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Superman hero essay

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A Super(Hero) Essay by Chad Howie

Superman hero essay

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Why is Superman a hero? |

caged essay in photo A Photo Essay on hero the Great Depression. The trading floor of the New York Stock Exchange just after the crash of 1929. On Black Tuesday, October twenty-ninth, the market collapsed. In a single day, sixteen million shares were traded--a record--and thirty billion dollars vanished into thin air. Westinghouse lost two thirds of its September value. DuPont dropped seventy points. The Era of essay, Get Rich Quick was over. Jack Dempsey, America's first millionaire athlete, lost $3 million. Cynical New York hotel clerks asked incoming guests, You want a room for sleeping or jumping?

Police stand guard outside the entrance to hero essay, New York's closed World Exchange Bank, March 20, 1931. Not only essay did bank failures wipe out superman hero people's savings, they also undermined the ideology of thrift. Unemployed men vying for rebuttal essay jobs at the American Legion Employment Bureau in Los Angeles during the Great Depression. Superman Hero Essay? World War I veterans block the steps of the Capital during the Bonus March, July 5, 1932 (Underwood and argument essay statement Underwood). In the summer of 1932, in the midst of the Great Depression, World War I veterans seeking early payment of a bonus scheduled for 1945 assembled in Washington to pressure Congress and the White House. Hoover resisted the demand for an early bonus. Veterans benefits took up 25% of the 1932 federal budget.

Even so, as the superman hero essay Bonus Expeditionary Force swelled to 60,000 men, the rebuttal essay president secretly ordered that its members be given tents, cots, army rations and medical care. In July, the Senate rejected the bonus 62 to 18. Most of the protesters went home, aided by Hoover's offer of superman hero, free passage on the rails. Ten thousand remained behind, among them a hard core of Communists and other organizers. On the morning of rebuttal essay, July 28, forty protesters tried to hero essay, reclaim an evacuated building in downtown Washington scheduled for demolition. Resume Empty? The city's police chief, Pellham Glassford, sympathetic to the marchers, was knocked down by superman hero essay a brick. Glassford's assistant suffered a fractured skull. When rushed by a crowd, two other policemen opened fire. Two of the marchers were killed. Bud Fields and french essay link words his family. Alabama.

1935 or 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Squatter's Camp, Route 70, Arkansas, October, 1935. Photographer: Ben Shahn. Philipinos cutting lettuce, Salinas, California, 1935. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In order to maximize their ability to exploit farm workers, California employers recruited from China, Japan, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, Mexico, the American south, and Europe. Roadside stand near Birmingham, Alabama, 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Farmer and sons, dust storm, Cimarron County, Oklahoma, 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein.

The drought that helped cripple agriculture in the Great Depression was the worst in the climatological history of the country. By 1934 it had dessicated the Great Plains, from North Dakota to Texas, from the Mississippi River Valley to the Rockies. Essay? Vast dust storms swept the argument thesis region. Migrant pea pickers camp in the rain. California, February, 1936. Superman Essay? Photographer: Dorothea Lange. In one of the largest pea camps in California. February, 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. The photograph that has become known as Migrant Mother is one of eth thesis repository, a series of photographs that Dorothea Lange made in February or March of 1936 in Nipomo, California. Lange was concluding a month's trip photographing migratory farm labor around the state for what was then the Resettlement Administration.

In 1960, Lange gave this account of the experience: I saw and approached the hungry and desperate mother, as if drawn by a magnet. I do not remember how I explained my presence or my camera to her, but I do remember she asked me no questions. I made five exposures, working closer and closer from the same direction. I did not ask her name or her history. Superman Essay? She told me her age, that she was thirty-two. She said that they had been living on frozen vegetables from the highschool memories essay surrounding fields, and birds that the children killed. She had just sold the tires from superman essay, her car to buy food. There she sat in that lean- to tent with her children huddled around her, and seemed to know that my pictures might help her, and so she helped me. There was a sort of equality about it. (From: Popular Photography , Feb. 1960).

Dorothea Lange's Migrant Mother, destitute in a pea picker's camp, because of the on cancer failure of the early pea crop. Superman Essay? These people had just sold their tent in order to buy food. Most of the 2,500 people in essay, this camp were destitute. By the end of the essay decade there were still 4 million migrants on the road. Freight car converted into house in Little Oklahoma, California. February, 1936.

Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Rebuttal Essay? Gellert, Hugo, 1924. Essay? Vote Communist poster. During the 1920s the American Communist Party was often a victim at essay link, once of government oppression and hero of its own sectarian struggles, but in the mid-1930s it adopted a popular front policy of alliances with liberal organizations. Its membership tripled, but more important still were the thousands of sympathizers who endorsed party-supported causes. Demonstration of unemployed, Columbus, Kansas. May 1936. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. A sharecropper's yard, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936.

Photographer: Walker Evans. Porch of eth thesis, a sharecropper's cabin, Hale County, Alabama, Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. The marginal and oppresive economy of sharecropping largely collapsed during the great Depression. Kitchen in house of Floyd Burroughs, sharecropper, near Moundville, Hale County, Alabama. Summer 1936. Photographer: Walker Evans. Part of an impoverished family of nine on a New Mexico highway. Depression refugees from Iowa. Left Iowa in 1932 because of father's ill health.

Father an auto mechanic laborer, painter by trade, tubercular. Family has been on relief in Arizona but refused entry on relief roles in Iowa to which state they wish to return. Nine children including a sick four-month-old baby. No money at all. About to superman essay, sell their belongings and trailer for money to buy food.

We don't want to go where we'll be a nuisance to anybody. Children of migrant workers typically had no way to attend school. By the link words end of 1930 some 3 million children had abandoned school. Thousands of schools had closed or were operating on reduced hours. At least 200,000 children took to the roads on their own.

Summer 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. People living in superman hero, miserable poverty, Elm Grove, Oklahoma County, Oklahoma. August 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter camp, California, November 1936. Photographer: Dorothea Lange.

During the Great Depression, unemployment was high. Many employers tried to eth thesis, get as much work as possible from their employees for the lowest possible wage. Hero Essay? Workers were upset with the speedup of assembly lines, working conditions and the lack of job security. Seeking strength in rebuttal essay, unity, they formed unions. Automobile workers organized the U.A.W. (United Automobile Workers of America) in 1935. General Motors would not recognize the essay U.A.W. as the workers' bargaining representative. Hearing rumors that G.M. was moving work to factories where the union was not as strong, workers in Flint began a sit-down strike on December 30, 1936. Resume? The sit-down was an effective way to hero, strike.

When workers walked off the job and picketed a plant, management could bring in new workers to break the strike. If the workers stayed in the plant, management could not replace them with other workers. This photograph shows the broken windows at General Motors' Flint Fisher Body Plant during the words Flint sit-down strike of 1936-37. Strikers guarding window entrance to Fisher body plant number three. Essay? Flint, Michigan, Jan.-Feb. Essay? 1936. Photographer: Sheldon Dick.

Toward Los Angeles, California. 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Perhaps 2.5 million people abandoned their homes in the South and the Great Plains during the essay Great Depression and went on the road. Waiting for the semimonthly relief checks at Calipatria, Imperial Valley, California. Typical story: fifteen years ago they owned farms in Oklahoma.

Lost them through foreclosure when cotton prices fell after the war. Became tenants and sharecroppers. With the drought and dust they came West, 1934-1937. Never before left the county where they were born. Now although in California over a year they haven't been continuously resident in any single county long enough to become a legal resident.

Reason: migratory agricultural laborers. March 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Drought refugees near Holtville, California. March 1937. Photographer: Dorothea Lange.

Leland, Mississippi, in the Delta area, June 1937. Photographer: Dorothea lange. Lincoln Brigade Ambulance Corps. Essay? Group photo in New York of sixteen volunteers, American Medical Bureau. 125 American men and women served in the Spanish Civil War with the American Medical Bureau as nurses, doctors, and superman essay support staff. 1936-1939. The Spanish Civil War was the great international cause of the 1930s. Argument Thesis Statement? Aided by hero essay Hitler and Mussolini, the Spansih military led a revolt against the progressive elected government. About 3,000 Americans volunteered to fight on behlaf of the Spanish Republic.

Click here for the MAPS page on the Spanish Civil War. Spanish Civil War demonstration in New York. Press photo. Photograph by Alexander, 177 Thompson Street, New York. Eth Thesis? Strike pickets, New York, New York. Dec. 1937. Photographer: Arthur Rothstein. Unemployed workers in front of a shack with Christmas tree, East 12th Street, New York City. December 1937.

Photographer: Russell Lee. Hero Essay? Tattered communities of the homeless coalesced in and around every major city in the country. Part of the daily lineup outside the argument thesis State Employment Service Office. Memphis, Tennessee. June 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Squatter makes coffee in kitchen at his home in abandoned warehouse, Caruthersville, Missouri. Superman Essay? August 1938. Photographer: Russell Lee. Members of the picket line at King Farm strike.

Morrisville, Pennsylvania. August 1938. Photographer: John Vachon. In contrast to a frequently racist society, several unions were militantly integrationist. Power farming displaces tenants. Texas panhandle, 1938. Photographer: Dorothea Lange. Resume Looks? Squatters in Mexican section in San Antonio, Texas. House was built of scrap material in superman, vacant lot in Mexican.

section of San Antonio, Texas. Argument Statement? March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Superman? Mexican woman arranging things in her shack home. San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee.

Relief line waiting for commodities, San Antonio, Texas. March 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee. Man in hobo jungle killing turtle to make soup, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Sept. 1939. Photographer: John Vachon. Selling apples, Jacksonville, Texas. October, 1939. Photographer: Russell Lee.

Many tried apple-selling to avoid the shame of survivor, panhandling. In New York City, there were over 5,000 apple sellers on the street. Young boys waiting in superman, kitchen of city mission for soup which is given out essay nightly. Dubuque, Iowa. April 1940. Photographer: John Vachon. For millions, soup kitchens offered the superman hero only food they would eat. Durham, North Carolina, May 1940. Photographer: Jack Delano.

At the bus station. Upstairs bedroom of family on relief, Chicago, Illinois. April 1941. Photographer: Russell Lee. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. Rebuttal Essay? Strikers near the sugar mill. Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano. Yabucoa, Puerto Rico. In the mill village at the sugar mill.

Jan. 1942. Photographer: Jack Delano.

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Superman: My First Super Hero essays

Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago. Until recently the essay, art of the 1980s has often been regarded as a kind of essay on cancer embarrassmentexcessive, brash, contentious, too theoretical, insufficiently theoretical, overblown, anti-aesthetic, demonstrably politicalas though the decade were just too much. Cracks in this facade have appeared, to be sure. A handful of European museums mounted shows dedicated to surveying the decade. Martin Kippenberger, Richard Prince, and Cindy Sherman all received major retrospectives. Superman Essay? Perhaps most notable was the 2003 Artforum double issue dedicated to that nettlesome decade; in his opening salvo guest editor Jack Bankowsky went so far as to say that, counter to the increasingly canonized work of the 1960s and 1970s, the art of the 1980s was an rebuttal essay “open wound.” 1. Artforum, March 2003 [cover] This Will Have Been (which covers the period from 1979 to superman hero 1992) neither attempts to tell a properly chronological story of the decade nor cleaves closely to the dominant art historical terms of the day. You will not find, for instance, a section on “appropriation” or “neo-expressionism” in either the exhibition or the rebuttal essay, catalogue.

Likewise, the historical antinomies between those two formations will not be given pride of place. Rather, definitively retrospective in its gaze, This Will Have Been narrativizes the decade from the position of memory and hindsightwith all of the open wounds, elisions, anachronisms, and blank spots implied therein. Unavoidably, given the superman hero, staggering loss of life experienced as a result of the HIV/AIDS crisis, pain attends the task. French Words? Again and again in hero essay, organizing this exhibition I realized that I could never approach the material at hand as if I didn’t know about AIDS, as if there were an innocent “eighties” before the disease and its attendant political crisis came into full view toward the end of the repository, decade. If the 1980s is an open wound, then surely AIDS is largely responsible for causing it. This Will Have Been also contends that the eighties feel like an “open wound” because of the hero, transformations brought about by feminism. This might help to explain how in 2007, when the rebuttal essay, art world’s “year of essay feminism” rolled around, the 1980s was a blank spot in the historicization of feminist art. 2 The early twenty-first-century revival of feminism in the art world was both the cause and effect of two exhibitions: WACK! Art and the Feminist Revolution , which covered the period from 1965 to 1980, and Global Feminisms , which started with the 1990s. Their mutual omission of the 1980s felt bizarre, an utterly unconscious redaction of history.

Could the on cancer survivor, prevailing silence regarding the eighties vis-à-vis the recent reinvestigations of superman essay feminism also be seen as a symptom or cause of the “wound” that makes this period too difficult to discuss, too fraught to reassess? The second-wave feminism of the 1970s produced revolutionary changes in both culture at large and the microcosm of the argument, art world. Superman Hero Essay? It was the charge of the highschool memories essay, 1980s to superman hero essay assimilate these changes; to wit, when asked what the most important development of the 1980s was, Lisa Phillips, one of the argument thesis, most prominent curators of the period, responded quickly: “[W]omen finally got a seat at the table.” 3 In addition to hero the rise of women artists and arts professionals in the 1980s, the decade witnessed artwork that was deeply preoccupied with mass-media imagery and the role of the “image world” (the title of an important exhibition organized by Phillips). One result of this interest was a critical engagement with the mass media’s role in producing and maintaining the argument essay thesis statement, patriarchal construction of “woman.” Simultaneously, however, there were serious attempts to superman hero curtail, and even reverse, the gains of the women’s movement of the 1970s (e.g., the 1982 defeat of the memories, Equal Rights Amendment and the decade’s long struggle over the sanctity of Roe v. Wade ). 4 During the 1980s, feminism found itself in a squeeze play, attacked from the superman hero, right by those who wished to stop its advances for social justice and challenged from within its own ranks by an increasingly theoretical and on cancer survivor, psychoanalytical version of superman feminism more interested in deconstructing the how and survivor, why of superman hero patriarchal forms of power than in gaining access to power within a patriarchal system. Added to argument statement this internal schism was the hero, rise of emerging discourses of queer theory, identity politics, and postcolonial studiesall of which worked to destabilize any narrative blind to french essay link the compound properties of superman hero difference that make up our subjectivities. These new formations pressured existing discourses and practices of feminism to french essay link words consider class, sexuality, race, and hero, ethnicity in ways that ultimately challenged the very category of “woman” as a unitary and unifying concept.

These discourses argued that gender was not the primary organizing axis of identity, contending instead that one’s subjectivity was an ineluctable mixture of all these competing and commensurate qualities of being. This Will Have Been ’s retrospective gaze is deeply informed by the matrix of AIDS activism and rebuttal essay, the challenges laid at the feet of Anglo-American feminism by writers and theorists more frequently associated with the early to superman hero essay mid-1990s. Empty? This Will Have Been argues, however, that these voices and superman essay, ideas were nascent at rebuttal essay the beginning of the 1980s and, more importantly, they were also being fleshed out in works of art and in art criticism (which was remarkably robust during this period), just as they were slowly forming in the minds of writers such as Judith Butler and essay, Homi Bhabha. This exhibition suggests that much of the art of the 1980s was involved in a shared project of expanding our understanding of identity and subjectivity, exploring the possibility of politics in a mediated public sphere, and offering increasingly nuanced and complicated versions of rebuttal essay history and memory. This Will Have Been presumes that works of essay art did not illustrate these ideas, but helped to create the conditions of possibility for both the rebuttal essay, most advanced theoretical writings of the period and the AIDS activist movement that profoundly shaped the end of the decade. These are the essay, stakes in the ground, so to speakthe farthest parameters of this exhibition’s overall project. There are others, to be sure, but these two “events”feminism and the AIDS crisisshaped the contours of the 1980s investigated by This Will Have Been . The art of the 1980s is, from a curatorial standpoint, almost impossibly heterogeneous.

For several years, whenever I told people I was at work on a 1980s exhibition, they would invariably ask if artist “X” was in the exhibition, and frequently my answer was a polite (and anxious) “no.” Rather than giving in to the impulse toward inclusivity, This Will Have Been is structured by a partisan premise: more than any other twentieth-century decade, the 1980s enacts most fully the ramifications of feminism for art, theory, and politics. Or as Craig Owens would write: “Among the most significant developments of the past decadeit may well turn out to have been the most significanthas been the emergence, in. nearly every area of argument thesis statement cultural activity, of a specifically feminist practice.” 5 In the most explicit terms, as women artists, critics, art historians, and theorists rose to prominence, gender could no longer be taken as a given or as a neutral area of thought. Implicitly, feminist critique in the eighties often manifested itself through the registration, enactment, and belief in the mechanisms and power of hero desire. While the confluence of the resume looks, civil rights movement, the essay, antiVietnam War protests, the student uprisings of 1968, and survivor, the feminist movement failed to produce a full-blown political revolution, what could not be eradicated from the culture was an increasingly robust sense of agency and hero essay, entitlementa belief that individuals had the memories, right to the pursuit of happiness, a pursuit that meant one’s personal desires would no longer be sublimated in the name of the hero, family or the state. To be fully human, to be equal, was to have the power and freedom to enact one’s desires (even if one failed to survivor achieve them). So too historical coincidence places the major movements for social justice of the 1960s and 1970s in proximity to the rise of a highly mediated televisual culture. The artists represented in This Will Have Been belong to the first generation to have grown up with a television in the home.

They came of age in a culture shot through with visual regimes designed to superman hero essay promote desire across a variety of spectra: desire for objects, for lifestyles, for fame, for conformity, for eth thesis repository anti-conformity. Superman Hero Essay? These two powerful social forcesmovements for social justice and the rise of televisionconverged and matured in the art of the 1980s. There were hundreds, probably thousands, of artists working during the 1980s, but the ones included in This Will Have Been register and negotiate the effects of the above socio-historical phenomena. The culture born of this nexus of desire, shaped by demands for equality on the one hand and the image world of the mass media on the other, makes desire both the cause and the effect for rebuttal essay much of the art in this exhibition. Sometimes the desire is erotic, for objects or for bodies; sometimes the hero, desire is for fame, for looks empty political change, for endings (e.g., of humanism or painting) or for new beginnings (the emergence of post-structuralism or hip-hop). Essay? But always coursing through the works chosen for this exhibition is a profound belief in the capacity of art objectsindeed, of culture in the broadest senseto signify, enact, and enable these multifarious forms of desire.

For many 1980s artists, making art was itself propelled by the desire to participate, in a transformative way, in the culture at large. Essay On Cancer Survivor? This shared aspiration may be what prompted curator Ann Goldstein to refer to the 1980s as the “last movement,” the last time artists, however seemingly disparate their respective bodies of work may have appeared, nonetheless held in common a set of hopes and assumptions about the role of art in the public sphere. Superman? 6. Because desire is such an french link important concept for the 1980s, it is worth an excursus into psychoanalysisthe methodology that has taught us the most about desire’s workings. The authors of the dictionary The Language of Psychoanalysis take pains to distinguish desire from both “need” and “demand.” Need is directed toward and satisfied by specific objects, whereas “demands are formulated and addressed to others,” and, while they can be aimed at an object, are “essentially a demand for love.” Desire “appears in the rift that separates need and demand.” 7 It is by nature about lack: one desires what one does not have.

Desire forms in “relation to phantasy,” the realm of the superman, imagination and the unconscious, and it is in empty, these areas that desire most frequently erupts, demanding to be recognized. As such, desire perpetually finds itself in dialogue and tension with reality. For Sigmund Freud, phantasy is not defined as “an object that the subject imagines and aims at,” but rather “a sequence in which the subject has his [ sic ] own part to play and in which permutations of rules and attributions are possible.” 8 It is the very porousness of phantasy, its openness to multiple subject positions simultaneously, that makes it desire’s primary modality. Importantly, for our purposes, phantasy often takes the form of “organized scenes that are capable of dramatizationusually in essay, a visual form.” 9 During the 1980s many artists influenced by feminism not only insisted on equal access to all aspects of civil society and social life (a focus for 1970s feminism, just as it was for the civil rights movement before it) but they also demanded equal occupation of the sites of phantasy. Statement? These artists thus claimed equality within the sphere of representation, the superman, site within which desire is articulated in the overlapping realms of rebuttal essay culture and politics. As artists worked to hero understand an increasingly media-saturated world, decades of words emphasis on abstraction gave way to increasingly figurative imagery. The return to the figure was cause for consternation for critics who felt it embodied a retrograde “return” to older forms of image-making. So too, many feminist artists and critics were troubled by the reemergence of the female nude, a genre sufficiently vexed by the burgeoning field of feminist art history. Superman? However, the memories essay, figure did not only return in the guise of neo-expressionist painting or images of naked women. The figure was also frequently smuggled in hero essay, under the critical rubrics of appropriation or identity politics, and it occurred as much in the emergent media of essay photography and video as it did in hero essay, the historical medium of painting.

And because figuration lends itself to a more explicitly narrativizing impulse, the art of the 1980s was marbled with scenes of phantasy and eth thesis repository, desire, as the essay, figure invariably invited projection and/or identification on eth thesis, the part of essay viewers, artists, and critics. One overwhelming effect of this renewed deployment of the figure is eth thesis that a startling array of images produced during the 1980s are concernedeither implicitly or explicitlywith a working through of sexual difference in the face of the feminist challenge to patriarchy; this can be seen in the feminist critique of appropriated mass-media images dealing with the construction of gender, or in neo-expressionist painting’s recourse to superman essay a frequently naked and eth thesis, vulnerable body. In retrospect, these works appear less antagonistic and more as mutual attempts to make images of the new social relations feminism was asking people to superman inhabit. Additionally, by the end of the decade, gay and lesbian artists had permeated the contemporary art scene with works that dealt with the specificity of french essay queer desire, as part of a more generalized demand that such desires could no longer be kept quietly out of public view. These cultural developments took place during the period when Americans elected Ronald Reagan president (twice) on the promise that he would return American politics and values to a time before the tumultuous upheavals of the 1960s and 1970s. Superman? For those interested in “family values,” such as members of the Eagle Forum, led by conservative activist Phyllis Schlafly, explorations of desire were hardly greeted as liberatory. Instead, for political conservatives, the exploration of desire on the part of women, people of color, and gays and lesbians was deeply threatening. 10 Ironically, for many in the art world, the suffusion of art with the narrative and essay on cancer, figurativeimpulses inherent to phantasywas also problematic when compared to the previous several decades of essay abstraction. 11 Hence, the french link, exploration of desire found opposition in many camps, contributing to the ongoing ambivalence with which the superman hero essay, work of the 1980s has subsequently been considered. Such tides notwithstanding, desire as a concept, aim, and essay, engine for making art was regularly registered in superman, the theory and on cancer, criticism of the period.

This was. particularly the case among critics who were interested in feminism and sexuality and who had turned to the discourse of psychoanalysis to think through these issues. Craig Owens wrote that the visual field was “crosshatched by desire.” 12 Similarly, in the words of superman Mary Kelly, “[s]ince the fascination in french words, looking is founded on separation from what is seen, the field of vision is also, and most appropriately, the field of desire.” 13 For Owens and Kelly, like many critics and artists of the period, desire and the visual go hand in hand. What passes unsaid in these accounts, however, is how desire’s imbrication in the visual is superman hero essay most potently connoted when the work in question is figurative or representational, i.e., when it plays out in essay link, phantasy the problems inherent to desire. (In other words, one doesn’t encounter the same talk of desire in discussions of essay abstraction of the rebuttal essay, 1950s, the serial production of the essay, 1960s, or the linguistic turn in conceptual art of the 1970s.) Like “the 1980s,” desire as an organizing principle runs the eth thesis, risk of being too easily generalized. Hence, with desire as their touchstone, this exhibition and superman hero essay, catalogue are divided into four sections, each exploring a specific problem-idea. Eth Thesis? 14 “The End Is Near” toggles among 1980s discussions of the end of painting, the end of the counterculture, and the end of history. Here, desire is figured as a melancholic call for a break with the past, specifically the hero, end of modernism. Fueled by a strong desire to stake out the new terrain of postmodernism, the resume looks empty, artists in this section worked with an eye toward the history of art, as critical of its premises as they were deeply desirous of their place within it. “Democracy” addresses the renewed interest in the street as a site for public intervention, the increasing awareness of the hero essay, importance of the mass media, the growing prominence of South and Central American artists and artists of color, and the pervasive commitment to french link words the political that shaped the superman, period.

In this section, desire is figured politically, often masquerading as a demand informed by rebuttal essay, immanent critiquea request that the powers that be remain true to superman hero essay their highest principles. Many of these works bear witness to artists’ attempts to change modes of signification, much as activists attempted to change laws. Similarly much of the work in this section takes on the media as a public site as open for contestation as the street. “Gender Trouble” elaborates on the implications of the 1970s feminist movement by gathering works that interrogate and ultimately expand our sense of the social construction of gender roles. In doing so these works imagined anew the role of figuration and representation. As an emphasis on, and the importance of, the concept of on cancer survivor sexuality (as distinct from gender) increased, desire frequently emerged as a way for artists to explore ideas of difference, rendering categories like “woman” heterogeneous rather than homogeneous. Artists featured in superman essay, this section articulated how representation helps to construct and maintain notions of gender, and many works strove to unmoor gender from bodies and statement, locate it instead within discursive systems of power. In “Desire and Longing” artists working with appropriation techniques are held in relation to the emergence of queer visibility brought on by the AIDS crisis. In this section, desirefor bodies and for essay objectsis configured most clearly. At the same time, transformed by grief and mourning, desire became longing: for individuals lost, for a more just public sphere, and for a time before the crisis began. Woody Allen’s 1979 Manhattan begins with a montage of romantic black-and-white images of New York City, footage at odds with the voice-over that sputters with false starts as it proclaims the end of the city itself.

Just three years later, in a part of New York largely unknown to the Woody Allen set, the essay survivor, young graffiti and rap artists in Charlie Ahearn’s Wild Style ruefully pronounced the hip-hop culture they had just created to be dead as early as 1982 (dead, that is, long before its entrance into mainstream culture). Narratives of the essay, end were pervasive, and one “end” signaled by the 1980s was the end of the cultural and political experiments of the 1960s. Upon the opening of the New York gallery Metro Pictures, in November 1980, Robert Pincus-Witten wrote in his diary (which was being published in Arts magazine): “The evening was essentially a happy but disquieting one: it definitely marks the death of the ‘60s.” 15 Or one could find in the New York Times the following account of Trisha Brown’s new dance, Glacial Decoy : “So now Miss Brown is using a proscenium stage, stage decor and music as well as movement that requires considerable virtuosity from her dancers. In 1981, we have finally realized that the 1960s are over.” 16. With the end of the sixties came a sense of something new as well, and the impulse to eth thesis repository name it created a flurry of pithy monikersneo-geo, appropriation, identity politics, neo-expressionismeach designed to essay identify both a group of argument thesis statement artists and hero, a type of practice. But the identifying moniker that was most often used, and most hotly debated, was postmodernism. No intellectual paradigm has been more synonymous with the decade, and the term’s current state of disrepair speaks volumes about the essay on cancer survivor, general ambivalence toward art of the 1980s. The prefix “post” signaled an endbut the end of what, exactly? By mid-decade, critic Hal Foster had written cogently and persuasively of two postmodernisms. 17 One version of postmodernism was bound up with a conservative return to order that viewed modernism as a break with humanism and sought to reinstate pre-modernist ideals.

For Foster, artwork associated with this form of postmodernism took shape in several ways: through the reemergence of superman essay figuration, through a return to “older” modes of looks artistic production (i.e., a return to painting after two decades of the medium’s critical rejection by hero essay, Minimalism and conceptualism) via an highschool memories ahistoricizing use of pastiche, 18 and, most of all, through a belief in representation’s transparency to meaning. According to Foster, the other version of postmodernism regarded modernism as not having broken with humanism enough . Intimately linked to post-structuralism, this version of postmodernism took on the task of articulating history not as a set of facts but as a constructed narrative, and of reimagining identity not as ontological condition but as internally bifurcated and structured by language. For the thinkers and artists in hero essay, this “camp,” postmodernism offered a constellation of ideas and strategies that saw representation as constructed (not transparent) and therefore as a series of codes to be dismantled in the service of critique. Although Foster clearly aligned himself with this second version of postmodernism, he implicitly argued for a productive, dialectical tension between the two forms, which in turn allowed for a persuasive (although contentious) conversation about the possibility of modernism’s end. While postmodernism was frequently offered as a eulogy for modernism tout court, in the specific context of the resume looks, art world painting was the bull’s-eye of the target. Accounts of the death of painting clashed swords with the medium’s defenders in a battle waged across the pages of art magazines and journals. Some accounts of painting’s death were vitriolic (Douglas Crimp’s 1981 “End of Painting”), while others offered a recuperative gesture, seeing in the medium’s outmodedness its very possibility (Thomas Lawson’s “Last Exit Painting,” also of 1981).

20 Either way, Gerhard Richter spent much of 1983 painting skulls in soft focus bathed in superman hero essay, a dreamy yellowish light. He made eight canvases of this nearly hackneyed vanitas image, a simultaneously ironic and mournful mimicry of survivor one of Western civilization’s most loved genres. This affective mix of irony and melancholia was shared by artists as diverse as Peter Halley, Mary Heilmann, Martin Kippenberger, Sherrie Levine, and hero essay, Allan McCollum, all of whom engaged in the activity of marking the end of various ideas associated with modernist painting. Heilmann’s pink-and-black paintings of 1979, musically titled Save the Last Dance for statement Me and All Tomorrow’s Parties , allow the color scheme of punk and new wave to devour the modernist apotheosis of monochrome painting, “killing” the historical avant-garde with the brash new modality of punk. McCollum’s Collection of superman hero Ten Plaster Surrogates (198291) twists the monochrome into a form of serial mass production, making “paintings” out of plaster casts. Working a push-pull of form and content, McCollum’s Surrogates appear mass produced (they all have solid black centers and the same style of “frame”), yet each was laboriously hand-painted; furthermore, while they all look similar, each set of Surrogates is eth thesis unique. Kippenberger’s 6. Preis (1987) is hero part of resume looks empty a series of paintings that announce their own “prize-winning” status, a conflation of the high-art ideal of the masterpiece with the amateur painter’s reward for juried exhibitions. Tongue-in-cheek, they also humorously skewer the artist’s desire for criticism and approbation (as each painting is superman hero judged and rebuttal essay, rewarded before it even leaves the studio) by folding each into superman hero essay, the image of the painting itself. Both Halley and Levine reposition modernist geometrical abstraction (so many stripes and squares) in a dialectical relation to social conditionsbe they the conduits of power most radically symbolized by the prison system (as in Halley’s Prison with Conduit , 1981) or the seemingly infinite repeatability of forms and gestures (Frank Stella’s stripe paintings) that governed art in the age of mechanical reproduction (e.g., Levine’s Chair Seat: 7 , 1986). The narratives of death and ending endemic to postmodernism were attended by statement, different political and psychological valences.

Art historian Yve-Alain Bois sensitively sketched such differences in his essay “Painting: The Task of Mourning” in the catalogue for the 1986 ICA/Boston exhibition Endgame . 19 Akin to Foster’s dual reading of postmodernism, Bois’s contention is that during the superman essay, 1920s two responses dominated artists’ reaction to the endgame sensibility of the avant-garde: the first, a return to eth thesis repository order, as evidenced by the post-cubist figurative paintings of Pablo Picasso; the second, a revolutionary embrace of the end of art’s bourgeois character, as signaled by essay, the radical paintings that emerged in repository, the wake of the superman hero essay, Russian Revolution. Analogizing the 1980s and the 1920s, Bois felt that contemporary artists involved in narratives of painting’s death engaged in essay on cancer, a form of “manic mourning,” as a way of deferring the more psychoanalytically motivated (and linguistically based) process of superman essay “working through” the very end being proclaimed. 21 David Salle’s Autopsy (1981) suggests something similar, as it dialectically holds together two versions of the end of modernismgeometric abstraction imagined as a decorative tile pattern and the return of the classical nude as a farcical dummyboth equally dead on arrival. And yet somehow the charge of their adjacency bestows an undeniable energy (a mixture of on cancer cruelty, irritation, and boredom that speaks, perhaps, to the intensity with which the pressures of the end were experienced by artists). Bois places the burden of hero working through painting’s various ends squarely on the artists. But in retrospect the stridency of the claims made about the regressive nature of painting indicates that the need for such a working through may have belonged more properly to art historians than artists. As much as critics wanted to shed the tyranny of art historical narratives of thesis “progress,” many nonetheless could not narrate the hero, “return” of painting as anything other than a break in a progressive teleology.

22 Regardless, Bois ends his essay emphatically: “[T]he desire for painting remains, and this desire is not entirely programmed or subsumed by the market; this desire is the looks empty, sole factor of a future possibility of painting, that is essay of a nonpathological mourning.” 23. Another version of the end of modernism can be traced through the ongoing reception of Roland Barthes’s short, but crucial, essay, “The Death of the Author.” First published in English in the late 1960s in the small but influential journal Aspen , by eth thesis repository, the 1980s it was a de rigueur text in the postmodernist canon. 24 Barthes’s essay posed a powerful challenge to the idea that the work of art is a self-sufficient, autonomous object possessing its own intrinsic meaning, supplied exclusively by the artist, that remains constant across time and hero, space. Instead Barthes argued that the artist’s intentions number as one among many sources of meaning, emerging in a dialogic relation with the viewer and contingent on the shifting historical, institutional, and economic contexts of both the object and the viewer. Louise Lawler’s Living Room Corner, Arranged by Mr. and Mrs. Burton Tremaine Sr., New York City (1984) displaces Lawler’s authorship by naming the labor of “arrangement” by others.

Furthermore, this image of a modernist painting by Robert Delaunay nestled between a television and a table lamp exemplifies Barthes’s argument about art’s meaning being produced in eth thesis, an ever-changing set of contexts. The affectless quality of the imagewithout vitriol or melancholyreflects an emerging sensibility shared by eighties artists who abandoned “signature styles” and other such assertions of individuality and imagined themselves instead to be agents of ideas rather than inventors. Hero Essay? This idea (augured most deeply by appropriation, discussed later on), perhaps more than any other postmodernist idea, presented the looks empty, greatest challenge to the modernist conception of art (i.e., its transcendence, autonomy, and novelty) and to the historical idea of what it meant to be an superman artist (i.e., a unique subject filled with invention rather than an argument statement individual profoundly similar to others in hero, their desires and practices). Discourses of the end of painting, authorship, and modernism took place alongside political and cultural attempts to dismantle the cultural revolutions of the 1960s. Under the administrations of Margaret Thatcher and Ronald Reagan, the attack on unions (a vestige of collectivism), the war on drugs (and the attendant soft militarization of domestic policy, specifically in African American neighborhoods), and the culture wars (in which the sexual liberation engendered by the feminist and gay rights movements was recast as “obscene”) 25 all signaled a desire to roll back the social and cultural advances of 1960s counterculture. At the on cancer, same time, alternative and progressive segments of society also found themselves rejecting the transformation of the cultural revolution of the superman hero essay, 1960s and 1970s into rebuttal essay, a “lifestyle” largely relegated to the sphere of consumer culture. Nowhere was this disdain more precisely felt than in superman hero essay, the development of essay words punk.

Punk’s nihilism, its extreme do-it-yourself ethos, and its consummate refusal of commercial rock and roll, all combined to superman resist both hippie counterculture and highschool memories essay, any kind of superman essay “co-optation” by essay thesis statement, the market. (Punk was unplayable on commercial radio.) Further, punk offered a model of artists as untrained and diffident, set apart from the dominant culture not because of inherent gifts or emotional “sensitivities” but rather because they were profoundly alienated from their society. But this alienation was far from romantic; rather, punk was a kind of exorcism, an attempt to be rid of the effects (and affects) of the mass media and the suburban culture that both formed and framed its practitioners. The bizarre coincidence of John Lennon’s murder and Darby Crash’s suicide within twenty-four hours of one another in November 1980 was yet another end that ushered in the new decade. Lennon, synonymous with the counterculture, was brutally gunned down in Manhattan by hero essay, a troubled individual. Crash, the lead singer of the cult LA punk band The Germs, died of a drug overdose. That Crash would flame out so quickly signaled that punk’s liberating impulse, its desire to resume looks empty throw off the mantle of a moribund American counterculture, was possibly to be as short lived as many of its songs. Importantly, punk’s version of “the end” (Penelope Spheeris titled her great documentary film about the US punk scene The Decline of Western Civilization Part 1 , 1981) had less to do with mourning than with sardonic rejection. For artists influenced by punk the question was: Is a counterculture even possible? And if the answer could be only negative, then the superman, game was how to repository keep mobilizing small pockets of resistance. In response to superman hero this dilemma, many turned a gimlet eye toward the daily realities of highschool memories life as it was emerging under late capitalism.

26 In Ghost ( I don’t live today ) (1985), Christian Marclay mimes the heroic gestures of Jimi Hendrix, but does so with a turntable strapped to his chest, “scratching” (the new language of hip-hop) the record rather than playing the guitar. This deadpan presentation of artistic subjectivity as commensurate with the essay, technological advances of the moment disabuses its viewer of resume any vestiges of either romanticism or nostalgia. Raymond Pettibon’s drawings (many of which first appeared as record covers for essay the LA punk band Black Flag) mine the dark underbelly of California’s hippie culture, perversely crossing the wires of Hollywood gossip, texts cribbed from the Western tradition, and the base realities of post-1960s fallout (typified by his fascination with Charles Manson). The affect of Pettibon’s work is one of cool distance, far removed from an overly emotive or expressive past. Pettibon’s drawings strip away modernist hierarchies of high and low culture and instead offer all the linguistic detritus of culture with radical paritya quote from Reagan has no more or less valence than one from Henry James, an image of Christ on the cross is treated in the same manner as a baseball player at bat. Resume Looks Empty? This emergent archival sensibility is echoed in Candy Jernigan’s Found Dope: Part II (1986), which gives the crack vials that littered her Lower East Side New York neighborhood the treatment once reserved for pressed flowers. Matter-of-fact in its approach, Found Dope documents the transformation of bohemia from an superman essay idyllic back-to-nature fantasy to the intractable reality of the larger economic forces of gentrification, poverty, and highschool memories, the drug epidemic of crack cocaine. As postmodernism heralded the end of humanist traditions, one was free to pick among the hero essay, rubble and take what one found, not in a gesture of rebuttal essay sublimation or mourning, but rather in the spirit of an affectless reportage. The end of the decade witnessed the gleeful dismantling of the Berlin wall in early winter 1989. With its collapse came the end of the Cold War and superman hero essay, the realignment of power, culture, and finance on argument, a global scale. Right-wing thinkers hailed the end of communism; notable among them, Francis Fukuyama confidently announced that the end of history had finally arrived.

It was only a matter of time, he argued, before we would all enjoy “the universalization of Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government.” 27 Such pronouncements caused consternation on the Left, and 1992 saw the resounding call for political change with the election of William Jefferson Clinton as President of the United States. For a brief moment, it felt as if all was not lost. Hero? And so with ends come beginnings. The end of communism and the Cold War provoked new cultural alignments as well. The fall of modernism to postmodernism led to significant recognition of artists who were women and people of color.

New York (although it did not quite know it yet) was in essay on cancer, the midst of superman being displaced as the center of the art world. Increasing awareness of German art, the rise of Los Angeles as a major art center, and the 1989 exhibition Magiciens de la Terre (although it was roundly criticized) all signaled an emerging awareness of the global character of contemporary art. Repository? 28 A robust art market started to ameliorate the partisan nature of 1980s New York, ultimately giving rise to the pluralism that came to characterize the 1990s. Many 1980s artists began to make significant incomes that ultimately changed the essay, tenor of the rebuttal essay, art world, as vestiges of bohemian life increasingly gave way to luxury lifestyles. 29 Similarly, as many of the most influential critics of the period entered the academy, their energies turned away from impassioned criticism to teaching the discipline of art history.

And near the end of the decade many artists and critics had mobilized to fight a different version of “the end.” Wearing T-shirts and buttons with the bold pink, black, and white graphic “Silence = Death,” AIDS activists made it clear that the end was not near but increasingly immediate for the tens of thousands who were losing their lives to AIDS. The elections of Reagan and Thatcher ushered in a wave of conservative policies that profoundly affected the superman hero essay, politics, culture, and economy of the period. Both were antiunion and pro-business, both remilitarized foreign policythrough direct military action in Grenada and the Falkland Islandsand Reagan’s policies abandoned the détente that had come to on cancer survivor characterize the Cold War. Both leaders also engaged in hero essay, a discursive and legislative rollback of the countercultural values put into place during the 1960s and 1970s. Notably, in the United States, the Republican Party removed the Equal Rights Amendment from its party platform in 1980, and the amendment’s 1982 failure to french link words pass in Congress signaled a significant loss for feminism’s challenge to the liberal state. In 1984, halfway through the Reagan era, Fredric Jameson, one of the superman hero essay, principle theorists of postmodernism, wrote: “[T]he great explosions of the sixties have led, in the worldwide economic crisis, to powerful restorations of the social order and a renewal of the repressive power of various state apparatuses.” 30. Reagan’s efficacy as president was deeply intertwined with his canny use of the mass media, facilitated no doubt by his previous career as a Hollywood actor. An increasingly mediated public sphere made Reagan’s gifts as a communicator appear slightly mythic. As Michael Warner observed toward the end of Reagan’s second term in rebuttal essay, office, “more than any other, his figure blurs the boundary between the iconicities of the superman hero, political public and the commodity public.” 31 Indeed, Reagan appeared to many as a prime example of the conservative strain of postmodernism. He appealed to a nostalgic version of the repository, past deployed through a pastiche of historical tropes (the cowboy, the World War II hero), accompanied by a hostile relation to essay the forces of modernity.

Nicknamed the statement, “Teflon President” for his ability to escape unscathed from even the most barbed criticism, he seemed at times a simulacrum of a president. In one of the most enduring images of the decade, First Lady Nancy Reagan waves at her husband’s projected image during the 1984 Republican National Convention, as if she too had lost the ability to distinguish between her spouse and his representation. Given the primacy of the superman hero essay, televisual for the Reagan presidency, it should perhaps come as no surprise that his image was deployed by numerous artists of the period. Argument Thesis? Hans Haacke’s Oil Painting: Homage to Marcel Broodthaers ( Öelgemälde, Hommage à Marcel Broodthaers ), first presented in the 1982 documenta VII, issues a double rejoinder, on the one hand to documenta curator Rudi Fuchs’s conservative language about the role of art in superman hero, society and, on the other, to the rising militarism of the United States under Reagan. 32 On one side of the gallery a parodic “official” portrait of the photogenic president smiles from within a gold frame. Directly opposite thesis statement the oil painting is a large photo blow-up of an anti-Reagan protest, held a week prior to the opening of documenta in hero, Bonn, Germany.

These two images are connected by a red carpet that runs along the floor between them. The work places the viewer in the middle of resume a suite of essay potentially irresolvable dialectics: oil painting and photography; the pretense of art’s timelessness and the temporality of the highschool essay, day’s news; the superman essay, trappings of memories essay official power and the power of the people. Indeed, Haacke’s work explicitly asks its viewers: Which form of representation do you align yourself with, the reified space of culture or the active realm of contestatory politics? Regardless of the answer, the work insists that these two forms of representation are inseparable. It stages another dilemma as well, that of the shifting nature of the public sphereaway from its historical reliance on print toward televisual mediaand the possibilities for dissent within this new, highly mediated form of publicity. Gone is the classic disinterested text, such as the newspaper, which political theorist Jürgen Habermas argued was constitutive of a functioning public sphere, and in its place are two competing image regimes. If something remains from an older model of the public sphere, it is the opposition of two different spatial manifestations: the bourgeois space of the superman, museum and on cancer, the historically more “unrestricted” space of the superman, street. Haacke’s work offers the street, and the potential of mass protest, as a stark alternative to the space of the museum. Argument Essay Thesis? The street, he implies, is hero essay a site for dissent, a space within which the eth thesis, “voice of the people” can be registered. But even as Öelgemäelde privileges the street, the work’s guerrilla-style intervention at documenta intimates that the spaces of culture likewise provide an important site for critical dissent.

And however much Haacke was himself politically aligned with the demonstrators, their image is radically circumscribed within the superman hero, frame of a photographic negative (complete with sprockets running along each side), suggesting that mass protest will inevitably be represented, reformatted, and recontextualized by the forces of representation, which will ultimately control its meaning. This complicated and conflicted understanding of the relations between the public space of the street and the public sphere of representation was nascent at the beginning of the decade. French? For many artists, the superman essay, street represented a site outside the structures of power (however “true” or phantasmatic such a concept may have been); the idea of the eth thesis, street, in other words, retained an antithetical relation to the space of the museum and television. Some artists intervened directly, often by wheat-pasting posters around the city (Christy Rupp’s Rat Patrol , 1979; Jenny Holzer’s 10 Inflammatory Essays , 197982; and the Guerrilla Girls’ poster campaign in the streets of Lower Manhattan), or via street actions (Lorraine O’Grady’s performance Art Is , 1983/2009, staged as part of hero a parade in Harlem). Each of these works approaches the street as a place where different (i.e., “non-art”) audiences could be imagined and different conversations could be had, loosened from the modes provided by traditional art spaces. Argument Essay Thesis? Such sentiments were hardly universal, however, as many artists observed that the increasingly dominant role of television had already begun to replace the street as a primary site of discourse and power.

In works by hero, Gretchen Bender and Dara Birnbaum the television is highschool essay both the medium and hero essay, the message, used as much for its sculptural and filmic possibilities as for its subject matter. Both artists turned a critical eye to television’s blurring of information, once typified by the “objective” newscast, and entertainment, particularly the sort designed to transform public figures (like Reagan and Thatcher) into media personalities packaged as commodities. As television became increasingly prominent (in large measure due to the rise of resume empty cable TV and the creation of CNN in 1980 as well as the Cable Communications Act of 1984, which deregulated the cable networks and fueled the expansion of the cable market) print media and superman hero, street protest took on an increasingly ambivalent cast, particularly among artists concerned with explicitly political content. This is one way of rebuttal essay looking at the work of Jean-Michel Basquiat and of Tim Rollins and superman hero, K.O.S. Both artists imagine the space of rebuttal essay traditional painting as a public wall, as if to drag the logic of the superman essay, street into the space of the museum. However public they imagine the “canvas-as-urban wall” to eth thesis repository be, their use of language is far less transparent. Basquiat’s mélange of phrases and symbols appears more as coded communication than as “public” speech, intimating that language is not transparent. This is Basquiat’s primary formal relation to graffiti culture; both art and graffiti display the way language is superman hero legible only to those who already understand it and thus creates a barrier between those who can read the code and those who can’t. Like graffiti, Basquiat’s paintings mimic and invert the barriers between those inside and outside of language, power, and legibility. In Tim Rollins and K.O.S.’s collaborations, students’ visual responses to a canonical literary text fall like a lace veil over torn pages of the book assembled in a grid as the painting’s ground. Empty? The text serves as the basis for a communitarian response but is read, digested, and destroyedand ultimately lostin the process of its visualization.

That the superman, source text (here, Franz Kafka’s Amerika , 1927) is part of the Western tradition guarantees the work as Art, even as the french essay link, painting’s allusion to a graffitied wall and its decorative forms embrace and revalue creative expressions typically ignored by the museum. Such structural ambivalence lends the work an overall feeling of indeterminacy about hero exactly in which (or whose) realm this painting belongs. The issue of belonging, of who has rights to what, where, and when, lies at words the heart of the superman, democratic enterprise. Such issues were to be sorely tested in the 1980s along numerous fronts. The rights of nations to essay on cancer determine their own sovereignty was of concern to superman many artists in both Latin America and the United States. By 1986 the public revelation of the Iran-Contra affair proved what many had long suspected to be true: The American government was actively involved in supporting military regimes and eth thesis repository, suppressing anti-dictatorship movements in numerous Latin American countries. 33 Working in political conditions where speech itself was a punishable offense, artists in Latin America such as Eugenio Dittborn, Cildo Meireles, and Doris Salcedo often turned to silence, rather than ambivalence or direct address, as a strategy for subversion. In the United States, however, the explicit use of text developed as part of the combined, indeed inseparable, strategies of politics and aesthetics. Counter to the affectless or bureaucratic use of essay language in 1960s and 1970s conceptual art, language in the 1980s was typically used to query “transparent” or “public” modes of address. This furthered the growing awareness that the public sphere had expanded from a spatial concept (the street, the public square) to a discursive one (television, language).

Barbara Kruger’s work, for instance, uses the explicitly shared language of pronouns (“we” and “you”) to insist on language capable of argument essay thesis interpolating all citizens. Borrowing image/text strategies from the world of print advertising, Kruger’s work urged critical questioning rather than complicit consumerism. Adrian Piper inhabited the transactional object of the business card to articulate her public presencenot as a neutral or disinterested subject, but as a very precisely raced and gendered onewhile simultaneously insisting on her right to superman hero essay be left alone. Both Kruger and Piper imagine the public sphere as a space shot through with competing motivations with regard to privacy and publicness, and for them the work of art is a vehicle for interfering in the mechanisms of polite daily communication that presume homogeneity in the definition of publicness. For gays and lesbians, the right of belonging, of taking up fully the rights of eth thesis repository citizenship, came under inordinate pressure during the 1980s. Lari Pittman’s The Veneer of Order (1985) contests the constraints placed on the right of all citizens to superman participate in the public sphere as disinterested subjects. Employing a historically gay aesthetic, Pittman cites the United States’ Bill of Rights in florid script on a pink background, self-consciously combining these decorative elements with the most iconic piece of public text in US culture. Made in thesis statement, the shadow of the Bowers v. Hardwick decision (the Supreme Court ruling that upheld anti-sodomy laws in the state of Georgia), the painting can be seen as part of the growing dissatisfaction with the language of tolerance and the habits of secrecy surrounding gay and hero, lesbian life. The AIDS crisis created a condition in which the “public” was increasingly articulated as white and survivor, heterosexual, so much so that when asked why President Reagan had not yet uttered the word “AIDS” out loud (in 1985), his spokesperson could say: “It hasn’t spread to the general population yet.” 34 Pittman’s work, like many others, makes a complicated double demand: on superman hero essay, the one hand it insists that all persons be included as part of the “general public” and, on the other, suggests that the very idea of a “general” public is untenable.

By 1987 the AIDS crisis had reached extraordinary proportions. The misapprehension on the part of the news media, the government, and the medical establishment that the disease did not affect the resume empty, so-called “general public” translated into murderous neglect, transforming a dire health situation into a political crisis. This crisis was met head on by the hero, collective ACT UP (the AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power), the most important activist movement of the decade in the United States. In New York the artists and cultural practitioners involved in ACT UP brought all their theoretical and aesthetic acumen to bear on the group’s activities, changing the look and feel of street protest as a result. Through a network of anonymous collectives, artists populated ACT UP demonstrations with a strong graphic sensibility that produced snappy posters and phrases self-consciously appropriated from corporate advertising strategies, as in Gran Fury’s memorable 1989 Kissing Doesn’t Kill campaign of public transit billboards.

35 ACT UP understood that mass-media representation reigned supreme and political actions were therefore orchestrated in ways that marshaled traditional forms of civil disobedience (such as stopping traffic) but also for rebuttal essay their telegenic appeal on the nightly news. It is not an overstatement to say members of ACT UP understood and deployed postmodernist theory’s insistence on representation as constitutive of power. 36 ACT UP made strides in reimagining what a highly mass-mediated public sphere might look like: a sphere dedicated as much to print media as televisual media, that was invested in the democratic potential of the street while recognizing that mobilizing the nonspatialized mass media was equally necessary for hero social change. Perhaps, most importantly, ACT UP signaled a vision of a public or counter-public sphere in which persons were not asked to leave behind their putatively “private” concerns and/or identities. Rather, ACT UP modeled a vision of a public sphere that could do more than merely represent (or, even worse, tolerate) the interests of ethnically marked, gendered, and sexualized persons, and sought instead a version of the public sphere capable of “mediat[ing] the most private and intimate meanings of gender and sexuality.” 37. More than three thousand people attend ACT UP’s March 28, 1989, demonstration at City Hall to protest New York’s AIDS policy.

Approximately two hundred people are arrested. ACT UP New York takes over Grand Central Station as part of argument thesis statement “Day of hero Desperation,” a day of coordinated protests organized city-wide on January 23, 1991. In the fall of 1980, The Dinner Party (197479) by Judy Chicago opened at the Brooklyn Museum of Art. The large-scale installation was on a worldwide tour and generated an words avalanche of both critical and essay, popular response. The piece was as popular with the “general public” as it was roundly dismissed by critics.

The attacks came from statement, both conservatives (Hilton Kramer felt the piece was closer “to an advertising campaign than to superman hero essay a work of art” 38 ) and highschool, others (Clara Weyergraff felt the essay, piece to be an instance of eth thesis repository “brash vulgarity,“ designed to superman appeal “to the taste of the middle-class housewife” 39 ). For many artists working at the time, the piece signaled the end of a certain set of feminist ideals: its “women only” exclusivity, its collective manufacture, its celebration of singular historical individuals, its use of traditionally feminized craft, its inclusion of only one woman of color, and, most of on cancer survivor all, its presentation of just barely sublimated vaginal forms to represent the women at the table led to the charge that the work was essentialista reduction of the idea of woman to the biology of superman hero essay her genitalia. Beyond the claims of essentialism, The Dinner Party suffered critically for essay two other reasons: its affect of sincerity was out of step with the growing pervasiveness of superman hero essay Warholian irony, and its central strategyof insisting on the equality of women’s place at the table of “greatness”placed it precisely on the side of the humanist divide that postmodernism sought to unravel. While The Dinner Party was a crucial work with lasting relevance for empty feminism and art history, what was slowly emerging in place of a movement dedicated to insisting on women’s equality with men was an inquiry into how “equality” could be established within patriarchy, a social model that relies on superman hero essay, inequality as its constitutive structure. 40. In other words, for many artists and thinkers the questions central to feminism were dramatically shifting. The problem was no longer how women might enter society and culture as equal participants, but rather how patriarchy works in the first placethrough what mechanisms and to eth thesis what ends. No longer satisfied with a biologically based explanation of the difference between the sexes, feminism now asked: How do we come to find ourselves as gendered subjectivities in the world? What are the psychic ramifications of that gendering on our ideas and superman, desires? Such questions were in sympathy with other paradigm shifts of postmodernism such as the radical contingency of meaning suggested by Roland Barthes’s “Death of the rebuttal essay, Author” and superman hero essay, the general sense of a “crisis of cultural authority,” observed by Craig Owens, “specifically of the resume, authority vested in Western European culture and its institutions.” 41 Indeed, it could be argued that new models of superman feminism were the driving force of rebuttal essay this paradigm shift and that the feminism of “exceptional women” espoused by The Dinner Party , while meaning to be radical, was instead recuperative. These developments were made ever more stark by the emergence of a younger generation of artists brought together in the 1977 group show Pictures , organized by Douglas Crimp.

The catalogue essay (which subsequently appeared as an influential essay in the journal October ) argued that an interest in psychoanalysis helped to demarcate the essay, generational split between established 1970s artists and empty, a group of emerging postmodernists (including Cindy Sherman and Sherrie Levine). Sherman’s Untitled Film Stills (197780) suggested that “woman” was but a set of performances and poses and subsumed any idea of “greatness” under the mantle of superman hero representation and spectacle. By acting as both subject and maker of the image, Sherman heightened the viewer’s awareness of the work’s constructed nature, making the act of resume looks empty representation commensurate with the image itself. For Crimp, Sherman and her peers were compelled to present identity “in such a manner and at such a distance that it is apprehended as representationrepresentation not, however, conceived as the re-presentation of that which is prior, but as the unavoidable condition of intelligibility of even that which is present.” 42 Such a hermeneutic signaled a move away from a politics of liberation to the politics of superman representation and was among the most crucial intellectual paradigm shifts of the period. As representation as such edged its way to center stage it was quickly linked to discussions of identity and hence was inextricably linked to the question of who could claim legitimate membership in the public sphere. As Kate Linker would write, “[r]epresentation, hardly neutral, acts to regulate and empty, define the subject it addresses, positioning them by class or by sex, in active or passive relations to meaning.” 43 Artists focused increasingly on superman essay, the codes or grammar of representation: Far from seeing the essay on cancer survivor, framing devices of photography, the mise-en-scène of cinema, or the brushstrokes of painting as neutral conveyors of subject matter, artists took apart representation’s constitutive elements and, through dismantling them, articulated how such mechanisms worked to create, support, and convey meaning. For artists influenced by feminism, the task was to show how the structure of representation worked silently to superman essay shore up the power arrangements of patriarchy. For these artists and thinkers, patriarchy was in the groundwater of the culture, and language itself was saturated with its principles of inequity. Link Words? In this manner of essay critique, the re-imagination of form was as crucial as the development of new subject matter. An example of the commensurate nature of form and content can be seen in the great number of 1980s artists who worked with fragments, eschewing the eth thesis repository, unity of either image, subject, or body. Consider Lorna Simpson’s Necklines (1989) where the image is cut into tripartite panels, which are misaligned in essay, the installation, refuting any wholeness of idea, image, or body.

Free-floating text panels fracture the putatively non-tactile medium of photography by introducing a sculptural dimension, heightening the tension between the discursive regimes of image and text. Disallowing a seamless presentation of either the human figure or the relation between language and image, Necklines breaks up the flow of how representation works, and by doing so rejects myths of wholeness and universality. Survivor? Simpson’s work, like that of many others, insisted that new narratives needed new forms, that art was an opportunity to superman hero alter the way we tell stories in order to change the stories we can tell. Artists informed by feminism had a deep investment in interfering with the essay survivor, business-as-usual narratives found in the mass media. Many increasingly regarded the visual field (be it nineteenth-century paintings or advertising images) as shoring up the idea that the role of women is to be the object of representation and that “the gaze” (a term borrowed from superman hero essay, psychoanalysis that implies the inherent voyeurism of the spectator) could be seen as masculine. 44 As Linker put it at the time: Throughout representation there are abundanteven preponderantforms in which the apparatus works to constitute the subject as male, denying subjectivity to woman. Woman, within this structure, is unauthorized, illegitimate: she does not represent but is, rather, represented.

45. Jeff Wall’s Picture for Women (1979) traffics in resume looks, such an argument. Its complicated spatial arrangement permits a variety of hero gazes: the artist’s, the female model’s, the camera’s, making a tacit equation between a “mechanized” and a “human” gaze. The work subsequently toggles between the different types of images produced by essay, the camera, the hero, mirror, and the spectator. The work observes the gendered constitution of the eth thesis repository, gaze: men look and women are represented. (That Wall’s picture should be so strongly evocative of Édouard Manet’s Bar at the Folies-Bergère , 1882, only heightens the picture’s claim to the historicity of the gaze and its function in hero essay, Western culture.) At the same time, however, the survivor, picture contests the very status quo it observes, for the woman’s gaze is direct and steady. She looks at superman hero essay the viewer, and because of the eth thesis repository, mirror’s reflective surface, she also looks back at the artist, who, while looking at her, becomes the object of the viewer’s gaze. The doubleness of the gaze in superman hero, this work is the “gift” established by careful preposition in the title. And yet Wall’s picture is trapped in its own reflection, acknowledging the burden of history, illuminating how difficult it would ultimately be to overthrow the patriarchal structure of looking and representation. This near impossibility notwithstanding, the shifting focus in the image serves to destabilize an essentialist reading (men = active, women = passive) and resume, instead depicts the way in which one’s position shifts contextually, intimating that it is the positions themselves that are gendered and are therefore discursive rather than natural. Like Wall, many artists invested in subverting the apparatus of representation made recourse to the history of images. Part of hero essay what they were after was an indication of how long-standing such ideas are and how deeply ingrained these apparatuses and images are in our daily culture, language, and collective unconscious. (Think of Nan Goldin’s Ballad of Sexual Dependency , 19792001, which despite its evocation of contemporary bohemian living, deploys the slide show, complete with its associations of 1960s suburban family recreation, or Cindy Sherman’s film stills, which hark back to the period of the 1940s and 1950s.) Hence Richard Prince’s appropriation of ready-made advertising images (already produced by french essay link, the culture)allowed him to point to superman hero both the predominance of the repository, gendered gaze and the repetition critical to its construction.

Just as significantly, Prince’s cowboy series extended the feminist critique of hero representation to essay thesis statement encompass the construction of masculinity, a subjectivity that could no longer stand as “neutral.” The realm of photography proved incredibly fertile ground for superman essay artists interested in feminism. Memories? Contiguous with mass media, advertising, and pornography, it could not help but find itself in dialogue with the dynamics of representation and the gaze, as well as their role in the daily facilitation of gendered subjectivities. But the so-called return of painting during the 1980s was also an active site for the interrogation of gender. Painting experienced a much-discussed resurgence during the 1980s, and, like the photography of the period, much of hero it involved figuration. The return to the figure was vexed: for on cancer some feminists the return of the female nude signaled a regression to superman hero prior ideologically charged subject matter, and for some critics the memories, reappearance of an expressionist “style” proved equally problematic. That figuration and superman hero essay, expressionism went hand in hand was doubly troublesome. Expressionism’s language was that of essay thesis statement brush marks and color, freed from the task of representation and essay, thus available to highschool offer an hero essay authentic and indexical guarantee of artistic presence.

Hal Foster saw this as presence by proxy and sought to show the fallacy inherent in looks, such logic, dismissing this work as anathema to contemporary theories of postmodernism that insisted on hero, the highly mediated nature of representation (emblematized by the artists associated with the Pictures exhibition). 46 But a retrospective glance provides a slightly amended version of neo-expressionist painting. Certainly the historical quality of painting could not be denied, but could it also be exploited? In his self-portraits, Albert Oehlen did just that. Abusing the most overdetermined genre in painting, he depicted himself in varying states of abjection, as if to signal not only the impossibility of the medium but also its newly anxious relation to repository the “mastery” it had historically claimed. Irony reigns in essay, Selbstportrait mit verschissener Unterhose und blauer Mauritius ( Self Portrait with Shitty Underpants and Blue Mauritius ) (1984); the highschool memories essay, figure holds in one hand the legendary Blue Mauritius stamp, the most highly valued stamp in the world of philately. The stamp was the first to be produced under the auspices of Great Britain but not made in England. It stands as a double symbol: on superman, the one hand it emblematizes the fetish made of rarity and argument, “firsts,” serving as an allegory for the market for painting. On the other hand, it is a symbol of colonialism: both its phantasmatic persistence and its historical failures.

This doubleness is equated with the artist’s self-defilement, an abjection emanating from the equation of stamps and superman essay, paintings or from the fear of highschool memories essay not being able to produce an object capable of navigating the ruthless quality of world-historical trade in such fetishes. Hero Essay? Here the neo-expressionism of the work connotes more failure and anxiety than it does triumph or artistic authenticity. Similarly, Eric Fischl’s Portrait of the Artist as an argument essay thesis statement Old Man (1984) offers less a guarantee of artistic presence than a knowing, and melancholic, acknowledgment of the profound weakening of the patriarchal fantasy that had historically linked virile masculinity with painting. Lucien Freud’s Nude with Leg Up ( Leigh Bowery ) (1992) speaks as well to a crisis of representation where masculinity is concerned. Like Fischl and Oehlen, Freud’s paint handling is “masterful,” and the composition aims for pictorial totality by presenting a whole or unified subjectivity. But the pose of the hero essay, figure is as baffling to behold as it must have been arduous for the model to perform; pinned on the floor between a bare mattress and a pile of dirty linen, Bowery’s massive form exudes more tension and boredom than luxe, calme et volupté . Importantly, the male figure in each of these works is rendered vulnerable and deeply passive, exposed to the gaze in the classically feminized position. While these artists were not engaged in the same project as those attempting to interfere with the sexist dynamics of representation as such, they presented the viewer with a (fairly recurrent) theme of masculinity in crisis, offering images of heroism, strength, and authenticity unraveling or undone, increasingly exposed as mythic rather than real. Toward the end of the decade, artists such as Mike Kelley, Paul McCarthy, Robert Gober, Cindy Sherman, and Cady Noland turned with growing interest to the problem of the abject, the low, and the pathetic.

Experimenting with the binary of eth thesis repository clean and unclean, they used desublimation and superman hero essay, degradation to sidestep the prison house of rebuttal essay gender through a psychologically driven unmaking or remaking of the body. 47 Work investigating ideas of the abject existed in the slipstream of feminism’s challenge to patriarchal ideas of culture, exploiting the idea that terms like “genius” and “masterpiece” no longer signaled unique acts of greatness but rather the superman, cultural preferences or tastes of a few, subsequently offered as “fact.” As many artists struggled with what art could be now that its anchoring terms were in a state of disrepute, such experiments felt both liberatory and dark. Tony Cragg’s George and the Dragon (1985) wittily picks apart this dilemma. Thesis Statement? Cobbled together from mass-produced building materials, the work’s biomorphic shape is decidedly intestinal, establishing a morphological similarity between bodies and buildings, bodies and machines. The title alludes to superman hero essay the time-honored hagiographic story, oft-painted and sculpted in the history of Western Art, an allegory of the triumph of virtue and beauty over the monstrous. Yet in eth thesis, Cragg’s work no such victory can be ascertained, and indeed the narrative impulse itself, so crucial to moralizing tales, is undone by bricolage and the allusion to base bodily functions. The composition of the work, a biofeedback loop of endless processing, rejects the progressive logic of superman hero essay beginning, middle, and end, offering instead the daily degenerative time of the body. If the works of rebuttal essay Cragg, Oehlen, Freud, and Fischl flirt with ideas of failure, abjection, and the crisis of hero masculinity, Paul McCarthy’s work takes these ideas to an even further extreme.

McCarthy’s videotape Family Tyranny : Modeling and Molding (1987) features him as the father and fellow artist Mike Kelley as his son. The tape’s domestic mise-en-scène alternates between a basement workshop and a middle-class kitchen. Memories? In the spirit of a PBS “how to” program (think Julia Child), McCarthy demonstrates force-feeding a doll as the basic building block of parenting. Superman Hero? Saturated with an french essay words implicit and menacing air of superman essay sexual perversion and potential violence, McCarthy substitutes condiments such as mayonnaise and ketchupunctuous, slimy, and proteanfor paint, as the argument essay thesis, tape quickly moves from humorous to disgusting, evincing a kind of tortured pathos. McCarthy’s messiness has the feeling of crisis about it. Looking like an artist with nowhere to superman hero essay go, trapped in the confines of a TV studio, performing father-son melodramas, the real drama of Family Tyranny is its enactment of the rebuttal essay, growing recognition that creativity itself cannot be divorced from the politics of gender. If the Pictures group confronted the matrix of superman essay gender, representation, and creativity with consummate coolness, then McCarthy, along with his fellow Los Angelesbased artist Kelley, linked the concept of creativity to the base materialism of the body, a decidedly unironic gesture that side-stepped the memories, post-Warholian sensibility that governed 1980s New York. Such a “return” made it clear that masculinity had emerged as a site of distress, even failure. This processing of masculinity was not accidental. Kelley and McCarthy’s abject, sloppy aesthetic borrowed heavily from 1970s feminist art’s use of craft, as in Kelley’s Manly Craft (1989; see page 28182) yarn objects, which hang abjectly on the wall like so many cast-off summer camp art projects.

For artists working in Los Angeles the legacy of the Feminist Art Program at California Institute of the Arts (CalArts) was closer to hand, and the crafty, DIY, and superman, separatist dimensions of essay survivor feminist art were not as thoroughly dispensed with as they had been on the East Coast. Essay? But rather than elevate craft to the realm of highschool “high” art (the impulse that shapes Chicago’s Dinner Party ), both Kelley and McCarthy rethink its use by amateurs and hobbyists, lending their project a decidedly different class dimension. While feminism continued to make gains in the academic and art worlds, the late eighties was in hero, the process of giving birth to rebuttal essay queer theory and identity politics. Both significantly challenged the dominance of an Anglo-American version of feminism that had largely presupposed a white heterosexual constituency. In her essay for The Decade Show catalogue of 1990, art historian Judith Wilson bemoaned the “mysterious invisibility to superman postmodernist critics,” such as Hal Foster and Craig Owens, of “black and other Third World artists.” 48 Artists and theorists, particularly those of essay link color, contended that gender and sexuality were always already inflected by race and superman hero, class and essay on cancer, that there was no way to hero essay separate these powerful forces from other aspects of subjectivity and no way to eth thesis make them hierarchical within any one individual. Superman Hero Essay? In the argument essay statement, important 1990 essay “Postmodern Blackness,” bell hooks asserted: “Employing a critique of essentialism allows African-Americans to acknowledge the way in which class mobility has altered collective experience so that racism does not necessarily have the hero essay, same impact on our lives. Such a critique allows us to affirm multiple black identities, varied black experience.” 49 The idea of argument essay statement linking postmodernism’s fractured and layered account of subjectivity with Blackness as it has been historically constructed in the United States complicated any kind of teleological version of subjectivity. For thinkers like Toni Morrison, postmodernism was less a rupture than a description of what had long been: [I]n terms of confronting the problems of where the world is superman hero now, black women had to resume empty deal with “post-modern” problems in the nineteenth century and hero, earlier. These things had to be addressed by rebuttal essay, black people a long time ago.

Certain kinds of dissolution, the loss of and the need to reconstruct certain kinds of stability. Certain kinds of madness, deliberately going mad in order not to lose your mind. Hero? 50. The loss of (modernism’s) master narratives may have been experienced as a rupture, and statement, indeed in essay, the world of culture it was one, but Morrison and hooks remind us that the break was an epistemological one that registered the experiential quality of such formations that for many had long been operative. The new ability to narrativize subjectivity as an ambivalent and ineffable mixture of socially determined forces made the emergent queer discourse of the performative possible. The 1990 publication of Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble and the art of the 1980s played a deeply influential role in this intellectual development. Butler put forward a genealogical critique that refused “to search for the origins of gender,” but rather sought “to expose the foundational categories of sex, gender, and desire as effects of a specific formulation of power.” 51 Her proposition was a riveting one. If our identities were an amalgam of several different components (class, race, sexuality) and each of eth thesis repository those tributaries could be seen as the effects of the various arrangements of power, then, as feminists (a position Butler, Morrison, and hooks would all emphatically claim for themselves), they questioned the very centrality of the concept of woman to the field of feminism.

Could feminism exist without such an superman anchoring ontological category? What might it be able to offer in the wake of the enormous intellectual sea change that marked the increasingly historical shift from the politics of identity and representation to the politics of performance? By the 1980s Andy Warhol was no longer producing groundbreaking work. Indeed it seemed to many that his radical period of innovation had ebbed by the mid-1960s. Nonetheless in 1989 he was the subject of a full-blown retrospective at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The delay in such an essay exhibition was due to MoMA’s notoriously slow acceptance rate but also to the fullness with which the Warholian proposition of appropriation had been received by the 1980s art world. Just as Marcel Duchamp did not become properly Duchampian until his reception in the 1950s by hero, artists like Robert Rauschenberg and Jasper Johns, so too the full impact of Warhol may not have been registered until the appropriation artists of the 1980s.

A radical extension of the argument statement, ready-made tradition, appropriation involved a host of tactics, from re-photographing the essay, work of others (Richard Prince and Sherrie Levine) to the use of ready-made commodities or everyday objects as the link words, basis for sculpture (Jeff Koons and Haim Steinbach) to the use of photographs as the basis for paintings (Marlene Dumas and Gerhard Richter). As the central formal device of postmodernism, appropriation served two major conceptual aims: First, it allowed artists to engage in immanent critique by deploying the language of society against itself in order to elucidate the manifestations of power in objects and images. Second, it radically problematized the idea that art was the province of invention. Rather, appropriation suggested that in a world structured by mechanical reproduction there could be no uniqueness and that authorship was never exclusively individuated but was engendered, supported, and hero, made possible by shared languages, cultures, histories, and memories. More than any other artist Sherrie Levine worked to rebuttal essay destabilize the aesthetic categories, such as “genius” and superman hero essay, “masterpiece,” used to shore up art’s association with uniqueness and individuality. Her photographs of famous artworks, such as Untitled ( After Egon Schiele: 118 ) (1982/2001), which were subsequently offered under her signature, intimated that such formulations (produced by the matrix of the market, the museum, and the academy) were bound to a romantic conception of the artist as separate and distinct from the culture at large. Against the notion of art’s autonomy, Levine’s workas well as that of Louise Lawlerput forward the idea that networks of distribution and reception (rather than an individual genius) produced objects valued as masterpieces. Such a critique meant that appropriation was also aligned with the feminist critique of power. As Craig Owens wrote in his deeply influential 1983 essay “The Discourse of Others: Feminists and Postmodernism,” artists: work with the existing repertory of cultural imagerynot because they either lack originality or criticize itbut because their subject, feminine sexuality, is always constituted in and as representation, a representation of difference.

It must be emphasized that these artists are not primarily interested in what representations say about women; rather, they investigate what representation does to essay on cancer women. 52. If critique was a central aim of appropriation, it also had the effect of re- situating its source images and objects within a new field of desire. In hindsight, appropriation also reveals the desire on the part of superman essay artists (and viewers) for ideas, positions, and resume looks, objects that supposedly lie outside of the intellectual arena of advanced art and essay, ideasthe desire for fame, greatness, or success. For instance, it is telling that Sherrie Levine never photographed “bad” works of art, only “great” ones. Partly a send-up of the idea of the masterpiece, such images are also about repository a desire, however fraught, to occupy such a vaunted place of superman essay authorship.

Lawler’s images were also frequently displays of “good taste,” shot through with desire for the objects (both art and objet d’art) on view (again, on the part of both the artist and the viewer). Because of Levine’s and Lawler’s ambivalence toward conventional ideas of authorship, their work was frequently discussed in relation to Barthes’s “death of the essay on cancer survivor, author.” More recently, however, critics have begun to reassess the psychic dimension of appropriation, seeing it as riddled with ambivalence and desire. 53 Art historian Mignon Nixon has written that “rather than the superman, death of the author, it might be possible to imagine the transformation of authorship.” 54 Using the psychoanalytic idea of transference, Nixon asks whether Barthes’s model of the death of the author is born out of a fantasy of absence. Rebuttal Essay? She argues that the production of meaning is necessarily a network of projections and counter projections in which the hero essay, artist is looks empty never and can never be absent. Accounting for the presence and role of the artist in the dialogue between artist and object, artist and hero, viewer, and viewer and object should be, Nixon suggests, part of essay words how the superman hero, artwork’s meaning is constructed. By pointing to the many ways in which Barthes’s essay is insufficiently dialogic, Nixon’s argument complicates the perhaps too-easy evacuation of the desires of french essay link words both the superman essay, artist and the critic in 1980s art criticism. Teasing out the desire of artists may have been difficult at the time, because part of appropriation’s Warholian legacy is its use of survivor diffidence to hero essay keep the desiring subjectivity of the artist in a kind of permanent suspension. Still, several appropriation artists adopted the Hollywood fetish for the culture of fame. David Robbins’s Talent (1986) portrays the young crop of up-and-coming 1980s artists in a grid of celebrity-style head shots. In MICA-TV’s Cindy Sherman: An Interview (198081) Sherman plays a young artist, dressed like a Hollywood star in big shades, carting her portfolio around for review as she expresses her desire for fame and stardom.

In Ashley Bickerton’s Tormented Self Portrait ( Susie at Arles ) No. 2 (1988), his titular send up of the most romantic of essay survivor all modern artists (Vincent van Gogh) can be seen as a tongue-in-cheek expression of superman essay his own desire for notoriety, akin to that of the corporate-logo-draped sports star. If Warhol’s mimicry of celebrity culture (through the creation of The Factory) eventually made him a celebrity, then the idea of the artist as having a role to memories play in the dominant culture (while at the same time being able to comment on it from a putative outside) was itself appropriated by 1980s artists. Hero Essay? Rather than discount such gestures as being complicit rather than critical, it now seems possible to see these emulations or extensions of the highschool memories, Warholian principle as riddled with desire and ambivalence, as sites of struggle and pleasure rather than cynical capitulation and bad faith. 55.

As appropriation increased its hold on the artistic imagination, bringing with it an examination of desire and power and their relation to the gaze, another form of superman desire emerged as well. From the 1970s through the early 1980s, gay culture experienced an rebuttal essay undeniable rise in the rhetoric of liberation, making the “closet” an increasingly untenable place to be. The politics of hero self-actualization and the feminist slogan “the personal is political” were being newly articulated by the gay rights movement through increasingly open expressions of sexual identity and desire. The photographs of thesis statement Peter Hujar and Robert Mapplethorpe simultaneously helped to create this opening as much as their work was made possible by it. Hujar took photographs of art-world denizens throughout the superman hero essay, late 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s he took explicit photos of gay men. Quirky and sentimental (they feel decidedly bohemian), they are images by and for members of a downtown avant-garde and rebuttal essay, queer community. Mapplethorpe was primarily a studio photographer, and his images are largely fantasy tableaux masquerading as a kind of highly personal documentary.

Their subject matter is explicit, ranging from underground SM culture to the beautiful and highly eroticized black men of his infamous Black Book (1986). The pictures in Black Book are sexually frank, both in their content and their acknowledgment of the desiring gaze behind the camera. Unlike Hujar’s delicate, almost private sensibility, the superman essay, intense frontality of Mapplethorpe’s pictures made them appear destined for public consumption (albeit of an intimate sort). So while the essay thesis statement, content may have been “new,” the structure of the images, which borrowed heavily from the superman, upscale fashion photography of artists like Irving Penn and pornography, was familiar. While Mapplethorpe’s images were a gesture of desirous liberation on the one hand, part of their erotic charge emanated from their use of stereotypes of resume looks empty black masculinity. This greatly complicated their critical reception, as the then-emergent postcolonial theory began to demonstrate the ways in which racialized fantasies structured images of sexuality. As Kobena Mercer argued, openly drawing from feminism: “[W]hat is represented in the pictorial space of the photograph is a ‘look,’ or a certain ‘way of looking,’ the pictures say more about the white male subject behind the superman essay, camera than they do about the black men whose beautiful bodies we see depicted.” 56 Despite being disturbed by the objectification of the resume empty, black male subject, Mercer remained alive to his own desirous relations to the image, and in a second essay on Black Book relinquished the historian’s time-honored position of objectivity or silent mastery by introducing the problem of authorial “ambivalence and essay, undecidability” 57 into the critical scenario. In doing so he cracked open, ever so slightly, the facade of rebuttal essay critical omnipotence, allowing art criticism to be as ambivalent, contradictory, and nuanced as the art itself.

The appropriation of existing forms was a hallmark of gay and lesbian cultural practice widely noted and theorized in the 1960s by Susan Sontag’s influential essay “On Camp.” By the 1980s, however, camp was only one form of appropriation. Richard Dyer discussed the “gay appropriation of disco in ways that may well not have been intended by its producers,” 58 and this description resonates with the logic of superman hero appropriation as it was being employed by visual artists: “The anarchy of capitalism throws up commodities that an oppressed group can take up and use to cobble together its own culture.” 59 Artists such as Deborah Bright and resume, G. Hero Essay? B. Jones did just that when they appropriated the genres of Hollywood cinema and highschool memories essay, Tom of Finland cartoons, respectively, producing images of lesbian and queer desire in a culture almost exclusively devoid of such images. In this version of appropriation, desire is twofold: the desire to make an image of one’s own erotic desire and the desire to insert oneself into superman essay, an image, to occupy space in the field of representation. Bright and Jones thus critique representation by empty, registering absence through presence. That they did so in such a performative guiseBright play-acts Hollywood’s male romantic leads, and Jones uses gay male sexuality as an avatar for queer desirewere the as-yet-unread signposts on the way to Judith Butler’s Gender Trouble . Artists working in appropriation in the 1980s may not have had language with which to discuss the performativity of gender, but by occupying the roles and codes offered by mass culture and by tackling desire head on, their work implicitly tended to use appropriation as a form of performance. Craig Owens argued as much in his essay “Posing” for the influential 1985 exhibition Difference: On Representation and Sexuality : “[P]osing is a form of mimicry” in which “the subject poses as an object in order to be a subject .” 60. Queer Nation activists at superman hero essay an outreach action at the Vallco Shopping Mall in Cupertino, California, December 29, 1990. Sometimes, however, the language of identity politics congealed around identities as either monolithic (e.g., the African American community) or hierarchical: lesbian trumped woman, black trumped sexuality, etc. As people of rebuttal essay color, gays and lesbians, and women muscled their way into galleries, art magazines, and museums, their poses were frequently narrated as frozen, and identitiesparticularly marginalized identitieswere reduced to sound bites, by both artists and critics. Superman Hero? Independent film- and video-makers led the field in eth thesis, generating more nuanced and complicated representations of desire and identity across and between multiple “poses” or positions. Superman? Much of this work came out of an emerging discourse around postcolonial identity (the work of Homi Bhabha, Coco Fusco, Isaac Julien, and essay, Kobena Mercer is exemplary).

The historical conditions of superman hybridity that structured the postcolonial situation offered a framework of highschool essay competing and superman essay, coexisting forms of identity, difference, and rebuttal essay, temporality theorized in ways that opened a corridor through the superman hero, identity politics impasse. French Essay? As Bhabha would write in 1983, the stereotype is “an ambivalent mode of knowledge and power” that he felt could only be examined via a “shift from the identification of images as positive or negative, to an understanding of the processes of subjectification made possible (and plausible) through stereotypical discourse.” Bhabha’s text (with its self-acknowledged debt to feminism) argued that because ambivalence was a structural condition of superman essay subjectivity, the calcification of identity in the hands of critics on both the highschool, Left and the Right had to be challenged in favor of interpretations and narratives that sensitively approached the problem of identity through the nuanced lens of ethics (rather than moralizing tendencies toward good or bad images). Butler’s Gender Trouble amplified this type of hero essay hermeneutic: good-bad, female-male, black-white; such antinomies were no longer productive. Artists, as well as theorists, turned to increasingly polyvalent accounts of identity and subjectivity, necessarily messy and complicated, structured by internal contradiction and not prone to highschool easy assessment. Julien’s film Looking for Langston (1989) is a multilayered, nonchronological narrative, complete with historical re-creations, poetry, and contemporary theorya textual and visual field as heterogeneous as the territory the film explores: the knot of black male gay desire in which no one term (black, gay, or male) is allowed to dominate the superman, field. Rather, all three conceptual frameworks are shown to be inextricably bound to one another, requiring both artist and rebuttal essay, viewer to cultivate a delicate sense of superman essay ambivalence in rebuttal essay, order to navigate them simultaneously. The joyful and playful forms of appropriation of gay culture and the nuanced and highly dialogic use of images and forms in postcolonial work were to be sorely tested by the increasingly dire nature of the HIV/AIDS crisis. Essay? Representations of gay desire came under extraordinary stress as the medical establishment and the US government refused to words acknowledge the extent of the growing health crisis in superman hero essay, communities of gay men and on cancer survivor, people of hero color.

As tens of thousands died, desire turned into the fear and rage that fueled ACT UP, but it also transmogrified into longingfor days past, for on cancer survivor the presence of loved ones gone. Artists who had contracted the disease made works prior to superman their deaths that telegraphed this quick succession of affects and realities. David Wojnarowicz’s Untitled ( Buffalo ) (198889) offers an appropriated image of a herd of American buffalo careening off a cliff to their death, the result of the homicidal purges perpetrated by eth thesis, early white settlers in the American West. The image is a remarkable composite of emotional affects, ranging from rage, futility, and essay, desperation to mourning and guilt. A frozen frame, the image refuses any kind of progressive temporality to these emotions, suggesting that a proper “working through” of the memories, ramifications of the AIDS crisis was still a long way off. This concern with time was shared by Félix González-Torres in “Untitled” ( Perfect Lovers ) (198790) in which two store-bought clocks hang plainly, side by side.

Synchronized at the time of their installation, they slowly, inevitably grow out of step with each other. The work, made at superman hero essay the height of the resume looks, crisis, could not help but be seen as a condensation of the fears and apprehensions about the success of either love or life amid the devastating waves of death that permeated communities of gay men and people of color. Now, more than two decades later, at the time of superman hero this writing, these two clocks, ticking ever so slightly in and out of rhythm with one another, offer a model of empty history and subjectivity that This Will Have Been is an attempt at writing: there is essay never one story, one account, one sense of argument essay thesis statement time that prevails. There is always more than one. Superman? The gameof history, of politics, of art, of loveis to figure out essay on cancer, how to let the superman hero, clocks strike differently without losing time.

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Essay on Sufism in India | Medieval Age. In this essay we will discuss about Sufism in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Evolution of the hero essay, Sufi Movement 2. Meaning of Sufism 3. History of Sufism 4. Sufism in India 5. Impact of essay survivor Sufism. Essay on the Evolution of Sufi Movement Essay on the Meaning of superman hero essay Sufism Essay on the History of Sufism Essay on Sufism in rebuttal essay India Essay on the Impact of Sufism. 1. Essay on the Evolution of Sufi Movement: If the essay, impact of Islamism on Hinduism gave rise to Bhakti Movement, the impact of Hinduism on Islamism led to Sufi Move­ment. Sufism is another name for the Islamic mysticism. The term Sufi according to argument thesis Edward Sell, is most probably derived from the Arabic word Sufi, Wool of which material, the essay, garments worn by eastern ascetics used to be generally made though the Sufi movement in India gained momentum in the 14th century, its traces go back to the period before the foundation of the rebuttal essay, Turkish rule.

Broadly speaking, the Sufi movement can be divided into two parts. Superman! The first, from the earliest time to the beginning of the resume, 9th century and the second from 9th century onwards. Essay! During the repository, first period Sufism possessed no system and during second it developed its own organisation and monastic orders. 2. Essay on superman hero the Meaning of Sufism: Sufism has been defined by Dr. Tara Chand as a complex phenomenon; it is like a stream which gathers volume by the joining of tributaries from many lands.

Its original source is the Quran and resume, the life of Muhammad. Superman Hero! Christianity and neo-Platonism swelled it by a large contribution. Hinduism and Buddhism supplied a number of ideas, and essay, the religions of ancient Persia Zoroastrianism, Manism, etc., brought to it their share. F. Hadlane Davis says, Sufism is essentially a religion of love with a creed or dogma. No merciless hells leap up in the Sufis beliefs. He has no one way theory for the beyond! The ways of God are as the number of souls of men. Prof. Superman Essay! K.D. Bhargava says Muslim mysticism of Sufism may be regarded as love of Supreme Beauty.

The thought of the East and rebuttal essay, the West converges in the fundamentals of love. In the admi­ration for the Supreme beauty, minor differences in the East and the West converge in the fundamentals of love. In the admiration for the Supreme Beauty, minor differences in superman essay the East and West are annihilated, and mystics all over essay world, whether in India, China or Europe, sing the same prayer for Union with the beloved, There are bound to be differences in detail, but all of essay them tend, in the main, in the same direction. 3. History of Sufism: The Sufis drew their inspiration mainly from Quran and the life of Muhammad, even though Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Manism and Neo-Platonism also made valuable contribution to its growth. Amongst the rebuttal essay, Muslim devotees there were certain persons who attached great importance to principles of superman essay Tauba (repentance) and Tawakkul (trust in God), and took to asceticism and looks, abstinence. They took continuous and severe fasts and soon began to be considered as saints and preachers. One of the earliest Sufis was a woman saint by superman the name Rabia of Basra. She was more ethical rather than metaphysical. Essay On Cancer Survivor! She said Love of superman hero God hath so absorbed me that neither love nor hate of any other thing remains in my heart. She also initiated the essay on cancer, practice of using symbolical language of human love to describe the relations between the mystic and essay, his Divine Beloved.

The Sufi movement was given theolosophyical basis by Abbasids of Baghdad. But the most celebrated role in the evolution of Sufism was played by the Persian saint Bayazid Bustami, who introduced the element of ecstasy and mystic doctrine of the imma­nence of God. The term Fana or annihilation of the self, which became the basis of the Sufi philosophy was for the first time used by him. When the Muslims came into statement contact with the Christians they adopted certain other principles like mediation and repetition of Goods name and prayer (dhikr), complete detachment from the affairs of personal interest, utter dependence upon God, rejection of material goods (fuqr), indifference towards suffering, praise or blame etc. The First Sufi writer to use the Christian gospels was Abdullah- al-Muhasibi, who died in 857 A.D. Hinduism also exercised profound influence on superman essay Sufism. Certain elements of link Hindu philosophy had been assimilated by Plato, the great Greek philosopher, after the essay, preliminary contact between the link words, cultures of the Greeks and the Hindus was established. Subsequently when the Greek works were translated into Arabic, the Neo-Platonism ideas (containing the Hindu elements) found their way into Islam. The ideas which thus gained entry into Islam included contempt of the superman essay, world, leaning towards divine life etc.

Certain Buddhist ideas, of Vedanta also found their way into Islam in essay thesis the like manner. There is controversy amongst scholars regarding the origin of superman hero Sufism. While Dr. Yusuf Husain holds that Sufism was born in the bosom of Islam and eth thesis repository, the foreign ideas and practices exercised no influence on it. Prof.

A.L. Srivastava has no doubt that Sufism was profoundly influenced by Hindu thought, belief and practices. He says the very conception of a loving God and the relations between God and soul as one of the beloved and the lover are peculiar to Hinduism and were adopted by the Sufis in India. The pacifism and non-violence which were imbibed by the Indian Muslim Sufis were also peculiar to Christianity and to Hinduism, Buddhism and superman, Jainism, Some of the ascetic practices involving starvation and torturing of the resume empty, body like Chilah-i-makus (which means the tying of a rope to ones feet and getting ones body lowered into a well and offering prayer in that posture for forty nights) seem to have been borrowed from the Hindu and Buddhist practices. Prof.

Nizami also holds the view that, a?the Chishtis adop­ted many Hindu customs and ceremonials in the initial stages of the development of their silisilah in India. The practice of bowing before the Shaikh (head of a khanqah), presenting water to visitors, circulating zanbil (a bowl made of dried and hollow gourd), shaving the head of new entrants to the mystic circle, audition parties (Sama) and the Chillah-makus had close resemblance to Hindu and Buddhist practices. Going back to the history of Sufism again we find that the name Sufi was first of all applied to Abu Kashim of Kufa. But the superman, most significant contribution to the development of Sufism was made by Husain Ibn Hansur Al-Hallaj in the tenth century. Hallaj con­ceived the french essay, relation of God with man as the infusion of the divine into the human soul. He provided the basis for the development of the doctrine of Insan-i-Kamil (the perfect man) which was worked up by subsequent Sufi writers. Superman! F. Hadland Davis has brought out the contributions of Hallaj thus: With his fanaticism, his absurd indiscretion and love of thesis statement conjuring, he left much behind of permanent value to the Sufis. Another well known Sufi who carried further the ideas of Mansur-al-Hallaj was Fariduddin Attar (1136-1230) born about 150 years after Hallaj was beheaded. Attar is said to have written 114 books on Sufism. He also compiled biographies and sayings of Muslim saints in Tadhkirat-al-auliya, which is considered to be a source book for the study of early Sufism.

Attar lived long and his head was cut-off by superman essay a soldier of french essay link words Changez Khan. Jalaluddin Rumi, established an order of Darveshes. He believed that love is the essay, greatest virtue which purifies the spiritual sentiments giving us the vision of the rebuttal essay, Supreme. Superman Hero! His beloved is eth thesis repository, not confined with the temple, mosque and church but resides in superman hero essay the pure heart. Rumi believed that man must go through a number of intermediate stages and forms until he attains perfection necessary for the soul and he continues developing it, until he has attained maximum development of his faculties. Rumi left a vast store of spiritual knowledge in his Masnavi, which is considered as the text for the study of Sufism. Link Words! In the words of F. Hadland Davis, The Masnavi has all the pantheistic beauty of the Psalms, the music of the hills, the colour and scent of the roses, the hero essay, swaying of forests; but it has considerably more than that these things of scent and eth thesis repository, form and colour are the Mirror of the Beloved; these earthly loves, the superman, journey down the valley into the Rose-Garden, where the roses never fade, and where love is. Reuben Levy also holds that, The Masnavi is an immense work which contains in essay survivor its six books all the doctrines, traditions and superman hero essay, legends of rebuttal essay Sufism, presented in a series of superman hero essay parables, allegories and pseudohistorical narratives. The philosopher and theologian who provided a real metaphy­sical basis to Sufism was Ghazali. He also tried to reconcile it with orthodox Islam. Dr. Tara Chand says: Like the Hindu philo­sophers, he argued that through ordinary means of knowledge man can know only the relative, and as God is absolute, he cannot gain any positive knowledge of his qualities or nature.

He must, there­fore, depend upon revelation prophetic or personal to obtain that knowledge. He further taught that it was possible to know God, because Gods nature was not different in link essence from that of man and that the superman hero essay, human soul partook of the divine and would after death return to its divine source. Prof. K.D. Bhargava says: Ghazali rescued Islam from barren and stereotyped phrases and dogmas, and brought them into Jiving contact with the essay on cancer survivor, Quran and the Traditions. Ghazali destroyed the dead wood of Muslim scholasticism and emphasised the superman essay, element of fear in his doctrines. In his magnum opus Ihya ul ulum a he laid stress on immediate experience, ecstasy and inward transformation without which no salvation was possible. The doctrines of Sufism were also promoted by argument essay thesis Shaikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi and Ibn-al-Arabi. But these two philosophers belong to two different schools of mysticism.

While Suhrawardi regarded light (nur) as the ultimate reality, Arabi attached greater importance to faith, devotion and meditation. Superman Essay! He believed that man and nature were the mirrors which displayed God himself. God manifests himself in every atom of memories creation. Essay! He is highschool memories, revealed in every intelligible object and concealed from every intelligence except the intelligence of those who say that the universe is his form and ipseity (Surahwahuwayah) in as much as he stands in the same relation to phenomenal objects as the essay, spirit to the body. Another important authority of Sufism was Abdul Karim al Jili who wrote a treatise Insan-al-Kamil. He also wrote commentary on Futuhat-al-MalcKiyah. Jili believed that man attains spiritual perfection passing through four stagescomplete surrender to the Will of God, destruction of the individual, acquisition of mira­culous power and divine attributes, and lastly entrance into Essence becoming perfect (Insan-i-Kamil) Godman. He held that all faiths were thoughts about one reality.

The differences were due to variety of names and attributes and altogether contribution to the perfection of the whole. This clearly shows that Jili was profoundly influenced by the Hindu Vedanta or monistic philosophy. It may be noted that the orthodox Muslim leadersaboth Shia and Sunniawere opposed to Sufism because of french essay its electric doctrines. It was only due to superman the powerful personality and intellectual brillian­ce of Ghazali that they accepted Sufism within its fold. The period from 1200 to 1500 A.D. is considered as the period of permeation of rebuttal essay Sufi thought in India. During, this period a number of new sects and superman hero, movements were started which formed a mid-way between Hinduism and Islam. The Sufis were devout Muslims, who moved within the limits of shara (Law of argument Islam) and believed it as the true way to salvation. They however, attached an esoteric significance to the teachings of Quran and regarded inward light or intuitive experience as of far more importance than dogmatic formalism of the orthodox type. In the words of Yusuf Husain, The orthodox Muslims depend upon exter­nal conduct, while the Sufis seek inner purity. The orthodox believe in blind obedience to, or observance to, or observance of religious rituals, while the Sufis think love to be the only means of reaching God. The two Sufis orders which first took roots in the Indian soil were the Chishti and the Suhrawardy.

Soon certain other orders like Qadri, Naqshbandi, Shuttari and the Madari also started working in northern India. The Suhrawardia Silsilah or order was confined to Sindh, Multan and Punjab, although some of the Suhrawardia saints had also settled down in Delhi and Awadh. The Chishti Silsilah established itself at Ajmer and superman essay, other places of Rajasthan as well as in certain parts of Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Bengal, Orissa and Deccan. The chief reason for the comparative popularity of the Chishti Silsilah was that the Chishti saints adopted themselves according to the usages and customs of the people. Khawaja Muin-ud-Din Chishti: The Chishtis order was founded by essay survivor Khawaja Abdul Chishti and was introduced in hero essay India by Khawaja Muin-ud-din Chishti, popularly known as Khawaja. Eth Thesis! Khawaja was born in Sijistan (Persia) in 1141 A.D. He lost his father at an early age. Due to superman unsettled conditions in the country he even lost his property and essay, became a recluse.

He visited various seats of Islamic learning like Samarkand, Bokhara etc. During the course of his journey he met Khawaja Usam at Naishapur and became his disciple. In the prime of his life he came to superman hero essay India and settled down at Lahore, wherefrom he moved on to Ajmer. Prof. Yusuf Husain says, One cannot think without admiration of this man, almost alone, living among the people who considered the least contact with a Muslim as defilement.

Sometime he was refused water to drink. In the torried climate of Rajputana this was the hardest punishment one can imagine: Khawaja Muin-ud-din Chishti worked amongst the low caste people and spent his life in the service of the helpless and highschool essay, the downtrodden. Khawaja advocated the philosophy of non-Duality. He said : When we transcended the external and superman hero essay, looked around, we found the lover, the highschool essay, beloved and the love (itself) to be one, i.e. in the sphere of Oneness all is one. He held that the greatest form of devotion to God consisted in service to humanity. His attitude towards God and people won him great popularity.

Khawaja died at superman hero essay, a ripe age in 1236 A.D. and essay on cancer survivor, he was buried at Ajmer. His mausoleum has become a centre of pilgrimage for people of all classes. The Chishti mystics believed in the spiritual value of music and superman, patronized professional singers without any distinction of caste, religion etc. Qutab-ud-din Bakhtiar Kaki, the chief successor of Khawaja Muin ud-Din Chishti is said to have died in a State of ecstasy at the monastery of Shaikh Ali Sijistani. A mausoleum of the Khawaja was built near Qutab Minar at repository, Delhi. Kaki Sahib was greatly respected by Iltutmish, who offered him the high office of Shaikh-ul-Islam.

However, Kaki Sahib declined the offer. Farid ud-Din Masud or Baba Farid: Kaki Sahib was suc­ceeded by Farid-ud-Din Masud, popularly known as Baba Farid Shakar Ganj. He is called Shakar Ganj because according to legend. Baba Farid asked a certain merchant, who was carrying bales of sugar on the back of camels, for some quantity of sugar. The merchant told the Baba that the bales contained the salt and not the sugar. When the merchant reached home, to his great surprise, he found that the bales contained salt in place of sugar. He imme­diately came back to superman hero essay Baba Farid and asked for forgiveness .It is said that the bales again turned into sugar. Ever since that incidence, people started calling him by the name of Farid Shakar Ganj.

Farid hailed from a royal family of Afghanistan. French Essay Words! His grand­father settled down in Multan and ever since the family was in India. Farid came under the influence of Sufis and gave up his estates and took to travelling. He became a disciple of Khawaja Qutab ud-din Chishti. He finally settled down at Ajoddan now known as Pakpattan where he stayed till his death in superman essay 1265 A.D. Resume Looks! Baba Farid disliked popularity and hero essay, preferred solitude. He believed that one should keep away from kings and nobles because a Darvesh who makes friends with kings and nobles will end badly. He laid emphasis on memories essay concentration of heart and superman hero, absentation from prohibited means of livelihood. Balban had great devotion for Baba Farid but the later never took any advantage of this.

Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia: The chief disciple of Baba Farid was Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia, who was born in Badaun in 1336 A.D. Aulia lost his father at the age of five and was brought up by his mother who was a pious lady. At the age of 20 he became a disciple of Baba Farid who was greatly impressed by his intelli­gence. In 1258 A.D., he came down to Delhi and continued his spiritual activities for nearly 60 years from there. Essay! Subsequently, he moved away from din of the city to a village near DelhiaGhiaspur. Though Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia saw the reigns of essay seven Sultans, he never visited the Darbar of any of them. In fact, he considered it below the dignity of a Sufi to essay pay visit to a Sultan. It is said that once Sultan Ala-ud-Din wanted to seek an interview with the Sheikh but he declined the same He informed him that there are two doors in my house, if the Sultan comes by one door, I will quit by the other. It is difficult to understand why Nizam-ud-Din differen­tiated between the poor and the rich. By permitting the Sultans to have a contact with him, he could have made them less autocratic.

Probably, the Sufis avoided the company of the Sultans with a view to avoid any clash or conflict with orthodox Ulemas, at the courts of the Sultans. Nizam-ud-Din Aulia was a man of literary outlook and took great interest in music. This was completely disliked by the ortho­dox Ulemas and they even tried to condemn him Nizam-ud-Din however, did not bother about this and continued to essay case more about the common people. Memories! Love of humanity was one of his princi­ples He said, O Muslims; I swear by God, that he holds dear those who love him for the sake of God. This is only way to essay love and resume empty, adore God. Dr. Superman Hero Essay! R.C. Majumdar writes, He laid stress on the element of love as a means of the realization of highschool God.

The love of God implied, in his view, the love of superman hero essay humanity, and this ethical idea was strongly inculcated by him on the hearts of essay on cancer his disciples. According to Prof. Yusuf Husain, Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia, generally known as Mahbub-i-Illalhi (the beloved of God), represents a great spiritual force in the history of Muslim India. His disciples spread all over the country. Superman Hero! His personality and the breadth of his religious outlook assured the rebuttal essay, popularity of the Chishti order in India. For nearly sixty years he was a source of hero blessing to hundreds and thousands who came from far and near to seek his guidance. He inspired men with the love of God and helped them to get rid of their attachment to argument essay thesis worldly affairs. He regulated the life of his disciples, in accordance with the Shariat, to reach a higher state of spiritual development.

Nizam-ud-Din Aulia acquired great fame during his life time and was popularly known as Mahbuba-i- Illahi. To a large extent the popularity of the superman hero essay, Chishti Order in India was due to his love of humanity and saintly virtues. Sheikh Nasir-ud-Din or Chiragh of Delhi: Sheikh Nasir- ud-Din also known as Chiragh of Delhi was the last great Sufi of the Chishti Order. He was born at Ayodhya where his grandfather had migrated from Lahore. He lost his father at essay on cancer survivor, the age of hero 9 and essay, his mother looked after his education. At the age of 25, he decided to become a mystic. He spent practically whole of his days in reading, praying and meditation in a mausoleum near his home town and slept very little. At the age of 45, he paid visit to Sheikh Nizam ud-Din Aulia at Delhi and became his disciple.

Like his teacher, Sheikh Nasir-ud-Din also cultivated with the poor and avoided the company of kings. Superman Hero! After the death of Nizam-ud-Din Aulia, Nasir- ud-Din became the Khalifa and continued his tradition. The Sheikh had much trouble with Qutub-ud-Din Mubarak as well as Muhammad bin Tughlaq because he refused to mix up with them. It is said that he was forced to words pay a visit to Muhammad- bin-Tughlaq, but, he refused to superman accept the bag of tankas and woolen clothes which were presented to him by essay statement the Sultan. Sheikh was also compelled by the Sultan to accompany him on his Thatha expedition. Sheikh Nasir-ud-Din also played a major role in raising Firoz Tughlaq to the throne but soon he became disappointed with his way of hero essay life.

During the later years of his life, the Sheikh was in a melancholy mood probably due to the miseries of the people all round. Another probable reason for essay link, this unhappiness was that there was so much of peoples crowd all round him that he found very little time for his personal study and prayer. He died in 1336 A.D. Another notable Chishti Sufi of the 16th century was Sheikh Salim of Fatehpur Sikri. Though he could not rise to the stature of Nizam-ud-Din Aulia or Nasir-ud- Din, he had quite a good gathering. It is said that Akbar the great, called on him in his cave and sought his blessings for a son, Prince Jahangir was born as a result of superman hero this blessings.

Akbar used to call him by the name of Sheikhu Baba. Like other Sufi saints Sheikh Salim Chishti led a married life. Essay! His children rose to high position under Akbar and his successors. On his death, he was buried in superman hero the famous Jami Mosque of Fatehpur Sikri and a beautiful mausoleum was built over his grave by the great emperor. Life of Chishti Sufis:

All these Chishti saints had faith in simple living. They used the minimum of clothes and lived a very simple and pure life. Essay On Cancer Survivor! They were opposed to hero the idea of private property and considered it as a big hurdle in the development of rebuttal essay their personality. Although all the Chishti Sufis, with exception of Sheikh Nizam-ud-Din Aulia led a married life and had children but they did not own property. They also did not accept charity from the State and usually lived on the charity willingly given by the prosperous persons. These Chishti Sufis have recorded that they had to go without food many a times but they never borrowed or sought assistance These Sufis were so much absorbed in hero their mystic contemplation that they did not pay sufficient attention to the up­bringing of their children. Highschool! As a result, their sons failed to attain the standard of superman hero their fathers. As Prof. K A. Nazami has said, No son of an early Chishti saint of India was mentally or spiritually in a position to keep the torch of his father burning.

If the only son of Sheikh Qutub-ud-Din Bakhtiyar was unworthy of his father, a grandson of Sheikh Najib-ud-Din was a vagabond. They possessed wordly wisdom, but were devoid of all spiritual integrity. 2. Suharawardi Order: Suhrawardi is one of the on cancer, oldest Sufi orders which was founded by Sheikh Shihab-ud-Din Suhrawardi. He (Sheikh Shihab ud-Din Suhrawardi) sent disciples to India and superman hero essay, they settled down in North­western India. The prominent Suhrawardi saints of India were, Sheikh Hamid-ud Din Nagauri and Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya of highschool essay Multan.

Sheikh Hami-ud-Din Nagauri was the superman, author of two books, Tawaliush Shams and Lawaih. He was fond of music parties. Sheikh Baha-ud-Din Zakariya Suhrawardi: Sheikh Baha- ud-Din Zakariya Suhraward was born near Multan in 1182 A.D. Early in his life, he visited Khurasan. Bukhara, Medina and Palestine to gain knowledge in Islamic studies. At Baghdad, he met Sheikh Shihab-ud Din Suhrawardi. On his direction, he set up a khanqah at Multan, where he worked for essay, almost half a century. His philosophy differed from that of the Chishti Sufis. He did not believe in poverty and torturing of the body and led a balanced and comfortable life. He also did not believe in fasting and morti­fication and faithfully followed rules of essay Islam.

He wanted the external affairs of Islam to be faithfully followed and rejected the Hindu practice of looks empty bowing before the Sheikh, a practice adopted by the Chishtis. He also took active interest in hero the political affairs and freely mixed with rulers and resume looks empty, administrators. Essay! As a result, a large number of well-to-do men became his followers. He accepted land and gifts from kings and nobles and was probably the richest saint of the medieval India. Split in Suhrawardi Order:

After the death of Sheikh Baha-ud-Din in Zakariya Suhrawardi, the Suhrawardi orders split up into two branchesathe Multan and Uchch branch. His son. Badrud-Din Arif became the head of the survivor, Multan branch while his disciple Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari headed the Uchch branch. Arif looked after the Multan branch for about 23 years. He fundamentally differed from his father in matter of religion and politics. Unlike his father, he looked upon accumulation of wealth as hurdles in the development of spiritual personality. Essay! It is said that he gave away in highschool memories essay charity 7 lakhs tankas he inherited from his father. He also insisted on simple living. In other respects he did not make any fundamental changes in the Suhrawardi Order.

Sayyid Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari: Jalaluddin Surkh Bukhari also rendered great service co the spread of Suhrawardi Orders in superman essay Uchch. He converted a number of Hindus to Islam. He had 3 sons and one of the grandsons of Sayyid Jalal-ud-Din Makhdum-i-Jahanian, emerged as one of the highschool, most celebrated Suhrawardi saints of his times. He exercised tremendous influence in the political and religious life of saints. He was appointed Sheikh-ul Islam by Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq but resigned the job and proceeded to Mecca. Even Firoz Tughlaq, the successor of Mohammad-bin-Tughlaq greatly honoured him. The Suhrawardi Sufis differed from the Chishtis in many respects, both with regard to organisation and policies. They freely mixed with Sultans and other rich people. While Chishti Saints did not keep the superman, money received as charity with them and distributed it amongst the people, the Suhrawardi saints like Baha-ud-Din Zakariya accepted the charity liberally and tried to accumulate them. As regards the organisation, the Chishti Jamait Khana accommodated all the inmates and visitors in their hall.

The Khunqahs of the Suhrawardi were so designed as to rebuttal essay provide separate accommodation to all inmates and visitors. The Suhraward under Baha-ud-Din Zakariya regarded only rich people and neglected the general public. They had also fixed up certain hours for meeting the visitors. These practices of some of the Suhrawardi Sufis were strongly condemned by the people. 3. Firdausia Order: The Firdausia Order was a branch of the Suhrawardi Order. Its activities were mainly confined to Bihar and itas headquarter was Rajgir. This Order was popularized by Sheikh Sharf-ud-Din Yahya Manairi, a disciple of Khwaja Nizam-ud-Din Firdausi.

Sheikh Sharf-ud-Din Yahya Manairi was not only a practical guide but also an excellent exponent of theoretical mysticism. He tried to bring about moderation in Islamic law and tried to reconcile the Unity of hero Being with the looks, principles of superman hero essay Islam. It may be noted that this principle was introduced by highschool essay Ibnu l Arabi and was popularized in India by Minairi. In his Maktubat, Minairi discussed the mystic implications of Islamic Tauhid and expounded that the slave remains a slave and God remains God. His interpretation of the passing way of the hero, self (fana) is that the devotee in argument this state of conscious­ness experiences a vision in which he feels one with God who manifests himself in superman hero the form of Light or Illumination (tajalli). The union with God is not like the union of a body, or of a sub­stance with a substance, or of an eth thesis accident with an accident; on the contrary, it is an intuitive contact and a detachment from the world and superman hero, all that is other than God. Sheikh Sharf-ud-din Yahya Manairi was not only a practical guide and speculative thinker but also a prolific writer. Apart from its maktubat and malfuzat, he compiled several books for the guidance of his devotees.

The prominent amongst them includes Fawaidul Muridin, the Irshadat Talibin and the Rahatuas Qulab. Sheikh Sarfuddin Yahya Maniri laid great stress on the service of humanity as a part of his mystic discipline. In one of his letters addressed to Malik Khizir, he wrote, In this dark world it is incumbent to serve the needy by the pen, tongue, wealth and position. Prayers, fasting and voluntary worship are good as far as they go, but they are not as useful as making others happy (Maktubat). In another letter he wrote, The nearest way to reach God for kings and nobles and men of means and wealth is to succour the needy and to offer a helping hand to the downtrodden.

A saint has said that there are many paths leading to the Lord, but the shortest is to console the afflicted and to give comfort to the hearts of french essay link words men. Someone mentioned to superman the saint the goodness of a ruler who kept awake the whole night to offer prayers and fasted during the highschool memories, day. Having heard this the saint said: He is neglecting his own work, while he is doing the work of others. When the saint was asked what he meant by his remark, he added: The real function of a ruler is to feed his people well, to clothe the naked to rehabilitate the desolate hearts of men and to succour the superman hero, needy. Rebuttal Essay! As far prayers and fasting and voluntary worship, the superman hero, Darveshes can very well do this (Maktubat). The Qadiri order was founded by essay on cancer survivor the celebrated Shaikh Abdul Qadiri Jilani of Baghdad and was instrumental in the spread of Islam in Central Asia and superman essay, Western Africa. This order reached India in 15th century and the credit for popularizing it in India goes to Shah Niamatullah and resume looks, Makhdum Muhammad Jilani. The followers of superman hero this order opposed to music and singing as well as recital of the blessings of the prophet. They wear green turbans and words, one of their garments must be ochre-coloured.

Dara Shikoh son of Emperor Shahjahan was a follower of his order. Some of the prominent Qadiri saints included Shaikh Hamid Ganj Baksh, Abdul Qadir and superman essay, Shaikh Musa. During the early years the order was confined to french essay link Uch in Sind but later on it spread to Agra and other places. 5. Superman Hero Essay! Naqshbandi Order: Naqshbandi order was founded in India by the followers of Khwaja Pir Muhammad. It was introduced in India by Khwaja Baqi Billah, a descendent from Khawaja Bahauddin Naqshband.

This order laid great emphasis on the observations of law of essay on cancer survivor Shariat and denounced all the innovations which had spoiled the purity of the Islamic doctrine. They challenged the idea of Unity of superman Being. The Naqshbandi saints were opposed to music although they started meditation. Shaikh Ahmed Sarhindi: Shaikh Ahmed Sarhindi was a disciple of Khwaja Baqi Billah and is popularly known as mujaddid He was a man of dynamic personality. He attacked mystic philo­sophy of the Unity of Being and expounded the eth thesis repository, philosophy of apparatus. He also rejected the principle of immanence and essay, asserted that the relationship between man and God is that of slave and master and not that of memories essay lover and beloved as the other Sufis held. In short, he tried to harmonize the doctrine of mysticism with the teachings of orthodox Islam Shaikh Ahmed Sarhindi wrote a number of letters to hero his disciples and his followers which have been collected and printed in three volumes under the title Maktubat i-Rahbani.

After his death, he was buried at Sarhind and his tomb is a place of on cancer pilgrimage. Another Sufi saint of the Naqshbandi order was Shaikh Walli-Ullah. He tried to superman reconcile the doctrines of Wuhdat-ul-Wujud and Wahdat-ush-Shuhud. He held that there was no contradiction between the two doctrines and said that, God is the only self subsisting, eternal and necessary being and all else is created and has a contingent existence. In different respects God united through their different functions in Gods total being, in resume looks which all reality is included and all distinctions are annulled. Shaikh Walli-Ullah was a scholar of great repute and produced a number of books on mysticism. He justified this reconciliation of the two doctrines in his Madina letter and said, Wahdatul Wujud and superman hero essay, Wahdatush Shuhud are relative terms used on two different occasions as agreements about the existence of the Divine Being and his relation with man and the world. It is only a difference of approach to the same reality. Both are based on direct mystic experience and they do not contradict each other. Essay Link! The difference of interpretation is due to the metaphorical language which has been employed by the two parties. And yet on another occasion he has observed that in the mystic path the stage of Apparentism is higher than that of the Unity of superman hero Being (Tafhimate Ilahia).

Khwaja Mir Dard: Khwaja Mir Dard was the last notable mystic of the Naqshbandi order. He was also opposed to the doctrine of Wuhdat-ul-Wujud. Memories! But he accepted that in the last analysis both the doctrines aimed at essay, detachment of ones heart from affiliations to the phenomenal world. Though like Shaikh Ahmad Sarhindi he also had leaning towards Muslim orthodoxy, yet he expounded its own theory of Ilme-Ilahi Muhammadi (Knowledge of God in the teachings of Muhammad). Apart from writing a number of books on mysticism Khwaja Mir Dard was also a notable poet of Persian and Urdu. Some of his prominent works include Ilmui Kitab (work on mysticism), Wardate Dard, Nalae Dard, Ahe Dard, Shami-i-Mahfil and Dard-Dil. In addition to thesis statement the above mystic orders certain other mystic orders also existed in India. These include Madariya or Tabaqatiya, Gurzmar, Jalaliya Musa Sohagiya and Wahubis.

However, these orders could not make much impact and do not deserve out attention. 5. Impact of Sufism: There is essay, a controversy amongst scholars regarding the impact of Sufism on rebuttal essay Indian culture. On the one hand, Prof. A.L. Srivastava holds the opinion that, Though the Sufi movement might have, in the long run exerted some influence on the contemporary Hindu religious practice, the Hindus in general had kept themselves aloof from the Muslim Sufis for superman hero, a pretty long time. Essay On Cancer! Some Hindus of the lower classes might have come into contact with the sufis, but the bulk of them did not associate them­selves with them. Further Srivastava admits that, It was from the time of Akbar, however, that the Hindus began coming into close contact with Muslim Sufis. During the 17th and 18th centuries quite a good number of Hindu intellectuals not only associated themselves with Muslim Sufis, but they also adopted sufistic thought, behaviour and practices.

These Hindus belonged to the upper strata of society and were highly educated and cultured. Prof. R.C. Majumdar also holds that Sufism exercised a very limited cultural influence on India and their role has been exaggerat­ed. He says, The role of both Medieval Mysticism and Sufism in the history of Indian culture is often exaggerated beyond all proportions. Whatever might have been the value of either as a distinctive phase of Hinduism and Islam, from moral, spiritual and philosophical points of view, their historical importance is considerably limited by the fact that number of Indians directly affected by them, even at their hey day which was short-lived, could not be very large. The number dwindled very appreciably in course of time, and the two orthodox religions showed no visible sign of being seriously affected by this sudden intrusion of hero radical elements. They pursued their even tenor, resembling the two banks of a river, separated by the stream that flows between them. Attempts were made to build a bridge connecting the two, but ended in failure. Even if there were any temporary bridge it collapsed in no time.

Prof. J.N. Sarkar also holds that Sufism gained popularity only in the 17th and 18th centuries. Explaining the reasons for the popularity of Sufism during this period in India, he says that it was mainly due to two factors: (1) The political and economic anarchy that came in the wake of downfall of Mughal Empire, (2) And an urge on the part of the two communities to come nearer, because in looks this alone lay their salvation and that of their country. He says that the Bhakti Movement and Sufi philosophy intended to bring the superman, ruling sect and dominated people closer together.

Prof. Sarkar says. It was essentially a faith aoften an intellectual emotional enjoyment served for the Philosophers, authors and mystics from bigotry. The eastern variety of Sufism is mainly an essay thesis off-shoot of the Vedanta of the Hindus and it rapidly spread and developed in India from the superman hero essay, time of Akbar. Prof. Yusuf Husain has appreciated the role of the Sufis in these words, The Sufis in resume looks India, as elsewhere, attached an esoteric significance to superman hero essay the teachings of the Quran. To them it had a deeper and more inward sense, but they did not claim any exclusive knowledge of the mysteries of existence.

They, however, propound­ed a scheme of life within the limits set by the law of Islam (Shariat) which, they considered formed the true path (Tariqat) to the ultimate goal of attaining nearness to God. They preached inward light as against the dogmatic formalism of the ecclesiastics and the legists, and their exalted idealism brought spiritual solace and comfort to many a heart tossed on resume empty the sea of uncertainty and doubt.