasting, closer relationships with existing ones. “It’s moving from ‘I’m a fan of the team’ to in theology, ‘I’m a part of the team,'” says James. The Los Angeles Dodgers’ new “Think Blue” credit card points system allows fans to accrue points that can redeemed for batting practice on the field, Dodger equipment used in games, and the best seats in the stadium. Short! The motto is in theology “Earn Rewards. Live Your Dodger Dreams!” Other strategies for increasing fans’ connections to the team include player autographs and essay culture of afghanistan, birthday announcements on scoreboards.
“Why do we allow people to make marriage proposals at the ballpark?” poses James. “That couple is coming back. It’s now their anniversary.” Loyalty Benefits the Loyal. Apart from strategies that teams use to draw fans, fans themselves utilize psychological strategies to justify and in theology, maintain their passion — even when a team’s performance is otherwise disappointing. “Sports fans have perfected methods of coping,” says Wann. “If they weren’t able to cope, there wouldn’t be any sports fans.” They may boost their self-esteem when the team wins by of essay basking in essays in theology, reflected glory, wearing a team-logo shirt the next day, or talking about the game with coworkers at the office. In a recent study published in the Journal of essay of afghanistan Social Psychology , Wann and Rick Grieve, professor of psychology at Western Kentucky University, surveyed 148 fans from both teams as they were leaving a sporting event and asked them to rate their agreement with statements that their team’s fans has exhibited good behavior and sportsmanship. They were then asked to evaluate the essays opposing team’s fans.
The results showed that fans — particularly those of the other winning team — were more likely to say that the opposing team’s fans displayed worse behavior than their own team’s fans, a clear case of in-group bias. “It almost seems to me that they were using the denigration of other fans as a way to essays, enhance self-esteem,” says Grieve. Essay Steven Spielberg! “‘Not only is my team better, but man, your fans stink, too.'” When their team does poorly, however, they may also show biased perceptions against other people, such as the referees, the other team’s players, or fans of the other team. Writing Essays In Theology! Their recollection of events may also be inaccurate. “The good times are always better than what they really were,” says Grieve. Those who are highly identified with their teams are particularly motivated to other of essay, use these coping strategies when their teams perform poorly.
Because the team is part of their identity, they cannot deny themselves the writing team’s importance. “Rather than distancing from teams,” says Grieve, “They may shift expectations. They shift to cope.” Fans may choose to follow another favorite team in a different sport for eth thesis repository a while, or reflect on past glory years, or dream of writing essays future success, according to Wann. Emphasizing loyalty to a team is another way fans can soothe themselves. When their sports team fails, the highly identified fan might say to him- or herself, “‘I’m not like other people, I’m loyal in the face of all they’ve gone through,'” says Fisher. “‘When they are finally successful, everyone will see that I’m really smart.'” Alternatively, fans might use hindsight bias, according to analytical essay of frankenstein, Grieve. I knew they were going to lose, but I was so loyal I cheered for them anyway.
Superstition as a Way to Cope. Superstitions are an integral part of sports, and they may also be yet another way fans cope with their team’s performance. In ongoing research, Wann and his colleagues are exploring the role of fan superstition. Over half of his 1,000 participants can readily define a superstition or ritual they believe in. Moreover, some are truly convinced that their participation in ritual superstition impacts the outcome, says Wann. The more highly identified with a team the fans are, the more likely they are to believe that superstitions matter. “It’s a real struggle that sports fans experience,” says Wann. “They so much care about the outcome of the writing event they have absolutely zilch control over. How do we gain control?
We may develop superstitions.” strategies to analytical essay, develop and maintain their allegiance with teams. And they may have to strategize even more as it becomes increasingly rare for writing in theology players to play for just one team in their careers. “Now you can’t go hating those guys too much because they might be on essay about your team next year,” says Baumeister. “All these illusory relationships become much more fleeting. That makes it harder to have that illusion.”
Yet despite that illusion, team losses, bad seasons, and essays in theology, so on, the fans remain ardent. “Sports fans,” says Wann, “are so resilient because they can hope.” Fisher, R.J. Essay Of Frankenstein! Wakefield, K. Writing Essays In Theology! (1998). Essay About Culture! Factors leading to group identification: A field study of winners and writing essays in theology, losers. Psychology Marketing, 15 , 23-40. Hirt, E.R., Zillmann, D., Erickson, G.A., Kennedy, C. (1992).
Costs and benefits of allegiance: Changes in fans’ selfascribed competencies after team victory versus defeat. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 63 , 724-738. Lindstrom, W.A., Lease, A.M. (2005). The role of athlete as contributor to peer status in essay steven, school-age and adolescent females in the United States: From pre-title IX to writing essays, 2000 and beyond. Social Psychology of short Education, 8 , 223-244. Wann, D.L. (2006). Examining the potential causal relationship between sport team identification and psychological wellbeing. Journal of writing in theology Sport Behavior, 29 , 79-95. Wann, D.L., Grieve, F.G. Eth Thesis Repository! (2005). Essays In Theology! Biased Evaluations of In-Group and Out-Group Spectator Behavior at Sporting Events: The Importance of Team Identification and Threats to questions and the deathly hallows, Social Identity.
Journal of Social Psychology, 145 , 531-545. I GAIN A AMOUNT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT WHY CERTAIN SPORT FANS ARE LOYAL TO THEIR IDENTIFIED TEAMS.FURTHERMORE, IF FANS CONSIDER THEIR IDENTIFIED TEAMS AS THEIR FAMILIES, THE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN THEM ARE VERY STRONG.IN ADDITION, I LEARN ABOUT THAT NOT ONLY DO FANS DEPEND ON SPORT OR SPORT TEAMS, BUT ALSO SPORT AND SPORT TEAMS ARE BASED ON SPORT FANS.FINALLY, IT IS ONE KIND OF SELF EXTENSION FOR SPORT FANS TO LOYAL TO A PARTICULAR SPORT TEAM. Strangers Can Detect Social Class in Just Seven Words. New research shows that a person’s social class is writing essays communicated in very brief interactions and maybe even in about of afghanistan, a few words… More. Asking Questions Increases Likability.
New research suggests that asking more questions—and in particular, asking more follow-up questions—increases people’s positive impressions. Pre-Doctoral Summer Internship at the NIH Office of writing in theology Behavioral and Social Sciences Research. The Society for other parts Research in Child Development (SRCD) is writing in theology sponsoring a pre-doctoral internship this summer at the NIH Office of… More.
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essays models stress November 2003 Issue. Thinking processes, reverse engineering and external representations in writing essays, the generation and application of stress models. By Dr. Lorraine Cleeton, St.
Bonaventure University, NY. This article traces the progress of students taking a stress management course, in which traditional models of stress were presented and new models developed. The students found that traditional stress models were useful only in specific situations, but not transferable to essay of frankenstein novel outbreaks of stress. They thought that this was due partly to differences in definitions of stress. The students found it difficult to devise new stress models. An examination was made of thinking processes which had been used for generating successful models, in analogous systems suffering from initial resistance to definition and modeling. Reverse engineering by computer-aided simulation looked to be one promising route towards generating new models of stress. Another was recent research in external representations used for problem solving. It is hoped that this review will encourage the development of writing in theology, transferable models of stress and spin off more precise definition of stressors and strains.
Two major difficulties arose in a course on stress management. Firstly, the essay steven, students were dichotomized between those who, as ‘clients in stress’, had problems themselves and those who, as ‘counselors’, wanted to writing essays in theology help other people. Secondly, the for harry potter and the hallows, solutions to novel problems presented by the ‘clients’ were not always amenable to solutions suggested by the ‘counselors’. To anticipate this polarization of the writing essays in theology, students the initial aim of the course had been generalized to ‘Eliminating, minimizing and controlling stress in ourselves and in other people’. Of Essay! Adding to the difficulties, a literature review revealed many researchers maintaining that stress has not been precisely defined (Everly and Rosenfeld 1981). For the second run of the course, an additional aim was added – ‘Gaining skills to transfer to transfer to new and novel outbreaks of stress’. It was hoped that this would facilitate students to counsel people outside those taking the course, but they reported many failures. The aims were screened into a series of objectives against which evaluation was made by assessed tasks following each two-hour session. Although stress has not been precisely defined, assumptions have been made about ‘the effects of a feeling of acute or prolonged anxiety’ or ‘lack of resolution of writing in theology, conflict’. Based on such imprecise definitions, which create more constructs than they eliminate, it was not surprising to find widespread disagreement among the students in acceptance of such concepts as 'stress-related illness'. Students were able to fit appropriate models to other parts of essay the symptoms, but needed tools to develop new models to understand novel stressors.
Finally, it was hoped to answer the writing in theology, question, ‘Does understanding stress through modeling go a long way towards alleviating it? ‘ Information overload (‘Tap and Jug’) model. Many people have visions of stress and visions of what would cure it, for example, 'If I didn't have so much work to do', 'If my students were well behaved' or 'If my boss would leave'. Most of the students brought along with them the naive model of stress caused by information or emotional overload. This assumes that the organism has just so much to give and that problems arise when that limit is exceeded. Powell and Enright (1990) called this the 'Tap and for harry potter, Jug' model - Tap and Jug model. The strength of this model lies in simplicity, but its weakness in the variety of writing in theology, capacities of individuals for overload and the variability of their reactions to stimuli (Eysenck 1989). For example, prisoners able to tolerate confinement and torture may still have a fear of spiders in their cells. In early assignments the students most frequently applied this model as a default, sometimes used legitimately, but more often to fall back on eth thesis repository in desperation when other models had failed. Capacity - Demand model. The Tap and Jug model can be made more useful by upgrading it to a Capacity-Demand model, as described by Wycherley (1987).
The aim is not only to increase capacity, but also potential for increased demand, by increasing the stamina or robustness of the person. To increase capacity, optimum challenge should be applied, according to the Yerkes-Dodson (1908) Law - This law states that there is a optimum level of challenge - sufficient to stimulate and maintain interest, but not sufficient to cause undue stress. Capacity – Demand model. Many people feel stressed when the size of their workload approaches their perceived capacity for work. Stress increases as more work is added, eventually to exceed the perceived capacity. Essays In Theology! Ideally one hopes that the workload will decrease, but sometimes as a result of the stress we are scarred and our capacity is reduced.
If you come to terms with it or receive counseling, it is hoped that the workload might once again just fill the capacity. A better solution would be to achieve more stamina so that there is increased capacity, i.e. the ability to withstand a greater workload in the future - keeping the load within the boundaries of the increased capacity. In the depths of our own stress we all know colleagues we admired who never seemed ruffled by eth thesis increased workload, or by sudden life changes, and who seemed to have infinite capacity. Against the background of imprecise definition of stress, the writing in theology, concepts of 'stressors' and 'strains' were discriminated and offered to short the students in a cause-effect model. A 'stressor' might be work overload , causing the 'strain' of fatigue. This is illustrated by the. Weight-on-a-Spring model, the Weight representing the stressor and the extension the strain (Russell 1953).
This model was useful when first presented, but the students soon noticed that a strain could switch to being a stressor, leading to a chaining effect. For example, the strain of writing in theology, fatigue could become the eth thesis, stressor causing the strain of a weakening family relationship . A stress counselor should enter the chain by defining the stressor and strain at point of entry. There is cost to writing a client, and difficulties for essay a counselor, who fails to writing in theology find the break-point of entry to other of essay a closed loop stressor-strain cycle. The students were given local, national and global suicide and mortality figures, with their relationships to essays variables such as socioeconomic background and marital status . This led to listings of stress-related illnesses. Eth Thesis! The students showed wide variation in their beliefs about discrimination and generalization of this concept, which was not surprising given the background of an imprecise definition of writing essays, ‘stress’ itself. The students understood and accepted the Three-Systems Model of behavioral , emotional and physical interaction as described by questions deathly hallows Powell and Enright (1990), but they barely mentioned it in discussion, counseling or essays. Perhaps the students felt the model to be too nave, obvious or inappropriate, even in conditions where its originators saw its relevance. Writing Essays In Theology! Perhaps being a textual model it was easily forgotten. About Culture Of Afghanistan! However when students failed to observe behavioral, emotional and physical changes at an early stage in writing essays in theology, a counseling situation, there were cumulative difficulties in reducing client anxiety.
Type A and B Personalities model. The students realized that their problems could not only essay about, be blamed on the environment but on their own reactions and interactions with it. The Type A and in theology, B model of behavior traits (Friedman and Rosenan 1959; Glass 1977; Matthews 1982) was introduced. Its categorization was clear, but although the methods for ameliorating excessive bias towards either trait were highly successful with a few students, the model failed with the rest. A new model was proposed for targeting a desirable but hypothetical middle-road Type ‘C’ behavior and developed by analytical role-play to even more satisfying Types D, E, F - - - and essays in theology, subsequent behaviors, where for example reaction to a novel, unexpected event, shock or emergency situation could be controlled to prevent disablement of essay questions for harry and the hallows, thought or action. Assuming attitudes are difficult to change quickly by conventional methods (except by unfortunate negative shock events), the essays, students found that much practice was needed to reach the ‘higher’ levels of essay, C, D, E - - - behavior, beyond the traditional Types A and writing essays in theology, B. Eth Thesis Repository! For example, at first, great control is needed to speak slowly when every set instinct tells you to use quick and aggressive response. Teachers are well trained in this technique when faced with challenging students. Ways of affecting more rapid change would need to control or cope with instinctive reactions. Students trained in using suggestion in hypnosis achieved the most rapid results in changing destructive attitudes. Life-Change Units (LCU’s) Shock events like bereavement can effect rapid temporary or permanent change.
Illness or accident can trigger a person to initiate a worthy cause to help similar victims. The students completed the Holmes and Rahe (1967) Life-Change Inventory, but found that their reactions to a life-change event were dependent on their hardiness, mental stamina and parental or vocational training - This model suggests that life changes or job changes cause the stress. Life changes have been placed in a hierarchy. At the top of the writing essays in theology, list is 'death of a spouse'. 'Christmas' and 'holidays' appear in the list as causing some people stress, even though they are supposed to provide relaxation. Essay For Harry Hallows! Each life-change item in the list is allocated a score. You add your scores and the total indicates your stress level. Perhaps each profession should develop its own LCU’s. Essays! For example, teachers are subject to their own list of internal life changes - sudden changes in collaborative teams, the curriculum or family problems. Compilation of a complete scored list focused on teaching would be a fruitful piece of research. Test Your Stress Level - Read through this list of life events and write down the review, Life Change Units (LCUs) value for each that has occurred in the last 12-18 months.
Total your Life Change Units (LCUs). If your score is 150 LCUs or less, your level of stress based on life changes is writing low. If your score is 150-300 LCUs, your stress levels are borderline - you should minimize changes in your life if possible at this time. Essay About Of Afghanistan! If your score is more than 300 LCUs your stress levels are high. You should minimize other changes in writing essays, your life if possible and work at essay of afghanistan, instituting some stress intervention techniques. Ranking of Life event. 1. Death of Spouse. 3. Marital Separation. 5. Essays In Theology! Death of close family member. 6. Personal injury or illness.
8. Fired from and the deathly hallows job. 9. Marital reconciliation. 11. Change in health of family member. 13. Sex Difficulties. 14. Gain of writing essays in theology, new family member. 15. Business readjustment. 16.
Change in financial state. 17. Death of close friend. 18. Change to different line of work. 19. Eth Thesis Repository! Change in number of arguments with spouse. 20. Mortgage/loan for major purchases. 21. Foreclosure of mortgage or loan.
22. Change in responsibilities at work. 23. Son or daughter leaving home. 24. Trouble with in-laws. 25. Outstanding personal achievement. 26. Spouse begins or stops work. 27.
Begin or end school. 28. Change in living conditions. 29. Revision of personal habits. 30. Trouble with boss. 31. Change in work hours or conditions. 32. Change in writing, residence. 33. Change in schools. 34. Change in recreation. 35. Change in essay questions for harry deathly hallows, church activates. 36. Change in social activities. 37. Mortgage, or loan for lesser purchase (car etc.) 38.
Change in sleeping habits. 39. Change in number of family. 40. Essays! Change in eating habits. 43. Minor violation of the law. S tress is the body's non-specific response to any demand placed upon it. It is not caused only by negative or adverse influences. Stress increases the rate of wear and tear the body experiences.
Americans spend over nine billion dollars a year to deal with stress. The ritualistic model is related to the load capacity model and to the life change model. It is about of afghanistan based on a feeling that things are out of essays in theology, control unless rituals are observed. Eventually this blocks creativity and innovation. The rituals are not confined to working hours. Essay Culture Of Afghanistan! They start in the morning before work, where events ‘have’ to take place in a habitual order, or stress is experienced. In the essays, stress management course, students were weaned from rituals by setting them a homework assignment to other break at first just one ritual. Writing Essays! They said it was the most difficult assignment of the course.
Teachers know that a slight change in routine can upset the discipline of other parts, a class. It might be a snowfall starting or a bird settling outside the classroom window. Perhaps the education system should devote itself in essays, the affective domain to teaching children to react appropriately to novel situations, essential for encouraging creativity. Moving animal model. A simple ‘moving animal’ model was found to be very effective. A tiger was drawn on one overhead projector slide and other, jungle camouflage on in theology another. The two slides were placed on top of each other on an overhead projector. The animal is parts of essay only noticed when the overlapping slides are moved relative to each other. The analogy in stress management is that many people are happy to preserve the essays in theology, status quo and only experience stress when changes are made in their working life.
This model helped to bibliographical spielberg exercise the ‘detector function’ described later in Kuhn’s model (1974). To complement the life change inventory, the effects of cumulative small stressors were examined. Writing Essays! Research articles have started to bibliographical steven spielberg appear showing for example some evidence of in theology, a link between these 'microstressors' and depression ( McLean 1976). The students were encouraged to keep a record of these microstressors and the strains which appeared temporally close to them. Many of the students asked to be taught Assertiveness. In its mid-ground between passivity and aggression, or between reactive and proactive response, Assertiveness asks for students to move between these attitudes. Like switching between Type A and B, it was difficult to break lifelong habitual responses to situations. Relaxation techniques were the ameliorating catalyst to change, but some students still found it paradoxical to essay combine assertiveness with relaxation.
Relaxation was therefore practised both in preparation for being more assertive when rights were infringed and also for defusing the aggression of writing in theology, other people. For most students extensive role-play and feedback from external situations effected the essay, desirable responses. Learning curves model. When students realized that stress management would often involve simultaneous changes to themselves and to their environment a return to the first principles of learning was needed. They had to learn how to writing in theology learn new responses to bibliographical spielberg stressors. Essays! This was difficult because of their ritualizations. Cleeton (1991) profiled learning barriers, not only in the cognitive domain, but also in the functional and experiential domains. Functional learning barriers to stress management may be lack of confidence, lack of questions potter deathly hallows, assertiveness, family problems or conflict between work and home. Experiential learning barriers may be lack of writing essays in theology, experience in dealing with problems normally arising at work or home. The students were shown examples of learning curves - Curve showing a linear rate of learning.
Curve showing linear learning, but starting from some previous knowledge. More realistically, the following curve shows how many of essay, us learn. It is called the ‘stepped-change model’. For example, when we learn how to play a musical instrument, we achieve an essays, elementary level quite rapidly, and then seem to ‘stick’ at that level and think we will never rise above it. After a number of steps, we may reach a ‘plateau’ where we either give up the practice and learning, or realize that we have reached the eth thesis repository, limit of our persistence or. Curve showing stepped learning. The following curve reproduces an actual performance by essays in theology an adult learner. At first the learning was ‘ideal’, accelerating as knowledge accumulated along an exponential curve – a ‘knowledge explosion’.
Then the learner discovered a barrier and fell into a discouraging ‘ditch’ of potter and the deathly hallows, learning. Essays! Recovering, but lacking confidence, the learner could not achieve accelerated learning, but only linear learning. A second fall into a ditch leaves the learner so discouraged that some previous learning could not remembered (a learning ‘block’), but eventually recovery took place to reach a plateau of ability and persistence. Learning Curve showing actual performance of an adult learner. accelerated (‘ideal’) learning. The following curve shows ‘ideal’ learning, usually produced by material which is challenging but not anxiety-producing. Essay! It shows ‘accelerated learning’ – an exponential rise in writing in theology, achievement with time, knowledge cumulatively capitalizing on previous knowledge, setting off a knowledge explosion.
‘Ideal’ Learning Curve. Relating these curves to stress management, students need to essay and the hallows strive for ‘ideal’ exponential learning and avoid ‘ditches’ and ‘plateau’. Stress management involves lifelong learning because novel stressors are always presenting themselves with changes to the individual, the environment and with local, national and global change. Perception and Reality model. The author (Cleeton G., 1996) developed terminology to describe learning barriers. In Theology! Have you ever heard adults or children say, ‘I can’t do Math’? They are expressing a perceived learning barrier. In practice the barrier may be real or illusory . Sometimes a child will say they can’t do Math, but be able to manipulate and tell you the statistics of analytical essay, all their team’s baseball games. In that case the barrier must be to some extent illusory . When adults return to the classroom after a gap of essays in theology, many years, they are often scarred with memories of questions potter and the deathly, failure in school, sometimes from bad teaching, for example from teaching abstract before concrete operations.
These scars caused ditches in their learning curves. Gentle teaching to remove the scars and getting them to realize that it was not their fault can relegate their perceived barriers into illusory barriers. Sometimes perceived barriers will be expressed in writing essays in theology, more serious terms or at repository, specific levels. A child might say, ‘I can’t do Math, and what’s more I never will be able to do it’. Writing! This suggests that there is a hierarchy of learning barriers. An older learner might say, ‘I can’t do complex numbers, and what’s more I never will be able to’. Before a course starts, a potential student may scan the syllabus and bibliographical essay, express anticipated learning barriers for the whole or part of it, for writing example - ‘I anticipate difficulties with genetics’. This can cause a damaging mindset. Piaget and Inhelder (1971) said, ‘That which is anticipated is more likely to occur’ - an example of ‘negative’ or pejorative visualisation. In stress management the essay, tutor needs to demonstrate that many anticipated and perceived barriers can be illusory , and also teach how to overcome real barriers.
In preparing lessons we tend to concentrate on motivation to make lessons interesting, but we should also forecast, acknowledge and aim to writing essays in theology surmount learning barriers. Learning barriers will be encountered in the Substantive (subject matter) domain, for example caused by faulty sequencing of the material. They can also be in repository, the Functional domain, for example caused by disability or family problems. Writing! They can be in the Experiential domain, for example caused by lack of essay for harry deathly, practical experience in needed skills. Essays! There are several models of learning barriers. Early models by Lewin (1935) showed barriers as obstructing goals, in an environment which was to a greater or less degree permeable. As teachers our role is to set the goal and make the teaching environment as permeable and analytical essay, flexible as possible to surmount the learning barriers. An insidious learning barrier is the discovered barrier. This is neither anticipated before the course starts, nor perceived by the student when the course starts, but is unexpectedly discovered by student and teacher as the course proceeds. Not even the best pre-course syllabus can forewarn potential students about discovered barriers.
Such barriers can approach the learner at high or low speeds, can have fast or slow attacks and fast or slow decays. Their profiles will resemble those generated by music synthesizers – Learning barrier with fast attack and slow decay. Learning barrier with slow attack and fast decay. Learners are not particularly realistic about their learning potential. The author (Cleeton, G., 1996) found that they were notorious in their discrepancies between perception and reality. Mostly they were pessimistic, sometimes optimistic. Writing! Skilled teaching can bring them into reality without discouragement. Weaknesses were apparent in eth thesis repository, students' decision-making skills. They tended to act either in a stereotyped way when faced with novel outbreaks of writing, stress, or at review, the other extreme would vacillate between trial of different solutions. They also experienced dissonance - avoiding alternatives when a decision had been made and brooding with regret, so salience of their dissonance was not resolved (Festinger 1993). Models of learning strategies, decision-making and writing, risk-taking were studied in the context of innovation theory.
The Reality-Perception of essay potter and the deathly, Reality model became accepted and writing in theology, was used with success in reducing the discrepancy index (Fisher 1986) between perception and essay culture of afghanistan, reality. Students also noted discrepancy between perception and reality in conflicts between the conscious and subconscious minds. A client might say, consciously and conventionally, ‘I love my sister’, but subconsciously, in regression, say, ‘I hate my sister’. Writing Essays! Instances of emergence of the ‘child within’ were sensitized by regression. Problems were reported of ‘childish adults’ and eth thesis, indeed ‘adult children’.
Reluctantly some of these effects began to be recognized by the students as lying within themselves and led to their determination to remove the ‘bugs’ from their systems before practising stress management on other people. Time management model. The stressors of learning and of meeting targets were approached through time management and just-in-time management, keeping long-term diaries of writing, activities, relaxation and thinking. Reorientation of repository, waking and sleeping patterns were accepted by some students but strongly resisted by others. The possibilities of instant sleeping and waking by essays suggestion in hypnosis were explored, in conjunction with subliminal learning.
Marionette on Strings model. The human being is a delicate instrument, partly controlled by ‘strings’ to the different people in his/her life. When one of these people pulls a string that attached to the human being too tightly, the questions and the hallows, string or the human being can ‘snap’ and be either mentally, physically or both mentally and physically destroyed. Essays! Other people pulling the strings might be able to compensate for this loss, but in some cases the person may have to completely break ties with the stressor. About Culture Of Afghanistan! For example, if the stressor is an employer, the person might have to resign to save mental and physical health. Shifting the essays, Goal Posts model. The person is told to complete a task. When near completion, the controlling person changes the path and spielberg, targets of the task.
This causes intense stress because everything done up to this point has to be altered to suit the new instructions. Mountain out of a Molehill model. You have to essays in theology teach simple material that should only analytical, take a few minutes to explain, but fill one hour in time to do it. This is a stressor for teachers, professors, or anyone lecturing. Sometimes you are given a topic to talk about which in common sense terms can be stated in a few minutes to almost any audience.
You have to writing essays stretch this to an hour. You have to inject stories, personal experiences, etc., but as you listen to yourself (if you could) you are restating the original premise over and over until you are completely burnt out. This can make you mentally and physically ill and does not serve as a benefit to your audience either. It is making something more important than it is. Contagion of stress model. Most of us have experience of the ‘weak link in eth thesis, the chain’ when working as a team, for example the person who holds up the work by not meeting deadlines. When prolonged this behavior can be contagious.
Contagion of stress called for a model based on the two-way spillover of strain between occupation and home (Cooper and Marshall 1976, French and writing in theology, Caplan 1972). This necessitated assembly and modeling of family relationship stressors and movie, occupational stressors, and the interaction between them. Power, Role, Task and Person model. Occupational stress was modeled through analysis of the Power, Role, Task and in theology, Person structures of organizations ( Harrison 1972). Their structural strengths and weaknesses were assessed in other parts of essay, terms of (i) their stability, (ii) their resistance to change, development or recessional crises and (iii) how individuals of different personality might fare in them, or be matched to a structure by choice. The following descriptions of the structures are due to Harrison (1972) - The power culture is most often found in small entrepreneurial organizations. Its structure can be pictured as a web. The power culture depends on a central power source with rays of power and influence spreading out from that central figure. The rays may be connected by functional or specialist strings but the power rings are the centers of power and influences. This organization works on precedent and by anticipating the wishes and decisions of the writing essays in theology, central power sources.
There are few rules and procedures and for harry, little bureaucracy. Control is exercised from the center. It is a political organization in that decisions are taken largely based on the balance of writing, influence rather than on logical or procedural grounds. A power culture can move very quickly and react rapidly to threats or opportunities. These cultures put a lot of faith in of essay, the individual, little in committees. They judge by results and care very little about the means used to obtain results. Writing Essays In Theology! Size is a problem for power cultures; when they get large or when they seek to take on too many activities, they can collapse. The role culture is called a bureaucracy. Other Parts Of Essay! The structure for a role culture can be pictured as a Greek temple.
The role culture works by logic and rationality. Its strength in its its pillars or functional specialties, e.g. the in theology, finance department, the hallows, technical services department, the public services department. The work of the functional departments is contro lled by: The functional departments are controlled at the top by a small group of senior managers (the pediment of the temple). It is writing assumed that these folks are the only co-ordinators required if the separate departments do their job as laid down by the rules and procedures and the overall plan. In the role culture, the job description is often more important than the individual who fills it. Individuals are selected for satisfactory performance of a role and the role is usually so described that a range of individuals can fill it.
Performance above and beyond the role prescription is not required and can even be regarded as disruptive. Position power is the major power source; personal power is analytical of frankenstein frowned upon and expert power limited to its proper place. The efficiency of this culture depends o n the rationality of the allocation of work and responsibility rather than on individuals. The role organization will succeed very well in stable environments where little changes from year to year and predictions can be made far in advance. In Theology! Where the organization can control its environment, where its markets are stable, predictable or controllable, the essay of frankenstein, rules and procedures and the programmed approach to work will be successful. Role cultures are slow to perceive the need for change and slow to change even when the need is seen. If the market, the writing, product/service needs, or the essay questions potter and the, environment changes, the role culture is likely to continue without change until it collapses or until the top management is replaced.
Role cultures offer security and predictability to the individual -- a steady rate of ascent up the in theology, career ladder. They offer the about culture, chance to acquire specialist expertise without risk. They tend to reward those wanted to do their job to a standard. Writing Essays! A role culture is frustrating for the individual who is analytical power-oriented or who wants control over his/her work. Those who are ambitious or more interested in results than method may be discontented, except in top management. The role culture is found where economies of writing essays, scale are more important than flexibility and where technical expertise and depth of specialization are more important than product innovation or product cost.
The task culture is job or product oriented or focused on service delivery. Its accompanying structure can be represented as a net. Notice some of the strands of the net are thicker and stronger than the steven, others. The power and influence in a task culture lies at the intersections. A matrix organization is one form of the task culture. The task culture seeks to bring together the appropriate resources, the right people at in theology, the right level of the organization, and then to of essay let them get on with it. Influence is based more on expert power than on position or personal power, although these power sources have an effect. Influence is more widely dispersed than in other cultures and each individual in the culture tends to writing essays think he/she has influence.
The task culture is a team culture where the outcome, the result, the product of the team's work tends to bibliographical steven spielberg be the common goal overcoming individual objectives and most status and style differences. The task culture uses the unifying power of the group to improve efficiency and to identify the individual with the objective of the organization. The task culture is highly adaptable. Groups, project teams, or task forces are formed for a specific purpose and can be reformed, abandoned or continued. The net organization works quickly since each group ideally contains within it all the decision-making powers required. Writing In Theology! Individuals have a high degree of control over essay of afghanistan, their work in this culture.
Judgment is by writing in theology results. Other Parts! There are generally easy working relationships within the group with mutual respect based upon capacity rather than age or status. The task culture is appropriate where flexibility and sensitivity to the market or environment are important. The task culture fits where the market is competitive, where the product life is short, where speed of reaction is important. The task culture finds it hard to produce economies of writing essays in theology, scale or great depth of expertise. Large scale systems are difficult to analytical essay organize as flexible groups. The technical expert in a task culture will find him/herself working on various problems and in various groups and thus will be less specialized than his/her counterpart working in a role cultures. Control in a task culture is difficult. Control is retained by top management through the allocation of projects, people and resources. But little day-to-day control can be exerted over the methods of essays, working or the of frankenstein, procedures without violating the essays in theology, norms of the repository, culture. Task cultures flourish when the climate is writing essays agreeable, when the product is all-important, when the customer is always right, and when resources are available for other parts all who can justify using them. Essays! ( ‘for example putting a Man on the Moon by 1970’ – Ed.)
When resources of money and of essay, people have to be rationed, top management may wish to control methods as well as results. When this happens, team leaders begin to compete for resources using political influence. Morale will decline and the job becomes less satisfying as individuals begin to reveal their individual objectives. When this happens the task culture tends to change to a role or power culture. The task culture is usually the one preferred as a personal choice to work in by most managers especially those at junior and middle levels. It is the culture which most of the behavioral theories of organizations point towards with their emphasis on groups, expert power, rewards for results, merging individual and group objectives. It is the culture most in tune with current ideologies of change and adaptation, individual freedom and low status differentials. The person culture is an unusual one and won't be found in many organizations but many individuals cling to some of its values.
In this culture the individual is the central point. If there is a structure or an organization it exists only to serve and assist the individuals within it. If a group of individuals decide that it is in their own interests to band together in order to do their own thing more successfully and that an writing, office, a space, some equipment, some clerical support would help, then the resulting organization will have a person culture. Architectural partnerships, real estate firms, some research organizations, perhaps information brokers often have this person orientation. Its structure is minimal, a cluster or galaxy of individual stars may be the best picture. As most organizations tend to have goals and objectives over and above the set of collective objectives of of afghanistan, their members, there are few organizations with person cultures. Control mechanisms or even management hierarchies are impossible in their cultures except by mutual consent. The organization is subordinate to essays the individual and depends on the individual for its existence. Essay Of Afghanistan! The individual can leave the in theology, organization but the organization seldom has the analytical essay, power to evict an individual. Influence is shared and the power base is usually expert.
The kibbutz, the commune, the co-operative, are strivers for the personal culture in writing essays in theology, organizational form. Rarely does it succeed beyond the analytical essay of frankenstein, original creators. Writing In Theology! Very quickly the organization achieves its own identify and begins to impose it on questions for harry its individuals. It becomes a task culture at best, but often a power or role culture. Although there are few organizations with person cultures, many individuals with a personal preference for this type of culture operate in other kinds of organization. Writing! Specialists in organization often feel little allegiance to the organization but regard it rather as a place to do their thing with some benefit accruing to their employer. Individuals with this orientation are not easy to manage. As specialists employment elsewhere is bibliographical steven often easy to essays in theology obtain so resource power has less potency.
They rarely acknowledge other people's expert power. Coercive power is not usually available which leaves only personal power and such individuals are not easily impressed by personality. Within an short, large organization different types of cultures may be found as shown in the diagram below: The second diagram (due to Harrison 1972) below points out some of the organization design policies variables that need to be considered when considering the nature of an organization and its fit with its environment. Detector, Selector, Effector model.
Students had by now realized that that success in in theology, stress management would not only involve changes in the environment but also changes in themselves, with feedback between these two systems. The most sophisticated model introduced to eth thesis repository the students was that due to Kuhn (1974). It proposes the organism has Detector, Selector and Defector functions, is set within its environment and writing, has feedback between these three functions through the environment - A closed system is one where interactions occur only among the system components and not with the environment. An open system is essay about culture of afghanistan one that receives input from the environment and/or releases output to writing the environment. Analytical Essay! The basic characteristics of an open system is the dynamic interaction of writing essays, its components, while the basis of a cybernetic model is the feedback cycle. Open systems can tend toward higher levels of organization (negative entropy), while closed systems can only maintain or decrease in organization. Kuhn suggested that strain arises from neglect, damage or insensitivity in one or more of the three functions - Detector, Selector and Effector - so the students practised exercises of each function.
Some students preferred textual rather than image presentation of the model. Parts! Having applied the Kuhn model, some students were able to inject a fine structure proposed by essays in theology Kuhn, where each of the three functions has its own Detector, Selector and parts of essay, Defector. Although comprehensive, students felt that the model was only a step towards presentation of a simple ‘magic-key’ model, similar to the ‘moving animal’ model, which would be applicable to most situations and spin off a universal definition of stress. Overview of the stress models. Inadequate, makes false assumptions. Inadequate, too specific. Weight on a spring. Defines stressors and strains.
Chaining of stressors and strains. Observation of early warning signs. Difficult to writing remember, too textual for Imagers. Difficult to practise necessary changes. Inconsistent - ignores microstressors. Life change units. Insufficient detail for specific occupations.
Benefits of gaining flexibility. Difficult to break rituals in a short time. Vivid presentation -immediately useful, also later in complex. Useful relationships emerging for depression. Tedious to record Microstressors and their subsequent strains. Confidence-building, overcomes fear of innovation. Student preference to retain destructive status-quo.
Perception and reality. Challenges cherished assumptions. Too textual for Imagers. Recognizes suppressed events. Unpopular for those who must see causal strain-stressor connection. Connects time management with personality.
Needs long-term record-keeping. Marionette on other parts of essay Strings. Involves personal relationships. Tends to absolve individual from essays in theology change. Shifting the Goal Posts. Useful for meeting deadlines. Mountain out of a Molehill.
Issues warning signs of stress accumulation. Difficult to for harry and the deathly disentangle connections. Power, Role, Task and writing essays in theology, Person. Understanding structure in essay questions and the hallows, which one works. Ignores personality clashes within structures. Detector, Selector, Effector. Comprehensive, open to expansion. Complex, suggesting need for simplification. Many stress management courses have had to follow the pattern of counseling based upon vague definitions of stress, which leads to loss of focus. In this course a list of essays, stressors was assembled and existing stress models progressively presented to fit new situations of strain. Diverse models had to be remembered and fitted to diverse problems.
Students leaving the course felt that the necessary transfer to novel outbreaks of stress had not been achieved. Where there was contagion of stress, for example from workplace to home and back to workplace, students often failed to enter or break the vicious circle. As seen by present students the Perception-Reality and Child-Within models offer greatest promise. They cope with variations in life goals. In amelioration of strains they open a way to philosophical and metaphysical discussion of life purpose. They are complementary to regression for examination of suppressed childhood experiences. They bridge traditional and alternative healing. In the movie, fundamental problem of writing essays, finding the short movie review, cause rather than treating the problem, frequently the default has to be that of giving coping strategies for the strain when inability or incompetence has failed to reveal the stressor. Many students felt that previous counseling proposed too close a binding between cause and effect, for writing essays in theology example – ‘Your fear of water is movie review because you lived near a canal when you were a child’. It may be prudent to consider the possibility that sometimes there may be no such binding - that there is an element of chance whether an unfortunate child event causes adult anxiety, depression or phobia.
If the focal causal event is exposed, for writing essays example in hypnotic regression, the strain may be eliminated without there being obvious cause-effect connection. Similarly in the human variation of response to events, there may be no relationship between the severity of a problem and the severity of the cause (and therefore severity or duration of treatment). Proposals for new modeling of stress. In the absence of explicit definition of stress, new models will constantly been needed. This situation is paralleled by other systems in their infancy of stubborn resistance to definition. Steven Spielberg! It may be profitable to step outside the situation to look at a different philosophical or material database. When searching for the text string ‘model plus generation’ in Social Science databases, only a few matches were recorded. In contrast, Pure Science databases yielded numerous responses, revealing familiarity with analogous situations, where complex models could mirror mixtures of thin slices of quantitative data with large slices of qualitative information.
For example, the ‘state space framework’ was used by Patterson (1995) to writing in theology apply a model integrating data generation process with data measurement. Methodologies of kinetic modeling and mechanistic studies of complex catalytic chemical reactions have been analyzed by Gabrielle, Denoroy and Reau (1995). They showed the rationality of a methodology based on essay steven spielberg advancement and discrimination of hypotheses and gave a review of techniques for hypothesis generation. A combinatorial algorithm and a library of chemical reactions were used. Potthof, Holahan and Joiner (1995) examined a mechanism through which interpersonal vulnerability factors may be linked with depressive symptoms by integrating the stress-generation model with an essays in theology, interpersonal theory of depression. Initial depressive symptoms and initial reassurance-seeking style were positively associated with the occurrence of about culture, microstressors.
The results support our students’ perceived usefulness of the model of accumulation of microstressors. Landis (1994) launched a new series of metropolitan simulation models which replicated urban growth patterns and impacts of development policy. Essays! The rationality of the model and the way it has been built in terms of its formal structure, its databases and its decision rules is explained. Our students often failed to bibliographical steven disentangle the multiplicity of perceived strains which they experienced and some of them could not weight the importance of multiple macro-strains and microstressors leading to writing their present anxiety states. This indicates the potential for multifactorial modeling, such as used by Rosenheck and Fontana (1994). They used structural equation modeling to explore risk factors for homelessness among war veterans, whose vulnerability was found to be most likely to analytical of frankenstein to a multiplicity of psychiatric and non-psychiatric factors. This would confirm that alleviation of a broad range of writing, stressors needs a broad range of adjustments. Since the strains defined by student-counselors in their clients may be wrongly attributed to stressors, the top-down approach to modeling may be the way forward. About Of Afghanistan! The techniques of reverse engineering might be adopted. Puntambekar, Jablowlov and Sommer (1994) presented a review of the in theology, techniques available for reverse engineering, with particular emphasis on three-dimensional model generation.
It could be a promising way to analytical introduce programming of the computer to strain-stress simulation and modeling. Reverse engineering is a methodology for constructing computer-aided design models of physical parts, in circumstances where the writing, drawings of those parts are not available by movie review the normal methods of (i) digitizing an existing prototype, (ii) creating a computer model and (iii) using it to manufacture the component. An analogy can be seen with strain-stressor relationships in absence of precise definition of writing essays, stress. The criteria for a good model of stress would be simplicity, adequacy to facilitate counseling in known categories and flexibility to cope with new strains. At the base level, models are icons for movie images to hold a problem in writing in theology, view and remember the connections. Glenberg and Langston (1992) investigated the other of essay, building of mental models by using pictures in text, suggesting that a picture might provide relatively easy maintenance of some other representational elements corresponding to parts in the picture, freeing up capacity for inference generation. Essays In Theology! Perhaps stress models should perform a similar function as a ‘holding and stacking area’, ready for questions for harry and the deathly hallows landing the stress management and coping skills when the problem has been analyzed. Essays In Theology! The proliferation of models by brainstorming may be the essay spielberg, only path to a definition of stress. Writing Essays In Theology! However Kometsky and Markowitz (1978) drew attention to the danger of superficial resemblances when evaluating the problem of goodness of fit of review, a model. Holyoak and Thagard (1995) have acknowledged the usefulness of analogy in generating creative insights, but drew attention to examples of dangerous errors which can arise.
Mental models have been studied by Rhees (1983), Craik (1973) and Johnson-Laird (1991), who maintained that the mind constructs ‘small-scale models of reality that it uses to anticipate events, to reason and to underlie explanation. The models are constructed in working memory (the mind actively interpreting newly presented information and integrating previously stored information) as a result of perception, the comprehension of discourse or imagination. Writing Essays In Theology! Their structure represents something about the world and can best be described in terms of ‘problem solving’. In problem solving the task of constructing a mental model involves making assumptions about the problem and understanding the meaning of about culture of afghanistan, terms in in theology, the problem in order to reach a conclusion (solve the problem). However, an alternative model which is consistent with the statement of the questions for harry deathly, problem might be possible. The Theory of Mental Models (Johnson, Laird and Byrne, 1991) predicts that a problem is more difficult to solve if more than one model has to in theology be considered. Additional models impose a load on other parts limited working memory.
External representations (colloquially the ‘rough work’ we do to make models or solve problems) are in the world as physical symbols (e.g. written symbols, beads of abacuses, etc) or as external rules, constraints or relations embedded in physical configurations (e.g. Writing Essays! spatial relations of written digits, visual and spatial layouts of diagrams, physical constraints in abacuses, etc.). Internal representations are in the mind as propositions, production schemas, mental images and other forms. According to Travers (1993) when one begins a problem-solving task one mentally visualizes and arranges the givens, so all representation commences as internal. Cox and eth thesis, Brna (1995) maintained that concerning the nature of internal representations, popularly debated within cognitive science, advocates can be found for the position that internal imagery is essays in theology merely epiphenomenal (concomitant to it). External representations (Ers) are short lived or idiosyncratic. Studies in literacy show the important functions of questions potter, Ers. The classical view on writing, originally developed by Aristotle and presently restated by Bloomfield (1993) and writing, Sassure (1983) is that writing merely transcribes or re-represents speech from other parts of essay one Er in essays in theology, auditory form to another Er in visual form. Pemberton and Sharples (1996) supported the view that Ers are the markings that writers make, singly, or in essay of frankenstein, collaboration, on some external medium such as a computer screen.
They include notes, topic lists, written plans, idea maps, outlines, or tables, concept maps, argument structures and annotations on writing essays the draft document in all its stages. An example of an Er is a simple ad-hoc sketch (or even a shape described in the air or via a trace with a finger on a desktop) indicating intentions that are too amorphous to express easily in words. Wood (1992), in his studies of pairs of collaborating authors, pointed the authors to draw a large funnel shape to represent the essay, overall structure of the paper, and later both authors cited different places in this shape when talking about the same parts of the writing essays, paper. Other Parts! Pemberton and essays, Sharples suggested the Ers could in some instances be too ambiguous and analytical of frankenstein, could be resolved by writing down a more precise form of words. When a sample of people is asked to describe their stress by placing it within a stress model, they give different answers to what the stress model meant to them as an writing, individual. Student-tutor experiences with stress modeling suggests the need for re-examination of the thinking processes by which subject-independent models are generated both inside and outside this specific field. Bibliographical Spielberg! Promising directions seem to be those of writing essays in theology, reverse engineering and computer-simulation of strain-stressor relationships, and teaching enhanced skills in external representation. These will be the immediate directions of future research in constructing stress models. Bloomfield L. (1993) Language.
New York : Holt, Rhinehart and Winston. Cleeton G.(1991). Development and application of of frankenstein, a new theory of learning barriers . Ph.D. thesis, University of Keele . Cleeton G. (1996). Perception and Reality of Learning Barriers. Perceptual and Motor Skills , 1996, 82, 339 – 348. Cooper C.L. and Marshall J. Writing Essays In Theology! (1976) Occupational sources of stress a review of. the literature relating to coronary heart disease and mental ill health. Journal.
of Occupational Psychology , 49, 11-28. Cox, R. and Brna P. (1995) Supporting the use of external representations in problem solving; The Journal of Artificial Intelligence In Education, 6(2/3), 239-302. Craik F. (1973) “Levels of short, Analysis” view of memory. IN P.PLINER et al. (Eds.), Communicattion and affect: language and thought. Writing Essays In Theology! New York : Academic Press. Eysenck, M. H. Review! (1989). Personality, Stress Arousal and Cognitive Processes in Stress transactions. In Neufeld R W J (Ed) Advances in the Investigation of.
Psychological Stress , 133-157. Everly G. S. and Rosenfeld R. (1981). The Nature and Treatment of the writing in theology, Stress Response , Plenum, New York , p4. Festinger L. (1993). A Theory of Cognitive Dissonance . Stanford University Press. French J.P.R. and Caplan R D (1972). Short Review! Organizational Stress and Individual Strain. In Marrow A J (Ed), ‘ The Failure of Success ’. Amacom , New York , 30-66.
Friedman M. and Rosenman R.H. (1959). Association of specific overt behavior pattern with increases in blood cholesterol, blood-clotting time, incidence of arcus senilis and writing, clinical coronary artery disease. Journal of the American Medical Association 169,1286 -- 1296. Gabrielle B, Denoroy, P. and Reau R. Of Afghanistan! (1985) Nitrogen dynamics in in theology, a colza planatation-modelling ecological impact. Spielberg! OCL-Oleagineux Corps Gras Lipides, 2. 1,8-10.
Glass D.C. (1977). Behavior patterns, stress and coronary disease . Hillsdale , N.J. :Erlbaum. Glenberg A.M. and essays in theology, Langston W.E. Movie Review! (1992). In Theology! Comprehension of illustrated text: Pictures help to build mental models. Journal of Memory and essay about of afghanistan, Language, 31, 2,129 -- 150. Holyoak K. J. and Thagard P. Writing In Theology! (1995). Mental leaps: Analogy in Creative Thought. Bradford Books, U.S.
Holmes T.H. and Rahe R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal l of for harry and the deathly, Psychosomatic Research, 11,213 --218. Johnson-Laird P. and Byrne R. (1991) Deduction. Essays! Hillsdale , New Jersey : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Kometsky C. and Markowitz R. 1978. Parts Of Essay! Animal models of schizophrenia. In Lipton M.A., DiMascio A., Killiam K.F. (eds).
Abio-informational theory of essays, emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16:495-2512. Kuhn A. (1974) The Logic of Social Systems. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. Landis J. D. 1994. The California Urban Futures Model - Anew generation of metropolitan simulation models. Environments and planning, 21, 4,399 -- 420. Lolas F. (1979). The pertinence of animal investigation for clinical stress research.
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An integrated model of the data measurements and data generation processes within application to consumers’ expenditure. Economic Jouirnal, 105, full to wait, 54 -- 76. Pemberton L. and Sharples R. (1996) External Representations in the Writing Process and How to Support Them. AIEd 96 External Representations. Potthoff J.G., Holahan C.J. and Joiner T.E. Writing In Theology! (1995) Reassurance seeking, stress generation and depressive symptoms -- an integrative model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 68, 4,664 -- 670. Puntambekar N.V., Jablokow A.G. and Sommer, H.J. (1994) Unified review of 3D model generation for reverse engineering. Computer integrated Manufacturing Systems, 7, 4, 259-268. Powell T. J. and Enright S. (1990) . Anxiety and bibliographical spielberg, Stress Management.
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Writing Better University Essays/Process words. On this page you find a list of essays process words that are often used. This list is in parts of essay, part based on Jordan (1999). The process words are given in writing in theology, alphabetical order. Probably the most common process words are: discuss , describe , explain , compare , evaluate , and criticize . Account for asks for an explanation. Even though it looks similar to give an account of, this process word is rather different. You should give a description with details.
The description should clarify the concept, and don’t forget to give reasons. Analyze calls for an outline of the components. Take the issue, and break it down (divide) into the parts that make up the issue. Your task is not only to describe the different parts of the issue, but also to show (examine) how they relate to each other. Argue is about making a case. You’re often asked to argue for or against something.
In order to make a good case, your answer will need to include convincing evidence. Your argument will be more convincing if it’s logically structured. Even though the question often asks for a one-sided case, don’t forget the arguments against: even if it’s to dismiss them. About! If you don’t agree with the proposition, this is fine: what counts is the case you present. Assess asks you to essays, make a judgement of the value or importance of about culture something. Your answer should focus on both sides of the coin, weighing up the positive and negative aspects. It’s often necessary to spend much time on the areas that are disputed. Essays! In order to provide a credible answer, back up your answer with references and good examples. Even though you may have a good example from your own experience, it’s usually better to choose a more authoritative source. Calculate asks you to estimate the extent of something.
You should take great care to define the short review, key dimensions and determine how they are measured. Weigh up different reasons carefully. In the social sciences, the estimate itself is often secondary to how you evaluate the key dimensions. Characterize is mostly another word for describe. You’re looking for the key dimensions (characteristics) of a concept. Often it’s necessary to compare to other concepts to make clear the limit. Classify is very similar to analyze. Writing Essays In Theology! The key difference is possibly that this process word explicitly asks you to come up with some sort of classification: a way to divide. You probably want to spend a bit more time on the boundaries, on how the identified dimensions are different. Comment is similar to the content words analyze and assess.
It’s indeed often considered a combination of the two. Be careful not merely to summarize the essay, issue, but include some form of writing evaluation. This process word asks you to explain the questions for harry potter and the, importance of something. Your ability to describe an issue is usually only appreciated in conjunction with a critical argument. Compare always involves two or more issues. Writing Essays In Theology! Focus on what characterizes the issues, and your answer will include both the similarities and differences.
This content word often occurs in conjunction with contrast. Technically, compare is about similarities, but for a balanced answer you’ll need to include the differences, too. Your conclusion may include a statement of which of the issues or options discussed you consider preferable. Consider asks you to think carefully about something. This process word is sometimes followed by an example or case study, but also a theoretical perspective. Take great care to analytical essay, include these aspects, because you’ll be (partly) marked on how well you apply whatever the question is to this particular example or theory. Contrast is like a twin to compare. Two or more issues or options are involved, and your answer should focus on the differences.
Technically, contrast does not ask you to include similarities, but a balanced answer will include these, too. Your conclusion may include a statement of which of the issues or options discussed you consider preferable. Criticize asks for a careful judgement of a statement or point of view. You’re often asked to writing, make statements about the value or truth of a statement. Make sure you point out faults. It’s important to state by which criteria of evaluation your answer is guided. Your illustrations should not be of general nature, but specific. If the illustrative examples are not general in nature, too, then say so. Your answer will judge the merit of the views included in the statement. Often you can—and should—link to underlying theories and approaches. These should be included in the evaluation, too.
Your answer also needs to discuss the nature and quality of evidence you cited for and against about of afghanistan, the different views. Always back up your argument with evidence and essays in theology reasoning. Deduce asks you to reach a conclusion based on something. Make clear how you reach this conclusion. Define may look innocent, but the devil is often in the detail.
Similar to analyze, you’re after the components of an issue of concept. Bibliographical Essay! You don’t want just any definition, but one that discusses the different meanings of writing a concept, the different ways it can be interpreted. Often, you can link the answer to short, how different schools of writing in theology thought use a term. In this case your task is to tease out the different understandings and state the different meanings. Your answer necessarily includes an appreciation of the different components, but you should also pay attention to the differences to other concepts: how is it distinct from something else. Precision is important in your answer, and your answer should always go beyond common-sense interpretations.
Sometimes you’re asked to write for a specific audience, such as a student encyclopaedia, and you should bear this in mind. Demonstrate asks you to show something as clearly as you can. You’ll need to movie, use an example (illustration) to this extent. Make sure the illustration is relevant and state clearly how it is relevant. Describe is one of the most straight-forward tasks. Essays In Theology! You’re asked to outline the main aspects of an issue or point of view. Say what something is like. Sometimes the order of events is important. Your answer should always include illustrative examples to bring the argument alive. Essay Spielberg! The structure of the answer is important: don’t jump around, picking up bits and pieces on the way.
Instead, plan a logical and writing essays coherent way in essay about of afghanistan, order to cover all the writing in theology, main aspects. This process word often occurs together with others, such as in describe and criticize. Determine asks you to find out something, maybe to calculate or estimate something. You should always describe how you arrive at the answer, including an appreciation of how not to proceed. Short! Be open about the shortcomings or potential dangers of writing your approach. Differentiate between something and something else is a combination of describe and define.
You’re asked to focus on the differences. Often it’ll be necessary to discuss the similarities, too. Discuss. It’s very common to be given a quote or provocative statement, followed by just this word: discuss. Your answer should include an outline of the problems and then evaluate the different arguments or points of view. Essay Of Frankenstein! Weigh up the points for and against.
It’s important to in theology, illustrate your argument, and bibliographical steven refer to in theology, established work. Very often your own opinion is asked, usually in form of an evaluation of the different points of analytical view. Look out for key debates that are involved. The statements that come with this process word are often deliberately provocative. Distinguish between is just another process word for differentiate between. Elaborate asks for a discussion in essays, great detail.
Always give reasons and include illustrations. Steven! Think carefully about in theology which aspects of essay about culture a theory or concept are worth exploring in great detail. In this sense, this question often asks you to—implicitly—determine the in theology, key components of something. Avoid repetitions of the same point. Elucidate is very similar to explain. You’re asked to make clear something.
This often involves a clear line of movie argument, and usually a number of illustrations to bring the argument alive. Enumerate in principle asks you to put a number to writing essays in theology, something. In practice you’re normally asked to name and list different aspects, giving an eth thesis explanation. You should always try to estimate the writing in theology, extent of something, having outlined how you reach this estimate. Estimate is a close relative to calculate, but you’re also asked to judge and predict. State clearly how you reached your conclusion or estimate. Evaluate is similar to discuss, but it asks you to focus more on the value or importance of a certain argument or point of view. You should weigh up the bibliographical essay steven spielberg, different aspects, illustrate the argument, and refer to established works. You’ll usually be able to writing in theology, make a statement of the worth of something. Also see the box on persuasiveness on page 22.
Examine is questions for harry potter and the deathly, a process word that asks you to have a close look at writing essays, something. Consider the different components and parts. Often you can examine an issue using different theoretical perspectives. Always make explicit which perspectives you use. Explain asks you to focus on how things work. Rather than focusing on things as they are, this process word asks you to focus on how things got there. So you’ll always need to give reasons. The answer will include some describing and analyzing. For Harry Potter Deathly Hallows! It’s important to make explicit the workings and mechanisms. Express is just another word to say describe. To what extent is similar to assess or criticize.
You’re asked to explore a statement or view. Writing Essays! Look out for analytical theoretical and practical limits to the statement, but also include evidence in favour. The typical conclusion highlights the in theology, limits of the proposition, but will neither be total acceptance nor total dismissal. Watch out for changes over essay about of afghanistan, time and across space: Is the proposition also applicable in other cultures? Was the writing essays, proposition also applicable in the past?
Identify is a process word that allows you a great deal of essay questions for harry and the deathly hallows liberty. You’re expected to choose the examples, features, or arguments for a proposition that you regard the most important ones. It’s usually a good idea to essays in theology, point out and essay questions for harry and the list the features first. Writing In Theology! The choice of essay for harry and the hallows these key aspects, however, is often secondary to essays, your answer. Instead, you should focus your attention to the criteria of essay for harry hallows evaluation: why a feature is central. You should defend and justify your choice of picks. Illustrate is similar to writing essays in theology, explain, but the person writing the question appears to be very keen on illustrative examples. Make sure you have a relevant example, and include enough details to make clear the bibliographical spielberg, relevance. Sometimes, you may illustrate the argument with statistics. What is important is that the examples support the argument, and you therefore demonstrate how exactly the examples are relevant.
Sometimes a question will ask you explicitly about a figure or diagram to explain or clarify. Take care to follow such instructions carefully. Where nothing is stated, assume that you should include concrete examples. Indicate asks you to show and explain. Usually you’re expected to use a good illustration. Make sure you demonstrate how the example is relevant to the question. Infer is a process word that asks you to conclude based on facts or a clear line of reasoning. It’s important that you state clearly how you reached the conclusion, not just what your conclusion is.
Interpret asks for a clarification and explanation. Rather than just describing, you should also give your judgement. An interpretation often highlights how an issue or point of view relates to others, or outlines the different meanings and essays interpretations there are to it. Usually you’re expected to give your own judgement as part of an evaluation of the different aspects. Justify on the surface asks for essay about culture a defence of writing essays a particular statement, theory, or point of view.
You should cite evidence and give examples that support the case. However, for a balanced answer, it’ll be necessary to look at the arguments against. Analytical Of Frankenstein! The justification thus is a form of evaluation. Your conclusion may be that the statement can’t be justified (in the light of certain evidence), or outline limits. List probably looks as innocent as describe, and is in fact closely related. You’re asked to classify or catalogue something. Writing Essays! Make sure you include how you decided to classify, what criteria you used to put the list in sequence. This process word may mean that you have to list the key components of a concept. Mention asks you to describe something briefly.
This process word usually is used together with others, but do make sure you don’t skip this part of the question. Name is essay steven, another word for identify. Outline asks you to indicate what the main characteristics or features of a topic or point of view are. Sometimes you’ll need to indicate the key events in a sequence. Essays! It’s very important to follow a clear and logically coherent structure.
Your answer may focus on how the different features relate to each other, rather than just describing them. Prove is a rare process word in the social sciences. You should try to demonstrate that something is true and certain. On the one hand you should provide convincing examples and bibliographical essay steven evidence that something is the case. On the other hand, you should also demonstrate that the opposite is not the essays in theology, case either. Your conclusion may well be that it’s impossible to prove something, but make sure your answer is relevant to the question, not just a philosophical treatment of whether we can prove things. Quantify is another word for enumerate. Relate is similar to bibliographical essay, giving an writing in theology account of. You’re usually particularly asked to relate one thing to analytical essay, another, demonstrating how they link. Review is very similar to assess.
The key difference is that you’re asked to write about a topic or area rather than a specific case or statement. The answer will thus include a selection of everything about a topic. Usually it’s a bad idea trying to writing, include all the different angles and all the different authors. Instead, you should try to organize your answer, such as into schools of thought, or key proponents. Leaving out less relevant contributions is about, often the writing essays, key to a successful answer. Take care not merely to describe who said what, but also to essay, assess the merit of their argument. Show asks you to writing essays, indicate something. Make sure you use appropriate evidence and examples to back up your claims. Make clear what something means. Speculate is similar to prove, but different in that you’re not asked to come up with a definite answer.
The very word used indicates that there will be many different explanations, and you’ll have to evaluate the different possibilities. You’re thus asked to form an opinion. Of Essay! Very often this process word is given where you don’t have complete knowledge of the circumstances. You should suggest the most likely case. State asks you to express something carefully. Make sure you cover the writing essays in theology, different components and be clear. Often you’re asked to repository, illustrate something, or demonstrate how two different things link.
Suggest is somewhat similar to speculate. You should mention the different possibilities, and choose the most likely one. Make sure you include in the essay the criteria how you evaluate the different possibilities: how you can say that one is the essays, most likely possibility. Summarize is about the identification of the key points and aspects of an issue or topic. Eth Thesis Repository! Details can often be omitted, as can be illustrations.
However, depending on the tasks, illustrations may be necessary: try to identify the key examples. This process word often occurs together with others, such as analyze. It’s often easier to first summarize and then move to the second task, but make sure the different parts of the answer link. Trace asks you to provide a narrative that outlines the progress or sequence of an issue or certain events. Often, a chronological order is the easiest form of structure. Sometimes you’ll be asked to write from a particular point of view. Usually, however, you can include the different points of views.
The same sequence of writing in theology events may be interpreted or experienced in essay about, different ways by in theology the different participants. Verify asks you to make sure that something is the case. You’re looking for evidence and examples for and against the case. Evaluate the evidence and provide a judgment whether the statement is true or accurate.