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A well-written work on argumentative essay topics for middle school must come with the proper format or outline, just the same way our case study examples are given to essay, you with an outline that will guide you in writing yours. You cannot write as you wish. You must follow the given guideline so that you will come out with an organized work, with arguments made in illustrative essay, logical and chronological manner. You have to essay, start the writing of your middle school argumentative essay by understanding the format first. Of Books In Essays Should Be. This is where you sit down to read the instruction properly, to understand the purpose of the essay.
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In most cases, your lecturers may choose the topic for you already. If you have the opportunity to choose, start by picking a topic that fits within the format you have been given. You are expected to essay, offer other people’s opinions and argue in support of exam essays, your own opinion, so the first step is for you to pick a topic that is completely debatable. Do not choose topics that do not have two or more equally strong opposing views. You must also pick issues that you have a great interest in. when you choose a topic that interests you, the time and energy you will spend in the research and writing will always appear to you as something worth the stress. This will push you to essay, put in more efforts in the research. In the process of choosing a topic, you should also test your argument.
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When you come up with something very creative and original, you will be pegging your reader’s attention on the paper. People who like good write-ups cannot avoid this and montaigne39s essay, they will always want to read it till the end. Make the title a preview of the main content of the dissertation abe college, paper and garnish it with a quote or a very useful pun. The title should be followed by the thesis statement. This is another core aspect of montaigne39s essay, what you will present. This is supposed to be the should be, part that will sum up your own point of view. Montaigne39s Essay. You have to place it immediately after the introductory paragraphs and let it be simple and clear enough to tell your readers what your stance is in a short formula.
The statement always comes with a claim, either a claim of value, definition, causes and effect, policy solutions or any other type of claim. If you need more information on what your thesis statement should look like, you can search for our thesis definition and make use of that. You are now in illustrative essay outline, the middle school and must use something standard. You should be free to explore all aspects of the topic and give all necessary points. Don’t just focus on three parts.
The introduction is where the topic of the essay is given and essay, an overview or background information on the origin and titles be, development of the topic so far enumerated. Montaigne39s. It is at abe college the end of this that you should place your thesis statement. This should be followed by montaigne39s the body of the paper where you provide enough information to support your argument. Outline the argument of the opposition and refute it with your evidence. Anthology. After this comes the montaigne39s essay, conclusion that should also reiterate and re-assert your position, making a call to action for the opposition to now accept your view.
There are different ways you can provide your argument, but in all, make sure you cover all the necessary points. You must do enough research when you write this essay because you can never boast of knowing it all. You should always come back and proofread your work very well because of obvious errors and mistakes.
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The first type of online hummorist essays citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the essay, information from illustrative essay, another source word for word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to essay add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at essay, the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in montaigne39s the body of the hummorist, project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and montaigne39s essay, reference citations, look very different.
In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the online help writing, title of the montaigne39s essay, source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to past find valuable, high-quality information from montaigne39s, other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. History Exam? APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by essay individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well.
Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for anthology more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of montaigne39s essay information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and ap world history past exam, determine the types of sources that were used to montaigne39s develop the online help for essay writing, research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of information needed to understand a source. Click here to learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA. APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an essay, electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Online? Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation.
The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in montaigne39s the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project.
They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the ap world exam essays, next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for essay all of the in-text citations are found here. The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Help Writing? Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the montaigne39s essay, citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from essay outline, another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project.
When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. Montaigne39s? In addition to using the exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to online another piece of information from essay, another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference.
They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the outline, land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport. The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). Montaigne39s Essay? If including the author’s names in titles of books should be the sentence, only include the year in montaigne39s the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in anthology their lessons tend to montaigne39s essay continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine. Try our APA citation machine which is online found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the in-text citations found in essay the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. Titles In Essays Should? They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in essay half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of authors are written in reverse order.
Include the initials for the first and outline, middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Montaigne39s? Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on placement, using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the essay, authors will format properly for norton you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the essay, month and year for magazine articles, and titles in essays should be, only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on the source, include the montaigne39s essay, initials, n.d. for essay “no date.”
Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for montaigne39s books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the first word of the dissertation abe college, title and the first word of the subtitle. Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized.
For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in montaigne39s essay APA referencing, do not italicize the title.
Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Illustrative Outline? Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in montaigne39s essay italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of online help for essay television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes.
Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the essay, source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the publisher’s location.
Instead of typing out the titles of books be, entire state name, use the montaigne39s, proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States. After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to titles of books should be include the montaigne39s essay, entire name of the publisher. Abe College? It is acceptable to montaigne39s essay use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics.
The issue number is in online help parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the montaigne39s, publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and dissertation, publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books.
Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs.
When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of montaigne39s electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about anthology norton electronic sources: - If the montaigne39s, URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is anthology not necessary to montaigne39s include the names of hummorist databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Montaigne39s Essay? Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. Help Writing? (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher.
Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Title . Essay? Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate.
When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for of books Chapters in Edited Books in montaigne39s Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. Essay Outline? (Year published). Montaigne39s Essay? Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. Dissertation? (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Montaigne39s? Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp.
39-48). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in of books in essays be Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Essay? (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of essay anthology norton Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of montaigne39s essay zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Of Books In Essays? Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp.
65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com. If you’re still unsure about montaigne39s essay how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. Should? I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Essay? Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the of books, first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in montaigne39s an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on dissertation abe college placement, the Internet.
This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations.
To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. Montaigne39s Essay? (Year Published). Title of article. Title of essay outline Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. Essay? P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Dissertation Abe College? R. (2013).
The forum: The decline of montaigne39s war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is exam essays basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources.
A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex. Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is essay used. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of article.
Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. Help? S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. Essay? (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Page numbers: If article is of books in essays should only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp.
D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to include the date of access for electronic sources. Author, F. Essay? I. Online Hummorist? (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Montaigne39s Essay? Title of ap world history past exam Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2.
You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Montaigne39s Essay? Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Title of article . Title of ap world history past exam Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31). College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range.
Quammen, D. Montaigne39s? (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. Essays? (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post). Title of essay blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post.
McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from be, standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you. Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. Montaigne39s? (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. History Exam? I. Essay? (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . Ap World Exam? City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014).
Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and montaigne39s, radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). Abe College? (Year Released). Essay? Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on online essays, a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder.
It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an montaigne39s, in-text or parenthetical citation. However, here is an dissertation abe college placement, example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in essay APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Essay? Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Montaigne39s Essay? Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview.
If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is help for essay displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for montaigne39s essay you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of past essays songwriter. (Year created).
Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial. Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF.
If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and montaigne39s essay, musical recordings. Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and illustrative essay, easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from montaigne39s, Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. Dissertation Placement? S. (2014).
The influences of montaigne39s essay community college library characteristics on past essays, institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast].
Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. Montaigne39s Essay? (Producer). In Essays Should Be? (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Montaigne39s? Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to exam cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10). Essay? Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from titles be, https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM.
If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is montaigne39s essay not on this guide? Here is another useful link to titles of books should follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to montaigne39s a small paragraph containing your evaluation about for essay each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page?
Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in montaigne39s print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and abe college placement, opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research.
A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Montaigne39s? Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by hummorist Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and montaigne39s essay, 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian).
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Essays by Montaigne | Philosophy & Philosophers
Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill. It is important for English techniques and strategies to help enhance students’ speaking abilities, among other English skills they also need to montaigne39s essay, develop. Furthermore, realizing that speaking is very important for English learners, it is essential for English teachers to encourage the students to speak. They seem to have difficulties in deciding what material must be used and how to teach speaking appropriately. Moreover, they must be able to find out the ways of how to make speaking easier and online for essay introduce the fun activities for the students to learn. In this case, teachers have responsibilities to guide the students during the learning process and to give motivation to them to montaigne39s essay, improve their English especially in the speaking skill. Teachers’ effective use of humor is online help writing generally viewed as a positive factor in the classroom (Check 1986:5).
It may even influence the effectiveness of teacher power and compliance-gaining strategies. Wheeless, Stewart, Keamey, #038; Plax (1987) note that compliance is an enactment of power. Likewise, if teachers exert humor in the classroom, they will be seen as more powerful by montaigne39s, their students. Possibly, teachers could gain more compliance from students through the utilization of humor. 1.1Statement of the problem.
Teachers come in ap world past essays two types: Boss teacher and lead teacher. Boss teacher is substantially known as authoritative, imposing, demanding, dominant, and oriented. Montaigne39s Essay? Undoubtedly, these characteristics lead to learners’ misbehavior, poor self-esteem, and low learning motivation. Ap World History? Conversely, lead teacher is known as democratic, open-minded, facilitator and most importantly motivator and friendly; He plays up the emotional growth of learners in an effective classroom environment. Students are entirely influenced by classroom setting, the content of the syllabi and especially the way they are presented. This means that the more inappropriate learning conditions occur the less enjoyable lessons; and the more bored the students will be.
Hence, teachers should be aware of how to harmonize students with EFL learning, and hasten to look for the suitable strategy that allows them to montaigne39s essay, enhance learning especially speaking skill. Because teachers at Abbes Laghrour university face many obstacles in English language teaching and as for the students, they lack confidence to speak English with their teachers and classmates because most the essay outline of them complain about such difficulties in pronunciation, vocabulary, grammar, psychological obstacles as shyness, fears, hesitation They also lack of opportunity to use English in their daily lives.for learning and helps them feel at ease, secure, increases their sense of The study is a suggestion to use humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy in classroom which makes students influenced positively to essay, raise their desire belonging to the class. So that allows them to be engaged and get involved into the lesson, creates friend-ship between teacher and learners; as well as, facilitates communication between them. Students certainly will get rid of hummorist essays anxiety and boredom; they will get ready to receive information and enhance learning in general and speaking skill in particular. 1.2. The aim of the study. The researcher aims in this study to interview EFL learners by increasing their level of speaking skill.
Admitting the montaigne39s essay fact that students need to exam, enjoy learning to progress, the study attempts to attest to montaigne39s, the effectiveness of humor as a pedagogical and psychological strategy through investigating its positive effects on ap world history exam essays, learning. In order to check the validity of the hypothesis, the following questions should be answered: A- Does the use of montaigne39s essay humor in norton the English foreign language classroom facilitate the montaigne39s students’ speaking skill? B- How can teachers use humor in illustrative outline the teaching process? C- What guidelines can be made for the use of humor in English as a foreign language? 1.3. The Hypothesis. This work attempts to test the following hypothesis:
Teaching English by essay, using humor can improve the students -speaking skill. Humor is a powerful tool needed by teachers to create a multi-harmony relationship: teacher-teaching, teacher-students, students -students, students-learning. Online Hummorist Essays? It represents the effectiveness of communicative classroom since it helps avoid classroom monotony and anxiety as well as it allows students’ self-esteem and self-confidence to arise. Humor not only establishes students’ engagement and involvement in the lesson, but also develops students’ productivity in EFL through providing positive learning atmosphere. Teachers’ mood is one of the major factors that impacts students’ attitudes toward learning. Harmer (1998) claims that teachers’ characteristics like being fed up and in a bad-humor negatively influence their learners, so they should look for enjoyable and invigorating strategies. Humor, for instance, is essay a pedagogically effective strategy that can be used to outline, avoid the montaigne39s essay negative impact of the negative characters of teachers since “students enjoy being entertained and amused”(Harmer, 1998, p.1).In other words, the happier learning students feel; the more successful they will be. Abe College Placement? Humor is defined by saying what makes the montaigne39s others amused.(Vossler, Sheidlower, 2011)say that in classroom, humor is not only essay anthology norton, being funny or saying what is laughable, but also is giving the impression of being friendly and having affinity with learners .Gatt (2000) defines Humor as follows: It is the ‘breathing-out of the montaigne39s essay soul’. When during the lesson the students only listen to the teacher, who may be teaching in hummorist the same tone, then it is as if they only montaigne39s essay, breathe in and have no opportunity to breathe out. They need humor, which the teacher can find in very different places.
Therefore the help writing teacher must bring in humor during his lessons and montaigne39s this humor should result from the vitality and essay norton momentum of the lesson. Students prefer being in classroom situation that stimulates them to learn. Leonard (1968) asserts that the montaigne39s best environment for anthology norton, learning is the interactive (as cite in Wrench, 2008, p.46) where students participate rather than being merely receptive (Jones #038; Jones, 1981, as cited in Wrench, 2008, p.46).As for the fundamental role humor plays in classroom, it creates active students in a communicative environment. The smooth running of lessons ensues. Furthermore, (Morrison, 2008) describes humor by tonic for effective teaching.
She states that the purposeful use of humor ignites students’ boredom, stress, depression, shyness, fear, and anger. Humor is the montaigne39s essay best “brain food”. It is the exam essays link between brain and learning; it rings the montaigne39s brain’s bell to activate “memory” to start storage to push them up for exchange information’ to speak out loud without any fears. So, information presented humorously is extremely memorable. Berk, also, notes that Humor can create an unforgettable image if it is accompanied by dissertation placement, the use of” your words plus your physical expressiveness in your eyes, face, hands and arms, and montaigne39s the rest of your body”(2003, p. 64). Sylwester assumes that emotions are considered as the stimulus of norton learning; they attract the montaigne39s attention which is required to anthology norton, learn (as cited in Morrison, 2008, p.2).Emotions can be presented by essay, humor. When teacher uses humor, students become enthusiastic to attend the essay class for a long time, and feel interested in what is being said by the teacher. Essay? Humor does not only prepare successful learners but also successful speakers whereas, the pronunciation is the most important goals of learning languages. As for teaching, it is hummorist necessary to use humor since it retains students’ attendance, improves trust between teacher and learners, and provides positive energy. This latter maintains high morale and makes flexible learners; it enables them to be up to different situations and changes by evaporating stress when facing obstacles.
Humor is “catalyst for montaigne39s essay, creativity”. It allows thinking critically which results producing and combining new ideas. Of Books In Essays Should? Those ideas are necessarily demanded for managing problems-solving .Correspondingly, Morrison (2008) states that humor gives an “optimistic energy” that increases confidence so as to respond to stress and adapt to difficulties. She distinctly mentions humor is the paramount source of creativity and imagination. Humor positively affects the montaigne39s brain. It enables learners create various ideas. Loomans #038; Kolberg #038; Weston #038; Allen go further, arguing that what makes somebody laugh may be is not for another since humor differs according to gender, generation and culture. However, some forms of humor are universal.
Therefore, teachers should apply that latter to suit all learners (2002).Moreover, they confirm that teachers necessarily have positive attitudes toward what they do to help writing, fulfill their satisfaction and montaigne39s essay enthusiasm in order to, at titles be, the end, lighten the class. Being humorous as well is one of the essential basics for much more lightened class; it permits learning to be a “joyous experience not a dread one”. Loomans categorized humor benefits. Essay? Social benefits: it sparks creativity, improves the likelihood of belonging to teams, and decreases conflicts. Physical benefits: it contacts the internal organs and sends them messages to reduce stress, as well as regulates blood pressure. And most importantly, benefits for ap world history exam, learning: it reinforces many learning skills such as critical thinking skill, communication skill, and cooperative learning skill. 1.5. Research method.
In this study, the researcher has been looking for a correlation between two variables humor and students’ speaking skill achievements. In other words, this study examines whether humor is an effective pedagogical, and essay psychological strategy or not; it is a students’ requirement or not. The method adopted has been based on two questionnaires delivered to the first year English LMD students and teachers at Abbes Lagrour University. The students’ questionnaire results reveal the importance of humor in EFL process as a students’ requirement and its importance to improve their speaking skill achievements. The second questionnaire delivered to English teachers of the same students.
Researcher has been based on dissertation abe college placement, students and their teachers requirements, needs and essay point of view about the research topic as they considered the main sides of the teaching- learning process .Analysis and the discussions of the online hummorist essays results of both questionnaires to decide whether humor is an effective teaching-learning tool to essay, enhance the speaking skill or not. 1.6. Limitation of the study. It is important to indicate some difficulties when collecting background data. Looking for references especially books was the main obstacle the researcher faced. Gathering information for illustrative essay outline, the review of literature took time what hindered the progress of the study conducted. First, this research is conducted through the use of two questionnaires as one procedure which is oriented toward students and teachers only. Montaigne39s? Classroom observation procedures needs a long period of hummorist time to collect information and to watch thoroughly what is going on in the classroom and pay attention to the sudden changes that may take place in order to guarantee its reliability. Second, the term humor is very assorted that makes the researcher has been obliged to montaigne39s, use the term humor in its general meaning without precise one kind at the expense of essay another, in some times the researcher use terms as (laugh, amusement), as a synonyms of the term humor. Chapter 1 (theoretical part) Section 1 Humor.
Humor is the link between effective teaching and successful learning. Essay? A side from being a social behavior and an integral part of our humanity, humor is a powerful teaching tool that promotes non threatening learning environment, and in essays should be breaks the ice down between teacher and students. Then rapport and trust Relationship between them are evolved. In that sense, Tom Davis says: “The job of the teacher is to get students laughing, and when their mouths are open, to give them something on which to chew”. Why humor is essay solidly related to teaching? “Attitude and behavior are a key part of your role as a tutor, since they can be so influential”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141). Being boring is one of the essays major sins in teaching (powers, 2005) as boredom and dullness can kill students motivation and negate their desire to learn (Deiter, 2000). Montaigne39s Essay? In addition, content is of books should be firmly connected to pedagogy; what is taught is as important as how it is taught(Chickering #038; Gamson, 1987);the teacher should be able to present the lesson in engaging way (Flanagan, 2007) Humor is the montaigne39s demanded strategy.
It helps “to your subject knowledge with influencing social interactions and shaping the climate and motivations of students”(Morss #038; Murray, 2005, p. 141).Appropriate and timely humor in the classroom can foster cognitive processes, affective and emotional processes (Berk, 1996), as well as contribute to over all teaching effectiveness (Kher #038; Molstad #038; Donahue, 1999). Although humor is valuable teaching tool, many teacher underutilize it (Deniere, 1995), and challenge its use in classroom (Berk, 1998).Gravely said, ??This is essay a time in school history when humor is vanishing and in some instances has disappeared altogether” (Morisson, 2008, p.71). Then, a contradiction has arisen between what is discovered, about humor, by scholars and what really happens in classroom. In general, humor is saying something or acting in a way that makes the others amused. Montaigne39s? To Oxford Advanced Learners’ Dictionary, since the late 16th century, humor takes the following definition: ‘the quality in something that makes it funny or amusing; the ap world history essays ability to laugh at things that are amusing’.
In Latin, the term derived from ‘umor’ which refers to ‘bodily fluid’ (control human health and emotion). Similarly, in ancient Greek, humor derived from ‘humors’ that means ‘the balance of fluids in the human body’. Webster’s Dictionary defines humor as “quality of imagination quick to perceive the ludicrous or to essay, express itself in an amusing way; fun; caprice; disposition; mood; state of essay mind.”(As cited in Shade, 1996, p. 9) Apart from essay, tending to provoke laughter and provide amusement, humor has been differently defined by many authors. According to Levine (1969), ‘humor is regarded as trifling, destructive and degrading force to illustrative, morality, religion, and art. Seen differently, it is essay liberating, socially constructive, and even ennobling art’ (p.1).Morrison believes that our cognitive emotional growth is mainly influenced by the use of humor in hummorist our lives (2002, p.23).Humor is ‘an amusing communication that produces positive emotions and cognitions in montaigne39s the individual or in the group’ (Romero #038; Cruthirds, 2006, p. 59).However, Hurren thinks that humor is any message, verbal or non verbal, communicated by the teacher and makes the students feel amused (2006). ‘At its basic level, humor is an intended or unintended message interpreted as funny’ (lynch, 2002, p423). Vossler #038; Sheidlower go deeper , claiming that humor, at abe college, its heart, it is not the behavior of telling jokes, but it is montaigne39s essay that strategy used to create rapport between teacher and essay anthology students in a way makes them feel closer to montaigne39s, their instructor (2011) since ‘ laughter is the shorter distance between two people’ (McGhee, 2002 as cited in online help for essay Role, 2011, p. Montaigne39s? 4)May ,Humanistic Psychologist states that Humor is the capacity to perceive, appreciate, or express what is funny, amusing, incongruous, ludicrous, etc. It is ‘the healthy way’ that keeps you away from problems; it provides you with the appropriate mood needed to perceive and solve problems (as cited in in essays be Lyons, 2005, p. 3). Humor is a basic part of ‘humanity’s unique capacity for language’. It is essay considered as a universal human experience (Kruger, 1996).
2- Basic theories about humor. 1.2. Abe College Placement? Theories of montaigne39s Humor. The different definitions of humor reveal the essay distinct perspectives the authors rely on montaigne39s, when expounding humor and what social function it serves. Placement? Those perspectives respond to diverse theories that facilitate the process of explaining humor in more organized way (Martin, 2007) because it is crucial to understand theories of humor rather than erect its definition (Brooks, 1992). Although each theory focuses on montaigne39s essay, a certain area of humor, the pioneers allege that their theory is the most reliable. 1.2.1.
Superiority Theory. “Everything is funny as long as it’s happening to someone else!” The superiority theory of humor traces back to Plato and Aristotle. They believe that our feeling of superiority over people we laugh at gives us the pleasure of ap world humor. Cornett (1986) cites that humans feel joy at being superior to essay, others. They laugh at inferior people mistakes which they never do and at their own past follies since they feel superior to who they were in the past.
He adds that what may be funny can be represented by clowns, caricatures, puppets, and impersonators. Also, ‘Defects in others are humorous as long as they are not harmful to essay outline, the victims’ (p. 26). Monro (1988) asserts that ‘humor is derisive’. Pleasure derives from feeling superior at those who have ‘failing’ or ‘defect’; ‘laugher always looks down at montaigne39s essay, whatever he laughs at’. He claims that the originator of this theory named ‘Thomas Hobbes’ (1588- 1679) who states that laughter results from ‘vainglory’, i.e. we laugh at others ‘misfortunes’ or ‘infirmities’, at our past mistakes. Monro cites laughter definition according to outline, Bregson (1859-1941), supporter of montaigne39s essay superiority theory of humor: ‘laughter is society’ defense against online help for essay the eccentric who refuses to adjust himself to essay, its requirements’. In other words, humor is ap world history essays a reaction to what considered inexplicable. Laughing at inferior and ugly people primarily is caused by feeling superior over them. Hill (1988) indicates ‘We laugh maliciously when we possess superior knowledge over essay, the people we ridicule.
We laugh at people who have an inferior moral character or at people who are uglier or distorted than ourselves’ (p. 40). This type of humor elevates inequality in society. Dissertation Abe College? Differences in religions, nationalities, races, and occupations lead some people to feel superior at others. The superiority is the core of finding pleasure when laughing at inferior people. 1.2.2. Incongruity Theory. According to this theory, humor is perceived at the moment of realization of incongruity between what really happen and what is expected to essay, happen.
Berk (2005) voices that incongruity can be called ‘contrast resolution’. It is “the juxtaposition of the ‘expected’ with the ‘unexpected'”. Deckers #038; Kizers (1975) maintain that the condition for humor takes place is the writing divergence between what is expected to happen and what really happens. Kerr (2001, p. 2) notes that “Having a sense of humor is about having a sense of balance, perspective and proportion. A sense of essay humor is the ability to recognize the incongruities and absurdities that confront us on a daily basis. In other words, it is the ability to look at the same thing as everyone else and see something just a little different”. Shade (1996) suggests that successful humor is the outcome of the abrupt changes which occur incongruously. Online? It mainly derives from ‘jokes’ and ‘riddles’ in which incongruity may be presented by ‘contradiction’, ‘understatement’, ‘exaggeration’, ‘surprise’, ‘reversal’, ‘ludicrous’. He adds that the incongruity in humor results when there is: first a discrepancy between the montaigne39s punch line and the body of a joke, and second a violation of should be expectancies.
These may involve: a) Two conflicting sets of rules, b) Two different frames of reference, or c) The reversal of figure and ground. (p.11) Degrading a value is an essential feature of incongruity theory. Monro (1988) states “humorous incongruity consists in degrading something exalted by bringing it into contact with something trivial or disreputable”(p. 351). This idea is supported by montaigne39s essay, Spencer (1820-1903) (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. Online Help Writing? 352, 353). Essay? Spencer defines humor as “descending incongruity”. Nevertheless, he confirms that incongruity, not degradation, is the hummorist paramount source of humor. German philosophers Kant (in 1790) and essay Schopenhauer (in 1819), the developers of this theory, proclaim “The basis of illustrative essay this theory is essay that humor is created when we expect one thing and is (sic) suddenly presented with another .Humor, then, is the for essay result of these unexpected connections” (as cited in Shade, 1996, p. 11). Montaigne39s? For Schopenhauer (1788-1860) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.352), humor is the pleasure that derives from the “unexpected connections between ideas”.
Kant (1724-1804) (as cited in Monro, 1988, p.351) identifies incongruity by ap world history past essays, ??frustrated expectation”. He believes that humor comes up when the concept you expect would happen ends into nothing i.e. humor derives from your recognition that your expectation have not realized. In his point of view, humor is ‘penetrating’ as long as it connects two completely different attitudes, or it makes a reversal of values. Incongruity encompasses both the intellectual and emotional elements. Kant #038;Schopenhauer phrase that the montaigne39s essay mental component of humor realized when the unexpected connections between two things come about. Differently stated, pleasure arises as a result of ap world “the rigors of montaigne39s essay logic, reason, and thinking”. Shade asserts that humor has another imperative component ‘the emotional element’. ‘Attention’, ‘anticipation’, ‘tension’, ‘surprise’ help humor crop up (1996, p. Anthology? 11).
Furthermore, Spencer declares “laughter is an overflow of nervous energy, and that the abrupt transition from a solemn thought to a trivial or disreputable one leaves us with a fund of nervous energy which needs to be expended in montaigne39s laughter”. It means that emotions we feel as sudden changes take place released by humor. 1.2.3. Relief Theory. In this theory, humor is seen as catharsis. It is the titles of books preferable strategy used to challenge pent- up emotions. Montaigne39s Essay? Seaward (2006) regards humor as a response to stressful situations .Monro (1988) highlights that relief is the core of humor. People laugh as strain removed. Illustrative Essay? He defines humor as the temporary way adopted to montaigne39s, get released from the restraint of the conventional social requirements (pp.
353, 354). Freud (1856-1939), the originator of release theory, mentions that through humor, we can trick the ‘censor’, the abe college internal inhibitions, that handicap the achievement of our ‘natural impulses’. He considers his humor theory and his theory of dreams interpretation similar. Humor, exactly like dreams, can beguile censor. Suppressed wishes then may come true.
Through humor, we give ‘vent’ to our ‘repressed desires’ (as cited in Monro, 1988, pp. Montaigne39s? 354, 355). For Shade, laughter gives us some temporary freedom from the numerous restrictions, such as constrains of conventionality and the rigidity of logic, under which we live our daily lives. This theory focuses on hummorist essays, the social and behavioral elements of humor. Laughter helps elude the dictatorial social conventions .For example “when someone at a meeting uses humor to add a little levity to a tense situation or discussion. This allows everyone to essay, laugh for a moment, break away from the topic at hand for a minute or two, regroup their thoughts, and essay begin addressing the issue, perhaps with a new perspective” The most noticeable thing about these theories is that each theory has its own perspective and area of focus which means that no theory can fully explain the nature of montaigne39s humor and its social functions. 3-Kinds (types) of humor. Humor is in huge variety of more than 20 types .The research focuses on the famous only essay anthology, as below: Types of humor Definitions Examples.
idiom a form of essay expression peculiar to a language, especially one that has significance other than its literal one. He was as mad as a cut snake means that he was angry. irony a figure of help for essay speech or literary device in which the montaigne39s literal meaning is online the opposite essay, of that intended Exclaiming, ‘What a beautiful day for essay anthology norton, a picnic!’ in the middle of a thunderstorm. joke something said or done to excite laughter or amusement; a playful mischievous trick or remark. What does a storm cloud wear under its coat? parody humorous or satirical imitation of a serious piece of montaigne39s essay literature or writing; to imitate in such a way as to ridicule. Scieszka , Jon, The true story of the three little pigs. Munsch, Robert, The paper bag princess. pun the humorous use of a word in such a manner as to bring out different meanings or applications, or of words alike in sound but different in meaning; a play on words.
Police were called to a daycare centre where a three-year-old was resisting a rest. a puzzling question, problem, or matter David was out for a walk when it started to rain. He did not have an essay norton, umbrella and he wasn’t wearing a hat. Montaigne39s? His clothes were soaked, yet not a single hair on his head got wet. Essay Norton? How could this happen? spoonerism a slip of the tongue whereby initial or other sounds of words are transposed My dunny fog is maned Nitsy is a spoonerism for My funny dog is named Mitsy. 4- Forms of Humor in Classroom. Humor in the classroom can take many forms. A study of humor in the college classroom, done by Bryant, Chomsky, and Zillman (1979), leaks that humor in lectures can be classified as jokes, riddles, puns, funny stories, humorous comments. Cartoons and essay comic verse have been discovered as other creative ways to norton, incorporate humor in montaigne39s essay classes (Kher et al., 1999). Riddle is a question that is difficult to understand, and that has a surprising answer, that you ask somebody as a game.
The term riddle derives from the old English word “radels” or “radelse; it is related to Dutch “raadsel” and history German “ratsel” (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is a word game; an enigma; a puzzling fact, it is similar in nature to a joke but with a specific format (a question- answer format). For instance, ‘Matt: How do you keep fish from smelling? Jenny: Cut off their noses’. Riddles are preferably related to subject matter. The main objective for utilizing riddles is to teach students how to essay, analyze and discuss ideas (Shade, 1996). For example, ‘Imagine that you are in a boat, in the middle of the sea. Hummorist Essays? Suddenly you are surrounded by hungry sharks, just waiting to montaigne39s essay, feed on you. How can you put an end to this’? (The answer is: stop imagining). Such humorous riddle brings students to use their higher order thinking in order to solve it.
Additionally, riddles may aim to anthology, teach vocabulary, spelling, even phonology. Shade suggests the use of letter puzzlers: Build on a letter to make a word: What comes after L? Bow (elbow) What comes after E? Z (easy) What comes after B? 4 (before) Pun is the clever or humorous use of montaigne39s a word that has more than one meaning, or words that have different meaning but sound the same (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary).Partingtone describes pun by the “creative use of online language” (2006, p. 110). He stresses that pun never play with merely one word but with group of words. In the montaigne39s same line of thoughts, Koestler explains “The pun is the dissociation of norton a single phonetic form with two meanings ‘ two strings of thought tied together by an acoustic knot”(1964, p. Montaigne39s? 65). Pun should occur intentionally, Ritchie (2004) holds that spontaneous puns are not very funny and are rarely kept to be used later. According to Partingtone, puns can take the form of: ‘ Reversals, such as spoonerism, for example, a half- warmed fish (i.e. half formed wish) ‘ Blending (or porte-manteau words) for example; anecdotage (anecdote _dotage, that is, how the illustrative essay aged ramble on) ‘ Anagrams, for example, Mother-in-law ‘ Woman Hitler; Election results ‘Lies, let’s recount. ‘ Re segmentation or meta-analysis, for example, four candles ‘ fork handles.
‘ Reverse Coinages, for example, speakable (from unspeakable), underwhelmed (from overwhelmed) ‘Not-as-They-Seems, for example, a cat burglar (stole our best mouser). He further clarifies that puns can be categorized into essay homonymy puns and homophony puns. Homonymy puns means words alike in sound and norton spelling. For example ‘club’ refers to two homonyms: ‘association of people’ and ‘heavy weapon’. Montaigne39s Essay? Whereas, homophony puns are words alike in sound only. For instance, ‘leek’ and ‘leak’. The pleasure takes place when one meaning reinterpreted by the other meaning. Joke is something to say or to do to make people laugh.
The term ‘joke’ emerged in essays late seventeenth century. It is montaigne39s originally slang; it derives from of books, Latin ‘jocus’ which means ‘jest’ or ‘wordplay’ (Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, 2008). It is seen by (Morrison, 2001, p. 160) as “a short story or short series of words spoken or communicated with the intent of being laughed at or found humorous by montaigne39s, the listener or reader”. To be perceived laughable, jokes need comprehending the multiple meaning of words, idioms, and metaphors; discovering ambiguity, perceiving and ultimately comprehending the incongruity; and appreciating the unexpected or sudden change of perspective (Shade, 1996, p. 3).According to (Schmitz, 2002, p.93), jokes can be classified into three classes: universal jokes, culture jokes, and linguistic jokes. Universal jokes refer to “humor that is norton obtained mainly from the montaigne39s context and the general functioning of the essay anthology norton world; ?? in other words, they are jokes which any one can laugh at. For example, Teacher: Gwen, come here and montaigne39s essay point out Africa from this globe.
Gwen: here. Teacher: Correct! John, who discovered Africa? Class: Gwen!. Cultural jokes need cultural background knowledge; jokes teller and listener should share the same culture, or at least, the essay norton joke- teller should be aware of the listener culture. Essay? For instance, “What do you call a dog at the beach?””A hot dog”. Linguistic jokes “based on specific features in the phonology, morphology or syntax of particular languages”, such as, Grammar teacher: Sam, can you tell me any two pronouns? Sam: Who, me? Teacher: Good answer, Sam!
Shade illustrates this class the following examples: ‘ Lexical based on multiple- meanings of words; Dave: What has 18 legs and catches flies. Essay? Lynn: A baseball team. ‘ Deep structure involves alternative interpretation for a word or phrase; Sam: What animal can jump higher than a house. Essay? Chris: Any animal. Houses can’t jump. ‘ Metalinguistic focuses on the language form instead of the language meaning; Kathy: What’s at the end of everything? Tim: the letter g. ‘ The phonological based on the phonological structure of words; Rebecca: What is this?
Waiter: it’s bean soup. Rebecca: I don’t care what it’s been. What is it now? (1996, p. Help For Essay Writing? 3.4). Berk (1996; 2002) mentions that teachers may present humor in form of funny quotations, questions, examples, skits/dramatizations, exercises and problems. ‘ Humorous questions: they are often used in all courses. Montaigne39s? The teacher asks series of serious questions followed by of books, funny questions in order to capture the students’ attention. For example, a. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? b. How many of you think this one is the correct answer? c. How many of you don’t care?
d. How many of you want to go back to montaigne39s, bed’? Humorous examples: they are the easiest way the teacher uses to illustrate concrete or abstract content in the subject area. ‘ Humorous problem sets: they may replace the essay anthology serious textbook problems and practiced as problem- solving exercises or homework. ‘ Skits/ dramatization: they are the best warm- up practice. They can be presented by essay, music, Masterpiece Theater.
‘ Humor forms are sorted into online help for essay writing larger groups. (Chee, 2003) identifies four main forms: textual, pictorial, verbal, action/ games. – Textual examples: stories, jokes. – Pictorial examples: cartoons, comics. – Verbal examples: puns, word games, acronyms. – Action/ games examples: theater, video, role play, contests.
‘ Disparately, (Shade, 1996, p.2) classifies them into distinct forms: verbal, figural, visual and auditory. – Verbal humor includes jokes, puns, riddles, anecdotes, wit. – Figural humor includes comic, cartoons and essay caricature. – Visual humor includes impersonation, impression. – Auditory humor includes mime, impersonation, practical jokes, and essay anthology sight gags. 5-Benefits of humor. 5.1. Psychological benefits. John F. Kennedy was reported to have said, “There are three things which are real: God, human folly, and laughter. The first two are beyond our comprehension.
So we must do what we can with the essay third” (Hunsaker, 1988). One of the things which can be done with humor is to take advantage of ap world past exam its coping mechanism or psychological benefits. For example, humor is seen as reducing discomfort and easing tension, a way of montaigne39s essay mitigating failure or coping with defeat (saving face), a way of disarming an aggressor, coping with adversity, or to make the serious and outline less interesting more palatable (Linstead, 1985).Humor can serve as an essay, outlet (though temporary) for ap world exam essays, frustration, apathy, resentment, hostility and anger; it can offer an escape from the harshness of reality and lighten the burdens present in the classroom (Weaver, 1987). The psychological benefits of humor are supported by several theories. The Anxiety Reduction Theory purports the level of humor arousal is directly associated with the anxiety level of students which, if true, further buttresses the case for the use of montaigne39s humor as a release valve in the classroom (Herbert, 1991). The Psychoanalytic Theory contends that humor is a socially acceptable expression of forbidden impulses, often with a release of essay anthology norton tension through laughter (Coleman, 1992). Another theory of humor, the Arousal Theory, illustrates the stress-reducing effects of humor.
This theory explains the function or laughter as that of montaigne39s essay reducing built-up tension and energy (Lefcourt #038; Martin, 1986). In accordance with this theory is Martin and Lefcourt’s ( 1988) and titles should be Wilson’s (1979)contention of humor as an essay, effective implementation device for reducing stress, anxieties ,and hostilities encountered in everyday life situations. Martin and online Lefcourt (1988) contend that nurturing children’s sense of montaigne39s humor may arm them with a coping skill to combat the stresses of life. Freud (1960) labeled humor as, “the highest of the defensive processes (i.e., defense mechanisms).” In his analysis in 1932, Freud went on to explain humor as a reflection of the confidence to reduce stress to a manageable state (Rains berger, 1994). Similarly, laughter was seen as a means of burning off extra energy or tension (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1986). Martin and Lefcourt attribute this stress reducing effect of humor to its capability of anthology norton allowing people to put distance between themselves and the problem at hand. Korobkin, (1988); believes that humor may be a classroom advantage by montaigne39s essay, reducing fears and anxieties of students. Korobkin (1988) also found that humor decreases academic stress and anxiety toward the subject matter. Another related theory relevant to the use of norton humor in the classroom is the Relief Theory.
Meyer (1990), a proponent of the montaigne39s Relief Theory, suggests that reduction of tension and anxiety is its central element. Sullivan (1992) contends that by reducing classroom anxiety through the use of humor, test anxiety may be reduced simultaneously. Dissertation Placement? There also exists evidence from montaigne39s, a study conducted by Sarason (1960) that highly anxious students perform better on tests when humor is introduced into the testing situation (Gibbon, 1988). Another psychological implication of humor is the enhancement of learners’ self-esteem (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). A successful learning process involves the assumption, “I can do it.” Humor, or taking oneself lightly, can encourage students in the learning process, which often involves risk-taking, temporary setbacks, and embarrassing exposure. Low self-esteem limits a student in the ability to take risks beyond the narrow role of perceived competency (O’Connell, 1996). By using humor and the skill of dissertation placement laughing at oneself, a student can be more self- forgiving, thereby allowing him or herself to become lost in the learning process.
5.2. Sociological benefits. The sociological implications of humor are equally telling. The social theory of humor explicates the means both for establishing better group interactions and transmitting cultural mores (Coleman, 1992). One of the major functions of schools is socialization: To acculturate knowledgeable, understanding, compassionate, and empathic new members to society (Callahan, Clark, #038; Kellough, 1992). Effective teachers are individuals, according to Hageseth (1995), who can “take themselves lightly, but take their work and life seriously as they encourage others to do likewise.” They are individuals who can modulate a tense, difficult situation into an intriguing challenge, who can interject an uplifting gesture into a stressful moment. As such, teachers can encourage students to appreciate the universality of the human condition, that all are here to make the world work by complementing one another (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997).Teachers can model achieving power through knowledge and equality, not through exploitation, manipulation, and one-up man ship .Through teaching, teachers facilitate learning through enthusiastic, generous sharing, laughing at their own foibles, and their encouragement to take risks in the safe environment of the learning situation.
The socialization process involves learning how to montaigne39s essay, be with oneself, with others, and with life’s adversities and challenges. Students learn this valuable skill by using humor as a tool of titles of books in essays should be growth and wisdom. Montaigne39s Essay? Humor can be used as a binding force through which group members share common experiences, develop group cohesiveness, and play and work together toward common goals (Duncan, 1984). Humor can help bond relationships or be used as the lubricant for healthy competition within or between groups (Herbert, 1991). In general, humor, when used appropriately, can be an effective tool for socialization and titles in essays should be interpersonal relations. 5.3. Educational benefits. Humor serves many educational (communication) functions as well. Montaigne39s? Maslow, after all, defines humor and laughter as “education in a palatable form” (Weaver #038; Cotrell, p. 168).Colwell and Wigle (1984) further believe that humor strengthens teacher-student rapport by enabling students to see teachers have “well rounded personalities”. Other proponents of humor in the role of fostering a strong, positive rapport between student and teacher are Ackerman and Dummer, (1982); Bryant, (1979); and Wilson (1979).
A teacher who shares a warm, genuine sense of humor with the class portrays oneself as being human just like the students (Herbert, 1991). Pollak and Freda (1997) ask “If a teacher cannot laugh at what he or she does not know, then how can students be expected to recognize their own educational needs and be truly willing, even anxious to titles of books in essays, learn?” For example, if an English teacher puts a sentence on the board to montaigne39s, label parts of speech and a student points out online, a mistake the teacher has made in labeling one of the more complicated components, that teacher has several options. One is to deny the mistake; another is to pretend the mistake was made on purpose; another is to own the error, thereby revealing his or her humanness and ability to recover. Students are endeared to that teacher because of the willingness of the “authority figure” to dethrone him or herself to model the learning process in its reality. The reality of learning is that trial and montaigne39s error, stumble and recovery, are not only essay, inevitable but crucial for real learning to take place. If a teacher can laugh at himself or herself and laugh with (never at) students, the teacher is well on the way to establishing a positive climate and eliminating much of the stress that is often present in montaigne39s classrooms today. Anthology Norton? Students may never give a teacher the chance to share knowledge or brilliant insights if rapport is not first established. Perhaps Weaver and Cotrell (1987) best summarize the educational role that humor plays in the classroom:
A warm, genuine, sense of humor can reveal humanness- a comfortable, secure attitude with themselves as instructors, with their course material (knowledge), with their students, and with their relationship with students. Certainly, one of the important benefits of montaigne39s humor is that it breeches the broad gap between instructors and ap world history essays students. It brings them closer together-joining them, in a sense, in a quest for montaigne39s, knowledge. When teachers confront negative students with humor, they often find that this use of humor is an effective way to reduce the students’ anger and hostility (Pollak #038; Freda, 1997). Humor is a powerful tool in education and can be used within the classroom to put the students at ease and make the illustrative essay learning process more enjoyable. As educators become active participants in essay their students’ laughter, they will have an opportunity to become engaged with them (Ackerman #038; Dummer, 1982). A humorous response exerts a powerful force over a tense situation. Students, as a result, feel more comfortable in situations in which they are not entirely in control of their own feelings. Weaver and illustrative essay outline Cotrell (1987) encourage teachers to establish a climate of reciprocal humor.
Asking students for humorous material encourages class interaction and a more “give-and-take” classroom atmosphere. Humor “…has a central place whether as a natural product or as a life-saving response to the exigencies of the institution – boredom, ritual, routine, regulations, oppressive authority” (Gibbon, 1988). Essentially, the primary value of humor in the classroom is to “stimulate, illustrate, motivate, and ease tension” (Kelly, 1983). The reduced tension affects and creates benefits in other areas as well (Rainsberger, 1994). Harris (1989) contends that frequent laughter in a classroom creates an essay, environment in which the students feel safe to try new things. Students are not bound by the confines of illustrative essay rigorous expectancies, but have freedom from these boundaries to experience true knowledge for essay, its own sake. Kelly (1983) believes that a large reason for increased enjoyment of school is the positive attitude and learning climate created as a result of the reduced stress level. Classrooms with decreased tension and reduced stress foster greater creativity and imagination and contribute to abe college, an enjoyable classroom setting in montaigne39s essay which students portray a positive attitude conducive to enthusiastic learning. By reducing stress, humor can make learning more enjoyable, which leads to a relaxed atmosphere as well as a positive attitude about school in general. Neu liep, (1991); Korobkin, (1988); Perret, (1984); Long, (1983); Ziv, (1976); Ziv, (1983); and Bergen (1990) propose that creativity, imagination, and past exam essays ideas are encouraged and enhanced by an enjoyable classroom where the students eagerly await new challenges. Evidence suggests that asking students to use humor in answering test questions improves creativity scores (Ziv, 1983).Creative thinking, a necessary tool for problem solving can also be facilitated by the use of humor.
When employing brainstorming techniques, for example, if a teacher offers a thought that is “incongruous or unexpected or incompatible” (Fry #038; Allen, 1996), that input can help students see a situation in two very rational but drastically different perspectives. Coleman (1992) finds that humor, creativity, and cognition were closely related and like Fry and Allen (1996) determine that the use of verbal, incongruous humor increases the likelihood of students developing more creative thinking processes. The essence of essay creative thinking therefore, is anthology norton that ability to perceive situations from various points of view. Humor is an effective device in interpersonal communication skills. Montaigne39s? Victor Borgeonce stated that “laughter is the shortest distance between two people” (Sullivan, 1992).One knows that communication and interpersonal skills are extremely important tools in the academic classroom. These tools can be effectively implemented when students feel comfortable or non-threatened.
Many scholars argue that the use of humor aids in creating an open communication climate in the classroom (Herbert, 1991; Korobkin, 1988; Perret, 1984; Long, 1983; Ziv, 1983; Mogavero, 1979; Ziv, 1976; Dixon, 1973; Gilland #038; Mauritsen, 1971; and Coser, 1960). Laughter can help ensure a rapturous reception of the instructor’s forthcoming prophetic lecture. In addition, laughter is seen to of books, coordinate human interaction as a turn-taking cue, approval and montaigne39s invitation for the hearer to anthology norton, respond in kind, an invitation to elaborate, and a resource in affiliation (O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983).Power struggles often surface in classrooms .When two sides come into conflict, humor can be used to essay, relieve the pressure to provide both opponents with the online help for essay opportunity to cool off (Iapoce, 1990). In such situations, humor provides the teacher with the chance to re think the situation and react with a rational consequence as opposed to a punishment established out of montaigne39s stress and dissertation abe college anger (Curwin #038; Mendler, 1990). Such a rational response spares the child’s self-esteem. Essay? As a result of the ability to diffuse tension in such situations, humor actually enhances relationships and brings people closer together.”When humor is shared, people feel close and warm with each other” (Chenfeld, 1990). Sullivan (1992) believes the essay bottom line is that utilizing humor to reduce stress makes school a more enjoyable experience for both teachers and students. 6- Guidelines of using humor in teaching process.
Humor can be a liberating force, or it can be a destroying one. Montaigne39s Essay? Some guidelines to ensure that humor has a positive effect may include: beginning class with an amusing thought or joke; the use of humorous stories and anecdotes; relating student-oriented activities that often contain comic material; and taking “commercial breaks”(O’Donnell-Trujillo #038; Adams, 1983). The aim here is to actively involve students on illustrative essay, an intellectual and essay emotional level- to assume an involved, interested stance .Stat (1988) writes, “To involve your audience emotionally, you must create a drama- comedy (humor) is often the best tool to past exam, use.” There are situations in which humor can prove counterproductive. If used at the wrong time, it has the ability to cause distraction. If used in excess, it may become uncontrollable and essay transform the classroom into a circus. If used inappropriately, it may potentially damage self-esteem, or cause embarrassment (Bariaud, 1988).
Considering the potential of illustrative outline humor to montaigne39s essay, be abused, there is clearly a need for guidelines concerning its use in the classroom. Bryant and Zillman (1988) cite that teachers’ use of humor must be perceived as natural, or else it may backfire. Teachers who normally feel uncomfortable using humor must be wary of attempting to force it into their classrooms. If humor is irrelevant to the subject matter, valuable class time may be wasted and the class may become unruly, thereby contributing to poor classroom management (Sullivan, 1992). Bryant and Zillman (1983) suggest that teachers of children, especially young children, should refrain from using humor unless they are certain that the children have the faculties and knowledge to understand it. For example, irony and other forms of “distortion humor” can confuse children and create faulty ideas that are difficult to correct.
The basic component of some humor is ridicule. Some researchers suggest that sarcasm and other forms of ridicule may be useful as a behavior management technique , although most strongly discourage it .Collins (1986) notes that sarcasm is dissertation abe college placement brutal by montaigne39s essay, nature and can severely damage students’ self-esteem, as well as teacher-student relationships. Bryant and Zillman (1988) suggest that although sarcasm and ridicule may serve a corrective function, the long-term consequence of essay norton diminished esteem in the eyes of students may make the immediate gains in montaigne39s essay terms of behavioral correction not worth the costs. In addition to illustrative essay outline, the guidelines previously discussed, a number of researchers offer other suggestions. Sullivan (1992) cautions that: (1) teachers must recognize when humor is not appropriate; (2) teachers should never joke about a student’s name because of the potential damage to essay, the student’s self-esteem; and (3) teachers should not simply tell jokes in class, but should keep their humor relevant to the instruction since telling jokes reduces valuable class time and may result in sexist and racist humor that will create problems. Titles In Essays Should? The use of non-relevant humor, or that which is not at all related to the subject matter at hand, is montaigne39s shown to be an especially effective aid in essay outline information acquisition for montaigne39s essay, younger children, those of illustrative outline preschool to early primary school age (Zillman #038; Bryant, 1983).
The effectiveness of non-relevant humor diminishes with age so that by montaigne39s essay, adulthood, non-relevant humor is not only online essays, acceptable, but can even hinder the acquirement of information. It is also crucial that a student never feels that he or she is essay being made the object of ridicule. Of Books Should Be? Although the teacher may dominate the essay student for the moment, often deep and strong resentments result that may last throughout the school year (Quina, 1989). Sullivan (1992) and Herbert (1991) contend that teachers should be willing to essay norton, laugh at themselves and should be careful to match their humor to the level of their students. In addition, Herbert (1991) recommends using visual examples of humor, opening class with a joke, and montaigne39s essay telling humorous anecdotes. However, he suggests that humor should always serve a specific purpose; it should not be aimless. Cornett (1986) presents a list of forty-nine specific ways in which planned humor can be incorporated in the classroom. Her only guidelines are that teachers should adopt a playful mind, think funny, and encourage humor from their students. Although a vast array of help for essay writing humor categories exists, one must carefully and cautiously discriminate in the choice of humor being used.
Clearly, the misuse or abuse of essay humor in the classroom may have negative effects. Humor arising from hummorist essays, a sexual or racial context should have no place in essay the classroom and should be avoided at all times. The victims of such humor may feel that they are being forced to hear a derogatory statement about illustrative their heritage or gender. One might assume that the teacher has a prejudice against that particular group of people, and essay the classroom environment becomes negative and hostile (Dickmeyer, 1993). Humor may unconsciously allow the person to get at the target of essays such humor. The “target” is the essay individual who is placed in one of these situations by online help for essay, humor (Edwards #038; Gibboney, 1992).
The target is on the receiving end of the montaigne39s humorous comment, whether it be joke, pun, or funny story and is focused on when the humor takes place. As mentioned earlier, targets of instructor’s humor can be self, student, or other. Humor may be ineffectively utilized to promote the abe college superiority of one group or person over another as expressed by montaigne39s essay, the Superiority Theory of humor (Gruner, 1978). This theory focuses upon history exam, the heightened sense of montaigne39s essay self- esteem, confidence, and reduced threat that are coupled with a humorous response to a typically stressful experience or situation (Martin #038; Lefcourt, 1988). It is embodied in the slur, the put down, and the barb in which an individual or group laughs at another, supposedly inferior individual or group (Pollio, 1983). Examples of this type of humor are the various ethnic, racist, and sexist jokes which are increasingly becoming taboo in a more enlightened, sensitive society (Coleman, 1992). A major premise of this theory is that people laugh when they feel superior to abe college, others (Meyer, 1990). Closely related to the Superiority Theory is the Disparagement Theory of essay Humor, whereby humor, as disguised aggression, is used at the expense of online essays others to garner a small victory in the midst of defeat (Rainsberger, 1994). A final theory of humor, the incongruity theory, emphasizes the occurrence of two or more illogical or incongruent events, often eliciting the double-take or puzzled look before the laughter (Coleman, 1992).At the end and as a resume these types of humor should be remain out of the classroom: ‘ Sexual humor: celebrating the fun of sex, mildly flirtatious to outright obscenity and lewdness. ‘ Ethnic/Racial -humor: in which a particular ethnic group is demeaned, ridiculed, or made fun of.
‘ Religious -humor: making fun of particular religions or religion in general. ‘ Hostile -humor: in which an attack on someone’s dignity is the montaigne39s essay primary focus. These may be insulting, invective, or involve a put-down of someone. ‘ Demeaning to hummorist, Men/ Women- humor: in montaigne39s which males/ females are discredited or put-down, often by the opposite gender. ‘ Sick-humor: making fun of death, deformity, disease, or handicapping conditions. (1996, p. 87). ‘ Aggressive humor: by saying, showing or make such allusion may provoke students’ anger. Through this chapter, it seems to be clear that humor is advocated as a pedagogical strategy. Many authors recommend the use of humor in the academic context. Illustrative Essay? They argue its significance by montaigne39s essay, a variety of studies conducted to survey its supportive role to enhance learning.
No matter how humor has been defined and what principles humor theories are based on, but what worthwhile role it plays in the teaching- learning process. In addition to its therapeutic function in medicine and psychology, humor has the potential to give rise to successful learners and, thus, to successful workers. In order to ap world history past exam essays, be effective, teaching strategies require some rules to be obeyed. The appropriate and timely humor relies on a set of principles. Following these standards, it will be easy for professors to make humor an integral part of material to be learnt, and then their teaching will be conducive to montaigne39s essay, optimal learning. Section 2 Speaking skill. Speaking is one of the most demanding skills in the daily life. Every person needs to communicate with others through speaking. Ap World History Past Exam? Speaking plays an important role in making a social interaction with another people in order to gain information.
Thus, it is necessary for every people to have a good speaking skill. As the needs of English increase over the year, people do not only communicate with those who come from the same country, but also with those who come from different countries. In order to be able to convey meaning and talk to people around the world, they must be able to montaigne39s, speak English since it is an international language. Due to its importance, it is very reasonable why the objective of the English teaching as a compulsory subject at university level is to enable students to communicate in both oral and online help written forms. As the language is a means of communication, students have to be accustomed to speak utterances orally in montaigne39s the classroom even in the very simplest way, such as greeting, answering, expressing ideas, giving responses, and the like.
The actual situation of dissertation students’ speaking English competencies at Abbes Laghrour University insure that the most of students are at low level, despite teachers use hard efforts and many techniques to enhance their students’ speaking level. From a daily observation the researcher ‘which is a student at the same university ‘ has been noticed that the majority of students keep silent during lessens; hesitate in the participation, or using humble and montaigne39s essay individual words or short sentences at help, most by French or Arabic phonetics and pronunciation. In the montaigne39s essay oral presentation, students read their projects or just memorize what they want to present word by hummorist, word neither more nor less. Also few of students participate by read the information from Tablets, Computers, or the Handout of the teacher himself. Montaigne39s? Another observation is that students distinguish between teachers based on their reputation; general personality and behavior .That enable to classify teachers into two sets, beloved and non beloved .these affection toward teachers’ impact maybe positively or negatively on students’ speaking participation and thus their speaking skill achievements.
1-Definition of ap world exam essays speaking. Speaking is montaigne39s essay one of two productive skills in a language teaching. It is defined as a process of building and essay anthology norton sharing meaning through the essay use of ap world history past exam essays verbal or oral form (Chaney, 1988:13 and Gebhard, 1996:169). Montaigne39s Essay? Moreover; Nunan (2003:48) defines that speaking consists of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning. To know deeper what speaking is, Nunan differentiates it from writing. First, in spoken language, speaking must be listened by others. It has temporary and immediate reception. When we do listen from other people, it has special prosody some like stress, rhythm, and intonation. It must be there an intermediate feedback for communicating directly. Help? By speaking activity, orator or speaker have to pay attention of planning and editing by channel.
Whereas the second,in written language, the activity is essay done as a visual term. The time for doing it, is permanent and it is delayed reception. Help Writing? The writer uses punctuation as well to make others clearer in vision or reading the meaning. There is no feedback or it is usually delayed or indirectly communicating. The planning is unlimited and there are often editing and essay revision in essay outline any parts of the written language. Based on the utterances above, they can be concluded that the differences between spoken language and the written one as follow: Spoken language Written language.
Temporary; immediate reception. Prosody (rhythm, stress intonation. Planning and montaigne39s essay editing limited by channel Visual. Permanent; delayed reception. Delayed or no feedback.
Unlimited planning, editing, revision. 2-The importance of speaking. Human being as social creature always communicates to one another. Writing? It can be occurred with the process of interchange of the thought or ideas which include interactions. For examples telling information or some news, asking other helps for their needs, or etc.
All of them can be done trough speaking to others directly. It means that the activity of speaking itself has a very important role in human life. Ramelan (1992:13) says that all human being whenever they live always speak language, although they do not have any writing system to record their language. From the statement above it can be concluded that speaking is montaigne39s very important in mastering foreign language. Thus speaking capability can be measured whether a foreign language learner in successful in learning or not. But in mastering speaking skill can be seen not only from the of books should be performance of learners in spoken, but also we have to see from montaigne39s, their competence in using the language. Speaking competence is not only the theoretical study but also it is daily activities and human’s need for growing. As according to Chomsky in Garnham (1985:23) said linguistic performance is the actual use of exam essays language in montaigne39s concrete situation. And also according to titles, William O’Grady, et.al (1996:4) states that linguistic competence is the montaigne39s essay ability in producing and understanding an unlimited number of utterances. From the essays two definitions above, we can conclude that speaking skill consists of linguistic performance and linguistic competence.
In other word, we can say that speaking skill is a mental motor skill, it consist of the coordination of sound, mechanism, which is produce by our muscles and it is montaigne39s also has as a mental aspect .That is the ability in arranging the meaningful words and explain and convey thinking, feeling, and in essays should idea. Speaking ability means the ability to think .Based on the explanation above, to montaigne39s essay, measure the students’ speaking, has five competences as follows: Hornby defines pronunciation as the way in which a language is a spoken, way in which a word is pronounced (Hornby, 1974:669). It means that pronunciation is an important of ap world essays language, including its aspect like accent, stress, and montaigne39s intonation. Grammar and pronunciation has a close relationship. Ap World History Past? In addition to the sound system learners must be taught by using structure system of montaigne39s essay language. Learners must be given insight into word order, inflection and derivation into abe college placement the other meaningful features of the English language. It will help students to speak fluently.
Hornby (1974:979) defines vocabulary is range of words known or used by a person in trade, profession, etc. If students have many vocabularies, it will be easier for him to express his idea. d. Essay? Fluently Hornby (1974:330) defines fluency as the quality of being able to illustrative outline, speak smoothly and easily. It means that someone can speak without any hesitation. Someone can speak fluently even though he makes errors in montaigne39s pronunciation and grammar. Self confidence becomes an important factor in speaking learning process. A student with good grammatical and vocabulary master usually has a big confidence to express idea, suggestion or answer the question. He feels like that, so he thinks he knows what will he say and how to express. 4 -Aspects of essay norton speaking. Eventually, aspects of the montaigne39s speaking skill need to be closely scrutinized and online hummorist put into consideration. These aspects pose some challenges and identify some guidelines for understanding this skill and montaigne39s hence design instructional activities to prepare learners to communicate effectively in titles of books should real life situations.
A. Speaking is face to montaigne39s, face: Most conversations take place face to face which allows speakers to get immediate feedback, i.e. ‘Do listeners understand? Are they in agreement? Do they sympathize (Cornbleet #038;Carter, 2001: 16) . Thus communication through speaking has many assets, such as facial expressions, gestures and abe college placement even body movements. Speaking also occurs, most of the time, in situations where participants or interlocutors are present. Montaigne39s Essay? Such factors facilitate communication (Widdowson, 1998 #038; Burns, 1998).
B. Speaking is interactive: Whether we are speaking face-to ‘face or over the telephone, to one person or a small group, the wheels of dissertation conversation usually turn smoothly, with participants offering contributions at appropriate moments, with no undue gaps or everyone talking over each other (Bygate, 1998: 30 and Cornbleet #038; Carter, 2001: 27) Turn taking, a main feature in interaction, is an unconscious part of normal conversation. Montaigne39s Essay? Turn takings are handled and online help signaled differently across different cultures, thus causing possible communication difficulties in essay conversation between people of different cultures and languages (Mc Donough #038; Mackey, 2000: 84). C. Essay Anthology? Speaking happens in real time: During conversations, responses are unplanned and spontaneous and the speakers think on their feet, producing language which reflects this (Foster et al., 2000: 368).These time constraints affect the montaigne39s essay speaker’s ability to plan, to organize the message, and to control the language being used. Speakers often start to say something and change their mind midway; which is termed a false start. The speaker’s sentences also cannot be as long or as complex as in writing. Similarly, speakers occasionally forget things they intended to say; or they may even forget what they have already said, and so they repeat themselves (Miller, 2001: 27). This implies that the production of speech in real time imposes pressures, but also allows freedoms in essay terms of compensating for these difficulties. The use of formulaic expressions, hesitation devices, self correction, rephrasing and repetition can help speakers become more fluent and cope with real time demands (Bygate, 1987: 21; Foster et al., 2000 and Hughes, 2002: 76). Actually, exposing students to these spoken discourse features facilitates their oral production and helps them compensate for the problems they encounter.
It also helps them sound normal in their use of the foreign language. 5- Purpose of speaking. It was argued that the purpose of speaking can be either transactional or interactional. Apparently, there are some differences between the spoken language used in essay both transactional and interactional discourse. In transactional discourse, language is used primarily for communicating information. Language serving this purpose is ‘message’ oriented rather than ‘listener’ oriented (Nunan, 1989: 27).
Clearly, in this type of interaction, accurate and coherent communication of the message is important, as well as confirmation that the message has been understood. Examples of language being used primarily for online hummorist, a transactional purpose are: news broadcasts, descriptions, narrations and instructions (Richards, 1990: 54- 55). Speaking turns serving this purpose tend to be long and involve some prior organization of montaigne39s essay content and use of linguistic devices to signal either the organization or type of information that will be given (Basturkmen, 2002: 26). On the other hand, some conversations are interactional with the purpose of establishing or maintaining a relationship. This latter kind is sometimes called the interpersonal use of language.
It plays an important social role in oiling the wheels of social intercourse (Yule, 1989: 169). Examples of ap world history past exam interactional uses of language are greetings, small talks, and compliments. Apparently, the montaigne39s language used in online help the interactional mode is montaigne39s essay listener oriented. Anthology? Speakers’ talk in montaigne39s essay this type tends to be limited to quite short turns (Dornyei #038; Thurrell, 1994: 43 and Richards, 1990: 54-55). However, in spite of the essay distinctions between the two types, in montaigne39s essay most circumstances, interactional language is combined with transactional language. This helps to ease the transactional tasks to online help for essay writing, be done by essay, keeping good social relations with others.
In, other words, we can say that speakers do one thing by titles of books in essays be, doing another (Brazil, 1995: 29). So both purposes can be viewed as two dimensions of spoken interaction. Analyzing speaking purposes more precisely, Kingen (2000: 218) combines both the montaigne39s essay transactional and interpersonal purposes of speaking into online hummorist essays an extensive list of twelve categories as follows: 1- Personal – expressing personal feelings, opinions, beliefs and ideas. 2. Descriptive- describing someone or something, real or imagined. 3. Montaigne39s? Narrative-creating and telling stories or chronologically sequenced events.
4. Instructive-giving instructions or providing directions designed to in essays, produce an outcome. 5. Questioning-asking questions to obtain information. 6. Comparative-comparing two or more objects, people, ideas, or opinions to essay, make judgments about them. 7. Imaginative-expressing mental images of people, places, events, and objects. 8. Predictive-predicting possible future events. 9. Interpretative-exploring meanings, creating hypothetical deductions, and considering inferences. 10. Persuasive-changing others’ opinions, attitudes, or points of dissertation abe college view, or influencing the behavior of others in some way.
11. Explanatory-explaining, clarifying, and essay supporting ideas and opinions. 12. Informative-sharing information with others. This list corresponds closely to the language functions explained by Halliday (1975). 6-Main Factors That Hinder Students from Speaking. It has been mentioned earlier that there are some psychological factor that hinder students from essay, practicing their speaking in English class.
Each of them is explained below. 6.1. Essay? Fear of mistake. As argued by many theorists, fear of mistake becomes one of the main factors of students’ reluctance to speak in English in the classroom With respect to anthology, the fear of making mistake issue, Aftat, (2008) adds that this fear is linked to the issue of correction and negative evaluation. In addition, this is also much influenced by the students’ fear of montaigne39s essay being laughed at by other students or being criticized by the teacher. Hummorist? As a result, students commonly stop participating in the speaking activity (Hieu, 2011).Therefore, it is montaigne39s essay important for teachers to convince their students that making mistakes is not a wrong or bad thing because students can learn from their mistakes.
Shyness is an emotional thing that many students suffer from at some time when they are required to speak in English class. This indicates that shyness could be a source of problem in students’ learning activities in the classroom especially in the class of speaking. Therefore, paying attention on this aspect is also quite important in order to help the students do their best in illustrative their speaking performance in essay the classroom (Gebhard, 2000). Illustrative Essay? In line with this, Baldwin (2011) further explains that speaking in front of montaigne39s essay people is one of the more common phobias that students encounter and illustrative essay outline feeling of shyness makes their mind go blank or that they will forget what to say. This theory is also supported by the result of this research in which most students fail to essay, perform the speaking performance at their best. Online Hummorist? As they say, their inability to show their ability in speaking is also influenced much by their feeling of shyness. Montaigne39s? In other words, it can be said that shyness plays an online hummorist, important role in essay speaking performance done by the students. Anxiety is dissertation placement a feeling of tension, apprehension and montaigne39s nervousness associated with the situation of learning a foreign language (Horwitz et all cited in Nascente, 2001). Further Nascente writes that, among other affective variables, anxiety stands out as one of the history exam main blocking factors for effective language learning. Montaigne39s? In other words, anxiety influences students in learning language.
Therefore, paying attention to in essays be, this factor of learning should also be taken into consideration. The fact that anxiety plays an important role in students’ learning is also shared by other researchers like Horwitz (1991) as cited in Sylvia and Tiono (2004). He believes that anxiety about speaking a certain language can affect students’ performance. It can influence the essay quality of oral language production and make individuals appear less fluent than they really are. This explanation suggests that teachers should make an attempt to create a learning atmosphere which gives students more comfortable situations in their learning activity. 6.4.
Lack of Confidence. It is commonly understood that students’ lack of confidence usually occurs when students realize that their conversation partners have not understood them or when they do not understand other speakers. In this situation, they would rather keep silent while others do talking showing that the students are lack of confidence to communicate. In response to this, Tsui cited Nunan (1999) says that student who lack of confidence about online essays themselves and their English necessarily suffer from communication apprehension. This shows that building students’ confidence is an important part of teacher’s focus of attention. Essay? This means that the teacher should also learn from both theories and practical experience on in essays, how to build the students’ confidence. 6.5. Lack of Motivation. It is mentioned in the literature that motivation is a key to students’ learning success (Songsiri, 2007). With regard to the issue of motivation in learning, Nunan (1999) stresses that motivation is important to notice in that it can affect students’ reluctance to speak in English.
In this sense, motivation is montaigne39s essay a key consideration in help writing determining the preparedness of learners to communicate. Zua (2008) further adds that motivation is an inner energy. Montaigne39s? She says that no matter what kinds of motivation the learners possess it will enhance their study interest. It has been proven in many studies that students with a strong motivation to succeed can persist in learning and gain better scores than those who have weaker motivation of dissertation abe college placement success showing that to learn is urgent for every teacher. 7- Ideas about essay using humor in writing speaking lessons. Humor as we have seen is an montaigne39s, open ended teaching tool , it may be just a small smile with students till make them laughing out loud or giggling; between this and that; the researcher proposes some thoughts to introduce humor in the teaching process.
7.1. History Past Exam Essays? Tongue twisters are a great way to practice and essay improve pronunciation and anthology norton fluency. They can also help to improve accents by using alliteration, which is the montaigne39s essay repetition of one sound. Examples: ‘ Peter Piper picked a peck of online essays pickled peppers. A peck of montaigne39s pickled peppers Peter Piper picked. If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Where’s the peck of pickled peppers Peter Piper picked’? Betty Botter bought some butter. But she said the illustrative essay butter’s bitter. If I put it in my batter, it will make my batter bitter.
But a bit of better butter will make my batter better. So ’twas better Betty Botter bought a bit of montaigne39s better butter. ‘ How much wood would a woodchuck chuck if a woodchuck could chuck wood? He would chuck, he would, as much as he could, and chuck as much wood As a woodchuck would if a woodchuck could chuck wood. ‘ She sells seashells by essay, the seashore. ‘ How can a clam cram in a clean cream can’? I scream, you scream, we all scream for montaigne39s essay, ice cream. ‘ I saw Susie sitting in a shoeshine shop.
7.2. Students always have difficulty expressing what they want to say, no matter how advanced their vocabulary is .Teacher has to downloaded short jokes from the Internet, cut them into online strips, and essay distribute them randomly. The goal is to express the short joke in students’ own words, without reading or memorizing. Teacher should be sure to model how a person tells a joke (like telling a story, with facial expressions or everything).He might need to help them with understanding some jokes, as some are contextual /cultural. A: I have the perfect son. B: Does he smoke? B: Does he drink whiskey? B: Does he ever come home late? B: I guess you really do have the perfect son. Essay? How old is essay he? A: He will be six months old next Wednesday.
Girl: You would be a good dancer except for two things. Boy: What are the two things? A family of mice was surprised by a big cat. Father mouse jumped and said ‘Bow- wow!’ The cat runs away. ‘What was that father’? asked baby mouse. Ap World History Essays? ‘Well, son, that’s why it’s important to learn a second language. 7.3. Create dialogue comic strip. This is montaigne39s a simple worksheet with single comic strips for students to use their imagination and fill the speaking bubbles freely. There are no conditions except that they have to write at least 2 sentences, but the idea of the exercise is to give them the freedom to dissertation, find their own words (or ask for them) and at the same time have fun inventing something crazy to fill the bubbles with. There is montaigne39s essay no right and wrong in terms of content.
This is to check grammar and vocabulary. From: busy teacher .org. 7.4. Psychology quiz. Teachers in ESL classes can practice this fun quiz with students’ .quiz to make them think about essays their priorities in montaigne39s essay life in a fun way. Nice way to relax the class. It takes 5 minutes to use it.
From: busy teacher .org. Teaching and learning English in outline Abbes Laghrour University have faced many difficulties. As for students, they wish to essay, speak English fluently, but face with language barriers such as pronunciation and grammar usage. Help? Moreover, they lack of opportunity to speak or use language in daily lives. Montaigne39s Essay? They are too shy to speak with their classmates or teachers because they are being passive and have little speaking activities to practice. In addition, all of four skills, teaching and learning of speaking skills seem to be the most crucial part, because in the classroom almost of instructions are given in the university as many as teachers who are non-native speakers, and having no interaction occurs in the classroom. These difficulties in primary and secondary schools, where the English curriculum and environment do not meet the demand of the learners, and do not focus on speaking, have affected on learning English in illustrative essay university level where listening and speaking skills are most used. Therefore, to essay, help the learners improves speaking skills, various kinds of strategies should be considered. One of them is placement probably using pedagogical humor during the teaching learning process because it strengthens the relationship between the montaigne39s education parties in abe college order to create fun, confidence and boldness in students’ personalities to enhance all their language kills achievement especially speaking. Search our thousands of essays:
If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Linguistics essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Linguistics work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Linguistics essay was submitted to us by a student in montaigne39s order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to dissertation abe college placement, provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Using Humor in the Teaching-Learning Process To Improve the Students’ Speaking Skill . Montaigne39s? Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/linguistics/essay-using-humor-in-the-teaching-learning-process-to-improve-the-students-speaking-skill/ [04-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal:
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