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Aortic valve stenotic area calculation from phase contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance: the importance of short echo time. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) can potentially quantify aortic valve area (AVA) in aortic stenosis (AS) using a single-slice phase contrast (PC) acquisition at valve level: AVA = aortic flow/aortic velocity-time integral (VTI). Informative Essays With Declaritive! However, CMR has been shown to underestimate aortic flow in turbulent high velocity jets, due to intra-voxel dephasing. This study investigated the effect of decreasing intra-voxel dephasing by reducing the echo time (TE) on AVA estimates in patients with AS. 15 patients with moderate or severe AS, were studied with three different TEs (2.8 ms/2.0 ms/1.5 ms), in the main pulmonary artery (MPA), left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and thesis on qfd 0 cm/1 cm/2.5 cm above the aortic valve (AoV). PC estimates of stroke volume (SV) were compared with CMR left ventricular SV measurements and PC peak velocity, VTI and AVA were compared with Doppler echocardiography. CMR estimates of AVA obtained by direct planimetry from cine acquisitions were also compared with the echoAVA. Informative With! With a TE of help environment essay, 2.8 ms, the mean PC SV was similar to the ventricular SV at essays with, the MPA, LVOT and AoV 0 cm (by Bland-Altman analysis bias ± 1.96 SD, 1.3 ± 20.2 mL/-6.8 ± 21.9 mL/6.5 ± 50.7 mL respectively), but was significantly lower at AoV 1 and AoV 2.5 (-29.3 ± 31.2 mL/-21.1 ± 35.7 mL). PC peak velocity and VTI underestimated Doppler echo estimates by approximately 10% with only moderate agreement.
Shortening the TE from essay, 2.8 to 1.5 msec improved the agreement between ventricular SV and PC SV at essays beginning with declaritive, AoV 0 cm (6.5 ± 50.7 mL vs 1.5 ± 37.9 mL respectively) but did not satisfactorily improve the PC SV estimate at AoV 1 cm and AoV 2.5 cm . Management Goals Essay! Agreement of CMR AVA with echoAVA was improved at informative beginning, TE 1.5 ms (0.00 ± 0.39 cm 2 ) versus TE 2.8 (0.11 ± 0.81 cm 2 ). Essay! The CMR method which agreed best with echoAVA was direct planimetry (-0.03 cm 2 ± 0.24 cm 2 ). Agreement of informative beginning with declaritive, CMR AVA at the aortic valve level with echo AVA improves with a reduced TE of thesis on qfd, 1.5 ms. However, flow measurements in informative essays declaritive statements, the aorta (AoV 1 and 2.5) are underestimated and 95% limits of environment, agreement remain large. Further improvements or novel, more robust techniques are needed in the CMR PC technique in informative beginning, the assessment of AS severity in patients with moderate to severe aortic stenosis. Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1532-429X-11-49 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Essay On Nuclear Power Is Boon Or Bane! Accurate assessment of lesion severity is central to surgical decision making for essays patients with aortic stenosis. Environment Essay! Transthoracic echocardiographic assessment is typically used to make this assessment; however, poor image quality due to informative declaritive statements, limited acoustic windows and the experience of the operator may have a larger impact on reliable measurements than with other modalities [ 1 ]. For example poor jet alignment may cause the underestimation of help essay, jet velocities [ 2 ], the echo continuity equations assumes that the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) is circular when it is beginning ovoid and thesis the tracing of the Doppler velocity envelope and estimation of the LVOT's diameter are dependent on the analyst's experience. Informative Essays With Statements! Currently, when transthoracic echo results are equivocal an invasive investigation such as cardiac catheterisation or transoesophageal echo may be required to estimate aortic valve area (AVA). Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) may be a useful alternative non-invasive modality. Help Environment! Because CMR can measure flow volume and declaritive statements velocity, it is theoretically possible to estimate AVA using the continuity equation [ 3 ] or more directly from the flow volume and velocity-time integral (VTI) [ 4 ] sampled from a single acquisition at the valve level.
To be accurate, the velocity and flow data obtained in structural, these turbulent, high velocity jets must be accurate. Whilst small preliminary studies have been promising [ 1 , 2 ], lesion severity can be systematically underestimated in patients with severe AS [ 3 ]. Furthermore, in informative essays declaritive statements, one of the largest cohort of AS patients studied with CMR to date, aortic flow sampled just above the stenotic aortic valve (AoV) systematically underestimated left ventricular stroke volume (SV) [ 5 ]. This underestimation was greater with increasing AS severity and essay power is boon was postulated to be due to intravoxel dephasing [ 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 ]. In vitro experiments confirmed this flow error at longer TEs, and found reduced intravoxel dephasing and improved flow estimates at shorter TE [ 5 ]. Shortening TE reduces the essays beginning with statements inherent higher order motion encoding [ 15 ], decreases the time available for the detrimental mixing of fast and essay on nuclear or bane slow moving spins, reduces the risk of turbulent velocity fluctuations disrupting the expected phase shift and thus improves the measured velocity's reliability and accuracy [ 5 ]. In a severely stenotic jet all of these effects are enhanced. Informative Beginning Declaritive Statements! The aims of the study were to essay on nuclear or bane, systematically study the reliability of PC aortic flow, peak velocity VTI and AVA estimates by CMR in patients with moderate or severe AS, and to investigate the in vivo effect, on these parameters, of reducing TE. We hypothesized that reducing the TE would improve the agreement between CMR echocardiographic estimates of AVA. 15 patients with isolated moderate or severe aortic stenosis (peak aortic velocity ?3 m/s) were studied. Patients were excluded if they had left ventricular impairment (ejection fraction 50%), atrial fibrillation, more than trace mitral or aortic regurgitation or other significant valvular disease, congenital heart disease, poor echocardiographic images, inability to informative declaritive, undergo a CMR scan, or contraindications to CMR.
Echo data was obtained using a Philips IE33 ultrasound system (Philips, Best, Netherlands). All patients underwent a comprehensive 2D and Doppler echo within 1 hour of the CMR scan. Meticulous attention was paid to obtain the optimal velocity envelope and true peak trans-AoV velocity by sampling using continuous wave Doppler from multiple imaging windows (apical, right parasternal and suprasternal). Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity profile was obtained by uc essay requirements, careful placement of the pulsed wave Doppler sample volume in the LVOT immediately below the AoV in an apical 5-chamber view. Informative Essays Beginning With Declaritive Statements! The LVOT diameter was measured by imaging the LVOT using the parasternal long axis view. LVOT area was estimated by assuming a circular orifice. Analysis was performed off-line by a single experienced echocardiographer (AJK) blinded to the patients' CMR findings. Measurements were made according to American Society of Echocardiography guidelines [ 18 ] and averaged from 3 to 5 cycles. The velocity time intervals for the LVOT (VTI LVOT ) and trans-AoV (VTI AoV ) flow were obtained.
The peak AoV velocity and VTI were reported from the window yielding the highest velocity signal. Mean trans-AoV gradients were calculated using the modified Bernoulli equation. Echo LV stroke volume was estimated by the product of VTI LVOT and the LVOT area. All MR data were collected on a Siemens 1.5 Tesla Avanto MRI scanner (Siemens Medical, Erlangen, Germany). 15s in thesis, duration.
Typical image parameters for each experiment. Phase Contrast variants. 3 long axis, 6-8 short axis. MPA, LVOT, 0 cm, 1 cm, 2.5 cm. 0 cm, 1 cm, 2.5 cm, 0 cm, 1 cm, 2.5 cm. Informative Beginning With Declaritive! SSFP = Steady State Free Precession, TR = Repetition Time, TE = Echo Time, FOV = Field of View, VENC = Velocity Encoding, MPA = main pulmonary artery. Thesis On Qfd! LVOT = Left ventricular outflow tract, 0 cm/1 cm/2.5 cm = distance distal from aortic valve. For quantitative flow measurements, PC images were obtained using the commercially released retrospectively gated breath-hold through plane velocity-encoding/velocity compensation technique with velocity compensation on the readout direction.
Breath-hold acquisitions took ?20 s, and essays with statements calculated 25 phases. The standard TE was 2.79 ms. This sequence was modified to enable a TE of 2.0 ms by time management goals, using the improved performance of current gradient hardware (45 and 200 T/m/s), halving the duration of the RF excitation pulse, and increasing the essays beginning with statements readout bandwidth from 390 Hz to 490 Hz. Help Essay! The TE was further reduced to 1.5 ms by maximising the gradient hardware and readout bandwidth (1530 Hz) and essays beginning with acquiring two averages to compensate for the reduced SNR. The in-plane resolution of the modified sequences was also adjusted (reduced base matrix size and increased phase resolution) to make the voxels more isotropic whilst maintaining a similar volume. Typical image parameters can be found in Table 1 . Through-plane flow was obtained in the following order: AoV leaflet tips (AoV 0 cm ), 1 cm beyond the power is boon or bane AoV tips (AoV 1 cm ) in the aortic root, 2.5 cm beyond the essays beginning with statements AoV tips (AoV 2.5 cm ) just beyond the sino-tubular junction, LVOT, and main pulmonary artery (MPA). Both MPA and thesis on qfd LVOT/AoV images were planned from paired orthogonal long axis SSFP cine images through the MPA and AoV respectively. Aortic valve cine and beginning declaritive statements flow imaging method: A standardised approach was followed to obtain short axis cine imaging for i) aortic valve planimetry, and, ii) to plan the optimal short-axis slice position for flow measurement (AoV 0 cm ). Uc Essay Requirements! i). Informative Essays Beginning Statements! SSFP cine imaging of aortic valve: Paired long-axis SSFP cine images through the aortic valve were obtained - 3-chamber and the orthogonal LVOT view. Goals Essay! The operator positioned the initial cine slice (6 mm slice thickness) at the AoV at with declaritive statements, end-diastole using the paired long axis cines. Our experience is that in time goals, moderate or severe AS when the informative essays beginning with declaritive statements valve opens in systole and moves down towards the apex it descends through this slice, which is therefore a useful initial position for obtaining cine images for planimetry of the uc essay requirements limiting valve orifice.
When images did not appear optimal the slice was repeated ± 6 mm. ii). Aortic valve phase contrast flow (AoV 0 cm ): The optimal short-axis slice position for informative essays declaritive measurement of peak trans-valvular velocities is at the vena contracta just at or beyond the anatomic valve orifice in systole. Thesis On Qfd! In straight pipes with planar circular orifice plates the vena contracta occurs about one orifice diameter downstream from the orifice [ 19 ]. To choose an appropriate slice location the operator started with the slice position corresponding to the minimal valve orifice on the SSFP cine image. Appropriate positioning was confirmed by checking in informative beginning with, the paired long axis cines that the slice transected the thesis proximal AS jet in mid systole immediately above the aortic valve leaflets. If necessary the slice position was adjusted to informative essays with statements, achieve this. This position was taken as AoV 0 cm . A VENC scout sequence with VENC of 3.5 m/s, 4.0 m/s and revolution 4.5 m/s was used to choose the appropriate VENC in the AoV 0 cm , AoV 1 cm and informative statements AoV 2.5 cm acquisitions. When aliasing occurred at 4.5 m/s, flow was acquired at higher VENCs in on nuclear power is boon, 0.5 m/s steps. The CMR SV was determined by interactively fitting a 3D LV finite element model to the images using the software package, CIMv4.6 (Auckland MRI Research Group, University of Auckland, New Zealand).
This method has been previously validated in informative with, patients with cardiac disease, post mortem results from animal studies, and against PC velocity estimation of SV [ 20 ]. The PC data was analyzed by manually tracing around the LVOT, aortic root and MPA in each frame using ARGUS syngo MR 2004V (Siemens Medical Systems). The contours were exported to customised software, written in Matlab (Math-Works, South Natick, MA, USA), to essay, apply the linear surface background phase correction process previously described by essays beginning, Lankhaar et al [ 21 ]. An estimate of the background phase was obtained by manually removing anatomically wrapped regions (due to spatial aliasing) and new years revolution essay identifying stationary tissue using the suggested temporal velocity standard deviation threshold of 25%. Matlab's standard least squares algorithm was used to fit a linear plane to the background phase. Informative Essays With! Background phase correction was performed by revolution, subtracting the statements surface from the original velocity phase map. The flow at each frame was calculated by multiplying the average velocity within each contour by its area. Thesis On Qfd! A PC estimate of informative beginning with, SV (PC SV) was determined by summation of the uc essay net forward flow through the cardiac cycle. Peak velocity for essays with declaritive each frame was obtained as the maximum velocity of all pixels within the vessel. No neighbourhood averaging was used for peak velocity estimation, instead, as previously suggested by thesis, Nayler et al [ 22 ], the magnitude image's pixel value for the peak velocity must be above a certain threshold. Signal loss is an informative essays declaritive indicator of intravoxel dephasing and a loss of reliability in the PC estimate of velocity [ 5 , 22 ]. Normalised signal intensity (NSI) for structural each pixel was obtained by dividing their magnitude value with the average magnitude across the whole vessel obtained over essays beginning the last 10 frames of diastole. (Diastolic blood, though not stationary, is the best representation of the minimum expected signal intensity when a pixel's velocity is reliable.) Only pixels with signal enhancement relative to diastolic flow of NSI 2 were considered for peak velocity estimation [ 3 ]. On Nuclear Power Or Bane! The velocity time integral was calculated by numerically integrating, using Simpson's rule, the area under the peak velocity versus time curve during systole. The highest peak velocity (V ,pk ) was chosen to coincide with the highest phase contrast estimate of essays statements, VTI (VTI pk ) between AoV 0 cm and AoV 1 cm . Aortic valve area estimation using echo and CMR.
Two CMR methods for estimating the AVA, both using the highest VTI estimate (PC VTI pk ), were investigated. Management Goals! As an additional validation the CMR aortic valve area was also estimated by direct planimetry. The maximal visible aortic valve orifice in declaritive, the short axis SSFP image obtained at the leaflet tips was manually traced as previously described. [ 24 ] Severe AS was defined as AVA 1 cm 2 , or peak velocity 4 m/sec by echo [ 23 ]. Statistical analysis was performed with R for windows, v2.6.2 (The R foundation for statistical computing). Paired 2-tailed T-test was used to test differences between volumetric and PC estimates of SV and the effect of background phase correction. p .05 was considered statistically significant. Pearson linear regression (r 2 ) was used to: a) compare the CMR SV with the PC SV at each level; b) to compare the essay peak velocity, VTI and AVA calculated using Doppler echo with CMR estimates. Essays Beginning With Declaritive! Agreement between methods was also assessed by Bland-Altman analysis (bias (mean of the differences between pairs of thesis on qfd, measures) and 95% limits of beginning declaritive, agreement (± 1.96SD of the difference between pairs of measures)). Fifteen patients with moderate or severe AS were studied (11 men, age 71 ± 10.5 years). Ten patients had calcific aortic stenosis with trileaflet AoVs and five had bicuspid valves. By echo the mean aortic peak velocity was 4.2 m/s (range 3.3 m/s to 5.5 m/s), mean gradient 44.7 mmHg (range 25.6 mmHg to 75.2 mmHg) and thesis on qfd AVA 0.85 cm 2 (range 0.52 cm 2 to 1.50 cm 2 ). 12 patients (80%) had severe AS.
The effect of the background phase correction on PC SV estimation is informative beginning with statements shown in Additional file 1 . For TE 2.8 there was a statistically significant difference between the SV error before and after correction at the MPA and the LVOT; however, the mean SV errors were small (1.6% and 4.8% respectively) and uc essay no significant difference was observed at the AoV (AoV 0 cm , AoV 1 cm and AoV 2.5 cm ). Informative Essays! The TE of 2.0 ms estimations showed modest improvement after correction; however, the TE of 1.5 ms showed large corrections and statistical significance across all levels. Therefore only the goals essay TE 1.5 ms data were phase corrected in subsequent analyses. Comparison of the mean CMR SV with that obtained by PC in the MPA, LVOT and at serial AoV levels for various TEs. † Paired T-test with Bonferroni correction, comparison of PC SV at each level with the CMR SV. * Bias and the 95% limits of beginning, agreement determined by Bland-Altman analysis. Thesis On Qfd! CMR SV = left ventricular stroke volume by cardiac magnetic resonance, MPA = main pulmonary artery, LVOT = left ventricular outflow tract, AoV = aortic valve. The Bland-Altman bias ± 1.96SD, the paired T-test and declaritive the linear regression statistics between CMR SV and PC SV estimates are shown. Comparison of the echo Doppler peak velocity and thesis echo Doppler VTI with the VTI PC, max (a), V PC, pk (b) and PC SV determined from the location of VTI PC, max in the aorta with CMR SV (c) for three TEs, TE = 2.8 ms, TE = 2.0 ms, TE = 1.5 ms . Mean AVA, SVs, peak trans-AoV velocities and VTIs estimated by CMR and Doppler methods. PC SV at VTI pk level. † p-value .05 for comparison in each column with Doppler data (V pk , VTI pk and beginning with declaritive statements AVA) or CMR SV (SV) The Doppler AVA is derived using the continuity equation. PC peak velocity, and thesis structural PC SV data are from the same AoV level that the PC VTI pk was obtained. CMR vs echo for peak velocity, velocity-time integral, SV, and informative essays beginning declaritive statements AVA.
Left ventricular SV by echo and time management CMR (Table 3 , 4 ) Bland-Altman and linear regression analysis between echo and beginning with statements CMR methods for AVA estimation. Essay Power Or Bane! Bland-Altman bias ± 1.96SD. Pearson linear regression r 2 /p-value. PC estimates of V pk , VTI pk and AVA were compared to essays beginning with declaritive statements, echo data and SV estimates were compared against CMR SV. The mean CMR SV and Doppler echo SV were similar (87 mL and 81.8 mL, respectively) but with relatively poor agreement at individual patient level, Table 4. Peak velocity and VTI data (Table 3 , 4 Figures 2 , 3 ) Comparison of power is boon, echo and CMR estimates of the AVA using the volumetric (a) and flow method (b) with three different TEs, TE = 2.8 ms TE = 2.0 ms TE = 1.5 ms . The peak velocity and VTI PC estimates generally occurred at the same location and beginning statements they were predominantly found at the AV 0 cm level (see Additional file 2 ). The range of image quality in cine images obtained for AVA planimetry, and the corresponding planimetry are illustrated . Time Management Goals! These range from informative essays statements, good quality (A), to cases where images were sub-optimal due to poorly defined borders (B, C) or in-plane flow artefacts (D), to one case where planimetry was not considered possible (E). Two CMR methods of structural, estimating AVA are compared with echo AVA. The agreement on Bland-Altman analysis is relatively poor between echo and informative essays beginning with declaritive statements both CMR methods with the 95% limits of agreement between the or bane methods of at least 0.39 cm 2. Essays With Declaritive Statements! Compared with echo, the CMR AVA vol method systematically overestimated echo AVA. The AVA flow method showed better agreement with echo at the shorter TEs. However at all TEs examined, both components of the thesis on qfd calculation (PC SV and PC VTI pk ) were systematically underestimated compared with echo data.
The CMR method which agreed best with echo AVA was direct planimetry of the valve from SSFP images. The Bland-Altman bias was -0.03 cm 2 with 95% limits of informative beginning statements, agreement ± 0.24 cm 2 in the 14 of 15 patients with technically adequate images. In this CMR study using a contemporary magnet and sequences, we found important inaccuracies in the measurement of aortic flow volume by phase contrast both at, and beyond, the stenotic AoV. Is Boon! The PC SV had poor individual agreement with the CMR SV at the aortic valve level and the flow became underestimated beyond the aortic valve. The 95% limits of agreement were reduced when the TE was shortened to informative essays beginning statements, 1.5 ms; but agreement between echo and environment CMR AVA remained sub-optimal. We have also observed a relatively small but systematic underestimation of peak AoV velocities and VTIs obtained by CMR compared with echo. Informative Essays! Stroke volume flow measurement in thesis on qfd, aortic stenosis. The comparisons of the essays with statements gold standard CMR SV with the flows measured by PC at AoV level were highly variable, and those measured beyond the stenotic AoV were underestimated by between 20 to 30%. At the new years revolution essay AoV level and at the level corresponding to informative essays beginning with declaritive, the PC VTI pk , the 95% limits of new years, agreement reduced with shorter TEs; however, although the correlations improved with shorter TEs, they were at informative beginning with declaritive, least twice that observed in the MPA. Prior to the jet's vena contracta the flow experience large spatial accelerations and is converging; after the vena contracta the flow begins to diverge and decelerate [ 25 ]. Accelerations have a stabilising effect on turbulence, thereby the turbulence's intensity is greatest distal from the vena contracta [ 10 , 25 , 26 , 27 ]. Uc Essay! Shortening the TE, therefore reducing the informative with declaritive statements higher order motion encoding, reduces the intravoxel dephasing and most probably explains the revolution improved results close to the AoV with a TE 1.5 ms. At AoV 1 cm and informative beginning with AoV 2.5 cm , the presence of turbulence with a greater intensity ensures significant intravoxel dephasing errors were still present in-vivo even with the TE of 1.5 ms.
If possible, further reduction in the TE would be beneficial in decreasing the essay on nuclear power is boon or bane intravoxel dephasing and with therefore improving the environment essay standard deviations of the flow measurements in the aorta towards those observed in regions relatively free of intravoxel dephasing such as the MPA. Shorter TEs should also help to remove the underestimation of PC SV distal to the AoV. Informative Essays Beginning With Statements! Comparison between echo and CMR for peak velocity and VTI. Peak trans-AoV velocities and VTI PC underestimated that observed by Doppler echo by about 10% on average. CMR PC peak velocity and PC VTI pk may always underestimate Doppler echo, due to spatial and power or bane temporal averaging.
More specifically, beat-to-beat variations of the stenotic jet's orientation within the informative essays statements desired slice may violate PC's assumption of identical flow patterns. In comparison, Doppler echo is an instantaneous measurement whose signal intensity (therefore the planimetry of the Doppler echo's velocity envelope) is dependent on the number of thesis on qfd, red blood cells moving at the same velocity [ 28 ]. Assessment of with, AVA by time goals, CMR compared with echo. The CMR AVA vol overestimates echo AVA because the informative with declaritive statements VTI PC is underestimated by thesis on qfd, CMR. Informative Essays Beginning! The CMR AVAs flow are better calibrated to echo but only because both the PC SV and VTIs are proportionately underestimated. Decreasing the TE to new years, 1.5 ms did not show clear improvement in the accuracy of the PC peak velocity and VTI pk, ; however it did exhibit some improvement in the variability of CMR AVA flow . This was likely due to the improved variability of the PC SV estimate. Essays With Declaritive Statements! In contrast to our study, Caruthers et al [ 3 ] and Yap et al [ 4 ] obtained a better correlation between echo and PC AVA. New Years! This is in part because they included patients with mild AS. Yap et al [ 4 ], in patients with aortic stenosis secondary to a bicuspid AoV, report a good correspondence between CMR SV measured by volumetric analysis and phase contrast (TE of 2.9 ms). But, their 95% limits of beginning with declaritive, agreement increased from 0.1 ± 23.1 mL prior to management goals, the AoV to 1.5 ± 31.4 ml distal from the AoV, consistent with intravoxel dephasing induced inaccuracies. Several patients with moderate to severe AS showed marked variation between echo and PC methods and the volumetric (-0.01 ± 0.37) and flow CMR (0.02 ± 0.45) AVA methods had similar 95% limits of agreement to with, those reported in this study. Caruthers et al [ 3 ] (TE of 3.1 ms) do not report flow or CMR SV comparisons.
Only five patients had Doppler echo VTI estimates in excess of 0.8 m, all whom were underestimated with PC. The 95% limits of agreement (± ?0.4 cm 2 ) in their study are similar to those of the current study. It is also possible that the type of valve lesion is important. In the current study 10 of new years, 15 patients had calcific AS which may cause more turbulent flow than in a bicuspid valve. Subtle differences in slice location may also be important. Yap et al [ 4 ] placed their slices at the AoV leaflet at end-systole which is further towards the apex than in our study where it was placed at the AoV tips in essays with statements, mid-systole. In straight pipes with planar circular orifice plates the vena contracta occurs about one orifice diameter downstream from the orifice making the optimal position likely to help environment, be at or just beyond the aortic valve leaflet tips during early to mid-systole. In practice this is difficult to achieve precisely due to valve plane movement during the essays cardiac cycle and breath-hold variation. We used long axis cine imaging to plan short axis planimetry of the thesis on qfd aortic valve and essays beginning with declaritive then optimised the slice position for flow at the aortic leaflet tips using both short axis and essay long axis cine images. If only flow information, without additional planimetry is required, a simplified method using just the long axis cines and transecting the visible jet in essays beginning with, early to help environment essay, mid systole would probably lead to similar results.
Caruthers et al in with, a study using free breathing PC found subtle differences in slice position made no difference but it is possible that with the more accurate slice positioning with breath-hold sequences that position is important. Slice positioning either just upstream or too far downstream from the AoV would lead to underestimation of peak velocities and time management VTI and corresponding overestimation of AVA. We compared results from the AoV 0 cm and AoV 1 cm slice position to test whether a significant difference occurs due to declaritive, accurate positioning, and found that although 70% of the peak velocities were found in the AoV 0 cm slice, the time goals peak velocities and with declaritive statements VTIs were very similar, Table A2, suggesting that inter-acquisition variation due to factors such as breath-hold variation may be more important than small changes in position. In this study we did not have an management goals essay intermediate slice half way between AoV 0 cmand AoV 1 cm . Further investigation is needed to understand whether such small differences in informative beginning with declaritive statements, slice location are important, if they do it would potentially limit the generalisability of the technique. In clinical practice a critical decision to be made when imaging aortic stenosis is to distinguish patients with moderate versus severe aortic stenosis.
Before CMR PC AVA estimates are used clinically, improved techniques to measure PC SV are required. Despite erroneous flow data it is possible to thesis structural, obtain peak velocities, VTIs and/or AVAs which correlate moderately well with Doppler echo. However in this study the PC method does seem to systematically underestimate peak velocity and VTI by approximately 10% compared with Doppler echo. Although this is a relatively small calibration error it could lead to a clinically important misclassification of informative essays beginning with statements, some patients with severe AS as having moderate AS if only the peak velocity is time goals used to make this decision. Further study is informative statements needed to better understand the structural relationship between PC CMR and beginning declaritive statements Doppler echo derived velocity data. In this study the best agreement with echo AVA was obtained by direct planimetry of the AVA from structural, SSFP images. Essays Beginning With! Taken together with other published studies [ 1 ] this may be the best current CMR method for AVA estimation in clinical practice. Help Essay! Despite good results this technique is critically dependent on accurate tracing of the slit-like orifice in bicuspid aortic valves and the more complex Mercedes sign shape of stenotic tricuspid valve orifice.
The boundary definition can be poor due to partial voluming effects, signal voids due to severe calcification and turbulence, and development of a robust flow based method is with desirable (Figure 4 ). Requirements! Further studies to optimise cine imaging of irregularly shaped stenotic orifices, perhaps using phantoms, are also justified. The larger gradients used to reduce TE to 1.5 ms exacerbate background phase error [ 7 ]. Recent studies have reported improvement after phase correction by either imaging a stationary phantom after the patient [ 29 ] or applying surface fits to stationary tissue [ 21 ]. The surface approach applied in this study showed significant improvement in the SV data only at TE 1.5 ms (see Additional file 1 ). The best approach for background phase correction has yet to be determined, the imaging of a phantom is time consuming and surface fits may be susceptible to stationary tissue identification. The requirement to perform background phase correction may also be scanner and sequence dependent. Thus the findings presented in this paper are representative of a Siemens Avanto scanner only. Estimation of peak velocity and VTI PC estimates by informative essays beginning declaritive statements, CMR are likely to essay on nuclear power is boon or bane, be less susceptible to intra-voxel dephasing as accurate information in each pixel is not required. Even one pixel per informative essays beginning declaritive statements, phase with good signal intensity in the core of the new years revolution essay jet could theoretically provide an accurate estimate; however, aberrant low signal intensity pixels should be excluded to informative essays beginning with, prevent inaccurate peak velocity estimates [ 22 ]. If the magnitude threshold method was not performed, the results shown would be worse. Unfortunately for flow measurements, data from every pixel is thesis required. The inclusion of informative essays statements, voxels with low signal makes the flow estimate more prone to time management goals essay, intra-voxel dephasing errors.
Shortening the TE reduces the essays beginning declaritive statements intra-voxel dephasing, improving the signal and therefore increasing the reliability of the PC SV estimate. On most clinical systems, a magnitude thresholding technique and the velocity encoded magnitude images, where the signal loss may be more apparent, are not available. Revolution Essay! We recommend that these be made available to clinicians for better assessment of CMR PC data. Declaritive Statements! The lack of essay, a true gold standard makes comparisons between Doppler echo and PC CMR measurements difficult. However we did find that echo AVA corresponded reasonably well with AVA obtained by informative, manual planimetry of the anatomic valve orifice. This finding is similar to that reported in prior studies comparing echo and thesis structural CMR planimetry suggesting that the echo is a reasonable external gold standard. An important consideration in using Doppler echo as a gold standard comparison is that for accurate estimation the Doppler echo beam needs to be well aligned with the jet direction or peak velocity and the VTI will be underestimated. Informative Beginning Statements! Because of inter-subject variability in revolution, aortic stenotic jet direction in relation to standard echo windows, accurate estimation is dependent on an experienced sonographer systematically sampling multiple echo windows (as was done in this study). Accuracy of echo assessment of AVA is essays declaritive limited by difficulties in accurately measuring the revolution LVOT area which is required for Doppler echo's estimation of AVA. A hybrid approach [ 30 ] utilising the most reliable data from echo and CMR may provide the most robust assessment of AVA until PC methods improve. The strength of echo is in instantaneous measurement of peak velocities and the VTI using Doppler.
CMR can provide the most reliable estimate of SV in the absence of mitral regurgitation or by phase contrast flow estimation in essays beginning with declaritive statements, the LVOT or MPA (in the thesis absence of aortic regurgitation). AVA estimation using a CMR SV estimate and the Doppler echo VTI is likely to be the most reliable current non-invasive flow-based method. PC derived SV measured in the stenotic jet was unreliable, underestimated and not satisfactorily corrected by reduction in essays beginning with declaritive, echo time to 1.5 ms in this study. Despite this the help essay AVA by CMR correlated better with echo with a reduction in TE to 1.5 ms probably due to reduced 95% limits of agreement of the flow estimates. However, for estimation of beginning with, AVA in more severe AS, improved techniques to measure this flow are required.
Furthermore, the PC method does seem to systematically underestimate velocity and VTI data by approximately 10% compared with Doppler. Further study is needed to better understand the relationship between CMR and Doppler derived velocity data. This study was supported by a grant from the revolution National Heart Foundation of informative beginning with declaritive, New Zealand. We are grateful to Helen Walsh and Gillian Whalley for requirements their expert echocardiography, and to Anna Lydon and declaritive Sandra Winsor our expert CMR technologists. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. KOB participated in the design of the time management study and analysis procedure, performed statistical and Background phase analysis, interpreted results and drafted the essays beginning statements manuscript.
RG coordinated and designed the thesis on qfd study, supervised the data acquisition and performed the analysis of the informative essays beginning with statements MR images. AG modified the time essay PC sequences to achieve shorter TEs and provided technical advice on the design of the protocols. BC helped to design the study, the essays statements analysis procedure and in the interpretation of the results. AY assisted in the interpretation of the results and drafting the manuscript. AK conceived the study, analysed the Echo data, participated in the data acquisition, interpreted the results and drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the goals final manuscript. Informative Essays Beginning With Declaritive Statements! This article is essay on nuclear power is boon published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0 ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and beginning with declaritive reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Kieran R O'Brien 1 Ruvin S Gabriel 2 Andreas Greiser 3 Brett R Cowan 4 Alistair A Young 5 Andrew J Kerr 2 Email author 1. Auckland Bioengineering Institute University of thesis on qfd, Auckland Auckland New Zealand 2. Cardiology Department Middlemore Hospital and informative essays with declaritive statements University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand 3. Siemens AG Healthcare Sector Erlangen Germany 4. Centre for Advanced MRI University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand 5. Department of Anatomy and Radiology University of Auckland Auckland New Zealand. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. New Years Essay! .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. Essays! .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at structural, your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG. Part of Springer Nature.
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Le traitement litteraire du conte africain : deux exemples chez Bernard Dadie et Birago Diop. 1 Parmi les tres nombreux types de relation que la culture orale africaine a pu entretenir avec la production ecrite, notamment la fixation des ?uvres qu’elle execute oralement en des livres de langues africaines comme europeennes, il est un cas sur lequel nous aimerions nous arreter un instant dans ce volume. Essays With. C’est celui de la transposition en francais ecrit, par un ecrivain reconnu et ayant des pretentions litteraires, d’?uvres orales dites originellement dans une langue africaine. Structural. Dans l’histoire litteraire de l’Afrique francophone, une telle pratique a surtout concerne deux genres : d’une part, l’epopee (par exemple, celle de Soundjata librement adaptee pour l’ecrit respectivement par Djibril Tamsir Niane et par Camara Laye1), d’autre part, le conte, c’est-a-dire deux genres essentiellement narratifs. Essays Beginning Declaritive Statements. Il est bien entendu que dans un cas comme dans l’autre, l’operation dont nous parlons ne consiste pas en une traduction, fut elle enjolivee.
Il s’agit bien plutot d’une veritable creation d’auteur a partir de la connaissance de classiques que cet auteur a de sa propre culture et qu’il recompose librement d’apres son souvenir. Thesis. Il est interessant, a la lumiere des acquis de la narratologie des quarante dernieres annees, depuis au moins Genette et le fameux n° 8 de Communications sur l’analyse structurale du recit en 1966, de voir ce qui, au cours de ce processus de transposition, evolue dans l’appareil narratologique en termes de catalyses, de fonctions indicielles relatives au decor ou a la psychologie des personnages. 2 Compte tenu des dimensions limitees de la presente communication, nous avons choisi de ne nous interesser ici qu’au cas du conte, c’est-a-dire a un genre de recit bref a propos duquel il est plus facile de proposer une analyse en un volume reduit. Informative With Statements. Parmi les exemples relativement nombreux qui pouvaient s’offrir a nous, nous avons choisi de retenir deux contes extraits de deux recueils tres connus et toujours disponibles en librairie : il s’agit de « Le b?uf de l’araignee » dans Le pagne noir (Presence Africaine, 1955), de l’ecrivain ivoirien Bernard Dadie et de « Les mamelles » dans Les contes d’Amadou Koumba (Presence Africaine, 1961) de l’ecrivain senegalais Birago Diop. New Years Essay. Nous allons confronter la version ecrite en francais de ces deux contes, connus dans la culture traditionnelle de chacun des deux auteurs, avec une de leurs versions orales, recueillie par des chercheurs et publiee chacune dans un recueil de contes d’orientation plus ethno-folkloriste (on trouvera ces versions en annexe).
3 Avant d’aborder l’analyse comparee des versions de chacun de ces deux contes, il convient de resituer la pratique de la transposition litteraire ecrite et en francais des contes oraux africains dans un certain contexte socio-litteraire. Informative Essays With Declaritive Statements. Les deux recueils concernes datent des annees cinquante/soixante et de fait, c’est a cette epoque, c’est-a-dire en pleine periode de triomphe du mouvement de la « Negritude » que cette pratique s’epanouit. Requirements. Il s’agit pour beaucoup d’ecrivains et d’intellectuels africains (J. Declaritive Statements. Malonga, J. Revolution. Brahim Seid, Boubou Hama, etc.) de faire, par le moyen d’une langue de large diffusion, la promotion exogene de la culture orale traditionnelle en Afrique, a partir de leurs repertoires ethniques, a une epoque ou l’ignorance et l’arrogance de l’Occident pouvait encore donner a croire qu’une telle culture n’existait qu’a peine ou que de telles pratiques ne pouvaient etre qualifiees de « culturelles » que par indulgence condescendante. Informative Essays Statements. Il est, de ce point de vue, assez significatif de constater que ce type de transposition litteraire des contes oraux sous forme de recueils s’est assez vite eteint et n’a guere survecu au mythe de la « Negritude ». New Years Essay. C’est donc sans oublier un tel contexte ideologique que nous allons examiner nos deux recueils, puis entreprendre la comparaison des deux versions des contes retenus.
4 Le recueil de Dadie s’intitule Le pagne noir , titre qui est aussi celui d’un conte du volume (le deuxieme), comme il est d’usage courant dans ce type d’ouvrage. Informative Essays Beginning. Cela dit, le choix de ce titre pour l’ensemble du recueil est significatif. Thesis On Qfd. Le pagne est, avec le boubou, un vetement emblematique du continent africain tel qu’il est vu par l’Occident, comme le sari peut par exemple l’etre pour l’Inde. Informative Statements. Sa qualite meme d’objet textile renvoie en outre par metaphore a l’idee de texte – on essay sait qu’il s’agit de la meme etymologie – d’autant qu’il existe aussi en plusieurs cultures locales des analogies symboliques entre le deroulement de la parole et le tissage. Informative Essays Beginning Statements. Ce n’est d’ailleurs sans doute pas par hasard si de son cote Birago Diop, dans sa preface, a recours lui aussi a la metaphore textile, qu’il file justement avec dexterite : Dans la trame solide de ses contes et de ses sentences, me servant de ses lices sans bavures, j’ai voulu, tisserand malhabile, avec une navette hesitante, confectionner quelques bandes pour coudre un pagne (souligne par nous) sur lequel grand-mere si elle revenait, aurait retrouve le coton qu’elle fila la premiere ; et ou Amadou Koumba reconnaitra, beaucoup moins vifs sans doute, les coloris des belles etoffes qu’il tissa pour moi naguere. 5 Quant a l’adjectif « noir » du titre de Dadie, il renvoie implicitement a l’ensemble du continent subsaharien suggere comme etant un ensemble culturellement homogene : le monde noir.
Il s’agit bien entendu d’un mythe, meme si le conte est un genre qui voyage beaucoup et dont on environment essay retrouve souvent les types et les motifs d’une societe a une autre. Informative Essays With. Alors que precisement le repertoire de culture orale a un tres fort ancrage ethnique, celui-ci se trouve gomme dans le titre. Uc Essay Requirements. Et, dans la mesure ou il n’y a pas de preface chez Dadie, rien n’indique quelle est la source culturelle precise de ces contes qui sont presentes au lecteur. Essays Beginning With Statements. Il faut attendre la quatrieme de couverture pour induire qu’il s’agit d’un repertoire baoule : Avec evidence, ces textes manifestent la rencontre heureuse d’un ecrivain avec son monde, cette Afrique du pays Baoule (sic) recreee a travers le merveilleux de la fable […] 6 Une recherche ethnolinguistique un peu serieuse permet pourtant d’attester qu’il s’agit bien la d’un repertoire typiquement agni-baoule, mais cet aspect est en l’occurrence occulte au profit d’une pretendue universalite continentale : l’Afrique noire. 7 La mise en page de la couverture du recueil de Birago Diop est elle aussi interessante par rapport a la visee de l’ouvrage. Structural. Sur un dessin colorie representant des habitations villageoises africaines (toits coniques en chaume) et des animaux « anthropomorphises », le texte se presente ainsi : en haut de page, la mention « Les contes d’Amadou Koumba » sur deux lignes, le nom d’Amadou Koumba se trouvant sur la deuxieme ligne ecrit en gros caracteres et en rouge. Essays With Statements. En bas de page, dans la meme couleur mais en caracteres plus petits et sans majuscules, figure la mention de l’auteur du recueil : birago diop. Uc Essay Requirements. Du point de vue semiotique, une telle politique n’est pas innocente.
Lorsque le lecteur apprend dans la preface qu’Amadou Koumba est un « griot », c’est-a-dire un artiste de la parole, sorte de pendant symbolique de l’ecrivain dans la culture ecrite, et que c’est lui qui, apres sa grand’mere, a raconte a l’auteur les contes qui figurent dans le recueil, on beginning declaritive comprend mieux la relation entre les deux noms, de meme couleur qui figurent sur la couverture. Structural. En haut, en gros caracteres et avec des majuscules, Amadou Koumba, en bas, en lettres plus petites et sans majuscules, birago diop, qui apparait ainsi comme le modeste disciple du premier. Statements. Toujours est-il que, par ce biais, les contes ainsi presentes se trouvent marques d’une double authentification auctorale. 8 Or, tout chercheur ayant quelque peu travaille sur les litteratures orales africaines sait bien que, meme si un griot, l’artiste des grandes societes ouest-africaines, peut affectionner de dire des contes, c’est rarement sa fonction premiere et que le conte, a l’oppose de beaucoup d’autres genres de l’oralite, est par excellence un genre dont tout le monde peut s’approprier l’enonciation. Uc Essay. C’est bien d’ailleurs ce que suggere la preface de Diop qui reconnait avoir d’abord entendu ces contes chez sa grand-mere et les avoir retrouves ensuite un peu partout, dans diverses bouches, au cours de ses peregrinations de medecin veterinaire en Afrique de l’Ouest.
Il y a donc un tres fort parti pris dans la presentation de la realite culturelle telle qu’elle apparait sur la page de couverture d’un livre publie en francais, chez un editeur, Presence Africaine, dont la denomination met elle aussi en evidence l’Afrique comme continent culturellement homogene et dont le siege se trouve en outre a Paris. Beginning With. Dans l’optique de promotion culturelle que nous avons evoquee a cette epoque, une telle strategie semble viser d’abord un public occidental, de culture ecrite, pour qui une production verbale n’a de statut culturel veritablement valorise qu’a partir du moment ou on thesis on qfd lui reconnait un createur identifiable. Informative With Declaritive Statements. C’est pourquoi ici les contes sont les contes d’Amadou Koumba avant d’etre ceux de Birago Diop. Help. Ils sont presentes comme ayant deja le label d’une sorte d’auteur reconnu dans la culture orale avant meme de passer a l’ecrit par les soins de l’ecrivain. 9 C’est dans un tel contexte qu’il convient d’analyser l’evolution subie par nos deux contes entre leur version orale originelle et leur version litteraire ecrite. Essays With Declaritive Statements. Commencons par « Le b?uf de l’araignee » de Dadie qui est a examiner en regard de la version orale de ce conte-type, recueillie en pays agni, transcrite et traduite par Marius Ano N’Guessan sous le titre « Araignee et Bosse » ( Contes agni de l’Indenie , Abidjan, Imprimerie nationale, 1976). New Years Revolution. Il est evident que la structure des deux histoires est suffisamment similaire pour qu’on puisse reconnaitre sans aucun doute un meme conte-type dont on informative peut donner un resume sous une forme susceptible de rendre compte des deux versions dont nous disposons : 10 Dieu a un champ plein de broussailles inextricables et decide de le faire defricher.
Personne ne se presente sauf Araignee2 a qui Dieu promet un b?uf en cas de succes. Help Essay. Araignee s’acquitte de la tache et recoit le b?uf en recompense. Beginning Declaritive Statements. Il veut manger son b?uf seul, refusant de le partager meme avec une mouche. Thesis On Qfd. Pour parvenir a ses fins, il s’enfonce dans la brousse et defeque regulierement jusqu’a ce que plus aucune mouche ne vienne se poser sur ses crottes. Informative With. C’est la qu’il abat et prepare son b?uf. Thesis On Qfd. C’est alors qu’un hote surnaturel lui tombe du ciel et lui demande de le porter au lieu du festin. Informative Essays. Araignee refuse d'abord mais l’autre le rend bossu quand il cherche a fuir.
Il l’emmene donc et se prepare ensuite a manger son b?uf mais l’autre en reclame la totalite qu’Araignee se voit contraint de lui ceder sous peine de devenir bossu. Help Environment Essay. A la suite de quoi Araignee met au point un stratageme pour eliminer son adversaire. Informative Beginning With Declaritive. En bon decepteur, il s’arrange ensuite pour qu’un tiers (le mouton chez Dadie, le toucan dans la version orale) subisse les consequences nefastes engendrees par sa vengeance. 11 Au-dela d’un tel archetype, il y a d’importantes variantes qui sont significatives du statut culturel de chacun de ces deux recits. Help Essay. Il serait evidemment tout a fait interessant, de ce point de vue, de s’interesser a l’evolution de la langue d’une version a l’autre mais nous ne sommes pas en mesure de le faire avec les donnees dont nous disposons. Informative. La version originelle produite oralement est en effet deja traduite en francais et, pour fidele qu’elle soit (toutes les phrases dites dans l’enonce oral s’y trouvent), il est evident que le traducteur a adopte un style tres ecrit, assez peu conforme semble-t-il d’ailleurs a la tradition poetique du conte. Time. Le debut du recit, avec l’expression « herbes urticantes » qui releve plutot du vocabulaire medical que de celui du conte, avec l’accord de concordance aboutissant a l’imparfait du subjonctif, indice d’une langue savante ou precieuse, enfin avec l’emploi du terme « Sire », trop connote dans une culture, est tres significatif a ce propos. With Declaritive. Nous laisserons donc de cote cet aspect pour nous interesser a la structure du recit.
12 On peut remarquer d’emblee que la version de Dadie est sensiblement plus longue. Uc Essay. Cette augmentation du volume tient a l’addition d’un certain nombre de motifs mais aussi a l’expansion de la fonction descriptive, presque absente de la version orale. Essays Beginning With Declaritive. La ou celle-ci disait simplement « Dieu avait un champ plein d’herbes urticantes ( i. Revolution Essay. e . Informative Beginning With Statements. de mauvaises herbes), le texte de Dadie nous decrit ce champ sur pres de deux pages, avec une accumulation d’adjectifs expressifs et de metaphores qui temoigne d’une recherche d’ecriture selon une conception – certes assez scolaire – du beau style comme on revolution essay pouvait encore en avoir a l’epoque : Dieu avait un champ plein de ronces et de broussailles. Essays Beginning Declaritive. Ronces et broussailles etaient si emmelees que les serpents eux-memes fuyaient le lieu. Environment Essay. […]Les epines dressees dans le ciel ressemblaient a de grosses pointes effilees. Informative With Declaritive. Et ronces et broussailles, sous le soleil et la pluie croissaient sans cesse […].Dans ce champ poussait un fromager peu commun, un gros, gros fromager qui devait etre l’ancetre des fromagers, tant il etait biscornu, manchot, tordu, boudineux, epineux, massif. Time Goals Essay. Quelque chose d’effrayant, de hideux comme arbre. Declaritive Statements. Les oiseaux sur ce champ jamais ne se posaient. Management Goals Essay. Le soleil meme glissait tandis que la brise le contournait (p. Informative Declaritive. 51). 13 De meme, la recherche de quelqu’un qui veuille bien se charger de la tache proposee, qui tient en une phrase dans « Araignee et Bosse », s’etale sur pres d’une page (54-55) chez Dadie.
Plus loin, la rencontre entre Dieu et Araignee (7 lignes dans « Araignee et Bosse », 2 pages dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee »), puis le defrichage (2 lignes contre 2 pages) sont egalement beaucoup plus developpees dans la version « litteraire » qui, en outre, multiplie les indications psychologiques et les modalites indicielles dans les comportements des personnages : chez Dadie, Kacou Ananze (l’araignee) cogne avec force et furie (p.57), l’enfant de Dieu pleure (p.58), etc. Revolution Essay. Alors que la version orale, sobre dans le decor comme dans la psychologie, ne connait essentiellement que des « noyaux », pour reprendre la terminologie de Barthes, la version litteraire multiplie, sous forme de catalyses, les digressions qui ne sont nullement indispensables a l’economie de l’intrigue comme, entre autres cette conversation entre Araignee et Dieu sur la condition humaine (p. Informative. 55). 14 On va retrouver exactement le meme phenomene entre « Les coepouses bossues », conte wolof recueilli par Momar Sall et publie dans Contes et mythes du Senegal (CILF/EDICEF, 1986) et « Les mamelles », texte tire des Contes d’Amadou Koumba de Birago Diop. New Years Essay. Le conte populaire oral fait moins de deux pages la ou la version de l’ecrivain en fait dix.
La non plus, pas de doute cependant qu’il s’agit bien du meme conte-type dont un resume commun peut etre fait aussi facilement que dans le cas precedent : 15 Deux coepouses sont bossues. Essays Beginning Declaritive Statements. L’une d’elle tombe par hasard sur des genies a la danse desquels elle s’associe, a la suite de quoi ils lui prennent sa bosse. Thesis On Qfd. La seconde, instruite par la premiere, veut faire pareil, mais loin de lui retirer sa bosse, les genies lui ajoutent celle laissee par sa coepouse la fois precedente. 16 Dans la version litteraire, les indications physiques et psychologiques notamment, presque absentes de la version orale, sont tres developpees pour caracteriser les heroines du recit ; la mauvaise : Envieuse, Khary, la premiere femme de Momar l’etait. Informative Essays With Declaritive Statements. Elle aurait pu remplir dix calebasses de sa jalousie et les jeter dans un puits, il lui en serait reste encore dix fois dix outres au fond de son c?ur noir comme du charbon. Power Is Boon. Il est vrai que Khary n’avait peut-etre pas de grandes raisons a etre tres, tres contente de son sort. Essays Beginning With. En effet Khary etait bossue. Uc Essay Requirements. Oh ! Une toute petite bosse de rien du tout qu’une camisole bien empesee ou un boubou ample aux larges plis pouvait aisement cacher. Essays Statements. Mais Khary croyait que tous les yeux du monde etaient fixes sur sa bosse (p. Requirements. 33). 17 comme la bonne : Cependant Koumba etait bossue elle aussi, mais sa bosse depassait vraiment les mesures d’une honnete bosse.
On eut dit, lorsqu’elle tournait le dos, un canari de teinturiere qui semblait porter directement le foulard et la calebasse poses sur sa tete. Informative Beginning With. Koumba, malgre sa bosse, etait gaie, douce et aimable. Essay On Nuclear Is Boon Or Bane. Quand on beginning declaritive statements se moquait de la petite Koumba-Khoughe du temps ou elle jouait, buste nu, en lui demandant de preter un instant le bebe qu’elle avait sur le dos, elle repondait en riant plus fort que les autres : « Ca m’etonnerait qu’il vienne avec toi, il ne veut meme pas descendre pour teter. Thesis On Qfd. » Au contact des grandes personnes plus tard, Koumba qui les savait moins moqueuses peut-etre que les enfants, mais plus mechantes, n’avait pas change de caractere. Informative Beginning Declaritive Statements. Dans la demeure de son epoux elle restait la meme (p. Time Management Essay. 35). 18 Ces exemples montrent bien comment le recit proprement dit est interrompu par ces longues digressions descriptives dont nous n’avons donne qu’un abrege et qui nous font entrer avec l’imparfait dans une epaisseur temporelle qui est plus le fait de la narration romanesque que de celle du conte qui, en principe, ne sort que rarement et brievement du temps du recit.
On remarquera en outre que les personnages qui etaient anonymes dans le conte d’origine orale ont tous recu des noms dans la version de Birago Diop, trait qui lui aussi caracterise plutot un recit de type romanesque. 19 Outre ces phenomenes d’expansion indicielle, dans « Les mamelles », le recit se trouve egalement interrompu par des considerations generales, selon l’opposition desormais classique entre discours et recit, et qui, linguistiquement parlant, sont reperables par le present gnomique comme temps principal. Informative Essays. Ces parentheses discursives, generalement inconnues des contes oraux, donnent au texte de Diop une sorte de dimension philosophique par la portee generale de ce qui est avance : Lorsqu’il s’agit d’epouses, deux n’est point un bon compte. Time Goals Essay. Pour qui veut s’eviter souvent querelles, cris, reproches et allusions malveillantes, il faut trois femmes ou une seule et non pas deux. Informative With Statements. Deux femmes dans une meme maison ont toujours avec elles une troisieme compagne qui non seulement n’est bonne a rien, mais encore se trouve etre la pire des mauvaises conseilleres.
Cette compagne, c’est l’Envie a la voix aigre et acide comme du jus de tamarin (p.33 ). 20 On retrouvera de meme plus loin (p.36) de longues considerations sur les vertus et les dangers du tamarinier qui nous font sortir completement de l’histoire et qui ne trouvent leur justification que parce que, dans l’intrigue, c’est aupres d’un tamarinier que Koumba recevra d’une vieille femme-genie la revelation de ce qu’elle doit faire pour perdre sa bosse. 21 « Les mamelles » revelent aussi un autre procede qui est celui de l’enchassement du recit, en l’occurrence le conte, dans un contexte enonciatif plus vaste qui renvoie a d’autres lieux et qui justifie la convocation de ce conte particulier. Essay. Le premier de ces lieux est la France en hiver d’ou le narrateur est cense parler, alors qu’il est plein de nostalgie. Essays. Le fait que ce soit dans un tel contexte affectif que remontent a lui les contes de son pays est une facon de mettre en evidence la puissance emotionnelle de cette culture orale et son efficacite. New Years Revolution Essay. Dans cette evocation on informative declaritive statements retrouvera dans l’ecriture, avec l’abondance des adjectifs et le recours aux images, la meme recherche de « beau style » que nous avions deja notee chez Dadie, indice probable, pour l’auteur, du parler litteraire : Quand la memoire va ramasser du bois mort, elle rapporte le fagot qu’il lui plait…3 L’horizon bouche m’encercle les yeux. Is Boon. Les verts de l’ete et les roux de l’automne en alles, je cherche les vastes etendues de la savane et ne trouve que les monts depouilles, sombres comme de vieux geants abattus que la neige refuse d’ensevelir parce qu’ils furent sans doute des mecreants… Mauvais tisserand, l’hiver n’arrive pas a egrener ni a carder son coton ; il ne file et tisse qu’une pluie molle. Informative Essays Beginning With Declaritive Statements. Gris, le ciel est froid, pale, le soleil grelotte ; alors, pres de la cheminee, je rechauffe mes membres gourds… Le feu du bois qu’on a soi-meme abattu et debite semble plus chaud qu’aucun autre feu…Chevauchant les flammes qui scintillent, mes pensees vont une a une sur les sentiers qui bordent et envahissent les souvenirs (p.
31). 22 Alors donc que, dans ce premier lieu, il regarde les flammes de la cheminee, va surgir un souvenir. Essay Power Is Boon. Le narrateur se rappelle un voyage en bateau tandis qu’il revient au Senegal. Essays With Declaritive Statements. Sur ce bateau, il rencontre une Francaise qui fait la moue en apercevant les « Mamelles », deux petites montagnes de la pointe des Amaldies, ainsi baptisees parce qu’elles ressemblent a des tetons emergeant de l’eau. Help. C’est ce souvenir qui appelle le conte comme le lecteur le comprendra retrospectivement. Essays Statements. En effet, chez Birago Diop, ce recit a une valeur etiologique, puisqu’il est cense expliquer l’origine de ces deux minuscules montagnes : elles seraient l’emergence des deux bosses de la coepouse depitee qui s’est jetee de honte dans la mer. Power Is Boon Or Bane. Ce procede d’emboitement successif qui fut tres en vogue au XVIIIe et au XIXe siecle (voir, entre autres, Maupassant) est encore un indice typique de litterarite, totalement ignore du conte populaire et qui, en l’occurrence, permet en outre a Birago Diop de dedier son conte a cette Francaise qui devient ici en quelque sorte la metonymie de son lectorat occidental : Ma memoire, ce soir au coin du feu, attache dans le meme bout de liane mes petites montagnes, les epouses de Momar et la timide et blonde Violette pour qui je rapporte, en reponse, tardive peut-etre, a son ironique question, ceci que m’a conte Amadou Koumba (p. Informative Essays With Declaritive Statements. 33). 23 Mais precisement, on thesis on qfd voit bien, chez Dadie comme chez Diop, que beaucoup de procedes stylistiques (syntaxe recherchee, adjectifs, metaphores…) ou rhetoriques (longues descriptions du decor, du physique et de la psychologie des personnages, alternance du recit et du discours, procedes d’emboitement) correspondent a des strategies d’ecriture consistant a habiller le conte oral africain selon des normes litteraires de la scripturalite qui le rendent plus consommable et qui le valorisent aux yeux d’un lectorat occidental cense etre habitue a certaines conventions propres a la litterature romanesque. 24 Cette evolution, impliquee par le passage de l’oral a l’ecrit litteraire ne consiste d’ailleurs pas seulement a multiplier les indices de litterarite romanesque, dans le style comme dans la morphologie narrative, mais elle modifie aussi la fonction culturelle de ces contes, changeant assez radicalement ce qu’on appelle generalement leur « morale ». Essays Beginning Statements. Si, par exemple, on essay on nuclear or bane revient sur le conte-type mettant en scene Araignee et Bosse, on informative beginning with declaritive statements peut s’arreter sur plusieurs differences notables qui en changent la perspective. 25 Dans la version populaire orale, Dieu n’a pas mis de condition particuliere au defrichage de son champ et Araignee ne triche pas en accomplissant sa tache.
Il semble donc avoir legitimement merite le b?uf promis. Help. En revanche, dans la version de Dadie, Dieu met une condition a l’abattage de l’arbre monstRueux. Informative Declaritive Statements. Il ne faut pas l’abattre avec une hache ni un quelconque objet tranchant, mais avec « ca » que le lecteur, compte tenu des suggestions contextuelles appuyees, n’a aucun mal a identifier comme etant le sexe masculin. Requirements. Le motif de l’arbre que le heros doit abattre avec son penis existe bien en de nombreux repertoires de contes africains, mais il est en principe associe a un autre conte-type, celui de la quete d’une epouse, et c’est une epreuve proposee par le beau-pere aux pretendants. Informative Essays With Declaritive Statements. On comprend d’ailleurs mieux dans ce contexte le sens d’une telle exigence puisque l’epreuve apparait alors comme un moyen de garantir la virilite du futur epoux.
En outre, cette condition est generalement formulee de facon beaucoup plus directe et crue : le texte du conte dit tout simplement et sans ambage que le pretendant doit abattre l’arbre avec sa verge. Thesis On Qfd. Les raffinements et les jeux euphemiques de Dadie dans le recit qu’il a lui-meme redige, indices d’un souci de bienseance, sont donc typiquement lies a l’idee qu’il se fait d’une certaine culture occidentale ou les themes galants sont a l’occasion apprecies dans la bonne litterature a condition d’etre plaisamment allusifs. Informative Essays Beginning Declaritive. Cette formulation euphemique, dans le cadre d’une sorte de jeu subtil avec le lecteur, a peut-etre aussi pour fonction de contribuer a contredire le stereotype colonial selon lequel le negre, souvent associe a une sexualite primaire et grossiere, est incapable de telles finesses. 26 Dadie semble donc avoir amalgame ici des elements de deux contes-types pour n’en faire qu’un seul. Structural. Il a d’ailleurs emprunte d’autres motifs classiques de contes ouest-africains comme celui du decepteur qui, pour accomplir un mefait ou une tricherie, envoie sa dupe naive puiser de l’eau dans une corbeille tressee, tache impossible qui permet de l’eloigner pour un bon moment et de donner tout son temps au decepteur pour arranger sa duperie. Essays Beginning Statements. Il n’est certes pas impossible que Dadie ait lui-meme entendu une version orale de ce conte-type qui presentait de tels elements, dans la mesure ou l’oralite est soumise a la variabilite et ou il ne faudrait pas commettre l’erreur grossiere de considerer la version orale dont nous disposons comme un modele fige. Thesis Structural. Dans toutes les cultures, le conte est un « meccano », selon l’expression de Georges Jean, et les contes-types peuvent s’accommoder de plusieurs variantes, dont il n’est pas possible de dire qu’une est plus legitime que l’autre. Informative. Cependant, celui qui connait un peu le repertoire des contes ouest-africains et en particulier agni, ne peut pas ne pas avoir le sentiment d’une tendance, dans « Le b?uf de l’araignee », a proposer un conte enrichi d’elements de plusieurs autres, afin de presenter un texte plus dense, offrant en quelque sorte une synthese culturelle. 27 En outre, cette addition d’une condition mise par Dieu au defrichage du champ modifie le sens de la mesaventure vecue ensuite par Araignee.
Dans la version populaire orale, si Araignee a acquis son b?uf de facon legitime, sa punition ne peut venir que de son comportement posterieur a cette acquisition. Time Management Essay. Il ne veut partager son b?uf avec quiconque, pas meme avec une mouche. Informative With Declaritive Statements. Et c’est cet egoisme foncier, symptomatique d’une ideologie individualiste contraire aux valeurs communautaires de partage et de solidarite pronees dans la societe agni-baoule comme en beaucoup de societes africaines, qui semble la cause du chatiment transcendant (Bosse tombe d’en haut) qu’il recoit, sous forme de la privation du festin tant convoite. Thesis Structural. Et, bien sur, comme Araignee est le decepteur dans ce repertoire de contes, il se venge a son tour de celui qui l’a depouille de son b?uf et il fait subir a un autre les consequences de son mefait. 28 Une telle lecture est toujours possible dans la version de Dadie ou Ananze (Araignee) manifeste le meme comportement individualiste, toutefois elle est concurrencee par une autre interpretation qui relativise la premiere et la fait passer au second plan. Essays Beginning. Ananze a triche pour obtenir son b?uf, puisque, au lieu de l’abattre avec son sexe comme le voulait la prescription de Dieu, il l’a tranche a la hache, mystifiant l’enfant de Dieu delegue pour le surveiller. Thesis On Qfd. S’il est donc par la suite prive de sa recompense, c’est aussi a cause de la tricherie et de la tricherie a l’egard de Dieu, ce qui motive singulierement le caractere transcendant du chatiment dont le texte nous precise la encore qu’il « tomba du ciel » (p.60) et qu’il est bien interprete par le heros comme un envoi de Dieu. Informative Essays Beginning With Statements. Une telle lecture est encore favorisee par le chant qu’entonne Ananze apres s’etre vu remettre le b?uf : Dieu, dieu, mais on environment peut le tromper. Il suffit d’avoir du cran. With Declaritive. […] (p.59). 29 La lecon du conte populaire, liee a une morale ethnique et peut-etre plus largement africaine, pronant des valeurs de solidarite communautaire et condamnant l’individualisme, s’elargit donc, dans la version litteraire en francais, a une morale plus universelle sur l’honnetete (« Bien mal acquis ne profite jamais ») et prend une coloration nettement metaphysique puisqu’il est plus precisement question de bonne foi vis a vis de la transcendance.
Le fait que, dans cette version, l’agent du chatiment soit justement la Mort (avec une majuscule) au lieu de simplement « Bosse » comme dans la variante d’origine orale, renforce evidemment cette lecture metaphysique du conte. New Years. Le texte de Dadie voit donc s’accentuer, pour un lectorat plus vaste, sa portee philosophique generale. 30 Le conte des deux coepouses offre la meme possibilite de glissement interpretatif, avec, semble-t-il, les memes objectifs. Informative Declaritive. Dans la version d’origine orale, il n’est pas question d’une bonne et d’une mauvaise coepouse et rien n’est dit sur leurs qualites morales respectives. Time Goals Essay. Si l’une reussit sa quete implicite en perdant sa bosse et si l’autre echoue en se voyant ajouter a la sienne la bosse de la premiere, ce ne peut donc en aucun cas etre interprete comme une recompense de la bonte de la premiere et une sanction de la mechancete de la seconde. Beginning With Declaritive Statements. La seule chose qui differe entre les deux, c’est leur comportement lorsqu’elles participent a la danse des genies. Thesis On Qfd. La premiere reprend tres scrupuleusement les paroles de leur chant, qui d’ailleurs consiste essentiellement a repeter en wolof le mot de « mardi » (talaata, terme emprunte a l’arabe), jour de leur reunion, comme l’indiquent les propos de la premiere coepouse lorsqu’elle revele son secret a la seconde : « Si tu te rends la nuit du mardi du cote des toilettes, tu trouveras les djinns en train de jouer dans une vaste cour. Essays With. ». Thesis. La seconde, en revanche, prolonge a sa fantaisie le chant en enumerant les autres jours de la semaine : mercredi, jeudi, vendredi (Allarba, Alxames, Aljuma). Informative Essays With Statements. Et le contexte montre de facon tres explicite que c’est cette invention personnelle de la femme qui conduit les genies a lui ajouter a sa bosse celle de sa coepouse, abandonnee a la seance precedente : Les djinns affoles s’interrogerent : « Qui a l’audace d’allonger notre chanson sans notre autorisation ? » Les autres ponctuaient : « C’est cette etrangere, c’est cette etrangere ; nous nous devons donc de lui doubler sa bosse. Revolution Essay. » Ils prirent la bosse de la coepouse qu’ils collerent a la sienne en lui disant : « Deguerpis ! Tu n’as rien a ajouter a notre chanson sans notre autorisation ! » 31 On comprend que nous sommes en presence d’un conte initiatique indiquant que l’initie doit se conformer scrupuleusement aux indications de ses maitres initiateurs. Beginning. La premiere reussit son initiation parce qu’elle agit ainsi, tandis que la seconde echoue du fait qu’elle n’a pas une attitude suffisamment respectueuse ni docile. Thesis On Qfd. Pas de lecon ici autre qu’initiatique. 32 En faisant de ses deux coepouses une bonne et une mauvaise, Birago Diop modifie considerablement la signification du conte, d’autant que, dans la rencontre entre Koumba et la vieille femme sous le tamarinier (p.
37), le texte insiste par prolepse sur le fait que ce qui va arriver a Koumba est une recompense meritee de sa grande bonte : Koumba, reprit la vieille femme, je connais ton bon coeur et ton grand merite depuis que tu reconnais ta droite de ta gauche. Informative Beginning With Declaritive Statements. Je veux te rendre un grand service car je t’en sais digne. Revolution. Vendredi, a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew, les filles-genies danseront. Essays With. Tu iras sur la colline lorsque la terre sera froide. Uc Essay. Quand le tam-tam battra son plein, quand le cercle sera bien anime, quand sans arret une danseuse remplacera une autre danseuse, tu t’approcheras et tu diras a la fille-genie qui sera a cote de toi : -Tiens, prends-moi l’enfant que j’ai sur le dos, c’est mon tour de danser. 33 Quant a Khary, la mechante coepouse, lorsqu’elle se rend a son tour a la danse des filles-genies, elle ne semble pas commettre d’erreur particuliere dans le deroulement du rite.
Par consequent, si elle se voit affublee de la deuxieme bosse, cela ne peut apparaitre que comme une punition transcendante de sa mechancete intrinseque, qui la conduit d’ailleurs finalement a la mort, de rage, episode qui ne se retrouve pas dans la version orale. With Statements. Le conte est donc passe d’une lecon essentiellement initiatique a une morale plus ou moins universelle qui veut que les bons soient recompenses et les mechants punis, ce qui gomme l’identite wolof et plus largement africaine du conte au profit de valeurs beaucoup plus familieres au lectorat occidental. 34 A propos de cet episode de la rencontre avec les genies, on uc essay notera aussi, chez Diop, le meme souci de bienseance et d’effacement du trivial au profit du poetique. Essays Beginning With Declaritive. Alors que dans la version populaire elle a lieu a cote des toilettes4, dans le conte de Diop, elle se deroule « a la pleine lune, sur la colline d’argile de N’Guew (…), lorsque la terre (est) froide ». 35 En outre, dans la version wolof authentique, la presence des deux coepouses est une donnee de depart du conte : « Il y avait une fois deux coepouses bossues », precision qui ne requiert aucun besoin de justification dans la societe agni-baoule ou la polygamie est une pratique normale et courante. 36 En revanche Birago Diop se sent oblige, dans son conte ecrit directement en francais, de presenter les choses un peu differemment.
Dans « Les mamelles », si Momar prend une seconde epouse, c’est parce qu’il est en quelque sorte contraint a le faire : sa premiere femme, Khary est absolument epouvantable et ne remplit pas son office d’epouse. Environment Essay. Il a somme toute une « excuse » pour prendre une seconde femme et, en creux, le lecteur est invite a comprendre que si Khary n’avait pas ete si mauvaise, jamais il n’aurait eu l’idee de prendre Koumba : Las de travailler tout le jour et de ne prendre que le soir un repas chaud, Momar s’etait decide (souligne par nous) a prendre une deuxieme femme et il avait epouse Koumba. 37 Ce souci, dans la version litteraire, d’excuser la polygamie, en lui trouvant une justification circonstancielle, temoigne encore de la conscience de l’auteur d’avoir a s’adresser – au moins partiellement – a un lectorat qui voit dans la polygamie une pratique de « sauvage » ou en tout cas une pratique culturellement inferieure. 38 Cette breve analyse de nos deux contes aura donc montre qu’en passant de la culture orale de leur terroir a une production ecrite en francais, dans le contexte d’une certaine epoque, ils ont subi une transformation profonde qui, derriere une apparente fidelite aux grandes lignes de l’histoire, est presque une trahison de leur personnalite originelle, tant du point de vue de la morphologie du recit que de la moralite des contes. Essays Beginning With Declaritive. Affirmer ainsi qu’il s’agit d’une trahison ne signifie nullement de notre part prononcer une condamnation de l’entreprise des deux ecrivains. Help Environment Essay. Notre propos n’est pas ici de nous poser en censeur ni de prendre parti pour louer ou condamner. Informative With Declaritive Statements. La litterature n’a pas a s’accommoder de dogme et toute l’histoire de la creation litteraire est faite, dans l’intertextualite, de trahisons parfois geniales. Essay. Il s’agit seulement de constater que ces contes « litteraires », s’ils sont bien des ?uvres africaines – il n’y a aucune raison de leur denier cette qualite -, sont des produits d’epoque (les annees soixante) marques par le mouvement de la negritude et le souci de promotion exogene de la culture africaine dont les intellectuels du continent voulaient montrer l’appartenance au patrimoine culturel universel. Informative Essays With Statements. Pour ce faire, les auteurs les presentaient d’abord comme partageant les memes canons et les memes valeurs que celles qui avaient cours en Occident.
De telles productions, apres le traitement qu’elles ont subi, n’ont evidemment plus grand chose a voir avec les contes oraux qui en ont ete la source. CAMARA Laye (1978), Le maitre de la parole, Kouma Lafolo Kouma, Plon. DADIE Bernard (1955), Le pagne noir. KOUMBA Amadou, « Les coepouses bossues », in new years essay Contes et mythes du Senegal, CILF, Fleuve et Flamme, 1991. NGUESSAN M.A., Araignee et bosse. NIANE Djibril Tamsir (1960) Soundjata ou l’epopee mandingue, Presence Africaine.
SALL Momar, Contes et mythes du Senegal, Fleuve et Flamme, EDICEF, 1991.
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Resume Aesthetics: Fonts, Margins, and Paper Selection Guidelines. While many of the informative essays declaritive, resources at Resume Genius focus largely around the essay, core principals of resume writing in terms of on-page content, this particular guide focuses solely on the visual aesthetics of the resume as a whole, from the informative essays with, best choice for font style and size to optimal paper shades and textures, everything is covered. While generally regarded as supplementary, visual aesthetics have the potential to be much more than just a supplement, especially when the difference between standing out amongst other competitive applicants can be by just the smallest of measures. Next, we give a comprehensive look at the three primary areas that comprise a standard resume (both reverse chronological and combination styles) and which deserve the most attention when writing your resume. The shape of a resume refers to the impact its overall look has on the reader without taking into account the meaning or significance of the text printed on said page. The shape of the resume is the environment, very first thing to make an impact upon informative beginning with declaritive statements, the reader , as it is the first thing the help essay, brain processes before having the time to read the text or recognize the name or appreciate the paper. Being the first thing the reader subconsciously processes the essays declaritive, shape of uc essay a resume is quite important. The first aspect to consider when analyzing shape is the beginning declaritive, proportion of the essay, page margins. Having standardized margins guarantees a resume that won’t stand out and essays statements is the revolution, safest choice for 95% of essays resume writers. 1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience. Margins can vary by tenths of a point and still be acceptable, however it may be difficult for the amateur resume writer to really understand what is “acceptable” in the industry, and thus sticking to a standardized margin is recommended.
1 inch resume margins are pretty standard, and especially useful for job applicants without much experience as 1” margins are the largest allowed on management goals resumes and with statements will help make the typed text seem lengthier than it is. Resume Genius’ resume maker actually utilizes precise .63” margins, as Resume Genius experts feel that .63” strikes the perfect harmonious balance between making the text appear broader, and “fuller” than larger margins of 1” which create slightly too much white space. It should be noted that the new years, proportion of “white space” is a constant measurement of a resumes shape, as too much white space (blank space) on the page makes a resume seem lacking and appear barren, while too little white space makes a resume feel cramped and too busy. Going any lower than .5” margins on your resume is beginning declaritive statements not advisable because it often leaves the hiring manager feeling claustrophobic. As with margins, the length of a resume is on nuclear is boon a critical formatting factor that has a large impact in the overall aesthetic of the document and thus is informative beginning statements consequential enough to give considerable consideration. Also like margins, the time goals, perfect resume length is essays declaritive statements a hotly contested subject within the resume writing community. There are few general rules of thumb however to help you determine what length is most appropriate for you. Alignment of resumes is a pretty straightforward process as they are almost always left alighted , as this is how most in the western world read text. Uc Essay? Headings, experience bullet points, educational information and additional skills will all be left aligned. Contact details and informative essays beginning with declaritive applicant names will be center aligned 90% of the time , however some special styles will left alight the contact information. There are special areas of the resume however that can be center aligned under the right circumstances outside of environment contact information.
The resume’s introduction is also sometimes centered. Choosing to do so is a matter of personal taste and informative essays with statements both perfectly acceptable. 2. Requirements? Aesthetics: Fonts Font Size, Lines, Symbols, and Colors. Determining the essays beginning, most appropriate font style for a resume can be a difficult task for the applicant with an untrained eye. There are thousands of different styles of fonts, but only a few that are appropriate for essay power or bane, professional documents such as cover letters, resumes and thank you letters. Before choosing a particular style applicants must first choose between two worlds, that of serif and sans serif fonts.
Serif fonts have small lines attached to the ends of the letters. This is informative essays beginning with statements most commonly used in word processing or other non-traditional forms of typesetting. Sans Serif, “Sans” being French for “without” is thesis on qfd lettering that does not include small lines or hooks at the end of each letter. Choosing between one or another is a matter of personal preference and no one font can be said to be definitely better than another. Like colors, personal preference plays a large role, and since guessing a HR’s personal preference is impossible choosing a personal favorite is perfectly acceptable. For a crisper font at smaller sizes it is advisable to browse less stylized Sans Serif fonts. Times Roman fonts have been used the informative essays beginning declaritive, most, however the smaller the font size the harder these become to read because of their artistic Serif nature. Bookman Old Style Georgia Times Roman Times New Roman. Arial Avenir Calibri Helvetica Veranda.
Styles vary so much that one may look horrible at thesis on qfd, 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. Many applicants may be surprised to learn that there is no one single correct resume font size. There are “safe bets” like 11pt font that should look aesthetically pleasing in many different styles, however this is essays statements a very one-size-fits all approach to what is a very delicate process. Resume writing is revolution not an approximate art but instead a precise operation, and informative with statements the more attention given to precision the better the final product. Your resume font size should actually be linked directly to font style. Thesis On Qfd? Styles vary so much that one style may look horrible and nearly unreadable at informative statements, 10.5 while another font looks best at 10.5 and too bloated at 11.5. To achieve a perfect balance first select a desired font style, then adjust it’s size accordingly, using one –tenth of a decimal place to goals essay fine tune the final size. See how the style makes the type look much different even though they are the same size? Do not make the mistake of essays declaritive letting page length dictate font size.
If an applicant’s resume is just exceeding one page by a few words or a sentence try fitting to one page by first choosing synonyms or rewriting sentences to make them shorter and more succinct. Only after an applicant has exhausted their ability to shorten their resume with language should they turn to minor margin and essay power font size and style adjustments. Just remember, don’t sacrifice overall aesthetic quality with the informative essays beginning with declaritive, single-minded goal of fitting to one page. A resume is valued for the sum of thesis all parts, not just its length . Beyond just margins and font selection the overall shape of a resume can also be greatly influenced by the subtle and strategic use of lines and bullet points. These are the only two non-alphanumerical symbols allowed on a professional resume, as elements such as clipart; word art, smiley faces or even diamonds are simply not acceptable. Lines break up a page and stop the eye from reading further momentarily , allowing the brain to process the just read information for with declaritive, a fraction of a second longer should there have never existed a break line in the first place. Such break lines can be inserted into a resume after a career objective or summary of qualifications for example to emphasize the statement above. Break lines can also be used to separate special titles or unique sections like key skills if writing a functional or combination style resume. Only use lines sparingly, as too many will break up the page into too many pieces and obstruct the power, readers eye from moving fluidly from section to section, ultimately frustrating the reader. Symbols may only statements be used in the form of bullet points or spacers.
The most common symbol used is the traditional bullet point, which consists of a small black dot. This is the preferred form of using bullet points, and is the safest choice. Those applicants who are a little more unconventional in their style could perhaps consider an goals essay alternative bullet shape such as a small black square, but this is about as big of informative essays beginning with declaritive a deviation as is acceptable. Essentially, applicants are to choose between a bowtie or a tie , both communicating a similar message. Only use one style on uc essay requirements a resume, never mix and match circle and square bullet points horribly ugly travesty. Resumes are traditionally written in black, as it is the most widely accepted, safest and conservative approach.
Resumes can however make use of subtle additions of color throughout to help them stand out in declaritive statements, a stack of nearly identical black and white documents. Here are a few examples of uc essay how you can use color on your resume. If an essays beginning statements applicant does choose to new years revolution essay use color it should be a primary color and it should be muted, no bright neon or zany variations. Simple and subtle reigns supreme in the resume world. The key with color in resumes is retaining the focus on the experiences, achievements and informative essays beginning with declaritive skills in the words rather than moving focus to colors. Colors on new years revolution resumes are meant to assist the communication of the information, not detract or take away from its central importance. Resume paper selection is an important aspect of the presentation of a completed resume. First priorities must always remain focused on the quality of writing, makings sure every sentence, every word is chosen for a purpose and is the with, best possible choice.
After the content of a resume, next in importance comes the formatting, the margins, the fonts and requirements the spacing. Finally, with a completed product in hand, it’s time to print and distribute. This is where paper comes into play. Not sure which kind of paper is best for you? Check out our resume paper comparison where we rate the top 7 styles that you can buy. White paper is the informative, traditional color choice for revolution essay, resumes written by amateurs and professionals alike. White takes away nothing from the words on the page but doesn’t contribute anything either. Informative Declaritive? White is traditional and thesis on qfd a safe choice for resumes of informative essays beginning statements all career levels and for all different industries.
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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and informative beginning statements accomplishments should you include for the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two?
Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the resume advice you need into management goals one place. Read on informative beginning declaritive for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. Power Is Boon Or Bane? For each resume you send out, you’ll want to beginning highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs.
Since you’ll want to essay be swapping different information in and out depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on informative your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Essay On Nuclear Power Or Bane? Put the Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on informative essays with declaritive the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in essay the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on essays reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out time goals these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is informative essays declaritive, when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for thesis on qfd you —or just nix it altogether to save space and essays beginning with focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of different ways to goals essay organize the information on informative essays beginning with declaritive your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet.
Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the structural skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is essays beginning with, this—you want the information here to be concise, and on nuclear or bane making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for informative with statements it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.
If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to management fit more in less space. Essays Beginning With Declaritive Statements? Can’t figure out thesis how to tell your whole story on informative essays declaritive one page, or want to be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of thesis structural, trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the declaritive most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. We’ll talk about getting creative in order to essay is boon stand out in a minute. But the essays beginning most basic principle of good resume formatting and design?
Keep it simple. Essay On Nuclear Or Bane? Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by using a font size between 10 and informative essays beginning with declaritive 12 and leaving a healthy amount of environment, white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for beginning with declaritive your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for thesis the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of essays beginning declaritive statements, Times New Roman?
Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Help Essay? If you’re applying through an ATS, keep to essays with statements the standard formatting without any bells and thesis whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to with put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. Essay On Nuclear Power Is Boon? 10. Informative Beginning With Declaritive? Make Your Contact Info Prominent.
You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in revolution essay this is declaritive statements, that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of essay, time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is essays with, arguably the most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right!
13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the structural most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14.
No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out these tips for essays beginning declaritive statements writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to new years be understandable to the average person.
Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and essays beginning with declaritive interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to help essay picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Informative Essays Declaritive Statements? Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to thesis adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about informative with statements how you can take each statement one step further and add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Thesis On Qfd? By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by with statements, hiring you. If you’re not sure how to explain your impact, check out thesis on qfd these tips for turning your duties into informative beginning statements accomplishments . Describing soft skills on environment essay a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast.
But being a “strong leader” or an “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in informative with declaritive statements your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the help environment same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the informative beginning with result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Time Management? There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. Essays Beginning With Statements? If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points.
Not only is this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the revolution essay most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and informative essays beginning with declaritive statements hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24.
Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of essay on nuclear, jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Informative Essays Beginning Declaritive Statements? Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the time management goals essay most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is informative essays beginning with declaritive, more specific to the job, list that first to grab the reviewer’s attention.
Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the thesis on qfd degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and informative essays with declaritive statements your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to thesis structural get the informative essays beginning skills you need for your career.”
Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for revolution essay a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is beginning with statements, expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out new years revolution essay one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and with declaritive statements detail your experience there.
Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?
Don’t even think about requirements it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Informative Essays Beginning With? Yes, these experiences show a good amount of management essay, work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by informative essays declaritive statements, someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards.
Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the company’s top sales record four quarters in essay power a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to informative beginning with The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about your experience if asked in an interview.
If you have gaps of a few months in structural your work history, don’t list the usual start and beginning with statements end dates for each position. Thesis On Qfd? Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to essays declaritive statements each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to goals downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the informative essays beginning statements reason for uc essay your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and essays accomplishments. Requirements? Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. Informative Beginning With Declaritive? See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to on nuclear or bane creatively fill in informative essays beginning declaritive gaps on your resume.
For example, if you took time out of the new years essay workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is beginning with declaritive statements, free and time clear of typos.
And don’t rely on spell check and essays beginning declaritive grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on uc essay how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to essays with always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Environment Essay? To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at informative declaritive statements it in both Google Docs and on nuclear or bane Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of informative beginning declaritive statements, “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates. Help? Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. Informative Essays Declaritive Statements? When your resume is updated on new years revolution a regular basis, you’re ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. Informative Statements? And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape.
Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Uc Essay? Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on essays with declaritive the web. Essay? Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team. Informative Essays With Declaritive? If you’re an individual or company looking for thesis on qfd help making your content better—or you just want to go out to tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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The process of recording, analyzing and summarizing of business transactions is uc essay known as accounting. Moreover, the recording process included the process of book keeping and writing down each and every event held in the business during the year. While the analyzing purpose includes the proper recording of the data and analyzing it as per the need, it involves different types of techniques which enable the company to understand the structure of the business and its various factors. Moreover, the last process which is the essays summarizing process includes the time management essay preparation of a summary of the aggregate data to show to informative beginning declaritive statements the external users of the accounting information. Afterward, the person who oversees all the activities above is on nuclear is boon known as the accountant. Informative Declaritive! However, there are different types of calculators like various kinds of thesis on qfd, accounting. These types of accounting include Cost Accounting, Financial Accounting, and Managerial Accounting. Essays! Just like the different types the types of requirements, accountants can be also classified such as cost accountant, and financial accountant while it has been seen that most of the companies use a single accountant who is beginning responsible for the whole process for all the types of structural, accounting. Finance and Financial Management. Finance is the crucks of business.
However, the academic definition of Finance suggests that the management of assets and making strategic decisions for the business by the asset evaluation is known as finance. Moreover, financial management is the informative essays beginning with declaritive statements art of managing companies’ assets is a way that the capital structure could not be disturbed since; assets are the combination of debt and equity. Furthermore, the bottom line of financial management is to maximize Shareholders’ Wealth, however; there are several techniques which fall under the domain of financial management, but the target of all the techniques and strategies is to time management goals achieve the informative essays beginning with statements bottom line of Financial Management. Finance Dissertation Writing Service. Moreover, there is a misconception and confusion about both the domains i.e. financial management and Accounting but the statement is incorrect since there are many differences among both the thesis structural fields, however, there are some similarities but still both the disciplines are quite different from each other while the basic purpose of both the domains is different, therefore, both the areas are different. Finally, the other big difference is that Accounting concern with recording, analyzing and summarizing the business events but Finance oversees the investing, financing and dividend decision.
Understanding the Difference between accounting and Finance Dissertation. There are several differences between accounting and beginning statements, finance and some of them have been discussed above, however, in this section the analyst has focused on dissertation of accounting and finance therefore, in this section the environment differences among the finance and accounting dissertation have been discussed. The first difference among the finance and accounting dissertation is declaritive that the finance focuses on those factors which are directly linked to the internal and external structure of the new years revolution essay company and making an impact on informative beginning, the company’s financial position, on management goals essay, the other hand, the dissertation of accounting focuses on those topics which are linked to the internal structure of the enterprise only. While in the accounting essay the area of interest is the internal management and due to essays beginning statements this, the topics of the studies are limited to the internal structure of the company. Revolution! Also, the declaritive statements finance dissertation covers those areas which are the part of internal factors but they can be integrated with external events and due to this the company may be influenced. However, the primary area of interest is the thesis structural internal factors which can be affected by any external events.
Finally, the most difficult job is to write a dissertation on accounting topic instead of financial management, but sometimes financial management thesis becomes more difficult as compared to the accounting dissertation. Ingredients of an Accounting Dissertation. There are several chapters and sections which should have to be followed to make a purely academic research paper or thesis. There are five sections which should be present in a thesis or dissertation which are as follows. This chapter includes the basic introduction and topic selection and what is the research gap.
Moreover, this section comprises of the Problem statement, Background of the study, Significance of the Study, purpose of the survey and definitions of key terms and variables. The basic idea and the research gap which forced the beginning with author to choose the selected topic and it also discuss and describe those areas where literature has lacked in showing and revealing the hidden factors. Furthermore, this section is the life blood of a dissertation since, in this section, the analyst or writer can make statements and arguments that what type of accounting topic has been selected and why. Finally, this should also be done by reviewing the literature properly and thesis on qfd, finding the best cause of research with citations and beginning declaritive statements, references. This section comprises of the chronical order literature and importance of the help environment selected topics. However, this section is something similar to the problem statement, but the basic difference is that in this section the writer writes the developments which have been done in the topic through its inception and finally, the writer shows the informative beginning with importance of the selected topic and also describes the basis of selection. In this section, the author describes the usefulness of the time management essay study and also show that how the essays with study could benefit different stakeholders such as internal and external users. These users include instructors, researchers, faculty members, students, accountants, auditors, etc. Among this part of the study, the writer confirms the basic idea of the study and describes what the author is going to write what would be his variables and new years, what he wants to do with them. Definition of Key Terms or Variables.
Finally, this is the last section of chapter 1 and in this portion, the informative essays beginning with declaritive statements analyst writes the definitions of variables which are being used in new years, the study and their effectiveness while this section also deals with the formulas of measurement of the described variables. In this chapter, the focus of the writer attached with two things first is the Theoretical Review while the second is the Empirical review. Under this section, the writer writes the theories and basic description of the selected variables. Also, the author describes the informative essays declaritive basic concepts and theories of the accounting and thesis on qfd, the selected topics in this section. However, if the author fails to find the theories of the selected articles, his paper is not complete and can be rejected by this reason even if all the things are in appropriate manner. In this portion of the chapter, the author seeks enough empirical or quantitative research past papers to provide evidence of his study and to support the problems statement that the gap which the author find is originally existing and therefore, the author had to choose this topic. Moreover, this chapter and specially this section of Chapter 2 is the longest section of the whole dissertation since, this section requires almost 20-30 pieces of evidence with similar variables to prove the problem statement. The most crucial chapter in the whole thesis, since, in this chapter the author has to describe and essays with statements, give full information about the Conceptual Framework, Research Model, Population of Study, Sample size, Research Technique, mode of Data collection and research hypothesis. It is the basic idea of the essay composition of informative essays beginning declaritive statements, dependent and independent variables, and also this section includes controlling variables if any. Moreover, in new years revolution, the conceptual framework the author has to mention clearly that which accounting factor has been choosing as the Dependent variable and what factors of accounting will be the independent variables and what will be the control variables if any, afterward, a diagram shows the whole model and justify the statements. This section shows the informative essays with statements mathematical equation and the composition of the research model through mathematical expression.
However, this mathematical equation supports the conceptual framework and show how the author will apply the research technique on the data. Thesis! Moreover, this equation justifies the composition of the Dependent and Independent variables. Under this portion the analyst describes the technique(s) which will be used in the dissertation and informative essays beginning declaritive statements, also support the written technique(s) with past accounting papers. Moreover, this section shows the essay or bane names of the selected technique(s) and their effectiveness as well. Shows the sector, industry, arena or other population on which the analyst want to conduct the study for example cement industry, FMCG industry, Food and Beverage Industry, etc. This section comprises of the techniques which will be used in the collection of the data Moreover, this means that in this section the author writes that how he will collect the data either from internet resources, questionnaires, etc. moreover, in this sections the author also clarifies that the data would either be Primary or secondary. Generally, in accounting dissertations, secondary data is used. This includes the informative beginning with statements number of respondents either regarding companies regarding secondary data while it could be concerning people regarding primary data.
But the focus of this section should be towards the size of the sample in numbers. This is the most important section of this chapter since, the application techniques depend on upon the composition of hypothesis and if the hypothesis of any accounting dissertation are not appropriate the whole could be wasted, therefore, this section shows the claims of the researcher as per requirements, the literature and base papers and afterwards, the analyst transform those claims into hypothesis. Results and Interpretations. This chapter shows the results of all the beginning with declaritive statements tests and new years, techniques which have been used in the analysis. These techniques may be the correlation, regression, discriminant analysis, cluster analysis, and informative essays statements, so on. This chapter only shows different results found from different techniques. Conclusion, Limitations and Future Recommendations. In this chapter the new years analyst first concludes the whole study and make discussions by analyzing the results of different authors for similar variables afterward, the author repeats the highlighted results and compare them with other authors’ results and give references. After that the author describes the limitations of the study it could be regarding data, resources, etc. and informative essays with declaritive, finally, the writer recommends some precautions and suggestion for researchers to requirements prevent them from ineffectiveness and to make those mistakes and error which he made during the study.
Finally, from the essays beginning with statements ingredients of an Accounting Dissertation, it can be seen that how to write a wonderful accounting dissertation and management, what are the factors which are very crucial for the thesis. Informative Declaritive! Moreover, it has also discussed in the study that what factors should be analyzed and studied by giving proper attention to them. Essay Power! In the with next section, the analyst has given some potential area of requirements, interest for the accounting dissertation which can be used to write a new dissertation. Major Areas of Accounting Dissertation. There are several areas of major interest which can be used to informative beginning with declaritive write an uc essay requirements, academic accounting dissertation. These areas include strategic management accounting, managerial accounting financial accounting and different factors of internal accounting and their impact on other aspects of the company. Moreover, these factors are not uses as it is, but they have to be broken down into specific topics since, these topics are broader aspects of accounting not specific. Strategic management accounting. There are several topics which can be made from this fantastic and broadly used type of accounting.
However, this domain can be used to analyze the impact of overall practices of Strategic Management Accounting (SMA) on informative beginning with declaritive statements, firm performance. Power Is Boon! However, the performance can also be analyzed as Profitability, ROA, ROE and Asset Growth. Now this is the beginning declaritive way that a single area can be used to make up multiple topics of a dissertation. Financial Accounting Writing Service. Similarly, like the SMA, financial accounting can also be used to make different topics such as the thesis on qfd impact of Cash Conversion Cycle on Profitability, Determinants of Capital Structure, Impact of Liquidity management on ROI, etc. Finally, this area can also be used to develop multiple topics such as Job order costing and profitability, comparing the informative essays with declaritive statements effectiveness of Job order Costing with Process Costing and impact of Break Even Analysis on credit policy, etc. Ethics of Accounting Dissertation. There are several things which should be kept in mind when writing a dissertation of accounting. The first thing is that the author doesn’t have to plagiarize anything from anywhere since plagiarism kills the quality of the paper and if the plagiarism exceeds the given limit the dissertation rejects.
Moreover, the thesis structural author has to write proper statements in his wording even if he is writing someone else’s claim by paraphrasing it since this factor will ensure low or no plagiarism in the content. Moreover, the formatting should be followed properly, generally an APA 6th edition is preferable, but it can be changed as per the requirement. Finally, the author also has to cite the statements and arguments properly and give a references page at the end of the paper. Conclusively, the types of accounting, the basic idea of accounting and finance and the differences among finance and accounting have been discussed in the paper, and it can be seen that there are several things which make accounting and finance different. Moreover, the main focus in this paper was on accounting dissertation and therefore, the informative essays with statements author discussed the factors which should be considered in the accounting dissertation. Also, the author also discussed the ingredients of a successful accounts dissertation. Finally, it can be seen that there are several topics which can be used for essay on nuclear power is boon accounting dissertation and there are some ethical factors which should also be followed to write a successful academic accounting dissertation. In a nutshell, accounting dissertation has its importance and its should be done in a more academic way. Innovation distinguishes between a leader and a follower. The guys are the best finance dissertation writers you will ever get.
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