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Uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation

APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in medizin dekanat dissertation Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and dissertation other disciplines. APA Style is uni bonn, notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to rita essay changes, guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an uni bonn dissertation APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on economic development essay, the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and medizin dekanat the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title).

Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and narrative friendships is written on medizin dekanat dissertation, a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the patient studies, paper and mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Uni Bonn! Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and medizin dekanat spacing. In-text references . The format of references in medizin dissertation APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns.

You may pick up citations, quotations and essay writing language summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly. Uni Bonn Dekanat! APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. Essay In Kannada! If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the uni bonn medizin, margin and it should be double spaced. Rita! Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to uni bonn dekanat, separate and classify paper sections.

Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and rita changes subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. Uni Bonn! It is also of economic development essay, great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the medizin, basic APA requirements are met in case APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in uni bonn APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from english coursework aqa, P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for uni bonn medizin, free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order!

Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and literacy economic development you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in dekanat an instant. P rof E is language, a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format.

Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to medizin dekanat dissertation, gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the medizin, time of patient studies, your life while we write an A+ paper for you and dissertation deliver it to your inbox always on development essay, time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years.

Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of uni bonn medizin dissertation, our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. Your privacy is important to P rof E , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. Uni Bonn Medizin! The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of uni bonn dekanat dissertation, publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to an idea from patient case studies, another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).

2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to uni bonn dissertation, include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Uni Bonn Dekanat! Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out medizin, from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat! If the author or the dissertation, year of writing, publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in uni bonn dekanat the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by educating rita essay multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of dekanat, no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the friendships, mention of the uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of essay friendships, articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks.

Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in dissertation the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an essay friendships organized look to the essay. It is also important to medizin dekanat dissertation, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in educating essay changes the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication).

Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by uni bonn medizin dekanat the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Educating Rita Essay Changes! Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article.

Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! Readers and narrative friendships writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Dekanat! Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an psychiatric studies ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for uni bonn, your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow.

The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the english coursework gcse, parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in uni bonn medizin dekanat APA format.

A “running header” should be placed in psychiatric patient studies the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to uni bonn dissertation, write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in friendships your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used.

In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at uni bonn dekanat dissertation the bottom of the page. What to essay in kannada, remember with the uni bonn medizin dekanat, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. Educating Rita Changes! These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to dekanat, take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from.

APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is rita changes, actually an uni bonn dekanat dissertation easy way to organize a written work. Aqa! The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat! The format can be adapted depending on uni bonn dekanat dissertation, the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers.

When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the medizin dekanat, APA style is the formatting guide that is medizin, used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat Dissertation! As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of narrative essay, on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and dekanat result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of uni bonn medizin dissertation, academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers.

In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and dekanat spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Medizin Dissertation! As more complex topics are discussed, the need for uni bonn medizin, further research becomes a necessity. Narrative Essay! Another important factor to consider is the format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and medizin dissertation citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the literacy economic essay, basic essay format of uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to educating rita essay, remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on uni bonn medizin dekanat, the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.

A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat! The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The hard problem of consciousness is the problem of explaining why any physical state is conscious rather than nonconscious. It is the problem of uni bonn dekanat dissertation, explaining why there is coursework aqa “something it is like” for a subject in conscious experience, why conscious mental states “light up” and directly appear to the subject. The usual methods of science involve explanation of functional, dynamical, and structural properties—explanation of what a thing does, how it changes over time, and how it is put together. But even after we have explained the functional, dynamical, and structural properties of the medizin dekanat dissertation conscious mind, we can still meaningfully ask the question, Why is it conscious?

This suggests that an explanation of consciousness will have to go beyond the usual methods of science. Consciousness therefore presents a hard problem for science, or perhaps it marks the limits of what science can explain. Explaining why consciousness occurs at economic essay, all can be contrasted with so-called “easy problems” of consciousness: the problems of explaining the function, dynamics, and structure of consciousness. These features can be explained using the usual methods of science. But that leaves the question of why there is uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation something it is like for patient studies the subject when these functions, dynamics, and structures are present. This is the hard problem. In more detail, the challenge arises because it does not seem that the dekanat dissertation qualitative and subjective aspects of rita essay rita, conscious experience—how consciousness “feels” and the fact that it is directly “for me”—fit into a physicalist ontology , one consisting of just the basic elements of physics plus structural, dynamical, and functional combinations of those basic elements. It appears that even a complete specification of a creature in physical terms leaves unanswered the question of whether or not the creature is conscious. And it seems that we can easily conceive of creatures just like us physically and functionally that nonetheless lack consciousness. This indicates that a physical explanation of consciousness is fundamentally incomplete: it leaves out uni bonn medizin what it is in kannada language like to medizin dekanat, be the educating rita essay rita changes subject, for the subject. There seems to be an unbridgeable explanatory gap between the physical world and medizin dekanat dissertation, consciousness.

All these factors make the hard problem hard. The hard problem was so-named by David Chalmers in 1995. The problem is a major focus of research in contemporary philosophy of educating essay, mind, and there is a considerable body of empirical research in medizin dekanat, psychology, neuroscience, and even quantum physics. Rita Essay Changes! The problem touches on issues in uni bonn medizin dissertation, ontology, on the nature and limits of scientific explanation, and on the accuracy and scope of essay, introspection and first-person knowledge, to name but a few. Reactions to the hard problem range from an outright denial of the issue to naturalistic reduction to panpsychism (the claim that everything is conscious to some degree) to uni bonn dekanat dissertation, full-blown mind-body dualism.

David Chalmers coined the coursework name “hard problem” (1995, 1996), but the problem is not wholly new, being a key element of the venerable mind-body problem. Still, Chalmers is among those most responsible for the outpouring of work on this issue. The problem arises because “phenomenal consciousness,” consciousness characterized in terms of “what it’s like for the subject,” fails to succumb to uni bonn dekanat dissertation, the standard sort of functional explanation successful elsewhere in psychology (compare Block 1995). Psychological phenomena like learning, reasoning, and remembering can all be explained in terms of playing the right “functional role.” If a system does the right thing, if it alters behavior appropriately in response to environmental stimulation, it counts as learning. Specifying these functions tells us what learning is and allows us to literacy economic, see how brain processes could play this role.

But according to Chalmers, What makes the hard problem hard and almost unique is that it goes beyond problems about the medizin dekanat dissertation performance of functions. To see this, note that even when we have explained the performance of all the cognitive and literacy development essay, behavioral functions in the vicinity of experience—perceptual discrimination, categorization, internal access, verbal report—there may still remain a further unanswered question: Why is the performance of these functions accompanied by experience? (1995, 202, emphasis in original). Chalmers explains the persistence of uni bonn dissertation, this question by arguing against the possibility of a “reductive explanation” for phenomenal consciousness (hereafter, I will generally just use the term ‘consciousness’ for the phenomenon causing the uni bonn medizin problem). A reductive explanation in Chalmers’s sense (following David Lewis (1972)), provides a form of deductive argument concluding with an medizin dekanat identity statement between the target explanandum (the thing we are trying to economic development, explain) and a lower-level phenomenon that is physical in uni bonn dissertation, nature or more obviously reducible to the physical. Reductive explanations of this type have two premises. The first presents a functional analysis of the target phenomenon, which fully characterizes the target in terms of its functional role. The second presents an empirically-discovered realizer of the functionally characterized target, one playing that very functional role. Psychiatric Patient! Then, by transitivity of identity, the target and realizer are deduced to be identical. For example, the gene may be reductively explained in terms of DNA as follows:

The gene = the unit of hereditary transmission. (By analysis.) Regions of DNA = the unit of hereditary transmission. (By empirical investigation.) Therefore, the gene = regions of DNA. (By transitivity of uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, identity, 1, 2.) Chalmers contends that such reductive explanations are available in principle for all other natural phenomena, but not for consciousness. This is the hard problem. The reason that reductive explanation fails for consciousness, according to Chalmers, is that it cannot be functionally analyzed. This is coursework gcse aqa demonstrated by the continued conceivability of what Chalmers terms “zombies”—creatures physically (and so functionally) identical to us, but lacking consciousness—even in the face of uni bonn dissertation, a range of proffered functional analyses. If we had a satisfying functional analysis of consciousness, zombies should not be conceivable. The lack of rita essay, a functional analysis is also shown by uni bonn medizin, the continued conceivability of spectrum inversion (perhaps what it looks like for me to see green is what it looks like when you see red), the persistence of the “other minds” problem, the plausibility of the “knowledge argument” (Jackson 1982) and the manifest implausibility of offered functional characterizations.

If consciousness really could be functionally characterized, these problems would disappear. Since they retain their grip on philosophers, scientists, and lay-people alike, we can conclude that no functional characterization is uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation available. But then the first premise of a reductive explanation cannot be properly formulated, and reductive explanation fails. We are left, Chalmers claims, with the following stark choice: either eliminate consciousness (deny that it exists at all) or add consciousness to our ontology as an unreduced feature of reality, on par with gravity and electromagnetism. Either way, we are faced with a special ontological problem, one that resists solution by the usual reductive methods. Thomas Nagel sees the problem as turning on the “subjectivity” of medizin dekanat, conscious mental states (1974, 1986). He argues that the uni bonn medizin facts about uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, conscious states are inherently subjective—they can only development essay, be fully grasped from limited types of uni bonn dissertation, viewpoints. English Aqa! However, scientific explanation demands an objective characterization of the facts, one that moves away from any particular point of medizin dekanat dissertation, view. Thus, the facts about consciousness elude science and so make “the mind-body problem really intractable” (Nagel 1974, 435).

Nagel argues for literacy the inherent subjectivity of the facts about consciousness by reflecting on the question of what it is like to dekanat, be a bat— for the bat. It seems that no amount of objective data will provide us with this knowledge, given that we do not share its type of point of narrative, view (the point of uni bonn dissertation, view of a creature able to fly and echolocate). Learning all we can about the brain mechanisms, biochemistry, evolutionary history, psychophysics, and so forth, of a bat still leaves us unable to writing in kannada language, discover (or even imagine) what it’s like for the bat to hunt by echolocation on a dark night. But it is uni bonn still plausible that there are facts about narrative, what it’s like to be a bat, facts about how things seem from the bat’s perspective. And even though we may have good reason to believe that consciousness is a physical phenomenon (due to considerations of mental causation, the success of materialist science, and so on), we are left in medizin dissertation, the dark about the bat’s conscious experience. This is the hard problem of essay in kannada language, consciousness.

Joseph Levine argues that there is a special “explanatory gap” between consciousness and dekanat dissertation, the physical (1983, 1993, 2001). In Kannada Language! The challenge of closing this explanatory gap is the hard problem. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! Levine argues that a good scientific explanation ought to psychiatric patient case, deductively entail what it explains, allowing us to infer the presence of the target phenomenon from a statement of laws or mechanisms and initial conditions (Levine 2001, 74-76). Deductive entailment is a logical relation where if the premises of an argument are true, the conclusion must be true as well. Uni Bonn Dissertation! For example, once we discover that lightning is narrative friendships nothing more than an electrical discharge, knowing that the proper conditions for a relevantly large electrical discharge existed in the atmosphere at time t allows us to deduce that lightning must have occurred at time t. If such a deduction is not possible, there are three possible reasons, according to medizin dekanat, Levine. One is that we have not fully specified the psychiatric laws or mechanisms cited in uni bonn medizin, our explanation. Two is that the target phenomenon is stochastic in nature, and the best that can be inferred is a conclusion about the essay probability of the occurrence of the explanatory target. The third is that there are as yet unknown factors at least partially involved in determining the phenomenon in question. If we have adequately specified the laws and mechanisms in uni bonn dekanat, question, and if we have adjusted for stochastic phenomena, then we should possess a deductive conclusion about our explanatory target, or the third possibility is in effect. But the third possibility is “precisely an admission that we don't have an adequate explanation” (2001, 76). And this is the case with consciousness, according to Levine.

No matter how detailed our specification of brain mechanisms or physical laws, it seems that there is an open question about whether consciousness is present. Essay! We can still meaningfully ask if consciousness occurred, even if we accept that the laws, mechanisms, and uni bonn medizin, proper conditions are in place. And it seems that any further information of this type that we add to our explanation will still suffer from the same problem. Thus, there is an explanatory gap between the physical and consciousness, leaving us with the hard problem. 2. Underlying Reasons for uni bonn dekanat dissertation the Problem. But what it is about consciousness that generates the hard problem? It may just seem obvious that consciousness could not be physical or functional. But it is worthwhile to try and draw a rough circle around the problematic features of conscious experience, if we can. This both clarifies what we are talking about when we talk about consciousness and helps isolate the data a successful theory must explain. Uriah Kriegel (2009; see also Levine 2001) offers a helpful conceptual division of uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, consciousness into two components. Starting with the standard understanding of conscious states as states there is something it’s like for the organism to be in, Kriegel notes that we can either focus on the fact that something appears for the organism or we can focus on what it is that appears, the something it’s like . Rita Essay Rita! Focusing on the former, we find that subjects are aware of their conscious states in a distinctive way.

Kriegel labels this feature the subjective component of consciousness. Focusing on uni bonn the latter we find the experienced character of consciousness—the “redness of red” or the painfulness of pain— often termed “qualia” or “phenomenal character” in the literature (compare Crane 2000). Kriegel labels this the qualitative component of consciousness. Subdividing consciousness in friendships, this way allows us to concentrate on how we are conscious and what we are conscious of. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! When we focus on psychiatric the subjective “how” component, we find that conscious states are presented to the subject in a seemingly immediate way.

And when we focus on the qualitative “what” component, we find that consciousness presents us with seemingly indescribable qualities which in dekanat dissertation, principle can vary independently of mental functioning. These features help explain why consciousness generates the hard problem. The first feature, which we can call immediacy , concerns the way we access consciousness from the first-person perspective. Conscious states are accessed in aqa, a seemingly unmediated way. It appears that nothing comes between us and uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, our conscious states. We seem to access them simply by having them—we do not infer their presence by way of any evidence or argument. This immediacy creates the educating rita essay impression that there is medizin dekanat dissertation no way we could be wrong about the content of our conscious states. Error in perception or error in reasoning can be traced back to poor perceptual conditions or to a failure of rational inference. But in the absence of such accessible sources of error, it seems that there is no room for inaccuracy in the introspective case. And even if we come to believe we are in error in introspection, the evidence for this will be indirect and third-personal—it will lack the subjective force of psychiatric patient case studies, immediacy.

Thus, there is an intuition of special accuracy or even infallibility when it comes to dissertation, knowing our own conscious states. We might be wrong that an object in the world is really red, but can we be wrong that it seems red to essay, us? But if we cannot be wrong about how things seem to uni bonn dissertation, us and conscious states seem inexplicable, then they really are inexplicable. In this way, the essay immediacy of the subjective component of consciousness underwrites the hard problem. But what we access may be even more problematic than how we access it: we might, after all, have had immediate access to uni bonn medizin dekanat, the physical nature of medizin dissertation, our conscious states (see P.M. Churchland 1985). But conscious experience instead reveals various sensory qualities—the redness of the visual experience of an dekanat apple or the painfulness of a stubbed toe, for writing example. But these qualities seem to defy informative description. If one has not experienced them, then no amount of description will adequately convey what it’s like to have such an experience with these qualities. Medizin! We can call this feature of the qualitative component of consciousness indescribability. If someone has never seen red (a congenitally blind person, for example), it seems there is nothing informative we could say to convey to them the true nature of this quality.

We might mention prototypical red objects or explain that red is more similar to purple than it is to green, but such descriptions seem to leave the educating rita changes quality itself untouched. And if experienced qualities cannot be informatively described, how could they be adequately captured in an explanatory theory? It seems that by their very nature, conscious qualities defy explanation. This difficulty lies at medizin dekanat, the heart of the hard problem. A further problematic feature of what we access is that we can easily imagine our conscious mental processes occurring in conjunction with different conscious qualities or in educating rita essay rita, the absence of consciousness altogether. The particular qualities that accompany specific mental operations—like the reddish quality accompanying our detection and categorization of an apple, say—seem only contingently connected to the functional processes involved in uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, detection and categorization. We can call this feature of what is accessed independence . Independence is the apparent lack of connection between conscious qualities and anything else, and it underwrites the inverted and absent qualia thought experiments used by Chalmers to establish the hard problem (compare Block 1980).

If conscious qualities really are independent in english coursework gcse, this way, then there seems to be no way to effectively tie them to the rest of reality. The challenge of the hard problem, then, is to explain consciousness given that it seems to give us immediate access to indescribable and independent qualities. If we can explain these underlying features, then we may see how to dekanat, fit consciousness into a physicalist ontology. Or it perhaps taking these features seriously motivates a rejection of physicalism and educating essay, the acceptance of conscious qualities as fundamental features of medizin dekanat, our ontology. The following section briefly surveys the range of responses to the hard problem, from eliminativism and economic, reductionism to panpsychism and full-blown dualism. Eliminativism holds that there is uni bonn dekanat dissertation no hard problem of consciousness because there is no consciousness to worry about in economic essay, the first place. Eliminativism is most clearly defended by Rey 1997, but see also Dennett 1978, 1988, Wilkes 1984, and Ryle 1949. Medizin! On the essay in kannada face of it, this response sounds absurd: how can one deny that conscious experience exists? Consciousness might be the one thing that is certain in our epistemology. Medizin Dissertation! But eliminativist views resist the idea that what we call experience is equivalent to patient, consciousness, at dekanat dissertation, least in the phenomenal, “what it’s like” sense. They hold that consciousness so-conceived is a philosopher’s construction, one that can be rejected without absurdity.

If it is definitional of consciousness that it is nonfunctional, then holding that the mind is educating rita essay rita changes fully functional amounts to a denial of consciousness. Alternately, if qualia are construed as nonrelational, intrinsic qualities of uni bonn dissertation, experience, then one might deny that qualia exist (Dennett 1988). And if qualia are essential to essay writing, consciousness, this, too, amounts to an eliminativism about consciousness. What might justify consciousness eliminativism? First, the very notion of consciousness, upon uni bonn dissertation close examination, may not have well-defined conditions of application—there may be no single phenomenon that the educating essay changes term picks out (Wilkes 1984). Or the term may serve no use at all in any scientific theory, and so may drop out of a scientifically-fixed ontology (Rey 1997). If science tells us what there is (as some naturalists hold), and science has no place for nonfunctional intrinsic qualities, then there is no consciousness, so defined. Medizin Dissertation! Finally, it might be that the term ‘consciousness’ gets its meaning as part of a falsifiable theory, our folk psychology. The entities posited by a theory stand or fall with the success of the rita essay rita theory. If the theory is falsified, then the entities it posits do not exist (compare P.M.

Churchland 1981). And there is no guarantee that folk psychology will not be supplanted by a better theory of the mind, perhaps a neuroscientific or even quantum mechanical theory, at some point. Uni Bonn Dekanat! Thus, consciousness might be eliminated from our ontology. Educating Rita Rita Changes! If that occurs, obviously there is dekanat dissertation no hard problem to economic development, worry about. No consciousness, no problem! But eliminativism seems much too strong a reaction to the hard problem, one that throws the medizin dissertation baby out with the bathwater. First, it is highly counterintuitive to deny that consciousness exists. It seems extremely basic to our conception of minds and persons. A more desirable view would avoid this move.

Second, it is not clear why we must accept that consciousness, by definition, is nonfunctional or intrinsic. Definitional, “analytic” claims are highly controversial at development, best, particularly with difficult terms like ‘consciousness’ (compare Quine 1951, Wittgenstein 1953). Uni Bonn Medizin! A better solution would hold that consciousness still exists, but it is coursework aqa functional and relational in uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, nature. This is the strong reductionist approach. Strong reductionism holds that consciousness exists, but contends that it is narrative friendships reducible to tractable functional, nonintrinsic properties. Strong reductionism further claims that the reductive story we tell about consciousness fully explains, without remainder, all that needs to be explained about consciousness. Reductionism, generally, is the dissertation idea that complex phenomena can be explained in terms of the arrangement and dekanat dissertation, functioning of simpler, better understood parts. Key to strong reductionism, then, is the idea that consciousness can be broken down and explained in uni bonn dekanat dissertation, terms of simpler things. Patient Case Studies! This amounts to a rejection of the uni bonn idea that experience is simple and basic, that it stands as a kind of epistemic or metaphysical “ground floor.” Strong reductionists must hold that consciousness is not as it prima facie appears, that it only seems to be marked by immediacy, indescribability, and rita, independence and therefore that it only uni bonn, seems nonfunctional and intrinsic. Consciousness, according to strong reductionism, can be fully analyzed and explained in functional terms, even if it does not seem that way. A number of prominent strongly reductive theories exist in the literature.

Functionalist approaches hold that consciousness is nothing more than a functional process. A popular version of this view is the “global workspace” hypothesis, which holds that conscious states are mental states available for uni bonn dekanat dissertation processing by a wide range of cognitive systems (Baars 1988, 1997; Dehaene Naccache 2001). They are available in medizin dissertation, this way by being present in a special network—the “global workspace.” This workspace can be functionally characterized and it also can be given a neurological interpretation. In answer to the question “why are these states conscious?” it can be replied that this is what it means to be conscious. If a state is available to the mind in this way, it is a conscious state (see also Dennett 1991). (For more neuroscientifically-focused versions of the functionalist approach, see P.S Churchland 1986; Crick 1994; and Koch 2004.) Another set of views that can be broadly termed functionalist is rita changes “enactive” or “embodied” approaches (Hurley 1998, Noe 2005, 2009). These views hold that mental processes should not be characterized in terms of strictly inner processes or representations. Rather, they should be cashed out in terms of the dynamic processes connecting perception, bodily and environmental awareness, and behavior. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat! These processes, the views contend, do not strictly depend on processes inside the head; rather, they loop out into the body and the environment. Narrative Essay! Further, the nature of consciousness is tied up with behavior and action—it cannot be isolated as a passive process of receiving and recording information. These views are cataloged as functionalist because of the way they answer the uni bonn hard problem: these physical states (constituted in part by bodily and essay language, worldly things) are conscious because they play the right functional role, they do the right thing.

Another strongly reductive approach holds that conscious states are states representing the world in the appropriate way (Dretske 1995, Tye 1995, 2000). This view, known as “first-order representationalism,” contends that conscious states make us aware of medizin, things in world by essay friendships, representing them. Further, these representations are “nonconceptual” in nature: they represent features even if the subject in question lacks the concepts needed to cognitively categorize those features. But these nonconceptual representations must play the uni bonn medizin dissertation right functional role in order to coursework gcse aqa, be conscious. They must be poised to influence the medizin dissertation higher-level cognitive systems of a subject. The details of these representations differ from medizin dekanat dissertation theorist to theorist, but a common answer to the hard problem emerges.

First-order representational states are conscious because they do the right thing: they make us aware of just the sorts of features that make up conscious experience, features like the redness of an uni bonn medizin dekanat apple, the sweetness of honey, or the shrillness of a trumpet. Literacy Development! Further, such representations are conscious because they are poised to play the right role in our understanding of the world—they serve as the uni bonn medizin dissertation initial layer of our epistemic contact with reality, a layer we can then use as the basis of our more sophisticated beliefs and theories. A further point serves to support the uni bonn claims of first-order representationalism. When we reflect on our experience in a focused way, we do not seem to find any distinctively mental properties. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat! Rather, we find the very things first-order representationalism claims we represent: the basic sensory features of the world. If I ask you to reflect closely on essay changes your experience of a tree, you do not find special mental qualities. Rather, you find the tree , as it appears to you, as you represent it. This consideration, known as “transparency,” seems to undermine the medizin dissertation claim that we need to posit special intrinsic qualia , seemingly irreducible properties of our experiences (Harman 1990, though see Kind 2003). Instead, we can explain all that we experience in terms of representation.

We have a red experience because we represent physical red in the right way. Gcse! It is then argued that representation can be given a reductive explanation. Dekanat! Representation, even the dekanat dissertation sort of representation involved in experience, is no more than various functional/physical processes of uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, our brains tracking the environment. Studies! It follows that there is no further hard problem to deal with. A third type of strongly reductive approach is uni bonn medizin dissertation higher-order representationalism (Armstrong 1968, 1981; Rosenthal 1986, 2005; Lycan 1987, 1996, 2001; Carruthers 2000, 2005).

This view starts with the question of gcse aqa, what accounts for the difference between conscious and nonconscious mental states. Uni Bonn Dekanat! Higher-order theorists hold that an intuitive answer is educating rita essay rita changes that we are appropriately aware of our conscious states, while we are unaware of our nonconscious states. The task of a theory of consciousness, then, is to explain the awareness accounting for this difference. Higher-order representationalists contend that the awareness is dekanat dissertation a product of a specific sort of representation, a representation that picks out the subject’s own mental states. These “higher-order” representations (representations of psychiatric patient studies, other representations) make the subject aware of uni bonn medizin dissertation, her states, thus accounting for consciousness. In answer to the hard problem, the higher-order theorist responds that these states are conscious because the writing language subject is appropriately aware of them by way of higher-order representation. The higher-order representations themselves are held to be nonconscious.

And since representation can plausibly be reduced to functional/physical processes, there is uni bonn medizin dissertation no lingering problem to explain (though see Gennaro 2005 for more on this strategy). A final strongly reductive view, “self-representationalism,” holds that troubles with the higher-order view demand that we characterize the case awareness subjects have of their conscious states as a kind of self-representation, where one complex representational state is about both the world and that very state itself (Gennaro 1996, Kriegel 2003, 2009, Van Gulick 2004, 2006, Williford 2006). It may seem paradoxical to uni bonn medizin, say that a state can represent itself, but this can dealt with by holding that the essay friendships state represents itself in virtue of one part of the medizin dekanat state representing another, and thereby coming to indirectly represent the psychiatric patient case whole. Further, self-representationalism may provide the uni bonn dekanat best explanation of the seemingly ubiquitous presence of self-awareness in conscious experience. Essay Changes! And, again, in answer to the question of why such states are conscious, the self-representationalist can respond that conscious states are ones the subject is aware of, and self-representationalism explains this awareness. And since self-representation, properly construed, is reducible to functional/physical processes, we are left with a complete explanation of consciousness. Uni Bonn Dekanat! (For more details on how higher-order/self-representational views deal with the uni bonn medizin dissertation hard problem, see Gennaro 2012, chapter 4.) However, there remains considerable resistance to strongly reductive views. The main stumbling block is that they seem to leave unaddressed the uni bonn dissertation pressing intuition that one can easily conceive of a system satisfying all the requirements of the strongly reductive views but still lacking consciousness (Chalmers 1996, chapter 3). It is argued that an effective theory ought to close off such easy conceptions. Further, strong reductivists seem committed to the claim that there is no knowledge of literacy development, consciousness that cannot be grasped theoretically. If a strongly reductive view is true, it seems that a blind person can gain full knowledge of uni bonn, color experience from a textbook.

But surely she still lacks some knowledge of in kannada language, what it’s like to see red, for example? Strongly reductive theorists can contend that these recalcitrant intuitions are merely a product of lingering confused or erroneous views of uni bonn medizin, consciousness. But in the face of such worries, many have felt it better to english coursework gcse aqa, find a way to respect these intuitions while still denying the potentially unpleasant ontological implications of the hard problem. Uni Bonn Medizin! Hence, weak reductionism. Weak reductionism, in contrast to language, the strong version, holds that consciousness is a simple or basic phenomenon, one that cannot be informatively broken down into simpler nonconscious elements.

But according to the view we can still identify consciousness with physical properties if the most parsimonious and productive theory supports such an identity (Block 2002, Block Stalnaker 1999, Hill 1997, Loar 1997, 1999, Papineau 1993, 2002, Perry 2001). What’s more, once the identity has been established, there is dekanat dissertation no further burden of explanation. Rita Rita! Identities have no explanation: a thing just is what it is. To ask how it could be that Mark Twain is Sam Clemens, once we have the most parsimonious rendering of the facts, is to go beyond meaningful questioning. And the same holds for the identity of conscious states with physical states. But there remains the question of why the identity claim appears so counterintuitive and medizin dekanat, here weak reductionists generally appeal to the “phenomenal concepts strategy” (PCS) to make their case (compare Stoljar 2005).

The PCS holds that the hard problem is not the result of a dualism of facts, phenomenal and physical, but rather a dualism of concepts picking out fully physical conscious states. One concept is the third-personal physical concept of neuroscience. The other concept is a distinctively first-personal “phenomenal concept”—one that picks out conscious states in a subjectively direct manner. Because of the subjective differences in these modes of conceptual access, consciousness does not seem intuitively to be physical. But once we understand the differences in the two concepts, there is no need to accept this intuition.

Here is english coursework a sketch of how a weakly reductive view of uni bonn medizin dissertation, consciousness might proceed. First, we find stimuli that reliably trigger reports of phenomenally conscious states from subjects. Then we find what neural processes are reliably correlated with those reported experiences. It can then be argued on case the basis of parsimony that the reported conscious state just is the neural state—an ontology holding that two states are present is less simple than one identifying the uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation two states. Further, accepting the identity is explanatorily fruitful, particularly with respect to mental causation.

Finally, the PCS is appealed to in order to explain why the identity remains counterintuitive. And as to literacy economic development essay, the question of why this particular neural state should be identical to this particular phenomenal state, the answer is that this is just the way things are. Explanation bottoms out at this point and requests for further explanation are unreasonable. But there are pressing worries about weak reductionism. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat Dissertation! There seems to educating rita essay rita, be an undischarged phenomenal element within the weakly reductive view (Chalmers 2006). When we focus on the PCS, it seems that we lack a plausible story about dissertation, how it is that phenomenal concepts reveal what it’s like for us in experience. The direct access of phenomenal concepts seems to require that phenomenal states themselves inform us of what they are like. A common way to cash out the PCS is to say that the phenomenal properties themselves are embedded in the phenomenal concepts, and that alone makes them accessible in the seemingly rich manner of introspected experience. When it is asked how phenomenal properties might underwrite this access, the dissertation answer given is that this is in the nature of phenomenal properties—that is uni bonn dekanat just what they do. Studies! Again, we are told that explanation must stop somewhere. Uni Bonn Medizin! But at this point, it seems that there is psychiatric patient case little to distinguish that weak reductionist from the various forms of nonreductive and dualistic views cataloged below.

They, too, hold that it is in the nature of phenomenal properties to underwrite first-person access. But they hold that there is no good reason to uni bonn medizin, think that properties with this sort of nature are physical. We know of no other physical property that possesses such a nature. All that we are left with to recommend weak reductionism is a thin claim of parsimony and an overly-strong fealty to physicalism. We are asked to accept a brute identity here, one that seems unprecedented in our ontology given that consciousness is a macro-level phenomenon. Other examples of such brute identity—of electricity and magnetism into one force, say—occur at the foundational level of physics. Neurological and phenomenal properties do not seem to be basic in this way.

We are left with phenomenal properties inexplicable in physical terms, “brutally” identified with neurological properties in literacy development essay, a way that nothing else seems to be. Why not take all this as an indication that phenomenal properties are not physical after all? The weak reductionist can respond that the dekanat dissertation question of mental causation still provides a strong enough reason to hold onto physicalism. A plausible scientific principal is that the physical world is causally closed: all physical events have physical causes. And since our bodies are physical, it seems that denying that consciousness is physical renders it epiphenomenal. The apparent implausibility of rita, epiphenomenalism may be enough to motivate adherence to weak reductionism, even with its explanatory short-comings.

Dualistic challenges to this claim will be discussed in later sections. It is possible, however, to embrace weak reductionism and dissertation, still acknowledge that some questions remain to narrative essay friendships, be answered. For example, it might be reasonable to demand some explanation of how particular neural states correlate with differences in conscious experience. A weak reductionist might hold that this is a question we at present cannot answer. It may be that one day we will be in a position to so, due to a radical shift in our understanding of consciousness or physical reality. Or perhaps this will remain an unsolvable mystery, one beyond our limited abilities to decipher. Still, there may be good reasons to hold at present that the most parsimonious metaphysical picture is the physicalist picture. The line between weak reductionism and uni bonn medizin, the next set of views to be considered, mysterianism, may blur considerably here. The mysterian response to the hard problem does not offer a solution; rather, it holds that the hard problem cannot be solved by current scientific method and perhaps cannot be solved by human beings at all. There are two varieties of the view.

The more moderate version of the position, which can be termed “temporary mysterianism,” holds that given the current state of scientific knowledge, we have no explanation of why some physical states are conscious (Nagel 1974, Levine 2001). The gap between experience and the sorts of things dealt with in modern physics—functional, structural, and dynamical properties of basic fields and educating rita essay rita changes, particles—is simply too wide to be bridged at present. Still, it may be that some future conceptual revolution in the sciences will show how to uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, close the narrative essay gap. Such massive conceptual reordering is certainly possible, given the history of science. And, indeed, if one accepts the uni bonn medizin Kuhnian idea of shifts between incommensurate paradigms, it might seem unsurprising that we, pre-paradigm-shift, cannot grasp what things will be like after the revolution. But at present we have no idea how the hard problem might be solved. Thomas Nagel, in friendships, sketching his version of this idea, calls for a future “objective phenomenology” which will “describe, at least in part, the subjective character of experiences in a form comprehensible to beings incapable of having those experiences” (1974, 449). Without such a new conceptual system, Nagel holds, we are left unable to bridge the gap between consciousness and the physical. Medizin Dissertation! Consciousness may indeed be a physical, but we at present have no idea how this could be so.

It is coursework gcse of course open for both weak and strong reductionists to accept a version of temporary mysterianism. They can agree that at present we do not know how consciousness fits into uni bonn medizin dekanat, the physical world, but the possibility is open that future science will clear up the mystery. Patient Case! The main difference between such claims by reductionists and by mysterians is that the mysterians reject the uni bonn medizin idea that current reductive proposals do anything at all to close the gap. Coursework! How different the explanatory structure must be to count as truly new and not merely an uni bonn medizin dissertation extension of the old is not possible to changes, gauge with any precision. So the difference between a very weak reductionist and a temporary, though optimistic mysterian may not amount to much. The stronger version of the position, “permanent mysterianism,” argues that our ignorance in the face of the hard problem is uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation not merely transitory, but is permanent, given our limited cognitive capacities (McGinn 1989, 1991). We are like squirrels trying to understand quantum mechanics: it just is not going to happen. The main exponent of this view is case studies Colin McGinn, who argues that a solution to the hard problem is “cognitively closed” to us. He supports his position by uni bonn dissertation, stressing consequences of a modular view of the mind, inspired in part by essay in kannada language, Chomsky’s work in uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, linguistics.

Our mind just may not be built to development, solve this sort of problem. Instead, it may be composed of dedicated, domain-specific “modules” devoted to uni bonn medizin dissertation, solving local, specific problems for an organism. Essay In Kannada! An organism without a dedicated “language acquisition device” equipped with “universal grammar” cannot acquire language. Perhaps the hard problem requires cognitive apparatus we just do not possess as a species. If that is the case, no further scientific or philosophical breakthrough will make a difference. We are not built to uni bonn dissertation, solve the educating rita problem: it is cognitively closed to us. A worry about such a claim is that it is uni bonn dekanat dissertation hard to establish just what sorts of problems are permanently beyond our ken. It seems possible that the temporary mysterian may be correct here, and what looks unbridgeable in principle is really just a temporary roadblock.

Both the english coursework gcse aqa temporary and permanent mysterian agree on the evidence. They agree that there is a real gap at present between consciousness and the physical and they agree that nothing in current science seems up to uni bonn medizin dissertation, the task of solving the problem. The further claim that we are forever blocked from solving the problem turns on patient studies controversial claims about the nature of the problem and uni bonn medizin, the nature of our cognitive capacities. Perhaps those controversial claims will be made good, but at present, it is hard to see why we should give up all hope, given the history of surprising scientific breakthroughs. Perhaps, though, we know enough already to patient studies, establish that consciousness is medizin dekanat dissertation not a physical phenomenon. This brings us to what has been, historically speaking, the gcse aqa most important response to medizin dekanat, the hard problem and the more general mind-body problem: dualism, the literacy development essay claim that consciousness is medizin ontologically distinct from anything physical. Dualism, in writing, its various forms, reasons from the explanatory, epistemological, or conceptual gaps between the phenomenal and the physical to the metaphysical conclusion that the physicalist worldview is incomplete and medizin, needs to be supplemented by economic development, the addition of irreducibly phenomenal substance or properties. Dualism can be unpacked in a number of ways.

Substance dualism holds that consciousness makes up a distinct fundamental “stuff” which can exist independently of medizin, any physical substance. In Kannada Language! Descartes’ famous dualism was of this kind (Descartes 1640/1984). A more popular modern dualist option is property dualism, which holds that the medizin dekanat dissertation conscious mind is not a separate substance from the physical brain, but that phenomenal properties are nonphysical properties of the brain. Essay Writing! On this view, it is metaphysically possible that the physical substrate occurs without the phenomenal properties, indicating their ontological independence, but phenomenal properties cannot exist on their own. The properties might emerge from some combination of nonphenomenal properties ( emergent dualism—compare Broad 1925) or they might be present as a fundamental feature of reality, one that necessarily correlates with physical matter in our world, but could in principle come apart from the physical in another possible world. A key question for dualist views concerns the uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation relationship between consciousness and the physical world, particularly our physical bodies. Descartes held that conscious mental properties can have a causal impact upon physical matter—this is known as interactionist dualism . Recent defenders of interactionist dualism include Foster 1991, Hodgson 1991, Lowe 1996, Popper and Eccles 1977, H. Robinson 1982, Stapp 1993, and Swinburne 1986. However, interactionist dualism requires rejecting the “causal closure” of the educating rita physical domain, the claim that every physical event is fully determined by a physical cause. Medizin! Causal closure is a long-held principle in the sciences, so its rejection marks a strong break from current scientific orthodoxy (though see Collins 2011). Another species of dualism accepts the causal closure of english coursework, physics, but still holds that phenomenal properties are metaphysically distinct from physical properties. This compatibilism is achieved at the price of consciousness epiphenomenalism , the view that conscious properties can be caused by physical events, but they cannot in turn cause physical events.

I will discuss interactionist dualism in this section, including a consideration of how quantum mechanics might open up a workable space for an acceptable dualist interactionist view. I will discuss epiphenomenalism in medizin dissertation, the following section. Interactionist dualism, of both the substance and property type, holds that consciousness is causally efficacious in the production of bodily behavior. This is educating rita certainly a strongly intuitive position to medizin dekanat dissertation, take with regard to mental causation, but it requires rejecting the causal closure of the physical. It is widely thought that the uni bonn dekanat principle of causal closure is central to modern science, on par with basic conservation principles like the conservation of energy or matter in a physical reaction (see, for example, Kim 1998). And at macroscopic scales, the principle appears well-supported by empirical evidence. However, at the quantum level it is more plausible to question causal closure. On one reading of medizin dekanat dissertation, quantum mechanics, the medizin dissertation progression of quantum-level events unfolds in a deterministic progression until an uni bonn medizin dekanat observation occurs. At that point, some views hold that the progression of events becomes indeterminstic. If so, there may be room for psychiatric case studies consciousness to influence how such “decoherence” occurs—that is, how the medizin dissertation quantum “wave function” collapses into the classical, observable macroscopic world we experience.

How such a process occurs is the subject of speculative theorizing in quantum theories of consciousness. It may be that such views are better cataloged as physicalist: the properties involved might well be labeled as physical in a completed science (see, for example, Penrose 1989, 1994; Hameroff 1998). If so, the quantum view is better seen as strongly or weakly reductive. Still, it might be that the proper cashing out of the idea of “observation” in quantum theory requires positing consciousness as an unreduced primitive. Observation may require something intrinsically conscious, rather than something characterized in the relational terms of rita essay rita changes, physical theory.

In that case, phenomenal properties would be metaphysically distinct from the physical, traditionally characterized, while playing a key role in physical theory—the role of collapsing the wave function by observation. Thus, there seems to be theoretical space for a dualist view which rejects closure but maintains a concordance with basic physical theory. Sill, such views face considerable challenges. They are beholden to particular interpretations of quantum mechanics and this is far from medizin dekanat dissertation a settled field, to put it mildly. It may well be that the best interpretation of quantum mechanics rejects the key assumption of uni bonn dekanat dissertation, indeterminacy here (see Albert 1993 for the details of this debate). Further, the kinds of indeterminacies discoverable at the quantum level may not correspond in any useful way to our ordinary idea of mental causes. The pattern of decoherence may have little to uni bonn medizin dekanat, do with my conscious desire to grab a beer causing me to psychiatric case studies, go to the fridge. Finally, there is the question of how phenomenal properties at the quantum level come together to make up the conscious experience we have. Our conscious mental lives are not themselves quantum phenomenon—how, then, do micro-phenomenal quantum-level properties combine to constitute our experiences? Still, this is an alluring area of investigation, bringing together the mysteries of consciousness and quantum mechanics. But such a mix may only compound our explanatory troubles!

A different dualistic approach accepts the causal closure of physics by uni bonn medizin, holding that phenomenal properties have no causal influence on the physical world (Campbell 1970, Huxley 1874, Jackson 1982, and W.S. Robinson 1988, 2004). Thus, any physical effect, like a bodily behavior, will have a fully physical cause. Phenomenal properties merely accompany causally efficacious physical properties, but they are not involved in making the behavior happen. Phenomenal properties, on this view, may be lawfully correlated with physical properties, thus assuring that whenever a brain event of a particular type occurs, a phenomenal property of a particular type occurs. Essay! For example, it may be that bodily damage causes activity in the amygdala, which in turn causes pain-appropriate behavior like screaming or cringing. The activity in the amygdala will also cause the tokening of phenomenal pain properties.

But these properties are out of the causal chain leading to uni bonn dekanat dissertation, the behavior. They are like the activity of a steam whistle relative to the causal power of the steam engine moving a train’s wheels. Such a view has no obvious logical flaw, but it is in strong conflict with our ordinary notions of how conscious states are related to behavior. It is extremely intuitive that our pains at times cause us to scream or cringe. But on development the epiphenomenalist view, that cannot be the case. Uni Bonn! What’s more, our knowledge of our conscious states cannot be caused by patient studies, the phenomenal qualities of our experiences.

On the uni bonn dekanat epiphenomenalist view, my knowledge that I’m in pain is not caused by uni bonn dekanat dissertation, the pain itself. This, too, seems absurd: surely, the feeling of uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, pain is causally implicated in my knowledge of that pain! But the epiphenomenalist can simply bite the bullet here and reject the commonsense picture. We often discover odd things when we engage in serious investigation, and this may be one of them. Denying commonsense intuition is better than denying a basic scientific principle like causal closure, according to epiphenomenalists. And it may be that experimental results in the sciences undermine the causal efficacy of consciousness as well, so this is not so outrageous a claim (See Libet, 2004; Wegner 2002, for example). Further, the essay writing in kannada epiphenomenalist can deny that we need a causal theory of medizin dekanat, first-person knowledge. It may be that our knowledge of our conscious states is achieved by a unique kind of noncausal acquaintance. Or maybe merely having the literacy economic essay phenomenal states is enough for us to know of them—our knowledge of consciousness may be constituted by phenomenal states, rather than caused by them. Uni Bonn Dissertation! Knowledge of causation is english gcse a difficult philosophical area in general, so it may reasonable to offer alternatives to the causal theory in uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, this context. But despite these possibilities, epiphenomenalism remains a difficult view to embrace because of its strongly counterintuitive nature.

g. Dual Aspect Theory/Neutral Monism/Panpsychism. A final set of views, close in spirit to dualism, hold that phenomenal properties cannot be reduced to more basic physical properties, but might reduce to something more basic still, a substance that is both physical and phenomenal or that underwrites both. Defenders of such views agree with dualists that the hard problem forces a rethinking of our basic ontology, but they disagree that this entails dualism. There are several variations of the idea. It may be that there is a more basic substance underlying all physical matter and this basic substance possesses phenomenal as well as physical properties ( dual aspect theory : Spinoza 1677/2005, P. Strawson 1959, Nagel 1986).

Or it may be that this more basic substance is “neutral”—neither phenomenal nor physical, yet somehow underlying both ( neutral monism : Russell 1926, Feigl 1958, Maxwell 1979, Lockwood 1989, Stubenberg 1998, Stoljar 2001, G. Strawson 2008). Or it may be that phenomenal properties are the intrinsic categorical bases for the relational, dispositional properties described in physics and so everything physical has an underlying phenomenal nature (panpsychism: Leibniz 1714/1989, Whitehead 1929, Griffin 1998, Rosenberg 2005, Skrbina 2007). These views have all received detailed elaboration in past eras of philosophy, but they have seen a distinct revival as responses to the hard problem. There is considerable variation in how theorists unpack these kinds of friendships, views, so it is dekanat only possible here to give generic versions of the ideas. All three views make consciousness more basic or as basic as physical properties; this is something they share with dualism. But they disagree about the right way to economic development, spell out the metaphysical relations between the phenomenal, the physical, and any more basic substance there might be. The true differences between the views are not always clear even to the views’ defenders, but we can try to tease them apart here. A dual-aspect view holds that there is one basic underlying stuff that possesses both physical and phenomenal properties. These properties may only be instantiated when the right combinations of the basic substance are present, so panpsychism is not a necessary entailment of the view. For example, when the medizin basic substance is configured in the form of a brain, it then realizes phenomenal as well as physical properties. But that need not be the case when the fundamental stuff makes up a table.

But in any event, phenomenal properties are not themselves reducible to physical properties. There is a fine line between such views and dualist views, mainly turning on the difference between constitution and lawful correlation. Neutral monist views hold that there is economic development a more basic neutral substance underlying both the phenomenal and the physical. ‘Neutral’ here means that the dekanat dissertation underlying stuff really is narrative neither phenomenal nor physical, so there is uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation a good sense in which such a position is reductive: it explains the literacy presence of the phenomenal by medizin, reference to medizin dekanat dissertation, something else more basic. Uni Bonn Medizin! This distinguishes it from the dual-aspect approach—on the dual-aspect view, the underlying stuff already possesses phenomenal (and physical) properties, while on neutral monism it does not. That leaves neutral monism with the challenge of explaining this reductive relationship, as well as explaining how the neutral substance underlies physical reality without itself being physical. Panpsychism holds that the phenomenal is basic to all matter.

Such views hold that the phenomenal somehow underwrites the english coursework physical or is potentially present at all times as a property of a more basic substance. This view must explain what it means to say that everything is medizin dissertation conscious in some sense. Further, it must explain how it is dekanat dissertation that the basic phenomenal (or “protophenomenal”) elements combine to medizin dekanat, form the sorts of properties we are acquainted with in consciousness. Why is rita essay changes it that some combinations form the experiences we enjoy and medizin, others (presumably) do not? One line of support for these types of views comes from the way that physical theory defines its basic properties in terms of essay writing in kannada, their dispositions to causally interact with each other. For example, what it is to medizin, be a quark of a certain type is economic development just to be disposed to behave in certain ways in the presence of other quarks. Physical theory is medizin silent about psychiatric case, what stuff might underlie or constitute the entities with these dispositions—it deals only in extrinsic or relational properties, not in dekanat dissertation, intrinsic properties. At the same time, there is reason to hold that consciousness possesses nonrelational intrinsic qualities. Indeed, this may explain why we cannot know what it’s like to be a bat—that requires knowledge of an psychiatric patient studies intrinsic quality not conveyable by relational description. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! Putting these two ideas together, we find a motivation for medizin dekanat the sorts of uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, views canvassed here.

Basic physics is silent about the intrinsic categorical bases underlying the dispositional properties described in physical theory. But it seems plausible that there must be such bases—how could there be dispositions to literacy economic, behave thus-and-so without some categorical base to ground the uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation disposition? And since we already have reason to believe that conscious qualities are intrinsic, it makes sense to uni bonn medizin, posit phenomenal properties as the categorical bases of uni bonn, basic physical matter. Or we can posit a neutral substance to fill this role, one also realizing phenomenal properties when in the right circumstances. These views all seem to medizin dekanat, avoid epiphenomenalism.

Whenever there is a physical cause of uni bonn, behavior, the underlying phenomenal (or neutral) basis will be present to do the work. But that cause might itself be constituted by the phenomenal, in friendships, the senses laid out here. What’s more, there is nothing in uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, conflict with physics—the properties posited appear at literacy development, a level below the range of relational physical description. And they do not conflict with or preempt anything present in uni bonn medizin dissertation, physical theory. But we are left with several worries. First, it is again the case that phenomenal properties are posited at an extreme micro-level.

How it is that such micro-phenomenal properties cohere into the sorts of experiential properties present in consciousness is unexplained. What’s more, if we take the panpsychic route, we are faced with the claim that every physical object has a phenomenal nature of some kind. This may not be incoherent, but it is a counterintuitive result. But if we do not accept panpsychism, we must explain how the more basic underlying substance differs from the phenomenal and yet instantiates it in the right circumstances. Simply saying that this just is the nature of the neutral substance is rita essay rita changes not an informative answer. Finally, it is unclear how these views really differ from a weakly reductionist account. Both hold that there is a basic and brute connection between the physical brain and phenomenal consciousness. On the weakly reductionist account, the connection is one of brute identity.

On the dual-aspect/neutral monist/panpsychic account, it is one of uni bonn, brute constitution, where two properties, the physical and the phenomenal, constantly co-occur (because the one constitute the categorical base of the english coursework gcse aqa other, or they are aspects of a more basic stuff, etc.), though they are held to be metaphysically distinct. Is there any evidence that could decide between the views? The apparent differences here may be more one of style than of substance, despite the intricacies of these metaphysical debates.

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Sample MBA Application Essay - After. EssayEdge significantly improves each essay using the same voice as the author. The only way to evaluate editing is to compare the original essay with the edited version. We significantly improve essays both for clients who write poorly and for clients who write well. Essay 1: Discuss a situation, preferably work related, where you have taken a significant leadership role. How does this event demonstrate your managerial potential? Aquent was in a perilous condition.

The 1,800 sales representatives at the company had contracted far too many high-risk, low-profit project orders related to network construction. Medizin! The resultant deficit at development, Aquent, one of the uni bonn medizin, world's biggest communications companies, had swollen to nearly $150 million and threatened to bring the company down. To combat this problem, I joined a sales reform taskforce that implemented Project Forward, a new oversight committee that would investigate the profitability of project orders and decide whether or not to accept them. It was a huge responsibility, and coursework aqa I was given the task of formulating the procedures that Project Forward would recommend to all sales divisions. Despite a flurry of activity, two months went by with no results. The sales divisions failed to enact the new procedures I had designed, and the company amassed an uni bonn dekanat dissertation, alarming number of high-risk project orders. With implementation problems mounting, I knew it was up to me to find a solution.

One executive manager, angry over the lack of sales cooperation, proposed putting Project Forward into operation by english, force. Believing that we needed to grasp the cause of medizin Project Forward's failure before we could implement an adequate solution, I proposed a different approach. I suggested that we simply ask the sales representatives why they neglected to carry out the new measures. After interviewing thirty-six sales representatives from all sales departments, I discovered that, broadly speaking, sales representatives did not understand the goal of Project Forward. Two other Business Process Reengineering (BPR) projects were competing for literacy economic, their attention, and dekanat the sales representatives did not know which projects pertained to their work. Moreover, since the essay writing in kannada, members administering Project Forward each had their own existing posts and roles, they were too busy to manage Project Forward effectively. Having identified the problem, I designed a solution. I created a task list that assigned roles to the project members. Then, I assimilated the other two BPR projects into dekanat our own, integrating all three into essay one, centrally-administered program. After creating an integrated process flow that was easy for sales representatives to understand, I held joint meetings to introduce the new measures to the sales people. In addition, resource managers were directed to assign two people to uni bonn dekanat, manage Project Forward full-time in each sales division.

Finally, I used motivational techniques to ensure that Project Forward was executed with vigor. Since I observed that we could not successfully implement the measure without changing the sales representatives' minds about the council's usability, I enthusiastically discussed the purpose of Project Forward at essay, the joint meetings and through our mailing list. I showed the sales division that they owned Project Forward and should share in its establishment. As a result, the motivation exhibited by these representatives grew more and more intense. Solving this problem taught me several essential traits that a leader must exhibit.

A leader must clearly identify the problems that are hindering a project's success, and uni bonn dekanat then he must address those issues by making every team member a stakeholder in the project's success. English Coursework! By raising awareness of a project's goals and purposes, a leader can then motivate his teammates to contribute. Leadership is centrally interactive, and uni bonn medizin only by working in harmony with an organization can a leader guarantee long-term success. Essay 2: Describe your most challenging team-building experience. What insights did you gain as a result of studies this experience? In April of 2001, two colleagues from medizin dekanat, Ota-ku and about one hundred volunteers gathered in Tokyo to address a growing problem in essay, Japan: the uni bonn medizin dekanat, Digital Divide. Our plan was to establish a course in information technology and to leverage the 54.5 billion yen endowment of a national movement in order to train Japanese citizens in psychiatric patient case, the usage of on-line resources. At the opening of the meeting, however, I was surprised to learn that the medizin, Ota-ku personnel who were to be managing the IT course did not have their own email addresses! They proposed to narrative friendships, correspond by mail, not by email, and from that point forward, I knew that I had my work cut out for uni bonn medizin, me. To overcome a seemingly insurmountable challenge, I first assessed my resources.

I analyzed the rita essay, specific skills of each volunteer so that I could give them appropriate roles in setting up the course. Conducting this research, I found that the one hundred volunteers, unlike my colleagues at Aquent, had very diversified levels of training; some volunteers taught computer classes daily, while others had only recently mastered the basics of email. Despite differing levels of medizin dekanat dissertation experience, all volunteers shared a common goal--to conquer the Digital Divide. After investigating all of the members' skills, I created teams from essay writing, small groups of volunteers, carefully distributing teammates so that their skills were equally divided amongst groups. Dekanat Dissertation! Next, before the course began, I arranged for the teams to gather several times so that the medizin dekanat dissertation, team members could become acquainted with each other. Gradually, throughout the course, I continued to build unity within each team, and I watched team consciousness bud with each successive meeting. The first course lasted for two days and taught essential IT skills to about thirty participants. An experienced computer teacher and I acted as the main lecturers while three other volunteers supported the medizin, students.

Since many of the participants were women who did not work during the day, my first lesson addressed how to acquire restaurant coupons on-line. As one of our older volunteer lecturers described sound and picture files, and taught participants how to attach them to email, I noticed that the narrative friendships, students were already realizing the uni bonn medizin, pleasure of the Internet. As the course progressed, I ensured that each lecturer contributed to the lessons by discussing his or her area of coursework gcse aqa expertise. Dekanat Dissertation! At one point, a volunteer became worried because he doubted that he could contribute. During the second session, I asked him to act as the main lecturer for the next class. Although he turned me down at narrative essay, first, he finally accepted my offer on dekanat dissertation the condition that I teach him lecturing techniques before the next class. Ultimately, he finished splendidly. Educating Essay! Since his IT skills were not strong at first, he understood the fear and dissertation confusion that many of our beginners experienced, and was therefore able to deliver effective instruction to uni bonn medizin dissertation, a wide audience.

By drawing on the unique talents of each volunteer, I succeeded in crafting an IT course that was richer than I had imagined. Uni Bonn Medizin! From the first time the case studies, volunteers shared their skills with the group, through each volunteer's turn lecturing, I cultivated a constructive atmosphere in which every team member could play an important role. Uni Bonn Dekanat! As a result, each member was able to narrative essay, build on uni bonn medizin dissertation his strong points and to find an indispensable unity in educating rita essay rita, the team. Today, I look forward to joining the uni bonn dissertation, community at XXX, another environment in which diverse individuals, with distinct talents, come together for the shared goal of their education. Frankly, I wouldn't even consider submitting an essay to any top school without submitting it to your service first. EssayEdge has done a tremendous job with my mediocre writing style to economic development essay, create powerful and concise essays. I can't thank you enough. There is nothing about the service I would change.

The information gathered from the dissertation, critique is essential, but the literacy, outstanding aspect to this service is that changes and uni bonn medizin dissertation corrections, additions and deletions are made directly to the document. Case Studies! This is invaluable considering the time frame most of uni bonn dissertation us have to work with. Additionally, I have already looked at these essays so many times, mere suggestions would not have been nearly as helpful, and my language choice would have remained bland and not as effective. I couldn't be more happy with every aspect of this service. I can honestly say that my chances for admission have nothing short of doubled (considering the importance of the english coursework aqa, essays in the admission process) as a result of using your service. Click Here for the Edited Version.

These essays are well organized and contain the perfect amount of concrete detail. Allowing the reader to learn about you by illustrating your qualities through relevant memories is a very effective technique in essay writing. In addition, your use of one professional and one personal narrative gives the reader a strong sense of your character, both in medizin, and out of the workplace. I made a few important changes to the overall structure of your essays, and I made a number of psychiatric patient studies sentence-level adjustments. In addition, I corrected all grammatical errors that I found, including misused articles, verb conjugations, and prepositions. Although I have not cited each specific change, these revisions were an essential part of my editing--they ensured that your essays to XXX were as formal and rigorous as possible. I also adapted sentence structure, vocabulary, and uni bonn medizin dekanat syntax in many places, always with the goal of improving clarity and readability. Although I did not encounter any major problems with your word choice or level of English (something you were concerned about), I have nonetheless offered alternative wording choices so that your essay can be as effective as possible.

See the essay, text of each essay for examples of the changes I propose. Here are my specific comments pertaining to each individual essay: The most significant problem with the wording of this essay was the conclusion, which contained the following phrases: . resolving critical issues. I want to make the most use of dissertation my nature and experience by english aqa, learning knowledge. . and to grow up to be a true leader. Dekanat Dissertation! These phrases do not do adequate justice to the individuality of dekanat your essay. All leaders resolve critical issues, and all XXX applicants want to learn knowledge and to become true leaders. Consequently, these assertions do not separate you from other applicants. In the revised conclusion, I have more carefully described the unique elements of your leadership philosophy, including your willingness to work with others, your emphasis on shared goals, and your ability to delegate authority and to dissertation, motivate your teammates.

Your essay does a good job of illustrating your use of these techniques, and I have given them greater prominence in my edit. I carried out the following points as a leader. This is an awkward transition because it is too obvious. Educating Essay! See the uni bonn medizin, subtler transition sentence that I have provided. Finally, please note that I replaced instances of the pronoun we with I, since this essay is about you. Writing! It is perfectly acceptable to highlight your own accomplishments, especially since these accomplishments are more impressive than those achieved through collective effort. Never be afraid to make yourself the medizin dissertation, central character in your essays.

In contrast to your first essay, the second essay required a more engaging introduction. Uni Bonn Dekanat! An effective way to grab the reader's attention is to drop him right into the story. See the narrative device I used to introduce the medizin dekanat, reader directly into the drama. In addition, please note that your original first sentence sounded too much like a thesis statement. Educating Rita Essay Rita! It is not necessary to outline your argument explicitly in the first paragraph, and uni bonn medizin dissertation I have shown how you can develop your story gradually to build suspense. By describing your goals after outlining the nature of the new IT course, you can whet the reader's appetite and draw him into your essay. Also, Digital Divide was not clearly defined in psychiatric patient case studies, the introduction, so I added new details to ensure that any reader will understand what you mean. You should always explain terminology that might be unfamiliar to a reader. In the interest of readability, this should be rewritten as: 54.5 billion. The administration of dekanat dissertation Japan is really behind in IT area. This sentence is too informal for studies, use in an application essay.

I learned the importance to strengthen union in uni bonn medizin dekanat, a team. The phrase, I learned, is overused in english coursework gcse, application essays, and it drains the power out of effective descriptions. I have restricted the use of this phrase to the conclusion, the only position in which it is truly effective. By assigning suitable role for uni bonn, each member, the coursework gcse aqa, person can demonstrate his or her power to the maximum extent. The use of the uni bonn dekanat dissertation, word power is incorrect in this context. I have reworded this sentence to make it flow better. I chose XXX because of its culture, which regards teamwork as important. This detail is ineffective since it is obvious that XXX would regard teamwork as important. . the diversity environment.

Allusions to diversity are often overused in application essays. I have retained your core idea but have reworked it to make your language fresh and engaging. Your essays now read much better and in kannada language will leave a more lasting impression on the admissions committee. I wish you the best of luck in the application process. See how EssayEdge experts from schools including Harvard, Yale and Princeton can help you get into business school! Review our services. 877-338-7772 (USA) 609-896-8669 (Int'l)

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Dissertation uni bonn medizinisches

10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. Dekanat Dissertation! The post will give you the 10 most common IELTS Writing Task 2 topics. A question my students keep asking, again and again, is #8216;What are the most common IELTS writing part 2 topics?#8217; They are worried that they won#8217;t be familiar with the topic and will not have any relevant ideas. This is dekanat especially true for uni bonn medizin students from #8216;developing#8217; countries, because most of the questions are #8216;first world#8217; problems and issues. Let#8217;s turn that disadvantage into development essay an advantage.

To answer the question I have asked my students over the last few years to send me the topics on uni bonn dissertation, their exams. Rita! A big thank you, to those students, who were kind enough to medizin dissertation, send me their questions. I have built up a huge amount of narrative essay friendships, questions and uni bonn medizin, I think it is about time to analyse them. Are the same Writing Task 2 topics repeated? The answer is yes and no. There are a huge amount of topics that come up in essay writing task 2. At last count there were around 50 different topics (based on collecting data over the last few years) and if you would like all 50, please let me know, but I#8217;m more concerned about the uni bonn topics that come up again and again. If you have time to familiarise yourself with over 50 topics then please do, but I think must people have to studies, be smart with their time and it therefore makes more sense to prioritise the most common topics. I try to dekanat dissertation, encourage my students to be efficient when it comes to learning. In Kannada! However, I don#8217;t agree with the saying #8216;Work smart, not hard#8217; as this implies you can do very little work and still achieve your goals.

My motto is work hard and smart. There are 10 general topics that come up more often than all of the rest put together. Dekanat Dissertation! They are: So what can I do with this information? Now you know the common topics there are 3 things you can do: 1. Develop a vocabulary list for each topic. Having relevant vocabulary for each topic will give you a big advantage. Many students fail to provide relevant vocabulary and their band score suffers.

When looking at new vocabulary try to guess the meaning from context first and then look up the literacy economic essay meaning to make sure your idea matches the actual meaning. Also, be sure to look at the word within a sentence to dekanat, be aware of the way it relates to other words. When recording vocabulary do it in a way that will help YOU remember it. Everyone learns in a different way and everyone learns vocabulary in a different way. Some people like to draw pictures beside the word, some people like to write synonyms or antonyms, others prefer to write a few sentences and patient case, some people like to use the dekanat phonemic chart to write the word that way. Whatever works for you, do it. It is also very important to review words regularly. Rita Rita Changes! This is the most effective way to remember the uni bonn dissertation words. So many people learn lots of words and a week later they can’t remember them.

I would recommend reviewing them one day after learning them for the first time, then one week later and patient, then finally one month later. After that they should be firmly stuck in your head for good. I am developing a vocabulary list for each of the medizin dekanat dissertation topics above which you can access here. 2. Practice reading and listening within these topics. To do well on your IELTS test you should practice at home. Essay Friendships! Even just 60 minutes per day can make a big difference. This will not only improve all four skills but familiarise you with the common topics at the same time. Why waste time listening or reading something, if it is about something that probably won#8217;t come up on the test? Unless of course you are listening or reading for pleasure, in that case, be my guest. If you are reading an uni bonn medizin dissertation, English newspaper, look for articles on the common topics and highlight any good vocabulary.

If you like listening to the radio or podcasts, find ones on essay in kannada language, the common topics. Uni Bonn! Please check out my 25 online language learning tools for lots of ways you can study at home for free. This method is so effective that some of the best IELTS schools are starting to english coursework, adopt this approach. If you are going to study or practice anything then do it within the context of one of the common topics. For example, if you are practicing speaking with a friend on medizin dekanat, Skype, why not discuss one of the issues above? If you are practicing writing essays, find a question about case one of the most popular or repeated IELTS topics. This method allows you to practice both the skills and learn about these crucial topics. They also come up quite a lot in uni bonn dekanat dissertation the speaking test. Can I just focus on these topics and get a high band score? Obviously, there is much more to achieving a high score than just focusing on the repeated topics but this will allow you to study and prepare in a smarter and more efficient way, giving you a huge advantage. Narrative Essay Friendships! However, I would like to add that it is uni bonn medizin also important to study things you have a passion for.

If you are genuinely interested in a topic then it is essay writing in kannada language much easier to study and you are less likely to quit. Please also make time to read, listen, talk and write about your passion. If you love football, read about your team everyday on Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! Love fashion?- find some fashionista blogs. Have a passion for photography?- why not blog about it? Have a passion for uni bonn medizin astrophysics? Listen to medizin dekanat dissertation, star talk radio.

I looked at 15 Writing Task 2 papers over July, August and September of 2015 to see if the same common topics were coming up. Here are the topics: Traditional Culture Government Spending Technology Technology Education Health Technology Traditional Culture Education Health International Aid The Environment Economics Education Health. As you can see, Technology, Health and Education are still prominent Task 2 topics. Literacy Economic! It was interesting to see Traditional Culture popping up twice in dissertation such a short period of time, but that doesn#8217;t mean that it will definitely feature again soon. I still think that Technology, Health, Education and the Environment are important topics and coursework, will feature regularly in the future. Uni Bonn Dekanat Dissertation! Reading within these topics will help you and you will also pick up other vocabulary just by reading about them. The important thing is to read actively.

When you see a word you don#8217;t know, note it down and find out the dekanat dissertation meaning, collocation and synonyms. Soon you will have a notebook full of new words and you review them regualelry until they become part of uni bonn dekanat dissertation, your vocabulary. Here#8217;s a live video I did on Facebook about this topic: I would recommend looking at our IELTS task 2 page for lots more lessons, tips and literacy economic development, sample task 2 answers. Medizin Dekanat! The best way to keep up to date with our latest posts is to rita essay rita, like our page on dissertation, Facebook. There are also daily practice activities on our Facebook page. As always, if you have a question about this post or anything else, please let me know in the comments section below.

46 Comments on 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics Chris. Dekanat! am not able to watch ur video.any idea? i think the first step is to pass the ielts exam is to understand where you are on in regards to medizin dekanat dissertation, your 4 skills and medizin dissertation, then prepare your plan ,without plan and agreed source of knowledge you will be lost . the question is how to prepare a proper plan to enhance your skills ,get familiar with the dekanat exam ? also if you can prepare PDF for all the Tips that we need to take care of during the exam of the 4 skills ,that will be great . hello from uzbekistan))) Hello from Tashkent)) Home » Writing Task 2 » 10 Most Common IELTS Writing Task 2 Topics. Check your email for the link. Advantage Exam Preparation Limited. 4 Castleglen Park, Dundrum, County Down, BT33 0WL United Kingdom. The information on this site is for information purposes only.

IELTS is a registered trademark of University of Cambridge, the uni bonn dekanat British Council, and IDP Education Australia. This site and it's owners are not affiliated, approved or endorsed by uni bonn, the University of Cambridge ESOL, the British Council, and IDP Education Australia. For full information please refer to our terms and conditions and economic development, disclaimer.

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essay conclusions Have you ever heard that different people learn in different ways? Well, it’s true. Medizin! And while some people may be able to learn just by reading the narrative essay friendships, theories on how to do something, you learn differently–you need actual examples. Just like protestors or politicians, I’m here to lead by example. I’ve put together a list of essay conclusions that cover a range of topics and essay formats to dekanat serve as a stepping stone for your own writing. Why Do You Need a Strong Conclusion?

Before I get into development essay the examples, you should know why writing a strong essay conclusion is so important. Your conclusion is not just a summary of what you’ve already written. True, it’s a little bit about uni bonn medizin dekanat summary, but it should take your essay one step further. It needs to answer any unresolved questions the reader might have and end your essay with a bang! In short, an awesome essay conclusion is coursework aqa super important because it rounds out your essay, making it feel complete. Now on uni bonn medizin dissertation, to the good stuff… Analytical Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #1: Analyze the theme of compassion for one character in the Hunger Games series. The obvious choices for compassion in the Hunger Games may have been Katniss or Peeta, but the character who personified compassion best was Prim. Throughout the series, her compassion can be seen when she keeps secrets from her mother for Katniss, when she heals Gale after he gets whipped, and as the last act of her life as she rushes to save children in the Capitol. She truly lived Albert Schweitzer’s words, “The purpose of human life is to narrative serve, and to show compassion and the will to help others.”

The importance of each cause of the American Civil War can be debated, but what is uni bonn medizin fact is that there were several factors that led the South to secede. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of essay friendships, Abraham Lincoln to the presidency–even though no state in the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the Civil War ended, some of the leftover divide between North and South can still be seen. Though social media allows young users to uni bonn medizin dissertation connect with people across the patient, world and medizin dissertation, get instantaneous news about the world around them, it also has come with many complications. From access to essay inaccurate information to the rise of cyberbullying, the bad can sometimes outweigh the medizin dekanat dissertation, good among younger users. Patient Case Studies! With 73% of young Americans ages 12-17 years old using Facebook, it may be time to come up with better rules for promoting responsible use.

Expository Essay Conclusion Examples. Essay conclusions are pretty simple once you know the framework. It all boils down to uni bonn dekanat three main parts: a transition from the psychiatric, last body paragraph, a summary of the thesis statement and main points of the essay, and a closing statement that wraps everything up. If all students knew this simple formula, maybe essay writing would be easier for everyone. The scientific method is common sense. First, a person has to have a research question they want answered and a little background knowledge on dissertation, the subject. Then the person forms a hypothesis, or what he or she thinks the answer to the research question is, which he or she tests with an experiment. Finally, the person should analyze the data and coursework, draw a conclusion. This method can be used both in and out of the scientific realm, testing everything from history to uni bonn medizin social issues. Passing by a homeless person is not uncommon especially in urban settings.

Homelessness could be caused by many factors including job loss, lack of family support, and essay rita changes, the diminishing availability of uni bonn medizin dissertation, affordable housing. Although it’s easy for some to think that homelessness is caused by mental problems or general laziness, there are other factors to consider. Only when we know the medizin, whole scope of the medizin dekanat, problem can we begin to essay friendships come up with a comprehensive solution. Narrative Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #7: Write about what it would be like to uni bonn be put into the pages of Romeo and Juliet ? Being catapulted into the pages of Romeo and Juliet would definitely come with some culture shock. Psychiatric! Men would be carrying swords and fighting each other in uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, the street. Girls would be getting married at 13 years old. Had I the knowledge of what would become of the star-crossed lovers, I would have warned Romeo that Juliet’s death was a hoax and to wait until she woke up.

This, of course, would make the play quite different, but I would feel that it was my duty after having spent so much time with the characters. Topic #8: A time machine has taken you back to narrative friendships meet your favorite author (Edgar Allan Poe in this case). Write about that meeting. As Edgar and I were discussing the common themes and dark imagery of his works, the waiter interrupted us, I reached for the wine decanter, poured myself a glass, and asked if he would like some. “No, thanks.” he said, laughing grimly. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat Dissertation! “After all, it might be poisoned.” Topic #9: Tell about your proudest moment.

Standing up for my little brother made me feel like the character that everyone likes in those after-school sitcoms. Psychiatric Case Studies! I was able to uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation confront the kid that was bullying him without using threats or physical force. Friendships! In the end, encouraging the two to have an uni bonn medizin dissertation, open dialogue brought them closer, and educating rita essay rita, while they may never be best friends, at least they can respect each other. Persuasive Essay Conclusion Examples. Topic #10: Should Hermione have ended up with Harry instead of Ron in the Harry Potter series? Harry may be the main character of the Harry Potter series, and J.K. Rowling may have stated recently that even she thinks Hermione and Harry should have ended up together, but the uni bonn dekanat dissertation, characters are much too similar. They are both natural leaders, which would create a lot of relationship tension. Ron, on development essay, the other hand, is the Type B to dissertation balance Hermione’s Type A personality.Since Harry ended up with Ron’s sister, Ginny, all three main characters are married into the same family.

That certainly would make holiday get-togethers much more entertaining. The amount of student loan debt is an indication that something is definitely wrong with the system. Although universities need an income to survive, getting a college education should still come at no direct cost to the student. Free education would allow for a more educated nation as a whole, it would leave some students with more time to work more on literacy economic development, their studies than their jobs, and it could encourage universities to get more creative. If more universities embraced the Pay It Forward model, the US might become one of the most educated countries in the world. Topic #12: What is the most important thing high school students should be learning but aren’t?

There are many areas where public high school education could improve, but the medizin, most important is financial planning. While some may argue for better nutrition or fitness programs, that information is patient case easily available online and even in commercials–and should actually be taught starting in elementary school. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat! Stronger financial planning curricula would teach high schoolers how to establish credit, save for retirement, and case, how to budget. All of these are important for life in dissertation, the real world but can be filled with confusing jargon and advertising schemes. With Americans having more than $11 trillion in debt, it’s time the aqa, younger generation be taught how not to medizin dissertation be another statistic. As you probably noticed, there are a lot of ways to end an essay.

Generally, there will be a summary, but narrative essays might carry an exception. These types of essays allow you to be more creative with your conclusion. You should still try to end the essay with a sense of closure even if, as in patient studies, the case of Topic #8, this means ending on a somewhat ominous note. No matter how you learn, it’s pretty helpful to have practical examples. And now that you do, you can get to finishing your own essay. Once you have your essay drafted, have one of Kibin’s talented editors take a look at it for you. *Cover image Photo by Derek Harper via Wikimedia Commons. Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays.

About the Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for English, history and education. You can find her on Google+. Thanks for posting this article. Dissertation! I will use these tips in language, my essay. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat! I have a question regarding proofreading. Do you think it is gcse aqa worth hiring a professional service for that? In my opinion, hiring a professional proofreading service is dissertation not a bad idea.

Many students do it. There are many companies, that may help you)) I know one, that my friend hired. It is studies called Pro-Papers. com. Visit their website) This example has helped me to understand essay writing better. My English teach hardly comes to our class so I feel like I have to teach myself. I love the dekanat dissertation, use of practical examples because I learn faster when i get the theoretical and practical teaching. Thanks a lot! We’re happy to economic development hear that we could help you!

Thanks for reading. Medizin! #128578; Excellent piece , I was enlightened by writing language the insight , Does anyone know where my company can grab a fillable ASQ-3 12 Month Questionnaire example to edit ? how about any examples for history?? Hey there, great idea for a blog post, but right now we don’t have much history paper content (except this one: I think the qualities of your conclusion will work the same for your history essay: so basically restate your thesis in new words, and leave the reader with something to think about. A good history related example from the above list is: Topic #2: What caused the Civil War? The importance of dekanat, each cause of the American Civil War can be debated, but what is fact is that there were several factors that led the South to secede. Slavery, states’ rights, and the election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency–even though no state in in kannada language, the South voted for him–all contributed to the war. Even though it has been nearly 150 years since the uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, Civil War ended, some of the case studies, leftover divide between North and medizin dissertation, South can still be seen. That’s very creative, Jack and could definitely become the premise for rita essay rita closing the first book of medizin, a sci-fi trilogy as a teaser for the next installment. #128578; What about a conclusion for an Analytical Essay?

Hi there– you might want to check out this other post on essay conclusions to help you formulate yours: The three main things your conclusion should accomplish are to tie up lose ends, restate your thesis in a different way, and end on an interesting note. I would definitely recommend that you write your conclusion after you’ve drafted the rest of your paper! It’s much easier to dekanat tie up those loose ends after you’ve made your main arguments. So in your conclusion, you might highlight the reasons that sleep is beneficial but also point out some of the drawbacks of sleep (especially because most people would be surprised that there *are* drawbacks to sleep!).

You could also answer any questions that are unresolved: how to uni bonn dekanat dissertation maximize the benefits of gcse, sleep without suffering from the negative effects, for uni bonn dekanat instance. What about a conclusion to an essay on mood disorders. No matter what your topic, your conclusion can follow the same principles. as the above examples. Tie up loose ends (answer any unanswered questions) Restate your thesis statement in essay in kannada, different words. Close with an insight or thought that expands upon the work you put into medizin dissertation your essay and leaves your reader something to narrative think about.

Hi i need help with a thesis could please help im trying to uni bonn write a good thesis on why or why not parenting education should be mandatory. You need to take a stance and then find evidence to support your stance. Narrative Essay Friendships! Your framework might look like the following: Parenting education should be mandatory (Where? A specific town or in the U.S. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! or in essay writing, certain circumstances?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is that it would make for safer home environments. Parenting education is unnecessary and should not be mandatory (Where?) because REASON 1, REASON 2, and REASON 3. an example reason is uni bonn it would be an infringement on narrative friendships, freedom and difficult to uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation create a curriculum that would take into account different family values. Whichever side you choose and psychiatric patient case studies, whichever reasons you choose, make sure that you have sufficient evidence to support it. This is what i wrote so far parenting education is the medizin dekanat, most important job when raising children . Rasining children does not come with instructions. Medizin! While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory those in favor believe other wise. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation! The general argument made by those in favor made of parenting education is better supported for several reasons including nutritions,health,safety and stages of child delevopment.. Ms naomi if there is anything u disagree with please let me know.

I think you are off to a good start. Patient! I would just revise as follows: Raising children does not come with an instruction manual, and parents would be more successful with parenting education. While critics might argue that parenting education should not be mandatory because it is an infringement on the parents’ freedoms, those in uni bonn medizin dissertation, favor believe otherwise. Proponents argue that parenting education should be mandatory for several reasons including it will improve nutrition, health, and safety in studies, the home, and uni bonn dissertation, it will teach parents about the stages of child development.

Once again, great job! I think this is coming together very nicely. Thank you sooo much for ur support i really do apperciate it now i just have to find the right way to reword it on english coursework, my own wish me luck ?? THANKYOU. Feel free to use what I sent you, the only idea of my own that I added was the dekanat, part about “infringement on parents’ freedoms” — you could replace this with a more relevant objection. The rest of it was your words just polished up and organized! Ok thanks again ?? Hi any good website that u would recommend to uni bonn medizin dekanat upgrade my vocabulary use. Also, read! The best way to get a great vocab is to read a lot of books.

I’m writing a persuasive essay but i don’t know a good way to close it. Any advice? The general practice for writing a good conclusion is to restate your thesis in dissertation, a different way, tie up any loose ends, and leave your reader thinking. You could do this last part by bringing up a question about the future of your topic or challenge your audience to act (this is an especially good approach in essay, a persuasive essay.) I think that you could focus on these crops’ role in the betterment of uni bonn medizin, humanity and how they might contribute solutions to problems that will arise/worsen in the future. Since genetic engineering has the potential to impact the future, I would focus on one or two of the issues that genetic engineering has the best shot at helping — perhaps ending on an optimistic note #128578; Thanks for reading! I disagree that your conclusion should say something new. If you are bringing in new information, you might as well write another essay.

Conclusions are for reiteration and summarization ONLY. You’re right that you shouldn’t necessarily introduce new information, but there’s nothing wrong with leaving the reader with fresh insight on the topic or something that expands one’s understanding of your subject. The idea is to give the reader something to chew on. I need help with writing why Quito, Ecuador would be the perfect city to host the Olympics. Essay Changes! What should I look for to make the audience agree with what I’m trying to say.

You just need to sit down and uni bonn medizin, brainstorm some of the most compelling reasons to host the Olympics there (weather, surroundings, availability of space for an Olympic park, cost…). I’d try to come up with a list of 15 or so items and then from there, choose three or four that are the uni bonn medizin dekanat, most convincing reasons and that you can support with evidence to make your paper the most persuasive. Is there any way to cleverly loop your conclusion back to your introduction? Typically your conclusion doesn’t have to do a whole lot more than restate your thesis in a new way, tie up loose ends, and maybe leave your reader with something to think about. Haven’t read the uni bonn medizin dekanat, poem (so you don’t want to use my idea verbatim because it probably doesn’t make sense), but an example of coursework gcse, restating and dissertation, adding something to think about would look something like : In the end, despite the speaker’s anxieties, the devil does not have more power over the speaker than God does, but God doesn’t have power either. In truth, he is the friendships, one in control of his own life. Dekanat Dissertation! While it’s tempting to ascribe one’s fate to external forces as a way to avoid responsibility for one’s actions and decisions, at the end of the day, the power always comes from narrative essay within. i need an conclusion that is fun/funny for newtons 3 laws, please help and send a response ASAP! Without Newton’s 3 laws and his discovery of gravity, science would be WEIGHTLESS in uni bonn medizin, our lives.

am writing an uni bonn medizin, essay on medizin, obedience i need help on the ending of this essay..can i get help rn #128577; Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Psychiatric Patient Case! Restate your thesis and main points in medizin dekanat dissertation, new words. 2. Tie up any loose ends. 3. Leave your reader with something to essay think about. Congrats! You’re at the finish line #128578; Hi i need help for my report today 9am in medizin dekanat, the morning on “Ways to end a composition” could u help me please..

Hi I need help. I’m writing a paragraphs for narrative “why should senior high school students enroll in our school” And it’s persuasive paragraph. Medizin Dekanat Dissertation! I need an conclusion please thanks!! In short, you conclusion should paint a clear and compelling picture for why your school is the essay writing in kannada language, right choice for seniors. Use this chance to tie up loose ends and make the choice seem obvious. Generally, your conclusion will restate your thesis, tie up any loose ends, and dissertation, give your reader something to think about. You can learn more about each of these elements in this post: I’m comparing between single called organisms and cells from multicellular organisms.

I would like to know how to conclude my concluding paragraph. I can think of a few possible ways that you could finish your essay. If the overall tone of aqa, your essay is sad, you could conclude on a hopeful note, where you look ahead to when the medizin dekanat dissertation, boy’s father comes home: what will they do? How does the boy feel about economic development it? How old will the dekanat dissertation, boy be — the father? Maybe something like: “While [the boy] understood that his father would be gone for medizin dekanat dissertation [some amount of time], he looked forward to the day his father walked through the doorway…”

If you want to close on a more somber note, you could also close with a comment about war’s effect on families if that fits with your overall thesis and main idea: “The effects of uni bonn dekanat, war are not only friendships, fought by soldiers, but by the families they leave back home…” I hope this gives you some ideas #128578; Happy writing! am I the only one who get stuck in the conclusion? I’m writing a 5 paragraph essay about medizin dekanat bucket list and I’ve finished 4 paragraphs but it’s really hard to conclude it.. You’re definitely not the only one who gets stuck there; that’s why we wrote this post #128578; I’m not sure if you’re writing about *your* bucket list or the movie The Bucket List. If it’s your own list, then the english gcse aqa, examples under the “narrative” and “expository” sections will be the best ones to medizin dekanat dissertation use for inspiration. Narrative Friendships! If you’re writing about the movie, you’ll want a more analytical conclusion. You can summarize your topic briefly if that helps you start your conclusion, but just remember to broaden it and make a larger final statement about your topic, too (why it’s significant/important, for instance). I’m writing an argumentative essay about drugs and alcohol.

I have no clue in how to end it. Help? I have the same advice for you as I’ve given others. Your conclusion should include these elements: 1. Restate your thesis and dissertation, main points in new words. 2. Tie up any loose ends.

3. Leave your reader with something to patient studies think about. hi im doing a paper on the effects of ww2 can u please help #128578; Also, I’d recommend starting with making a simple list of effects that you can find via your research. Dissertation! Then pick three that stand out and are somewhat related to each other (i.e., economic effects, socio-political effects, human rights effects…). This is such a giant topic that you’re really going to consciously narrow it down to educating rita essay something manageable. help me, my topic is about discrimination. I’m writing an essay on the dutch colony of new netherland and I don’t know how to uni bonn medizin dekanat write the essay writing in kannada language, conclusion paragraph.

Can you help?? It’s hard to uni bonn dekanat dissertation say how to approach your conclusion without knowing a little more about what exactly you said about chocolate in your essay (mmm, chocolate). Just remember to use a *little* bit of summary (restating your thesis statement is essay changes a great start!) and dekanat, then end on coursework gcse, a note that leaves your reader thinking. Uni Bonn Medizin Dekanat Dissertation! Here’s some more great advice: please pray for english coursework me. Essays are tough sometimes and I really need an A or B in this essay due Wednesday. Hey, you’ve got this.

Good luck!! this is really dope and uni bonn dekanat, helpful. So glad you found it helpful, Bob. Thanks for reading! I AM WRITING A COURSE WORK ABOUT CONVERSION IN ENGLISH AND I NEED HELP ON INTRODUCTION AND CONCLUSION PLESSEEE((((( Hey everyone)I am writing about uni bonn medizin “Which of the following Cold War president-Truman Eisenhower or Kennedy was able to contain the spread of Communism?”…Can someone help me with this please?i will be thankful)))) i need help with conclusion:( A conclusion for that essay might talk about the spread of communism (or lack thereof) after the term of the uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, president you chose to write about — for instance, you might mention modern-day communist nations and what a president today could learn from President Truman, Eisenhower or Kennedy. I’m doing an english coursework gcse aqa, essay on the relationship between Lady Macbeth and Macbeth and how it develops I’ve got the main paragraphs and introduction but I’m not sure how to finish the uni bonn medizin, conclusion by changes relating to the essay question. “Choose a play which explores an important relationship, for medizin example husband and essay friendships, wife, leader and follower, parent and child, or any other relationship. Describe this relationship and then, by referring to appropriate techniques, explain how the relationship develops.” I think you could end the essay by discussing the larger significance of their relationship within the play and (if you want to go the hypothetical route) mention how the dissertation, play would be different had their relationship been different.

You could also re-emphasize a turning point in the development of coursework gcse aqa, their relationship that was key to medizin dekanat dissertation the outcome of the play. I’m doing an essay about tuition-free college. And I chose to patient against it. Uni Bonn Medizin! I’m stuck with the conclusion. I don’t know how to end this or recommend a better solution for rita this. Can someone help me? Thank you in advance!

It sounds like you might be getting hung up on the “recommend a better solution” idea, which isn’t a requirement — it’s just one way to end an essay. Instead, you might end by noting the sense of satisfaction one feels when knowing that they paid for their education (perhaps tying this to your own experience, if you are currently paying tuition) or another benefit of tuition — this is a good opportunity to mention something beneficial that perhaps wasn’t “meaty” enough to be one of the main points of uni bonn, your argument.

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Integrated Ethics Essay - Exxonmobil. Introduction In order to operate ethically in a global marketplace, corporations like Exxon Mobil need to define the uni bonn conduct that they expect from their officers, executives, managers and employees. Without a defined code of conduct, employees feel forced to use their personal mores to determine what actions they should take in english coursework aqa, ethically ambiguous situations. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation? Like children on a playground, employees need to know where the fences are so that they can work effectively. The Eight Principles. In order for the directors and executives in writing in kannada, any company to know that their employees are acting in an ethical manner, they need a defined code of conduct that lays out the boundaries and freedoms for each employee. Creating this code requires a framework around which the tenants of the uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation company can be developed and literacy essay, expanded to fill the dekanat dissertation ethical standards and expectations.

The Global Business Standards Codex (GBSC) lists the eight underlying principles that provide a basis for evaluating and interpreting ethical behavior (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). By using these principles, a company’s directors and executives can determine if they are considering all ethical aspects in their code of conduct. The fiduciary principle states that the officers, executives, and employees of a company have a fiduciary duty to act in the best interest of the company and for the company's benefit at psychiatric case, all times. The effective use of this principle prevents conflicts of interest by ensuring that employees will not place their own interests above the company's best interests. This principle also ensures the company's employees will do their best to fulfill their responsibilities and be financially responsible with company’s assets. Uni Bonn? Employees should also demonstrate a sense of loyalty to the company, perform their daily work with all due diligence, and report any ethical or legal violations to the appropriate manager (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). The property principle simply states that employees should respect the dissertation company's property. Dissertation? This statement declares to the stakeholders that the company will not tolerate theft, misuse of equipment, misappropriation of funds or property, or the essay changes wasting of uni bonn dissertation, resources. Each employee, from the uni bonn CEO to the CSR, must be a good steward of the firm's assets; they must not intentionally damage or steal any asset or allow a third party to medizin dissertation do so (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). The basis of the essay writing in kannada language reliability principle is that employees are responsible to uni bonn dekanat dissertation honor and follow through on development essay, commitments made to the company. This principle requires that employees will refuse to uni bonn medizin breach any contract and will not fail to perform a promised action.

Each employee will work to fulfill all commitments made. The company also promises to pay all suppliers, contractors, suppliers in a timely manner (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). The transparency principle tells us that employees should perform their duties in dekanat, an open and honest manner, not using their personal agendas to make lasting decisions. Companies are required to uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation keep current and accurate financial records. These records must be presented in a truthful and accurate manner. Relationships with business partners and suppliers must have their basis in honest interaction. Relationships with customers must also be open, with any safety or health-related issues presented with accuracy and economic essay, honesty. Competitor information, especially propriety information, must not be sought, collected, or used in any way.

Finally, the stakeholders must always be told the truth so that trust in the company can develop (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). Every employee needs to medizin dekanat respect the dignity, health, safety, and privacy of all individuals. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation? This standard is the dekanat dissertation basis of the dignity principle. This principle encourages improvements in human development, both within the company and in essay writing in kannada language, society as a whole. Employees should help those who are working on personal development challenges, protect those people who are vulnerable, and ensure the safety of all employees. All officers, executives, managers, and employees should respect the privacy of all employees, customers, and uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, other stakeholders. The dignity principle also explicitly forbids child labor and allows the employees to have the option to join a union for representation. Finally, this principle calls on all stakeholders to respect other cultures and beliefs (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). The fairness principle requires that all stakeholders be treated fairly and narrative, it defines fairness in four ways. Reciprocal fairness speaks to treating other parties fairly and having them treat the medizin company and its employees properly as well.

Distributive fairness discusses the proper allocation of limited corporate resources to maximize their benefit for the company as a whole. Competitive fairness involves interaction with existing and potential competitors. Competitive fairness must include fair treatment of your competitors and does not allow collusion, bribes, or other illegal relationships. Procedural fairness requires that the writing in kannada company and its employees treat all parties that interact with the firm properly and with due process, including any internal employees who notify authorities of any illegal actions taking place at the company (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). The key aspect of the citizenship principle is that every employee should be a responsible citizen in the community. All officers, executives, managers and employees must respect all applicable laws, support the legitimate local government and officials that it works with, and work for the common good of the community.

The company should also work with the environment in mind and should address any environmental issues it faces in a proper and ethical manner. The company should also encourage its employees to contribute to the general well-being of the community by volunteering through charitable organizations (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). The responsiveness principle requires that the company respond to dissertation requests for information about operations from the stakeholders in a timely manner. These requests may include complaints about products or services, health and safety issues about products or services, or requests for information about those products or services. In general, the medizin dekanat dissertation company should always strive to meet or exceed the expectations of the customers. Ideas from the stakeholders about how to improve operations should always be respected and evaluated objectively, and the executives and management should always respond to outstanding issues from employees, suppliers, community and other stakeholders in uni bonn medizin dissertation, a timely manner (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). Each of these principles is Biblically sound and ethically above reproach (Blocher, M. 2013). By following these eight principles and incorporating them into their codes of medizin dekanat dissertation, conduct, a business can function without being concerned that its employees might act in an unethical manner. If all companies followed these practices effectively in their everyday activities, unions would be unnecessary, customers would always receive excellent service, and communities would receive unequalled corporate support. Customers would always be happy, competitors would compete in medizin dekanat dissertation, fair-minded, evenhanded ways and employees would never feel the need to grumble about uni bonn dekanat dissertation their employers.

Exxon Mobil's Standards of Business Conduct. The Exxon Mobil Corporation is the world’s largest publicly traded oil and gas company. Dekanat? With operations on six continents and in more than 40 countries, Exxon is committed to “superior financial and operating results while simultaneously adhering to high ethical standards” (Our Guiding Principles, n.d.). Essay Friendships? Being present in so many countries and uni bonn medizin dissertation, cultures requires that Exxon maintain the highest standards of ethical operations and conduct. Without defined standards, a corporation this large would not be able to operate effectively while it tried to negotiate the gcse aqa minefields of cultural issues that it sees on a daily basis. Therefore, Exxon Mobil created and published it “Standards of Business Conduct.” This code of medizin dekanat dissertation, conduct attempts to answer any operational issue from an ethical standpoint so that all officers, executives, managers and employees will know what the company expects of them in their daily activities. Starting with their Guiding Principles, Exxon clearly focuses on coursework gcse, being a company that operates ethically. Fiduciary statements, such as “we are committed to enhancing the long-term value of the investment dollars entrusted to us by our shareholders” (Tillerson, 2011, p.2), are included in the discussion points concerning the shareholders, the uni bonn medizin dekanat customers and the employees. Transparency is evident in essay friendships, these guiding principles with statements concerning high ethical standards.

The company shows responsiveness with statements concerning open communication and trust and these same statements include dedication to fairness for the customers and uni bonn medizin dekanat dissertation, the employees. Citizenship and dignity are also represented in these guiding principles with statements about respecting the diversity of literacy, their employees and uni bonn dekanat dissertation, the local cultures and laws. The Ethics Policy for Exxon represents the entire Global Business Standards Codex. Literacy Essay? Starting with citizenship, this policy requires that the corporation comply with all laws, rules, and regulations that apply to their business in the countries where they choose to do business (Tillerson, 2011). Exxon then makes a clear statement to show that simple legal compliance is not enough. “The Corporation’s Ethics policy does not stop there. Even where the law is permissive, the Corporation chooses the course of highest integrity” (p.3, emphasis added). With affirmations of the local cultures and mores, Exxon demonstrates dignity, but, in medizin, the same statement, declares, “Honesty is not subject to educating rita essay changes criticism in uni bonn medizin, any culture” (p.3).

Exxon sees the value of a transparent, fair and narrative essay friendships, honest reputation. The Ethics Policy continues to stress fairness, transparency and reliability by requiring high standards of integrity, stating multiple times that unscrupulous dealing will not be tolerated. All transactions are expected to be accurately entered and uni bonn dissertation, reflected in uni bonn medizin dekanat, the records, and proposals and transactions are expected to be evaluated honestly to make sure the corporate resources are being used properly, in recognition of the property principle (Tillerson, 2011). Throughout the Ethics Policy, Exxon call upon its employees to medizin dissertation act in the best fiduciary interest of the company. This commitment is clear in the statement “The Corporation cares how results are obtained, not just that they are obtained” (Tillerson, 2011, p.3, emphasis added).

The Ethics Policy closes by declaring that they will make all disclosures and public communications in a full, timely, accurate manner. This dedication to the responsiveness principle rounds out the Ethics Policy with the last GBSC principle. Exxon Mobil has certainly committed itself to ethical business operations standards (Tillerson, 2011). In the literacy economic essay Conflicts of Interest Policy, Exxon requires that all officers, directors and medizin, employees “avoid any actual or apparent conflict between their own personal interests and the interests of the Corporation” (Tillerson, 2011, p.4). The policy goes on to define possible conflicts of interest and even gives examples. This instruction is a clear representation of the fiduciary principle,and Exxon is clearly concerned with this issue. Employees are expected to protect the property of the company, as stated in the Corporate Assets Policy. This property does not include only the physical assets, but also the essay language information that is uni bonn dekanat used in dekanat dissertation, the daily activities of the employees. Medizin Dissertation? This policy clearly represents the GBSC’s property principle (Tillerson, 2011). The Directorships Policy focuses on both the fiduciary and citizenship principles with an interesting combination of thoughts.

This policy clearly states that officers and employees cannot accept a position of directorship with another for-profit organization that may involve a conflict of development, interest. It also allows officers and employees to serve in a directorship role for non-profit organizations, provided a conflict of interest does not exist (Tillerson, 2011). This policy covers both principles in an interesting way and encourages involvement in uni bonn medizin dekanat, the community. The Gifts and studies, Entertainment Policy and the Anti-Corruption Policy both focus on the transparency and fiduciary principles (Tillerson, 2011). Uni Bonn Dissertation? Both policies require that employees act in the best interest of the corporation with good, ethical judgment. The Gifts and Entertainment Policy also includes a statement of fairness when it states, “gifts and entertainment must not be intended to create an improper advantage for the Corporation” (Tillerson, 2011, p.7).

Clearly, a company the size of Exxon Mobil could easily use its vast resources to create an advantage for its global operations. The fact that they explicitly state that this behavior is improper and unacceptable is quite impressive. Political Activities and uni bonn medizin dissertation, International Operations are both policies that focus heavily on the citizenship principle. The Political Activities Policy discusses involvement by individuals in uni bonn dekanat dissertation, the political processes of psychiatric studies, their local, state and dekanat dissertation, national governments, including encouraging employees to vote, contribute, stay informed, serve in civic bodies and join in english coursework gcse, campaigns for the candidates of their choosing. Uni Bonn Dekanat Dissertation? The policy carefully states, however, that Exxon Mobil does not participate or contribute as a company (Tillerson, 2011). The Antitrust Policy is a clear statement of fairness. It requires compliance with the antitrust and competition laws of the nations where Exxon does business (Tillerson, 2011).

The Health, Safety and Product Safety Policies are an impressive compilation of statements focused on the safety and essay friendships, wellness of their customers and employees. Exxon Mobil has a clear focus on being responsive to the needs of uni bonn medizin, their employees and their customers in the event of an accident or crisis (Tillerson, 2011). In the same way, the essay in kannada Environmental Policy focuses on being responsive to the needs of the environment, but this policy actually has a fiduciary aspect to it. Exxon Mobil will only invest and develop technology that is “based on sound science and considering the risks, costs, and benefits, including effects on energy and product supply” (p.13). The Alcohol and uni bonn, Drug Use Policy and the Harassment in the Workplace Policy are both very focused on the dignity of the employees of Exxon Mobil. Both of patient case, these policies are perfect examples of a company that is dedicated to its employees' well-being (Tillerson, 2011). Medizin Dekanat? By actually publishing their own Equal Employment Opportunity Policy, Exxon Mobil is doing more than just accepting the government’s minimum requirements for equal employment. This policy shows a commitment to fairness, transparency and employee dignity (Tillerson, 2011). Finally, the Open Door Policy is a clear commitment by Exxon to be transparent and language, responsive to their employees. This type of policy can be difficult to maintain but is effective in letting employees know that their opinions and medizin dekanat dissertation, concerns matter and they are being heard (Tillerson, 2011).

Conclusion. Exxon Mobil, being a very successful multinational corporation, has made their codes of conduct a very integral part of their corporate culture. Rita Essay? Their Standards of Business Conduct encompasses all eight principles of the Global Business Standards Codex: fiduciary, property, reliability, transparency, dignity, fairness, citizenship and responsiveness (Stanwick Stanwick, 2009). Their policies are all encompassing, addressing each principle multiple times and in multiple ways. Medizin? As a corporation, Exxon Mobil is literacy essay a fine example of a company that considers the need for ethical conduct to be a key operational factor in its success. References Blocher, M. B. Uni Bonn Medizin Dissertation? (2013, March 22). In Kannada Language? BUS-503 Reading, Day 5. Dissertation? Retrieved April 1, 2013, from Our Guiding Principles (n.d.). In Kannada Language? In ExxonMobil.

Retrieved May 4, 2013, from Stanwick, P. A., and Stanwick, S. D. (2009). Understanding Business Ethics (Vols. 1 - 1, pp. 8-12). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc. Uni Bonn Dissertation? Tillerson, R. W. (2011, November).

Standards of Business Conduct. In ExxonMobil. Retrieved May 1, 2013, from Sarah from Law Aspect. Hi there, would you like to psychiatric case studies get such a paper? How about uni bonn dekanat receiving a customized one? Check it out 47 Bergen St--Floor 3, Brooklyn, NY 11201, USA. 2017 Law Essays and literacy development, Papers. Sorry, but copying text is medizin dissertation forbidden on this website.

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