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b-list essays Week 7 International Marketing Writing Assignment: IB5013-8 gt; Understanding and Selection of Global Customers gt; Week 7 Week: 7. International Channel Strategy. An international marketing channel represents a network of people and processes that products pass through to achieve its. ultimate destination—the targeted customer. An effective international marketing channel allows firms to reach its. prospective customers at a competitive price and within a reasonable amount of what is a concept paper time. Further, technological advances. have created new opportunities for international marketing channels. However, the types of marketing channels differ. across markets.

Some countries have a complex and essay about college and career challenging market channels that utilize many intermediaries. In. contrast, there are some markets that have much simpler marketing channels, and what is a paper with few intermediaries. They also offer. a clear entry and exit structure. This section introduces the different types of channels available, the factors affecting the. choice of channels, and the key sources of channel conflict. Review the resources listed in the Books and Resources area below to of international relations prepare for this week#8217;s assignments.

For help creating PowerPoint presentations, review this PowerPoint Tutorial. What Is A In Research? Books and essay application Resources for this Week: Read Chapters 15 : g. ***Assignment Instructions*** *No Copy amp; Paste. What Paper? *Has to hero be written in your own words and APA Style/Format. *Reference must be APA Style/format IB5013-8 gt; Understanding and paper in research Selection of Global Customers gt; Week 7 gt; Recommend a Channel Strategy. Resume? Development (Graded, Required) Week 7 Assignment: Recommend a Channel Strategy Development. Research and select at what concept paper least 3 international companies and investigate their channel design and development. Compare and contrast the jobs, company’s channel strategy with its competitors. Create a PowerPoint presentation that. provides a comparison/contrast of the what is a, three companies.

Make certain to include the following information: What is the company’s current channel strategy? What is the reasoning behind this channel selection? How are the company’s competitive position and brand loyalty related to its channel selection? How does the company’s channel design relate to the country in which the company is what are the characteristics essay, doing business? Does it make sense?

What changes do you recommend? ***This will be a good opportunity to ensure that you have the what is a, proper skills and competencies to on jealousy complete your Week. 8 Signature Assignment. Incorporate appropriate animations, transitions, and what is a in research graphics as well as “speaker notes” for each slide. The speaker. notes may be comprised of brief paragraphs or bulleted lists. Support your presentation with at least five (5) scholarly. resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources may be included. Be sure. to include citations for quotations and paraphrases with references in APA format and style where appropriate. About Goals? Length: 12-15 slides (with a separate reference slide). *Notes Length: 100-150 words for each slide. Using the what paper in research, illustration essays you read as examples, write a 500-word illustration essay about contract jobs, a topic of your choice. You may consider one of the following: your choice. • The seriousness of global warming.

Unit VI Formal Writing Assignment. Using the illustration essays you read as examples, write a 500-word illustration essay about a topic of your choice. You may consider one of the following: your choice. • The seriousness of global warming. • The neglect of the elderly • The condition of secondary education. Your essay will be graded on paper in research its ability to adhere to essay application illustration essay conventions. Does your essay assert some serious problem or point that needs to what be illustrated? Does the essay present an illustration that clarifies the main point or your position on the problem? Does the conclusion connect to narrative essays on jealousy the opening?

You will be graded using the following categories: content, organization, grammar and style conventions, resources, references, and APA formatting. Your essay will also be graded on its development. Be sure that you revise, proofread, and format your essay according to APA standards. See The CSU Citation Guide. If you use outside sources, you need to is a in research use quotation marks for lifted language, as well as in-text and reference list citations. The APA organization/formatting should adhere to essay about college and career specifications for research papers, including the following: institution (Columbia Southern University); • A proper running head according to APA 6th edition guidelines found in The CSU Citation Guide on what concept in research pp. 13-14; • One (1) academically valid source (see p. Application? 18 of The CSU Citation Guide for assistance with finding sources through the what concept paper in research, CSU Online Library) • A reference page with a centered header of “References” properly reflecting all sources used within the text (see The CSU Citation Guide, p. 16 for overall formatting guidelines and pp.

7-12 for formatting guidelines for specific source types). ENG 1 Unit V Formal Writing Assignment Using the definition essays you read as examples, write a 500-word definition essay about a topic of your choice. You may consider one of the following: Unit V Formal Writing Assignment. Using the definition essays you read as examples, write a 500-word definition essay about a topic of your choice. You may consider one of the following: • What is essay about college, a good parent? • What is an ethical choice? Your essay will be graded on what is a its ability to resume contract adhere to the definition essay form.

Does your essay attempt to define a problematic concept? Does it add to the discussion of how people might understand the topic? What is at stake in your discussion? In other words, is there a group of concept paper people who might be vindicated by your definition? Remember that while you are writing a definition essay, you want to avoid using the dictionary itself. This is meant to be a definition that you create, not one that you copy from a source. In addition, the dictionary is never considered a strong academic source because information that comes from the dictionary and about college goals encyclopedias is considered “common knowledge.” Therefore, inserting a dictionary definition into your paper makes it seem as though you are not a strong researcher.

You will be graded using the following categories: content, organization, grammar and style conventions, resources, references, and APA formatting. Your essay will also be graded on its development. Be sure that you revise, proofread, and format your essay according to APA standards. What Concept Paper In Research? If you use outside sources, you need to what are the good use quotation marks for lifted language, as well as in-text and reference list citations. The APA organization/formatting should adhere to specifications for research papers, including the following 80% original material. Using a cause And effect example essays that you read as examples, write a 500-word cause And effect essay. You may choose to write about a subject of your choice. Using a cause And effect example essays that you read as examples, write a 500-word cause And effect essay. You may choose to write about a subject of your choice.

You may consider the following topics: • A change in the way you deal with other people. • A major moment that changed the course of your life forever. • A change in the way you understood your country or your citizenship (a war, a policy, a political scandal, a political figure. Your essay will be graded on its ability to adhere to the cause-andeffect essay conventions. Does your essay follow one of the formats on pages 149-151 of Strategies for Writing Successful Research Papers? You will be graded using the following categories: content, organization, grammar and style conventions, resources, references, and APA formatting. Concept In Research? Your essay will also be graded on its development.See the flow chart on page 77 in Strategies for Writing Successful Research Papers for guidance. Be sure that you revise, proofread, and format your essay according to APA standards. See The CSU Citation Guide. If you use outside sources, you need to use quotation marks for lifted language, as well as in-text and reference list citations.

The APA organization/formatting should adhere to contract specifications for research papers, including the following. • A title page that includes the title of the paper, the nameof the student, and the name of the institution (Columbia Southern University); • A proper running head according to APA 6th edition guidelines found in The CSU Citation Guideon pp. 13-14;One (1) academically valid source (see p. 18of The CSU Citation Guidefor assistance with finding sources through the CSU Online Library) • A reference page with a centered header of “References” properly reflecting all sources used within the paper in research, text (see The CSU Citation Guide, p. 16for overall formatting guidelines and pp. 7-12for formatting guidelines for specific source types) The most reliable sources for narrative on jealousy appropriate information on the Internet will come from .gov, .edu, and .org sites or sites specifically devoted to scholarly writing, such as websites of scientific journals. Unacceptable sources are blogs, unreferenced articles, or general information from .com sites.

General encyclopedias are prohibited sources and include, but are not limited to, Wikipedia, Encarta, Britannica, and World Book. Please utilize the CSU Online Library for credible and reliable electronic sources. If your essay is what, less than 500 words, you will not receive full credit, and depending on the word count, your grade may be severely impacted. Cultural Environment of International business Writing Assignment IB5014-7. Cultural Environment of International business Writing Assignment IB5014-7. IB5014-8 International Environment Week 7 Evaluate the Anti-Globalization Movement (Graded, Required) Week 7 Assignment: Evaluate the Anti-Globalization Movement. Conduct scholarly research on the anti-globalization movement and write a paper: 1. Compare and contrast your research with the information in the primary textbook, thereby evaluating both sides of the globalization argument. Discuss your observations and analysis of the anti-globalization movement.

2. Provide your conclusions and recommendation on what are the characteristics good leader toefl how globalization would or could be most effective for your workplace or business. Support your paper with a minimum of three (3) external resources In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources, including older articles, may be included. Length: 5-7 pages not including title and reference pages. Your paper should demonstrate thoughtful consideration of the ideas and concepts presented in the course and provide new thoughts and insights relating directly to this topic. Your response should reflect scholarly writing and current APA standards.

Be sure to adhere to Northcentral University#8217;s Academic Integrity Policy. Upload your assignment using the Upload Assignment button. What Is A Concept Paper? 6.0 Differentiate between the primary resource’s information on the anti-globalization movement and information found through scholarly research. 2_Consumer Decision Making RKS Guitars, Harvard Business School Case Case Questions. 2_Consumer Decision Making.

RKS Guitars, Harvard Business School Case. Thesis Of International? Following are some questions to assist you in outlining the key issues for the case. You can find the. needed information in the case itself. 1. What is the value proposition of the RKS Guitar models? 2. RKS has developed four personas for guitar purchasers. What characterizes each persona in. terms of what is a concept paper his/her: a. Cal Poly Essay Application? Needs for a guitar. b. Is A Paper? Wants for a guitar. Of International? c. Motivation(s) for purchasing a guitar.

d. What the product represents for the individual. 3. Each persona views RKS Guitars (as an concept paper, overall brand) differently. Using the blank psycho. aesthetics map, place RKS Guitars on the map for each persona. Provide a brief rationale for. 4. Who do you think is the best target persona for RKS Guitars? What is your rationale for this. a. Note that the narrative essays, breakeven cost for the average guitar requires a minimum selling price of. approximately $2400 per unit (margin = 30%, breakeven = 1000 units per year *(.70 cost. factor* $500 cost dollars) = $2400 each to break even.

5. What is the what paper, ‘hero’s journey’ for resume this target persona with RKS Guitars? 6. What is the best way to market RKS Guitars for the persona you have chosen, and influence their. What? particular hero’s journey? a. How should they train salespeople at retail to best market to your target persona? b. How should the brand be presented in the media (PR, advertising, sales promotions, endorsements, etc.) to on jealousy your target persona to maximize engagement and sales? c. Should RKS partner with another more established brand to better reach your target. persona? If so, what brand and is a paper why? If not, why not? International Marketing Writing Assignment Week 8: *Must be written in your own words and APA. International Marketing Writing Assignment. *Must be written in your own words and APA. * No Copy amp; Paste. * No Plagiarized Documents. *References Must Be APA Format/Style.

IB5013-8 gt; Multinational Marketing Strategies gt; Week 8 Week: 8. Resume? Development of a Multinational Marketing Strategy. It is time to apply everything that you learned about marketing strategy into a completed marketing plan for your. multinational corporation. You have covered a lot of ground in this course about marketing strategy. In the beginning, you. reviewed and is a paper in research determined materials related to cal poly essay application the purpose and concept of concept paper in research a multinational marketing strategy. You then. engaged in more practical perspectives by covering the process of developing a multinational marketing, discussing. strategic thinking, the marketing process and debating on cultural and essay ethical issues relating to global marketing. This. week requires you to complete a more comprehensive marketing plan presentation.

Review the resources listed in concept paper in research, the Books and Resources area below to prepare for and career this week#8217;s assignments. Books and Resources for this Week: Czinkota, M. R., amp; Ronkainen, I. A. Concept? (2013) International marketing. Instruction. Read Chapter 18: http://online.vitalsource.com/#/books/9781133627517/pages/194226791 Assignment Instructions: Assignment must be based on what the. instructions indicate Please. Written APA Style/Format No Copy amp; Paste No plagiarized.

Week 8 Assignment: Signature Assignment Develop a Multinational Marketing. The Signature Assignment allows you to demonstrate your knowledge of the key concepts of marketing strategies in. the global marketplace. Using the instructions below that contain a culmination of all the key concepts covered. throughout this course, create a PowerPoint presentation for the other managers, directors, and narrative essays on jealousy VP of is a Marketing for. your corporation: Assume you are deciding to quot;go international.quot; Outline the resume, steps you would take to help you decide on a. product line. Describe the different promotional/product strategies available to an international marketer. What Is A Paper In Research? Give few examples of how a foreign marketer can use knowledge of the characteristics of innovations in. product adaptation decisions.

Recommend the next steps for implementation of your marketing strategy. Incorporate appropriate animations, transitions, and graphics as well as “speaker notes” for contract each slide. The speaker. notes may be comprised of brief paragraphs or bulleted lists. What Is A Concept In Research? Support your presentation with at least five (5) scholarly. resources. In addition to these specified resources, other appropriate scholarly resources may be included. Be sure. to include citations for quotations and paraphrases with references in resume contract, APA format and style where appropriate. Length: 12-15 slides (with a separate reference slide). Notes Length: 100-150 words for is a each slide.

Upload your assignment using the Upload Assignment button. Superman Essay? 7.0 Assess global market opportunities, global awareness, and global orientation. 8.0 Evaluate international marketing channels and international distribution. 9.0 Identify the global and multinational marketing processes and strategies of marketing products and services in. External Opportunities The primary factor that distinguishes Netflix is its online streaming library catalog with an enormous collection that exceeds 100,000 unique movies and television shows.

The primary factor that distinguishes Netflix is its online streaming library catalog with. an enormous collection that exceeds 100,000 unique movies and television shows. The company. heavily relies on original content to set itself apart from its competitors like Hulu and Amazon. India is one of two countries with the largest population in the world and has a current population. of over 1.25 billion which is expected to cross 1.35 billion by 2020 and will include the world’s. What Concept In Research? highest number of youth in the age group of cal poly 18 – 35 (worldbank.org). Penetration of the video.

streaming industry is in its infancy stage; hence, this is an is a paper, opportune time for cal poly Netflix to focus its. attention on expanding to India. Aggressive infrastructure development has modernized the is a concept paper, mediums by which access and. consumption of media entertainment is available to consumers. Internet users as of August 2015. in India grew to 350 million; of this number 159 million were accessing the Internet through. Narrative On Jealousy? mobile devices (statista.com). The local media industry in India thrives on plurality, regulations. support net neutrality and local broadcast regulations offer a level playing field for organizations. doing business in what is a concept paper, the media infotainment and entertainment sectors – all these factors combined. with the staggering number of cal poly application Internet users in what in research, the age group of 18 – 35 in and career, India provide an. Concept Paper In Research? incredible opportunity for Netflix (TRAI.com). Narrative Essays On Jealousy? Netflix owns content that has gained immense popularity and significantly contributed to. the company’s stronghold in the video streaming industry. However, for concept paper Netflix to entice. subscribers and succeed in India the company will need to thesis of international relations collaborate with local established. media houses like Balaji Telefilms to sponsor original content dubbed in several regional. languages; add a substantial collection of Bollywood movies and television shows to their. catalog, and paper offer a low subscription rate – at the very least in the introductory phase.

Political Factors. A noted by Drucker P., amp; Maciarriello, J (2008) and Desai, Ashok V (1999): Government regulations or individuals more so politicians and government tax. developments; risky business environment with sudden hostile policies, tax proposal. unveiled in a match that remove subsidies, and imposed huge taxes to foreign companies. As noted by Desai, Ashok V, (1999): Indian consumer income, spending rates, tax rate, output growth to 7% per capita income; India having the world’s fastest growing economy, and investment-friendly economic. Superman Hero Essay? As noted by H. W., Barbarav (2003): India 102nd on social progress ranking, low score on shelter, and basic human needs; access to information and is a concept 21st century internt access use. Superman Hero? As noted by H. W., Barbarav (2003): India is ranked second largest world-wide in mobile users 983.21 million subscribers, and. rank third in internet base market of what is a in research 300 million users with a 24% penetration rate. Contract? Environmental Factors India in recent years suffered great loss attributed to what concept paper environmental degradation and, therefore, decided to embrace the green economy policies, with regards to this. sensitization. Legal Factors. Essay Application? As Noted By Lee, David E (2006): Legal Procedures, Laws, And, Regulations Governing The Entry Of Foreign Companies. Into The Indian Market Must Be Adhered To.

The Managers And Directors Of The. Company Must Be Legally Allowed To Operate And Stay In The Country. Companies. What Is A In Research? Doing FDI Are Not Allowed To Invest Less Than $100 Million And Also 50% Of Local. Indians To Be Offered A Position In The Corporation. Netflix Should Have This In Mind.

As It Expands Operations To The Indian Market. Essay? Mitigation Threats. PESTLE analysis normally give both favourable and unfavourable conditions that affects. What Paper? or are likely to affect the organisation, thereafter it’s now the work of managers to of a take action on. the recommendations of the analysis. Lee, David E, (2006). Netflix analysis in India is favoured by most factors, with exceptions in legal facet that. restricts its operations and inflow of is a concept paper in research its employees in India.

Mitigation of this can be achieved. through training of some Indian personnel to resume contract jobs help to is a paper avoid extra costs of documentation which. also consumes time. Merger is also an option to avoid the $ 100 million dollar restriction to. Cal Poly Application? Greenfield ventures by Indian laws. The rate at which the Indian economy is growing is. alarming, hence soon competitors will join the market, to counter this Netflix needs to. strategically position, market, and segment the market so than even if competitors come they are. deeply rooted in the market with brand loyalty from consumers. Technologically, a customer base of 300 million users is what concept paper in research, not easy to serve, hence research. and development department are to essay work extra hard to innovate more powerful servers that are. What Is A Paper? strong enough to serve such magnitudes effectively. Similarly, the world technology is advancing. at a rocket speed and Netflix as an what are the characteristics toefl essay, organisation needs to exploit such markets to the maximum, and leaving nothing to chance. What? In India. the government has shown and proven their willingness to grow their. technology by introducing it to schools, Netflix can use their position as a big, trusted and known. Cal Poly Essay Application? company to strike a deal with the what concept in research, government to offer them a contract to about college goals supply Indian schools. with internet. Once they have created a good working relationship then it can seek to what is a enjoy. Toefl Essay? reluctant regulations from the government. Indian social development is still facing difficulties in trying to attain the world’s average. positioning, this happened because the government was so focused in developing economy. through promotion of businesses and what paper enterprises.

This lead to the neglect of one of the most. important building block of a nation, the social pillar, however, capturing markets just means. influencing the social matters of the consumers through good relationships and fantastic product. and service delivery. Thesis Relations? Netflix should strategize through its Ramp;D, Market intelligence and marketing department. to come up with a way to is a paper in research best touch the hearts of resume jobs target market like no other organisation has. Is A Concept Paper? ever imagined. College And Career Goals? Example sponsoring young children and providing their schools with the internet. services, this will work since they are the next generation and what is a paper once Netflix gains their loyalty at a. young age, their loyalty will be unimaginable and cal poly application they will defend the is a concept paper in research, organisation for it opened. bright future to them. Netflix success in this venture is projected since its PESTLE analysis offers a great. pathway for sustainability, survival, and rapid growth in superman hero, the Indian market, therefore a reliable. Is A Paper In Research? analysis. Essays On Jealousy? In every market exists a challenge and therefore it is the what in research, role of the organisations’ managers to roll up their sleeves, and sensitize humanity since success is not only narrative on jealousy, measure on the. basis of running a successful businesses but also the impact it creates in what concept paper in research, its environment. Superman? Further, the company should properly plan disposal ways since India is very sensitive and determined to. What Is A? improve its environment and sanitation. Operational Tactics to Mitigate Operational Threats. Anytime that a company decides to enter a market, their operational tactics should be. focused on thesis relations when to enter the market and where to enter the market as well as how those. decisions will produce the most profitable and desirable outcome. The success of Netflix’s. entrance into India will rely heavily on entering first and then assuming a defensive position to. retain market share as new competitors arrive.

Due to the fact that no other company currently streams movies in India, Netflix is in a. position to execute a timing tactic of being a first mover in is a paper, the market. “Some of the advantages. of cal poly essay being a first mover are that the company is able to establish a reputation as a leader in the. industry, move down the learning curve to assume the cost leader position, and earn temporarily. high profits from paper in research, buyers who value the contract, product or service very highly.” (Hunger, 2011). The. infrastructure to host Netflix services is already in place and the barrier to is a concept in research entry for Netflix is. really easy to resume overcome. Netflix has the platform to deliver the services already with Amazon. Web Services as its hosts and simply has to stop blocking Indian internet protocol addresses to. allow Indian users access to what is a concept paper in research its services. By entering the market first, Netflix can build a brand. reputation and enjoy the profits of a temporary monopoly on the market until entrants arrive. After Netflix has gained a large majority of market share from the “linear” television. Application? companies which the Netflix CEO Reed Hastings suggests is inevitable, Netflix will have to. defend its position in the market as competitors like Amazon Prime, Apple iTunes, and Hulu. attempt to penetrate market niches that Netflix traditionally fails to occupy. One of the what, defensive. tactics that Netflix can utilize is raising structural barriers by blocking, “channel access by. signing exclusive agreements with distributors” (Hunger, 2011) for content that it acquires and. offers in thesis of international relations, their content library for India. India offers a 100% foreign direct investment which can be an extremely advantageous platform for Netflix to obtain exclusive rights to content via. What? acquisition of Indian companies rather than the essay college goals, content alone.

By purchasing these companies, Netflix will eliminate one of its biggest threats which is content providers increasing the price of. content agreements and at the same time secure the content from entrants to the market and. eliminating their ability to outbid Netflix for content. What Is A Concept In Research? Since many of the Indian film production. companies are publicly traded on essay college and career goals the national stock exchange of India, direct purchase of a. controlling interest in the companies can be done relatively cheap ($307 million for 100% of. AVM Productions) compared to what is a what they pay for content licensing to superman current providers ($200. million to Disney for 1 year alone).

This concept is not new. In fact, Disney itself purchased. What In Research? UTV Software Communications Ltd. (an Indian owned entertainment company) in 2011 as a. mechanism of entry to introduce their brand and all the essay college, products/revenues associated with it to. the Indian market. Lastly, another one of Netflix’s operational threats is the what, legal restrictions of foreign. direct investment. In order for Netflix to establish operations in the company, they have to. employ managers and directors that operate and live in India, invest no less than $100 million. into the economy and/or business as well as employ a work force comprised of application 50% local. natives. This will restrict the freedom of business operations to an extent because talent may or. may not be available and $100 million is a lot of what is a concept paper in research money to commit to. The way that Netflix can. mitigate this operation threat is to establish a business unit in India that is are the characteristics leader toefl essay, focused on what in research marketing. and content selection. The regulations do not specify a number of employees required to be of.

Indian citizenship only that 50% of what of a good leader essay them are. What Concept? Netflix does not have to employ a massive amount. of people to accomplish its business objectives. Additionally, If Netflix utilizes the $100 million. commitment to thesis of international acquire a production company, the employees that work for the production company will become employees of Netflix and the 50% ratio can be further mitigated allowing. for the best talent to is a in research be hired regardless of citizenship status. Strength’s. According to (Netflix 10-K, 2014), Netflix’s total assets were $7.056 billion dollars of. which, the majority was in essay goals, their current content library ($2.126 billion), their non-current content. library ($2.773 billion) and cash equivalents ($1.114 billion).

By utilizing the massive content. Is A In Research? library that Netflix has, they have been able to easily expand into English speaking countries and. have over thesis of international relations, $1.1 billion in cash to purchase licensing agreements in new countries to build their. international content libraries. Netflix is currently the only company that has gone international with this type of service. which gives the paper in research, company a huge geographic advantage with respect to brand value. Their biggest. competitor is characteristics leader essay, Hulu which is a joint venture and provides their services to the USA and Japan. As. of October 14th, 2015, “Netflix operated in 43 countries and had over 69 million members around. the world” (Netflix Q3, 2015). Netflix is is a paper in research, rapidly expanding its international operations and is. Leader? enjoying a monopoly in the worldwide entertainment streaming services industry as its pioneer. Netflix enjoys several competitive advantages over its competition. Netflix is what is a in research, very good. at choosing content based on a very large user database to mine data from.

They are also seeking. to pursue global licensing agreements for their original content that will cut costs furthermore. Lastly Netflix is a disrupter for what their CEO calls “Linear” TV networks due to their ability to. provide niche content. This allows Netflix to give customers the entertainment they want, when. they want it and creates huge value for the company. Netflix has very simple business operations with regards to how it generates revenue and. economies of scale. The primary means of revenue is subscription services and to what characteristics good leader provide this. service Netflix produces just under $3 million per paper in research, employee working for essay the company compared. to the Samp;P 500 average of $428 thousand per employee. This is a six times greater operational. efficiency per employee than the what concept in research, 500 best performing publicly traded companies making it hard. to compete with. Since Netflix is a relative unknown in India, they will need to establish a strong and. reliable brand in order to compete with some of the hero, other players in concept, that marketplace who are. Essay? household names and have been doing business for many years. If they are able to select the. appropriate content for paper the Indian market they are targeting, and then deliver it the right way, they should be able to effectively mitigate the risk of entering the market with an unknown. Outsourced Distribution amp; Hosting. Through use of Amazon Web Services (AWS), Netflix doesn’t have to worry about. maintaining the massive data library, bandwidth, electricity cost due to powering the servers and. required HVAC systems, maintaining staffing for the systems, and all other necessities for. hosting in-house (Netflix AWS, 2010).

The inherent problem is that Amazon is a competitor in. the streaming content market, and cal poly essay application if they decide to renegotiate the contract Netflix currently has, it could cause problems for is a paper Netflix. By ensuring a valid Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is in thesis relations, place, guaranteeing a certain amount of revenue for what paper AWS, or negotiating licensing terms to allow AWS to offer some of the housed content through their service, Netflix can help to mitigate. Fiscal amp; Licensing. Netflix’s $3.3B in resume jobs, off- balance sheet liabilities and commitments are held in such a way. to reduce risk and possibly allow avoidance of what is a regulatory costs or taxes. A side effect and. What Of A Good Leader Toefl? weakness of the organization is the possibility that this may affect the picture of Netflix’s true net. worth (Saunders amp; Cornett, 2008). There is no legal reason for Netflix to reallocate the. liabilities, as it is in direct compliance with the what is a paper, SEC and Section 13(j) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. of 2002 (SEC, 2015).

While the appearance of a company trying to manipulate financial. holdings and incomes to look more favorable is a concern, Kanter argues that in foreign markets. this is less of a concern due to the differences in market, investor and corporate strategy along. Of A Toefl Essay? with governmental regulations (2011). As of the 3rd quarter 2015 Netflix had a debt ratio of 3.58, which was higher than other. companies in the industry (Nasdaq, 2015). In order to mitigate this weakness, Netflix would. need to work on lowering the amount of their liabilities and increasing their total assets. This. would cause the ratio to lower, showing investors and other industry insiders that Netflix is less. Concept Paper? dependent on leverage and in a stronger fiscal situation. The primary way for Netflix to accomplish this with the thesis, streaming media content service. is to focus on licensing. In 2014 Netflix spent $3 Billion on licensing for is a concept paper in research film and television. content (Sweney, 2014), and cal poly essay reported $5.1 Billion total liabilities on their 2014 balance sheet. (Yahoo, 2014). The fact that their licensing itself accounts for 62% of the entire company’s. liabilities is what is a concept paper in research, indicative of how critical optimizing this aspect of their business model is. Netflix’s top investor questions FAQ reports that their original content is essay application, not only the most lucrative. properties, but also is the least expensive to carry for their customers (2015). The struggling DVD mailing service is is a in research, another aspect which will need to be evaluated. Netflix has been losing customers of this service steadily since 2011, reaching an all-time low in.

2015 (Fox, 2015). What Are The Of A Good? By not offering the struggling DVD mail-order service in India, and focusing. more on streaming original content that will be well received by the Indian target demographic, Netflix has a good chance of mitigating this risk. By reworking existing license deals with Indian content providers who have exclusive. rights to broadcast Netflix original programming such as Orange is the New Black and House of. What Paper In Research? Cards, they have a chance of bringing their flagship products back in-house for the launch in the. Indian market. If these deals cannot be renegotiated, short of what are the leader toefl pursuing lengthy and likely costly. legal recourse to regain legal rights to their own content, Netflix will likely need to wait for the. Concept? existing licenses to expire (Scott, 2014).

Once they have done so, Netflix will once again be able. to provide their original content exclusively in hero essay, this market. Select and then define a significant issue faced by the justice system, describe the scope and consequences of the is a paper in research, issue, and discuss society’s responses to the issue (including public policies and other less formal responses). Papers should also present a clearly reasoned alternative, supported by scholarly research. Select and then define a significant issue faced by the justice system, describe the scope and consequences of the what of a leader, issue, and discuss society’s responses to the issue (including public policies and is a paper other less formal responses). Papers should also present a clearly reasoned alternative, supported by essay application, scholarly research. While the following example can be modified to suit your needs, this outline is likely to result in a high-quality Final Paper: What is the problem? Be sure to narrow your problem enough to allow a focused examination.

What are the what concept, individual and social implications of this problem? Discussion of implications should be supported by accurate research data. What do the experts say about the problem? What have we, as a society, done about this problem? Consider public policies and other, less formal responses. Essays? How are public policies and other, less formal responses working? Describe an what is a concept, alternative solution to the problem. Discuss why the about and career goals, alternative is, or can be, an is a concept paper, effective response to the problem. Remember to consider negative consequences of the alternative response. Conclude with your thoughts about your chosen social problem. Essay About And Career Goals? This is a good place to include personal opinions, assuming you wish to share them in a research paper.

In short, define a problem, discuss the response, and provide alternative responses to the problem. For example, your problem could be drug use/abuse, with a focus on in research prescription drug abuse among teenagers. Your description of the essay about college goals, problems should be fact based, relying on expert opinion. Your alternative response can be an adjustment of current policy or a new direction. For example, your may propose longer prison sentences, or legalization of all drugs. Be creative, although suggestions must be supported by scholarly research. The paper must be eight to ten pages in length (excluding the title and what is a concept paper reference pages) and formatted according to APA style.

You must use at least five scholarly resources, at least three of which can be found in the Ashford Online Library, to support your claims and subclaims. Cite your resources in text and on what are the of a leader toefl the reference page. For information regarding APA samples and tutorials, visit the Ashford Writing Center within the Learning Resources tab on the left navigation toolbar. Please visit the Academic Research section on your course homepage (accessible through the Student Responsibilities and Policies tab on the left navigation toolbar) to review what types of what is a materials are not acceptable for academic, university-level research. Writing the Final Paper. The Final Paper: Must be eight to ten double-spaced pages in length, and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a title page with the following: Course name and number. Must begin with an introductory paragraph that has a succinct thesis statement. Must address the jobs, topic of the paper with critical thought.

Must end with a conclusion that reaffirms your thesis. Must use at least five scholarly resources, including a minimum of three from the what is a concept in research, Ashford Online Library. Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center. Carefully review the Grading Rubric for the criteria that will be used to evaluate your assignment. MBA Level Marketing Paper Business to Business Marketing (2 Pages Max) MBA Level Marketing Paper Business to Business Marketing (2 Pages Max) Can Field Sales and/or Retail Stores Survive in the Face of Internet Competitors? Until recently, this assignment questioned the ability of internet players to compete with traditional sales and marketing channels.

Given the rapid growth of internet sales, that question seems to have been answered. So we now flip the question over and ponder what it takes for characteristics leader toefl essay the more traditional methods to compete. 1. For this assignment, select a sales situation where the customer may choose between a face-to-face option and an online transaction. For example, one may ask a salesperson to present their wares in person at your job site, or one may go to that vendor’s website and place an order. Another example, you may choose to visit an auto insurance company’s local office or go to their website to is a concept in research obtain coverage. Or, you may choose to go to a pizza joint for resume jobs dinner or place your pizza order over the internet and either pick it up or have it delivered. Or, you can go to a bookstore and select your latest reading choice or have it delivered via UPS from Amazon or access it via your iPad or Kindle. In each of these cases the “shopping experience” is very different.

2. On the first page of the paper, capture the features and service outputs provided in a face-to-face sales situation. This is your chance to prove that you are not a philistine incapable of what concept paper artistic and sensory insights! The sales arena is full of what characteristics good essay drama—sights, sounds, emotions, and sometimes aromas (a pizza place or a department store’s cosmetics area). In most sales categories, people still prefer the face-to-face setting so they must be getting something out of the experience. Next, spell out the features and service outputs provided by the alternative online option. How do they compare? What are their respective advantages/disadvantages? 3. On the in research, second page , personally score the two options (traditional versus internet) using the resume, NPS scale most recommended by Reichheld. In addition, enlist a few colleagues and/or family members to complete the same exercise and report the what is a concept, combined score.

Be sure you indicate the contract, question or questions asked, the scale used (you are expected to use the traditional Reichheld approach), the data points for concept in research each of your respondents and yourself and how you calculated the overall score. Do not worry about contract, sample size or representativeness. We are just having some fun! Finally, do not forget to answer the question posed in the title of this assignment. Please note that all papers are strictly limited to two pages. For further instructions, please see the attachments. The video lecture is roughly 7 minutes and provides details on what to write and what not to write. I can provide additional lectures (to view) and details if necessary.

Thank You, Good Luck!

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How Burrowing Owls Lead To Vomiting Anarchists (Or SF’s Housing Crisis Explained) The Santa Clara Valley was some of the most valuable agricultural land in the entire world, but it was paved over to create today’s Silicon Valley. This was simply the result of bad planning and layers of leadership failure — nobody thinks farms literally needed to be destroyed to what paper in research, create the technology industry’s success. Today, the college tech industry is apparently on track to paper in research, destroy one of the world’s most valuable cultural treasures, San Francisco, by pushing out the diverse people who have helped create it. At least that’s the story you’ve read in application hundreds of articles lately. It doesn’t have to be this way. But everyone who lives in what the Bay Area today needs to accept responsibility for making changes where they live so that everyone who wants to thesis of international relations, be here, can. The alternative — inaction and concept in research, self-absorption — very well could create the essay about college and career cynical elite paradise and middle-class dystopia that many fear.

I’ve spent time looking into the city’s historical housing and development policies. With the protests escalating again, I am pretty tired of seeing the city’s young and disenfranchised fight each other amid an extreme housing shortage created by concept paper 30 to thesis, 40 years of what is a concept paper, NIMBYism (or “Not-In-My-Backyard-ism”) from the old wealth of the city and down from the peninsula suburbs. Here is a very long explainer. Sorry, this isn’t a shorter post or that I didn’t break it into 20 pieces. If you’re wondering why people are protesting you, how we got to this housing crisis, why rent control exists or why tech is even shifting to cal poly essay, San Francisco in the first place, this is meant to provide some common points of understanding. This is what paper in research a complex problem, and I’m not going to distill it into young, rich tech douchebags-versus-helpless old ladies facing eviction. There are many other places where you can read that story. It does us all no justice.

Homeowners have a strong economic incentive to restrict supply because it supports price appreciation of their own homes. It’s understandable. Cal Poly Application! Many of them have put the bulk of their net worth into their homes and they don’t want to lose that. So they engage in NIMBYism under the name of preservationism or environmentalism, even though denying in-fill development here creates pressures for sprawl elsewhere. They do this through hundreds of politically powerful neighborhood groups throughout San Francisco like the Telegraph Hill Dwellers. Then the what concept rent-controlled tenants care far more about eviction protections than increasing supply. That’s because their most vulnerable constituents are paying rents that are so far below market-rate, that only an ungodly amount of construction could possibly help them. Plus, that construction wouldn’t happen fast enough — especially for cal poly essay application elderly tenants. So we’re looking at as much as 80 percent of the city that isn’t naturally oriented to add to is a concept, the housing stock. Oh, and tech?

The industry is about 8 percent of thesis relations, San Francisco’s workforce. Then if you look at the cities down on is a concept in research the peninsula and in thesis of international relations the traditional heart of Silicon Valley, where home-ownership rates are higher, it’s even worse. The true culprit behind our housing problems: let us deflect blame to Mountain View’s burrowing owl! (Photo: Wikimedia Commons user Dori under a CC-by-SA 3.0 license) So the wealthy voting classes of the what is a concept peninsula are also strangling themselves of housing too. The median rent in Mountain View is $2,700 compared to $3,400 in San Francisco, according to Zillow. Essay! Once you factor in the cost of owning a car — estimated at slightly more than $9,000 a year by the AAA — it’s not that much cheaper. If you look even closer to the Caltrain stations, rents go way up. The newly-opened Madera complex in downtown Mountain View rents out is a concept in research, 1-bedroom units starting at $3,299 all the way up to 2-bedroom apartments at $8,000 per hero month. So one contributor to the tech industry’s spread into San Francisco is what in research that the peninsula cities are more than happy to vote for jobs, just not homes. 2) Why is the college tech industry migrating to cities anyway? This is concept paper in research a demographic shift that is much larger than the hero essay technology industry itself — although there are some tech-specific reasons that have fueled a migration north from the concept paper historic heart of Silicon Valley over essay the last 10 years.

This is what urbanist Alan Ehrenhalt calls “The Great Inversion,” a major shift where cities and suburbs have traded places over what is a paper in research the last 30 to 40 years. As people marry later and thesis of international, employment becomes more temporal, young adults and concept paper, affluent retirees are moving into the urban core, while immigrants and the less affluent are moving out. San Francisco’s population hit a trough around 1980, after steadily declining since the 1950s as the essays on jealousy city’s socially conservative white and Irish-Catholic population left for the suburbs. What Is A Concept Paper In Research! Into the vacuum of relatively cheaper rents they left behind, came the what are the good misfits, hippies and immigrants that fomented so many of San Francisco’s beautifully weird cultural and sexual revolutions. But that out-migration reversed around 1980, and the city’s population has been steadily rising for the last 30 years. This is a phenomenon that’s happening to paper in research, cities all over the United States. It’s happening in Seattle, Atlanta, New York City, Boston and resume, Washington.

D.C.: Its rapacious speed may even be accelerating. Witness hyper-gentrification in Brooklyn and what paper in research, Manhattan, or the thesis “Shoreditch-ification” of London. People are getting married later and what is a, are living longer. Cal Poly Application! Nearly 50 percent of Americans, or more than 100 million people are unmarried today, up from concept paper around 22 percent in 1950. The job market has changed as well. In 1978, the U.S.’s manufacturing employment peaked and the noise and grit of the blue-collar factories that once fueled the jobs flight of the paper upper-middle-class disappeared. These vacant manufacturing warehouses turned into the live-work spaces and lofts that emerged in the 1980s and 1990s in cities like New York and San Francisco.

The concept of lifetime employment also faded. Cal Poly Essay! Today, San Francisco’s younger workers derive their job security not from any single employer but instead from a large network of weak ties that lasts from in research one company to cal poly, the next. The density of what is a paper in research, cities favors this job-hopping behavior more than the relative isolation of suburbia. There are also some tech industry-specific reasons too. The capital costs required to found a company and launch a minimum viable product are much lower than a decade ago.

Startups also need fewer people, especially with the low distribution costs provided by platforms like Apple’s iOS app store or Facebook. So it’s easier for are the lots of small companies to find pockets of commercial real estate in is a concept in research the city for new offices. Resume Contract Jobs! It’s also easier for VCs to fund an order of magnitude more experiments, even if the same proportion of them fails. The products that technology companies are making today are also different. In the 1970s, “Silicon Valley” literally meant making semiconductors in large fabs that required expensive equipment and is a paper in research, clean rooms. But the big wave of the last decade has been social networking. And every notable consumer web or mobile product of this wave has been seeded through critical mass in the “analog” world. Facebook had university campuses. Essay! Snapchat had Southern California high schools. Foursquare had Lower Manhattan. Twitter had San Francisco.

These products favor social density. An even newer generation of startups addresses distinctly urban questions. Airbnb exists because in 2007, San Francisco didn’t have enough hotel capacity to house visitors in town for an industrial design conference. Uber exists because the city’s taxi market was under-supplied with drivers and smartphones offered a new way of is a paper in research, summoning transportation on are the of a good toefl essay demand. Then there are very young startups like Campus, which is like a venture-backed communal living movement, Leap Transit, which is trying to shake up scheduled transport, or any of the companies out of Tumml, an urban ventures incubator.

As tech workers have moved into cities, the industry has changed San Francisco’s culture and San Francisco has changed the what concept technology industry. Nevertheless, while tech is fueling San Francisco’s current boom and has helped cut the city’s unemployment rate by about half since 2010, this gentrification wave has been going on for decades longer than the word “dot-com” has existed. And it’s happening all over the country. So a great question of our time is how American cities handle this shift. Cal Poly Essay Application! They have to do this in what in research the face of global economic changes that are dividing our workforce into what leader toefl, highly-skilled knowledge workers who are disproportionately benefiting from growth and lower-skilled service workers that are not seeing their wages rise at is a concept paper, all. 3) OK, let’s build more housing! Y Combinator partner Garry Tan tweeted out a map the other week: Want to see why SF housing is of a good leader so expensive? This is what is a a map of allowed building height. Yellow = 4 stories max. http://t.co/OgQ6JCId8I. Wouldn’t that be simple?

But it’s not that easy. Narrative On Jealousy! While the real estate market is is a hot, developers are currently building 6,000 units. To go beyond that, you have to build political will. You have to essay about and career, win hearts and minds. You have to make sure that people don’t get pushed out or left behind. Origins of SF’s cautious approach to growth are rooted in the freeway revolt and urban renewal struggles of the 1950s and what concept in research, 1960s. San Francisco’s orientation towards growth control has 50 years of history behind it and more than 80 percent of the city’s housing stock is either owner-occupied or rent controlled. The city’s height limits, its rent control and its formidable permitting process are all products of tenant, environmental and preservationist movements that have arisen and fallen over decades.

To this day, there’s distrust and essay and career, fear that the in research same thing will happen again, especially if it’s carried out by private developers. Thesis! Advocacy group Causa Justa has been documenting this displacement through Census data, noting that the Mission has lost 1,400 Latino households while adding 2,900 white households between 1990 and 2011. In the same time period, Oakland lost 40 percent of what is a concept, its black residents. Anti-tech sentiment during the first dot-com boom. (From FoundSF) During the first tech boom, there was the what characteristics of a leader toefl Mission Anti-Displacement Coalition, which pushed for a moratorium on new market-rate housing and is a concept paper, live-work lofts in cal poly essay the neighborhood. There were also more violent movements like The Yuppie Eradication Project, which slashed tires, keyed cars and broke windows. Throughout the years, these movements have found alliances with other neighborhood organizations, preservationist and environmental interests. To this day, 1972’s Transamerica Pyramid remains San Francisco’s tallest building.

It’s only in 2017 that a taller 1,070-foot tower anchored by Salesforce will open. As political scientist and longtime San Francisco observer Richard DeLeon puts it: San Francisco has emerged as a “semi-sovereign city” — a city that imposes as many limits on capital as capital imposes on it. Mislabeled by some detractors as socialist or radical in the Marxist tradition, San Francisco’s progressivism is concerned with consumption more than production, residence more than workplace, meaning more than materialism, community empowerment more than class struggle. Is A Concept! Its first priority is not revolution but protection — protection of the city’s environment, architectural heritage, neighborhoods, diversity, and overall quality of life from the radical transformations of turbulent American capitalism.

While we have to thank these movements for preserving so much of the land surrounding San Francisco and the city’s beautiful Victorians, one side effect is contract jobs that the city has added an average of 1,500 units per concept paper in research year for the last 20 years. Meanwhile, the relations U.S. What Is A Paper! Census estimates that the city’s population grew by jobs 32,000 people from 2010 to 2013 alone. Even today, you can see these factions engaging in behavior that might seem absurd in the context of is a concept paper in research, a housing shortage. Exhibit A: Rich, Non-Tech People Trying To Downzone The Waterfront Amid An Acute Housing Crisis. On the ballot this June, is an initiative that will require voters to about college and career, individually approve height limit exemptions for developments on the city’s waterfront. It jeopardizes three major projects including the is a Warriors stadium (pictured below) and a plan to turn Pier 70 into a mixed-use development with office space and apartments. Those developments are slated to deliver as much as 3,690 housing units and $124 million in affordable housing fees, according to a memo written by John Arntz, the essay about college and career director of the city’s department of what is a, elections. This initiative is funded overwhelmingly by a non-tech couple named Barbara and Richard Stewart, who gave $75,000. Narrative Essays! (They did not reply to requests for comment.) It is what concept paper overwhelmingly expected to pass, so even the mayor isn’t taking a position on it. “Would you like free ice cream San Francisco? ‘Why yes I would,’ ” is contract how one political consultant summed up Prop.

B’s voter appeal to John Cote at the San Francisco Chronicle. “Why stand up against something where 60 to what concept, 70 percent are going to vote with the superman hero essay other side?” No. This is not free ice cream! The proposed Warriors stadium, which is in jeopardy along with 3,690 housing units because of a Waterfront Height Limits ballot initiative this summer. Paper! (From the NBA) Exhibit B: Protests Against New Housing Developments That Don’t Get Rid Of Any Existing Housing. You’ll also end up seeing demonstrations like this one at 16th and Mission, which protest a proposed 351-unit condominium development that replaces a Walgreens and a Burger King. It does not remove any existing housing or directly displace anyone.

A coalition of Mission-based non-profits and activists demonstrating against a proposed 351-unit condominium development at 16th and Mission. (From the Plaza16 Coalicion Facebook Page.) At face value, this might not make sense. But there are a couple reasons that this happens. One is that gentrification raises the gap between market-rate rents and rent-controlled rents, strengthening the financial incentive for landlords to evict longtime tenants. Unlike the wealthy waterfront NIMBYists, these communities are at risk of being displaced. If they don’t speak up for themselves, who will? Look at Vida on of a leader Mission Street, which is a fancy new mixed-use building slated to open up next January (pictured below). The Vida project, which got green-lighted quickly through lots of paper in research, collaboration with local Mission-based neighborhood groups. As Lauren Smiley wrote in San Francisco magazine last month, when developer Dean Givas wanted to build luxury condos in the heart of the Mission District, he bent over resume contract backward for concept paper local community groups to get the essay about project quickly green-lighted. Over two years of negotiations with community groups, Givas agreed to buy a plot on nearby Shotwell Street for the city to is a concept in research, develop 40 units of affordable housing, dwarfing the on jealousy 14 units that would have been required within the what concept paper in research Vida building.

He was already on the hook to pay $1.4 million in city-mandated impact fees, yet the narrative essays community got him to agree to much more. Concept Paper In Research! He donated $150,000 to a fund to help mom-and-pop Mission businesses—to be buoyed with a sales tax on future condo sales. Then, in what the project’s attorney called an unprecedented move by a developer in characteristics good leader the Mission, he donated $650,000 to 23 community groups, a strategy that drew sellout criticisms from purists in the nonprofit community and shakedown charges from pro-development forces worried that his philanthropic palm greasing would set a precedent. Next, Givas donated $1 million for what concept paper in research the Texas-based Alamo Drafthouse Cinema chain to renovate the long-shuttered New Mission Theater next door into a five-screen dinner-and-a-movie cineplex. The Texans agreed to relations, hire 50 percent of its staff from the what in research neighborhood and to essays on jealousy, let nonprofits host at-cost benefits at what concept paper in research, the facility. In principle, it’s fine to use the levers of urban politics to redistribute the wealth an economic boom creates in San Francisco. But these concessions are being negotiated housing development by housing development, which slows the city’s ability to produce housing — both market-rate and affordable — at scale. It’s a good first step, but…. 4) SF’s planning process is deliberately bureaucratic (or highly participatory!) for political reasons:

San Francisco’s construction permitting process (non-ironically written in Comic Sans). One of the things that makes housing development different in San Francisco compared to other major U.S. cities is that building permits are discretionary rather than as-of-right. Essay! In other cities, if a developer already matches the existing zoning and height restrictions of the city plan, they can get issued a permit relatively quickly. But for is a concept paper in research new housing developments in San Francisco, there’s a preliminary review, which takes six months. Then there are also chances for your neighbors to appeal your permit on application either an entitlement or environmental basis.

The city also requires extensive public notice of is a in research, proposed projects even if they already meet neighborhood plans, which have taken several years of deliberation to produce. Neighbors can appeal your project for something as insignificant as the cal poly essay application shade of paint, although the city’s planning department and commission tries to get through minor appeals quickly. If those fail, neighborhood groups can also file a CEQA or environmental lawsuit under California state law, challenging the environment impact of the project. Perversely, CEQA lawsuits have been used to what, challenge a city plan to add 34 miles of bike lanes. Then if that fails, opponents can put a development directly on a citywide ballot with enough signatures. (Thanks, Hiram Johnson?) That’s what happened with the resume controversial 8 Washington luxury condo project last November even though it had already gone through eight years of deliberation. These barriers add unpredictable costs and what is a paper in research, years of cal poly essay application, delays for every developer, which are ultimately passed onto what concept paper in research buyers and renters. It also means that developers have problems attracting capital financing in weaker economic years because of the political uncertainty around getting a project passed. The sophistication with which neighborhood groups wield San Francisco’s arcane land-use and zoning regulations for activist purposes is one of the very unique things about the cal poly city’s politics. But the city’s political leadership doesn’t want to change it, because it fears backlash from powerful neighborhood groups, which actually deliver votes. 5) Also, parts of the progressive community do not believe in supply and demand. Yeah, I was surprised by this.

“We can’t build our way to affordability,” is is a concept in research a common refrain. Tim Redmond, who used to edit the application San Francisco Bay Guardian, even suggested today that the government should take 60 percent of the city’s housing off the private market over concept in research the next 20 years. (I have no idea how you would fund this.) Why the private market can never solve SF’s housing crisis http://t.co/7vI2VPoV2r. Several activists also sent me this paper, authored by hero essay Calvin Welch, of the Council of Community Housing Organizations. Admirably, Welch has been fighting for affordable housing in is a concept paper San Francisco for resume contract the last forty years and is part of the concept politically powerful Haight Ashbury Neighborhood Council, which has seen that neighborhood through, well, everything. But this paper conflates correlation with causation. He argues that when there is a decline in about college and career goals new housing units, there is also a decline in what price. Namely, he points to relations, 2001 and 2002, while brushing off the mega-gigantic-enormous confounding variable of the dot-com bust and a regional recession. 6) OK, clarification: Affordable housing advocates would support development if it had a meaningful share of below-market-rate units. So I met Welch and concept in research, he made good points. (He’s been working on this for nearly forty years.)

His organization, the Council of Community Housing Organizations, argues that raw, additional construction will not make housing more affordable to working-class or lower-income San Franciscans. Essay Goals! Left to its own devices, the market will only produce housing that chases the very richest buyers. In a time of rising inequality, those market-rate units are increasingly out of reach, even for what in research middle-class San Franciscans. He points to tables like this one, which shows San Francisco’s residential housing pipeline for the last quarter of relations, 2013. Under state mandate, each city has a ‘Regional Housing Need’ allocation or RHNA. In San Francisco, the market is what is a concept in research producing almost double the number of housing units for people with ‘Above Moderate’ incomes, or 120 percent of the area’s median income, as the essay college and career RHNA says it needs to paper in research, build. So affordable housing advocates say that developers should be required to have a higher percentage of jobs, below-market-rate units built. The issue with inclusionary housing is that construction costs are so high in San Francisco — calculated here to be nearly $500,000 for an 800-foot square unit — that affordable housing requires generous public subsidies.

The Mayor’s Office of Housing and Community Development says there are 1,759 units of affordable housing that are currently being built or preserved at a cost of in research, $824.5 million. About $274.1 million of that funding is coming from the city, and the remaining $550.3 million has to come from superman hero somewhere else. The federal and state government used to what is a concept, help with this, but their assistance has dropped off dramatically since the 1980s. (Cuts to superman, the federal Housing and Urban Development department budget under the Reagan administration coincided with the rise of urban homelessness in San Francisco.) 2,800 people applied to live in this 60-unit affordable housing building at 474 Natoma. Also, inclusionary housing has its own trade-offs. It can pass on the costs of building below-market-rate units to market-rate buyers, cutting out units that would be affordable to middle-class buyers. Hence, another reason for what is a paper the disappearance of the San Francisco’s middle-class. You’ll see in the table above that the market is mostly producing housing for ‘above moderate’ incomes, then some ‘low income’ housing units, but hardly anything for of international relations ‘moderate incomes.’ The lack of options for middle-class San Franciscans in turn feeds the concept two-tier systems that we’re seeing in transportation with MUNI-versus-Uber and in education, where 30 percent of the about and career city’s students go to private schools at is a concept, $30,000 per year while the public school system will see almost all of its enrollment growth coming from public housing over the next three decades. The magic ratio is hard to find and it constantly shifts, depending on the state of the housing market and construction costs. 7) Yet we’re arguing over shades of narrative essays on jealousy, gray. Sorry, supply and demand still totally matter.

More construction probably won’t make prices go down , but it will prevent them from skyrocketing as much as they would otherwise. If you look at this Trulia study examining housing production since 1990 and prices in 10 of the what concept U.S.’s biggest tech hubs, you’ll see that San Francisco had the highest median prices per about goals square foot and had the lowest number of new construction permits per 1,000 units between 1990 and 2013. There are also many long-term studies like this one or this one or this one from economists like Edward Glaeser of Harvard University and Joseph Gyourko at the University of Pennsylvania examining the is a concept impact of land-use restrictions and zoning on U.S. home prices in desirable areas like Boston, New York and Coastal California since 1950. But in places where zoning regulations create artificial limits on home production, the final prices to home buyers jump far above construction costs. In the cal poly essay 1980s and 1990s, they found that virtually all of San Francisco’s home prices were at least 140 percent above base construction costs. You can also look at historical housing production levels in New York City and California. Manhattan was permitting more than 11,000 units each year during the in research postwar boom years between 1955 and 1964.

But between 1980 and 1999, the New York City borough was permitting just an narrative on jealousy average of 3,120 units per year. Between 1970 and 2000, the median price of a Manhattan housing unit increased by 284 percent in constant dollars. Similarly, California once accounted for one of every five building permits issued in the U.S. during the 1960s. That construction rate slowed down, and real housing prices in the state have increased by 385 percent from 1970 to 2010. Here’s a similar historical chart for San Francisco housing production. It’s as if both cities reacted 10 or 20 years late — long after the Great Inversion started and before anybody had any idea about how big or transformative this suburban-urban migration would become. This issue is profound.

Regional economic booms normally benefit all workers by creating more jobs throughout the economy — supporting locally-owned businesses and bringing in what is a in research more tax revenue for public services. Even if most people don’t have tech jobs in the Bay Area, they would get many more opportunities than if there was, say, no economic growth. The point is that if the entire Bay Area had a more elastic housing supply, it would not only make living affordable for most people, it would allow a far larger portion of the population to find jobs and narrative on jealousy, do things like save or spend money instead of moving somewhere distant and spending their money on driving, or even being unemployed. But in what San Francisco, that spillover effect is much smaller. This is in no small part because so much of essay about college and career, our incomes end up going toward housing costs.

The city’s economist Ted Egan estimates that each San Francisco tech job likely creates somewhere slightly north of two extra jobs, not five. San Francisco’s city economist, Ted Egan, argues above that the tech industry and its spillover effects have been responsible for virtually all of the city’s job growth since 2010. Still, the multiplier effect in San Francisco at concept in research, slightly more than 2 jobs created for every single tech job, is much lower than the 5-to-1 ratio UC Berkeley economist Enrico Moretti calculated nationwide. Housing costs dampen the spillovers since people end up spending so much more on rent and mortgages. However, it’s hard to have even basic debates over essays modest increases in the housing supply here because of this ideological dispute. 8) 1978 and 1979: Proposition 13 and is a in research, Rent Control. I keep coming back to the late 1970s because both the city of narrative essays, San Francisco and the state of California made choices that have had enduring impacts on housing to concept paper in research, this day.

If San Francisco seems torn apart by superman essay class war today, the city was in profound agony in 1978. A charismatic, religious leader named Jim Jones had won the favor of city’s political elite and helped deliver the what is a concept paper mayorship to George Moscone. Amid emerging allegations of physical abuse, Jones and hundreds of contract, his followers defected from San Francisco to Guyana, where he sought to what, build a utopia. Instead, he convinced more than 900 of his followers, including mothers and infants, to of international relations, ingest cyanide mixed with punch in a mass suicide. It was an enormous tragedy for concept in research the city; nearly every family in the black Fillmore district knew someone they had lost in Jonestown. Then, just nine days later, there was a double blow. Supervisor Dan White murdered mayor Moscone and gay political icon Harvey Milk in thesis the heart of San Francisco’s beaux-arts City Hall. Tens of what paper in research, thousands of grief-stricken people marched down Market Street in a candlelight vigil. It was into this chaos that Dianne Feinstein, who had recently been widowed after her husband passed away from colon cancer, stepped into power and assumed mayorship. The broader U.S. economic picture was not great.

Inflation shot from 9 percent at the time Feinstein became mayor to 13.3 percent a year later as the superman hero Iranian revolution triggered another energy crisis. Gas lines formed once again around stations throughout the country — again, prompting another cultural re-consideration of suburban ideal. Earlier in the summer of 1978, a cantankerous former small-town newspaper publisher named Howard Jarvis led a “taxpayer revolt” as property prices were soaring, threatening to throw home owners out of their homes because of rising tax bills. Jarvis’ idea was to cap property taxes at 1 percent of their assessed value and to prevent them from rising by more than 2 percent each year until the concept paper property was sold again and its taxes were reset at narrative, a new market value. Howard Jarvis launched the taxpayer revolt that got Proposition 13 passed, capping property taxes for homeowners. One argument that Jarvis used to rally tenant support for Proposition 13, was that he promised that landlords would pass on what concept paper their tax savings to characteristics leader, renters. They didn’t. They pocketed the savings for themselves. Tenants were furious, and rent control movements erupted in at concept in research, least a dozen cities throughout California, from application Berkeley to Santa Monica. San Francisco might have gone a different way, but Angelo Sangiacomo was the alleged trigger.

The Italian-American landlord, who was born and raised in the Richmond District, demanded across-the-board rent increases of what is a concept paper, 25 to 65 percent in cal poly essay seventeen hundred apartments in March of what, 1979. Amid the outrage, Feinstein pushed for a 60-day rent freeze that would ward off the resume contract jobs rise of a tenant-backed mayoral challenger. Both policies have had far-reaching and what concept paper in research, unanticipated ripple effects. Overnight, California’s property tax revenues fell by almost 60 percent, and the state had to essay about college goals, make emergency allocations from what concept a surplus that year to keep services afloat. Because the state’s K-12 schools are financed largely by property taxes, California’s spending per student fell from of international 5th in the nation in the mid-1960s to 50th in concept this decade. Without the cal poly essay application ability to paper, rely as heavily on property taxes, city governments throughout the state had to on jealousy, favor office and retail development over housing in order to boost sales taxes. It may have even accelerated the concept in research homogeny of suburbs as smaller city governments had to cut deals to attract “big box” retailers to boost sales tax revenue, crowding out superman, independently-run stores.

It also created a lock-in effect as California property values soared, creating a bigger gap in property taxes on newly-sold properties and what is a concept, ones that homeowners had held onto for a long time. That rigidity further enhanced the political power that NIMBY-ist homeowners accumulated in suburban city councils throughout the state. Proposition 13’s legacy? Owners of this Presidio Heights home, which just closed at narrative essays, a price of $5,125,000 earlier this week, had been paying around $2,885 in annual property taxes. The home’s new taxes should be around $60,885.

San Francisco’s 60-day rent control ordinance also stuck around, and it was subsequently strengthened through the is a concept paper following decades. The maximum allowable annual rent increase went from 7 percent to of international, 4 percent in mid-1980s and then to is a in research, a fraction of the inflation rate set by the Rent Board in 1992. Because both Proposition 13 and rent control insulate homeowners and rent-controlled tenants from dramatic tax or rent increases when the market undersupplies housing, they undermined political will for building homes. Essay! Both of is a in research, these policies were enacted just as the “Great Inversion” started. 9) Rent control’s impact on the city’s housing stock and politics is more complex than any basic economics textbook would suggest. Rent control is a naturally divisive topic in the tech community. Progressives view it as a sacred right that protects the remnants of a working- and middle-class in the city. “It’s a non-renewable resource,” Erin McElroy, who is part of the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, explained to me. But the cal poly essay tech community is both socially liberal and market-oriented, with more than 90 percent of concept, political donations from contract Apple and Google employees going to Barack Obama in the last election. So price controls in the name of community stability and equity just makes people’s brains explode.

Some influential tech leaders will be supportive (and, as I said, Conway and Benioff back Ellis Act reform). Then there are others, like venture capitalist Marc Andreessen, who has been vocal against what concept paper in research rent control on cal poly Twitter. Stop SF evictions. Stop the Ellis act. http://t.co/sWk21dAvzj. Just know that it covers around 75 percent of the city’s rental housing stock.

If the Google Bus protests were centered on 216 Ellis Act evictions in the last Rent Board year, you could imagine what would happen if you broached the topic of rent control. Want to alienate about half of San Francisco? Have fun. Yes, rent control is a blunt instrument of income re-distribution in in research an increasingly unequal world. It is not means-tested, meaning anyone from well-salaried, white-collar workers to very low-income residents can benefit from hero essay it. It also forces a number of small-time, mom-and-pop landlords to individually subsidize someone else’s cost of living in the city. It creates two classes of tenants — one that is very legally protected and another that is not.

For market-rate tenants, there is no law compelling their landlords to give them as much as $44,842 in relocation expenses under new city legislation like they will for concept in research Ellis Act evictees if they raise rents beyond what they can afford. But tenants activists see San Francisco’s rent-controlled housing stock as a vital public good that gives middle-income residents a foothold in the city. And while the contract make-up of the city’s rent-controlled hasn’t been studied in more than a decade, it likely contains less-wealthy San Franciscans on average than the market-rate units do. Is A Concept In Research! In studies of other cities where rent control unexpectedly ended via a change in state law like Cambridge, Massachusetts, tenants in essay college goals these apartments had lower incomes than those of market-rate renters. San Francisco’s version of rent control also does not apply to buildings constructed after 1979, so it shouldn’t dis-incentivize developers from what is a concept in research producing new units. Instead, a lot of other factors are constricting supply. Cal Poly! That said, I do think it undermines the in research political will that would otherwise exist for building more housing. 10) So a highly-restricted housing supply + rising demand + a volatile local economy prone to booms and busts + strict rent control without vacancy control = Eviction crisis every decade!

San Francisco’s version of rent control lacks vacancy controls, which means landlords can re-set rents at whatever the market will bear when new rent-controlled tenants move in. The logic is that with vacancy controls, landlords won’t invest in maintaining their properties. But the flipside is that the landlord also has a strong financial incentive to evict longstanding tenants who are paying below-market rates. So every decade during a boom, there is a tragic, elderly face for the story of displacement. This past year, it was Gum Gee Lee and Poon Heung Lee, the elderly Chinese-American couple with a mentally disabled daughter who were evicted last fall from what characteristics essay their home of 34 years. But back in the 1990s, there was Lola McKay. A year after her eviction fight started, McKay died alone in what paper in research her Mission apartment of essay and career, 42 years at is a concept paper in research, age 83 in are the characteristics leader toefl 2000. It sucks. I sat in a high school gym in the Tenderloin full of terrified elderly and disabled people at the citywide tenant convention. During every real-estate boom, no-fault evictions — typically of rent-controlled tenants — tick or skyrocket upwards. (From an October 2013 memo to is a concept paper in research, city supervisor David Campos.)

At the heart of the Google Bus protests are a specific kind of eviction called an Ellis Act eviction. There are 16 types of evictions, eight of which are considered “For Cause” and another eight which are considered “No Fault.” The Ellis Act is one of these. While it’s hard to fight a surge in other kinds of no-fault evictions like “Owner Move-In” evictions, the tenants movement has a stronger moral upper hand with the Ellis Act. That’s because the law, which was passed in 1985, was explicitly designed to let landlords go out of business . Tenants activists say that the Ellis Act is instead abused by real estate speculators, who evict their tenants, turn these rent-controlled apartments into tenancies-in-common and sell them at resume contract jobs, a profit.

They point to a list of a “Dirty Dozen” landlords, who are the worst serial Ellis Act evictors. One of them is Urban Green Investments, which is evicting 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant, who live up my street. Phillips moved to the city in the late 1930s as a war bride and moved into concept paper in research, this 1950s-era apartment building on Dolores Street, across the way from what is now a huge apartment complex containing a brand-new bottom-floor Whole Foods Market. Her last day was supposed to be six days ago on April 8. But she’s still there, at least until the sheriff receives a court order to take action. At 98, she has nowhere to go. 98-year-old Mary Elizabeth Phillips and Balboa High School teacher Sarah Brant are being evicted from their apartments in relations the Mission District by Urban Green Investments.

Phillips’ last day was supposed to what concept in research, be six days ago. She doesn’t have anywhere to go and doesn’t have enough money to superman essay, afford current market-rate rents in concept in research San Francisco. Resume Contract Jobs! Brant, her neighbor, helps care for her. (From VanishingSF) The city government is trying to respond as quickly as it can, but it can only do so much because the what is a paper Ellis Act is state law. Earlier this week, city supervisor David Campos, who represents the other part of the Mission, pushed legislation through the Board of essay about college and career goals, Supervisors that would raise compensation for Ellis Act evictees. It’s going from $5,200 per tenant to the difference between the tenant’s current rent and the market-rate rent for is a concept a comparable apartment over essay and career goals two years. What Is A Concept Paper! At current rates, this would be more than $44,832 for a two-bedroom apartment. They’re trying to application, change the law at the state level too. Mark Leno, who represents San Francisco in what the California State Senate, also introduced a bill that would require landlords to hold a property for good leader essay five years before invoking the Ellis Act to evict tenants. It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee earlier this week. 12) Fuck, this is complicated.

Anti-tech sentiment becomes a catalyst. But the Google Bus protests worked. — Jessica Kwong (@JessicaGKwong) April 1, 2014. They were a media sensation. They tapped into this inchoate sense of frustration around everything from rising income inequality to privacy to surveillance to the environmental impact of the hardware we buy to a dubious sense that today’s leading technology companies aren’t living up to their missions of not being evil.

“The we-hate-tech-workers is mostly a media narrative,” said organizer Fred Sherburn-Zimmer. “It’s not about what is a paper, that. It’s about income disparity. Cal Poly Essay! It’s about is a concept paper in research, speculators using high-income workers to displace communities.” Sherburn-Zimmer acknowledged that the bus protests were a tactic. But she said, without them, the movement wouldn’t have been able to get 500 people to narrative essays, march in Sacramento for Ellis Act reform. She also said that the what concept support of Conway, the advocacy group he founded called sf.citi and other tech companies will be invaluable in resume jobs turning votes on the peninsula to get Leno’s bill moving. Concept Paper! It just passed the Senate Transportation and Housing Committee this week. So the protests will keep going, because they are what keep Leno’s bill and Ellis Act reform in the news. (Don’t take it too personally. You can blame us — the media — for resume finding protests against paper in research globally-recognized brands like Google much sexier than protests against individual Mountain View city council members.) 13) Who are the protesters and what do they want? Hundreds still marching in cal poly the mission to demand no more evictions of #SF teachers.

Going bldg to bldg under threat. pic.twitter.com/ApHZ4ljxwN. — David Zlutnick (@DavidZlutnick) April 12, 2014. Like the is a in research tech community itself, the activist community is pretty heterogeneous. Essay About! There are groups like Causa Justa, which focuses on Latino and paper in research, black communities. The are housing focused groups like the about college and career Housing Rights Committee and others affiliated with the San Francisco Tenants Union.

There are efforts like the Anti-Eviction Mapping Project, which is asking San Franciscans to boycott renting at places where Ellis Act evictions have happened. McElroy, who is crammed into a two-bedroom, non-rent-controlled apartment with four other people in Bernal Heights, built it along with other tech workers including Kelsey Gilmore-Innis, Sasha Magee and Silvia Amtmann. Is A Paper! She’s been leading many of the resume contract protests several times a week at different real estate offices, Google Bus stops and homes where long-time tenants are being evicted. The broad point here is that while tech-fueled economic growth can be good, gentrification carries enormous and is a paper, often tragic costs for certain individuals and essay, communities. If those costs aren’t being recognized by a purely market-based system, then the what concept political system should rectify it. “We implore tech to start talking to us. Come out into resume, the streets with us. I don’t think it occurs to people that they can be a body too.

People live in bubbles here,” McElroy said. “If you’re scared, what does that compare to people who are being forced out of their homes?” But there are times when it can just get weird or borderline disturbing. The Counterforce left creepy flyers at what paper, Kevin Rose’s house demanding $3 billion for an anarchist utopia and narrative essays, showed up one morning at the Berkeley home of Google engineering manager Anthony Levandowski. While McElroy communicates with The Counterforce, they are a separate group with different tactics. And it often feels like protests meant to stir meaningful discussion about income inequality, gentrification and what paper in research, housing veer off into misguided anger or hatred. At an superman anti-eviction protest on Friday, hundreds of what, people marched through the streets of the Mission with a brass band. It was totally non-violent, with lots of children, parents, teachers and seniors singing and shouting.

Lowell High School senior Natalia Arguello-Inglis took the microphone and said, “We can’t blindly hate on contract jobs the techies and yuppies. What Is A Concept! Who are we to narrative essays, judge who can come into this city and who can not? Gentrification is not going to go away. But we can work with the what is a concept paper in research people who are causing it.” But there was also one ‘Tech = Death’ sign in a visual reference to early 1990s anti-AIDS documentary ‘Silence = Death’ and a few other people carried pictures of narrative essays on jealousy, Jack Halprin, the what concept paper Google lawyer who is evicting multiple tenants from his house on Guerrero Street. Following the protests, a Business Insider reporter named Kyle Russell also had Google Glass ripped off his face and about college and career, smashed.

Three protests so far have also individually targeted Google employees, including Kevin Rose, who came home to a large banner and flyers reading “Kevin Rose Parasite” (pictured below). Also, a protester climbed on top of a Yahoo bus at the MacArthur station and vomited on it. Randy Shaw, who houses low-income San Franciscans in concept paper in research 1,600 units under the contract jobs non-profit Tenderloin Housing Clinic, calls this backlash a new form of nativism. When he moved here in the late 1970s, he remembered straight residents making the same complaints about an influx of what, gays into superman, the Castro or a flood of Latino immigrants into what was a largely Irish-American Mission District a generation ago. “…the war on tech workers—as opposed to tech companies or policies— is not really a “class war.” Rather, it is about one group of predominately white people complaining about a similar demographic group that likes many of the same restaurants, bars, street festivals, and what is a concept paper, Samba classes that they do—but who makes more money.” He points out that many of the resume contract union-affiliated protesters blasting Twitter in paper front of the company’s headquarters are simultaneously requesting budget increases from the mayor’s office, which is largely possible because of the tech-fueled economic boom. In other cases, it feels like activists are misusing state laws to make a point. Several groups spent eight hours at the Board of Supervisors meeting earlier this month challenging the city’s decision not to put the new tech commuter shuttle pilot program under environmental review via CEQA. This is even though the buses take cars off the road for as many as 4,000 commuters every day. They argued that displacement of existing communities should be counted as an college and career goals environmental impact of the shuttle program.

The Board of is a concept paper, Supervisors disagreed, voting 8-2 to uphold the exemption. “We’re not saying no buses,” Sherburn-Zimmer said. “We’re saying that there are consequences that happen when these buses move into the neighborhood.” Certainly, charging $1 per use of a public bus stop is low when the regular MUNI fare is $2. But under California Proposition 218, the transportation agency is not allowed to create a revenue-generating program. So the program can only jobs, pay for its $1.7 million in costs now. But the activists aren’t happy with that. “Google never came to us and asked us what we would like to see,” McElroy said. “We are not into backdoor deal-making with politicians.” Also, none of this — the what is a paper increased eviction protections, the push to stall the shuttle program under CEQA, Ellis Act reform — amounts to are the characteristics good toefl essay, massive, systems-level change.

It protects long-time residents who are already here, but it doesn’t make San Francisco affordable or available to what is a concept paper in research, future middle- or working-class residents. The activists know this. “We’re playing fastball right now,” McElroy said. “These are Band-Aid solutions.” Indeed, this is politics! 14) So complicated! What are compromises that have actually worked?

Normally, city policy makers favor constructing housing where there are no pre-existing units because new housing is generally less affordable than old housing. And Career Goals! But because we are a city that has been built out is a concept in research, since the 1950s, we have very little unused space left. One project that could point the way is what are the characteristics of a Trinity Plaza at is a concept in research, 8th and Mission. It’s a 1,900-unit complex that came about through an agreement in are the characteristics of a good leader toefl essay 2005 between the what concept in research unlikeliest of allies. Trinity Plaza in 1962. Described as “San Francisco’s new, luxurious, fully air conditioned 400 room motor hotel.” Eric Fischer/Flickr.

On one side was the infamous “Father of thesis, Rent Control” Sangiacomo. Trinity was a rundown 1960s-era motel that ended up being turned into an apartment building with 360 rent-controlled units. When Sangiacomo originally proposed re-developing the area, it stirred up progressive opposition led by Daly and a two-year political battle ensued. It was a big win. Longtime residents weren’t displaced and got brand-new homes at near their old rent, plus the city got to provide many more homes to other San Franciscans. 15) What is the city government doing? If you can see any possible silver lining in being antagonized every day in concept paper protests, it’s that the resume jobs city government will be really, really, really focused on housing. A lot of things that weren’t considered politically possible for what paper years are happening now. The Board of what are the toefl, Supervisors was able to pass a bill to legalize in-law units, which can be anything from garages to what is a concept, attics that have illegally housed tens of thousands of San Franciscans for decades in a shadow housing market.

They also voted to increase Ellis Act relocation compensation, although landlords represented by the San Francisco Apartment Association say they are considering a lawsuit to challenge this. The mayor doubled the city’s downpayment assistance program to first-time home buyers to $200,000. The mayor pledged to build or rehabilitate 30,000 units in essay college goals the next six years, with one-third of those being permanently affordable to lower and moderate-income families. He also convened a working group representing more than 75 different interests that will come up with solutions to what is a concept paper, the housing crisis. You can read different ideas for solving the housing crisis here from SPUR, the narrative essays on jealousy San Francisco Housing Action Coalition or the is a concept paper Council of Community Housing Organizations. There is no silver bullet in any of these. It’s a hard problem. Superman Hero Essay! Lee, Leno and others are collaborating on this Ellis Act bill in the state legislature. They’re also working on using city-owned land for affordable housing developments. Ahead of what is a paper, all these protests, Lee also got voters to pass an Affordable Housing Trust Fund back in 2012.

But any projects from resume contract jobs it are also likely to be mired in that crazy planning process. 16) What is the tech industry doing? Ron Conway is asking tech CEOs across the industry to speak up in is a paper in research favor of Ellis Act reform, which would help longtime tenants at superman hero, risk of is a concept paper, no-fault evictions stay in their rent-controlled units. Google also gave $6.8 million as a temporary source of funding for a MUNI program that gives free rides to low-income youth. In March, the essay about and career goals company also opened a Bay Area Impact Challenge, which will grant $5 million to what in research, 25 Bay Area non-profits. Two weeks ago, they also funded all of the resume jobs Bay Area projects on Donors Choose, which is concept paper a platform where teachers can list projects that they need funding for in their classrooms. The amount was roughly $600,000 for 600 area projects.

Salesforce CEO Marc Benioff also challenged tech industry workers to raise $10 million in the next 60 days for anti-poverty organizations. Google was also a founding partner in the effort, called the Tipping Point SF Gives fund, with a $1 million donation. Just a few days ago, Benioff and what are the characteristics of a leader toefl essay, his wife also gave a second $100 million to the UCSF Benioff Children’s Hospital and its affiliate, the Children’s Hospital Research Center in Oakland. The mayor and sf.citi have been brokering meetings between tech companies like Jawbone, Pinterest, Airbnb and what in research, non-profits like the YMCA, the Tenderloin Housing Clinic and the Mission Economic Development Agency. Jawbone CEO Hosain Rahman and YMCA San Francisco CEO Chuck Collins co-authored a piece outlining a “One City” strategy today. Airbnb is now remitting San Francisco’s 14 percent hotel occupancy tax. Then there are lots of other efforts (and I can’t remember them all), like Zendesk’s and city’s new mobile site for hero essay homeless services called LinkSF. Square, which has been doing trash clean-ups every Friday on the streets of is a paper, Mid-Market for more than a year, starting hiring security guards with equity instead of narrative essays, contracting this work out to other companies. There was a Hacktivation for the Homeless, where developers donated their time to build projects requested by is a paper local non-profits.

Consider these things just a start. 17) What about cal poly application, this “Twitter tax break” that the unions say is costing the city $56 million? There is a ton of is a concept, anger at the tech industry over two tax exclusions that were passed in 2011. David Campos, the city supervisor who represents the of international relations Mission, recently called for a hearing on the so-called “Twitter tax break.” (Not so coincidentally, he is currently running to represent San Francisco in the California state assembly against David Chiu.) It’s a complicated issue if you look into it. What Is A Paper In Research! Yes, San Francisco is an extremely desirable place and it has more leverage than most cities in the entire country to squeeze corporations for additional taxes or concessions. But those taxes can’t be so out of line with neighboring cities that companies just move one city south, leaving San Francisco with the same housing problems but nothing in business tax revenue to show for it. This is cal poly essay one reason for why the biotechnology industry has historically been centered in South San Francisco with companies like Genentech, even though San Francisco is what is a concept in research home to cal poly, UCSF, one of the best medical schools and what is a concept paper in research, research facilities in the world. At the time that the city passed both exclusions, San Francisco was the only city in the state of what of a good leader, California to derive all of is a in research, its business tax revenue from payrolls and one of the few in the nation that taxed employee stock options. So this uncapped, unpredictable tax liability that could stretch into tens of thesis of international, millions of dollars was a huge reason to leave even though Twitter’s leadership wanted to stay.

At the same time, San Francisco’s unemployment rate was north of 8 percent at that time, so the city’s priority was to create jobs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion (a.k.a. “Twitter tax break”) will be a moot point by 2018 when the concept paper in research city shifts entirely to a gross receipts tax. The new @twitter HQ sign is an homage to the civic importance of its predecessor. Here’s old vs new. pic.twitter.com/XNF3Lurwbs. The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion, was created with Twitter in mind in 2011 to incentivize companies to resume, stay in San Francisco and what is a concept paper in research, move to resume contract jobs, a part of concept in research, Market Street that had 30 percent storefront vacancy rates. The point was to create a tech cluster that would generate meaningful tax revenues over essays on jealousy the long-run through an what is a concept paper in research estimated $54 million over 20 years and boost economic activity in the area. The exclusion was available to essay college and career, all companies with more than $250,000 in payrolls that moved there. Paper In Research! Twitter was the anchor, and it moved its headquarters to a Shorenstein-owned SF Mart building that had been vacant for are the five years.

Companies like Zendesk, Spotify and concept paper, One Kings Lane also joined the program and are the leader toefl, got a break from the city’s 1.5 percent payroll tax on additional headcount for what concept paper up to six years if they moved to Mid-Market. Resume Jobs! In 2012, this amounted to $1.9 million in foregone taxes on concept paper in research $126.8 million in essay payroll expenses. Because these companies had more than $1 million in payroll expenses, they also had to concept paper in research, create ‘Community Benefit Agreements’ that documented how they’re giving back to the community through donations and superman hero essay, volunteership. What! While the superman hero essay advisory committee overseeing the program loves IPO candidate Zendesk, its members are frustrated with Twitter and other companies for being too vague on commitments or not even showing up to meetings. Then, the whole payroll tax was subsequently reformed or scrapped by voters the what following year through Proposition E in favor of a tax on gross receipts that’s starting to be phased in. The argument was that payroll taxes penalize job creation.

On top of that, the city was only are the of a good toefl, collecting the payroll taxes from less than 10 percent of the what roughly 100,000 registered companies in the city at that time. A gross receipts tax focuses on revenues; it’s generally good for service businesses like restaurants and pre-revenue companies that could scale quickly like tech startups. The city used to charge either the greater of a gross receipts tax or a payroll tax, but the California state court system ruled that this was illegal after companies like Eastman Kodak and General Motors sued the city of Los Angeles for the same practice more than a decade ago. The city had tried to shift from a payroll tax to a gross receipts tax before, but the are the characteristics measure didn’t pass until 2012. So this whole tax break that people are screaming about is a concept paper in research, will be a moot point by what characteristics of a leader essay 2018, when the is a paper gross receipts tax is fully baked in for everyone. And if San Francisco is able to convince tech companies to stay instead of resume, moving down south to the peninsula, and one of them turns into what paper, a Facebook, Oracle or Google-sized company, the city will be able to capture a percentage of what will be billions of dollars in annual revenues. The city said today that the program had already helped generate $8.4 million in property and real estate transfer taxes, attracted 18 tech companies and convinced 17 small businesses to open on the street.

The Mid-Market payroll tax exclusion zone. Companies that move to cal poly essay, this area receive a break from the what concept paper in research 1.5 percent payroll tax until 2017. By 2018, the city will be fully shifted over into thesis relations, a gross receipts tax, however. The employee stock options tax is the one that cuts to the heart of a broad inequality debate. There was a second temporary tax exemption that was passed in 2011 that focused on employee stock options and was created to is a concept, retain pre-IPO companies in characteristics of a good leader toefl essay San Francisco like Zynga, Twitter and Zendesk. TechCrunch covered it back in concept paper 2011 and it should also be over-ridden by the shift to hero essay, gross receipts taxes. This is the is a concept paper one that is more controversial in the context of the broader inequality debate. James Temple, who now works at thesis of international relations, Re/Code, wrote a piece for is a concept the San Francisco Chronicle last fall saying that this tax break cost the contract city $34 million on top of the projected $22 million in foregone revenue from the Mid-Market program.

This is what is a where this $56 million figure keeps coming from, even though if Twitter had moved, the essay city wouldn’t have seen any of it. It’s phantom money. Paying $56 million to what is a paper, San Francisco-versus-paying business taxes in other neighboring Silicon Valley cities. (From a 2011 Budget and Legislative Analyst memo.) At the time it was passed, San Francisco was one of the cal poly essay few cities in the nation to tax employee stock options and it included them as part of the 1.5 percent payroll tax. The controller’s office also found that San Francisco had a higher propensity to lose businesses to other locales than Santa Clara, San Mateo, Alameda, or Contra Costa counties.

The city government studied more than a dozen San Francisco-based IPOs since 1997, and is a, found that no single company paid more than $685,000 in taxes on employee stock options in good toefl any one year. So they capped the employee stock options tax at $750,000 for pre-IPO companies on equity granted before a public offering. The city’s leadership made a choice to is a paper in research, retain startups as they matured into characteristics good essay, growth companies, keep those jobs and concept paper in research, then earn taxes on gross receipts later. Yet I can see how witnessing hundreds of superman, early Twitter employees become millionaires overnight would be aggravating to San Franciscans who are feeling squeezed or who feel like public services aren’t adequately supported. A lot of other VCs and founders are also digesting Thomas Piketty’s new book, “Capital in the 21st Century.” With more than 200 years of what concept, data, it chronicles an inexorable rise in cal poly application inequality that was punctuated in is a concept paper the middle of the 20th century by the Great Depression and World War II followed by essay about college goals 30 years of evenly-spread prosperity. Ultimately, it advocates a globally-coordinated tax on wealth. The keyword there is coordinated . If this issue re-emerges again in San Francisco (and it will), you’d have to what concept in research, make sure that the proposed solutions don’t end up driving away jobs or growth-stage companies. The previous employee stock options tax was poorly-designed in the context of what neighboring cities were doing — which is nothing. Are The Characteristics Of A Good Toefl! Moreover, it’s a highly volatile source of tax revenue.

No one had any idea that Twitter’s IPO would go so well, or that Zynga’s would go so terribly. You’d either have to design something less punitive compared to neighboring cities or create something that is what is a concept paper in research coordinated with the rest of Silicon Valley. If not, there are plenty of hero essay, ways that the tech boom is supporting city coffers. At an annual $7.9 billion, the concept in research city’s current budget is more than $1.5 billion more than what it was at the recession’s low point, largely because of the relations tech-fueled economic recovery. Also, remember Proposition 13 and in research, all those houses that are paying taxes tied to narrative essays, 1970s or 1980s assessments? Now that there’s a revived real estate market, all of those homes are being re-assessed at current market values when they get sold.

So the concept city expects to see $79 million more in application property taxes than the $1.15 billion it had originally budgeted for is a paper this fiscal year, according to an update last month. And again, we’re switching over to gross receipts anyway. 18) Isn’t the tech community made up of a bunch of superman hero, libertarians who have total disregard for government and taxes? The tech leadership of this generation doesn’t have a reflexive anti-tax orientation like that of the Reagan era. They’re not secretly having Laffer Curve parties in their private jets to Burning Man. Facebook’s first angel and Silicon Valley’s most visible libertarian, Peter Thiel.

“I wouldn’t mind paying more in taxes if I could do anything I wanted to do with the rest of the money, which I’m largely restricted in what I can do, from the FDA on down to the San Francisco zoning department.” “I live in paper the Marina area in San Francisco. They built the Golden Gate Bridge in three and a half years in the 1930s, ‘33 to superman, ‘36. They’re now building an access road to the bridge that’s taken eight years and possibly will end up costing more in inflation adjusted dollars than the whole bridge cost in the ‘30s. What Concept! So it’s one of the reasons I personally don’t want to pay more taxes, because I feel the government spends the superman hero money so extraordinarily badly. I’d be fine with paying more if I felt the government was run as well as it was run in the ‘50s, ‘60s, ‘30s.” Even venture capitalist Tim Draper, who is pushing this far-out plan to break California into what in research, six states, conceded that Silicon Valley was the least likely to support it out of essays, all the hypothetical Californias he wants to create.

He didn’t say why though. And your renegade law-breaking companies of Airbnb, Lyft and Uber? They proved product-market fit, built something that people were willing to what paper, pay for, scaled their businesses and now they are both transforming and being reined into the existing regulatory and tax infrastructure. Airbnb is now remitting its 14 percent in hotel taxes and seeing enforcement from the city’s planning department. While there is a visible libertarian fringe, the tech community on the whole donates overwhelmingly to of international, the Democratic party (which means they’re pro-business moderates in San Francisco’s terms). 19) Real change on taxes, transit and housing will require a region-wide body with more political teeth. In 1912, a Greater San Francisco movement emerged and the city tried to annex Oakland. Understandably, Oakland refused. For more than a century, the Bay Area’s housing, transit infrastructure and tax system has been haunted by the region’s fragmented governance.

We aren’t like New York City, where the government has oversight over five boroughs containing 8.4 million people. For the 7 million people of the San Francisco Bay Area, it’s every city and county for themselves. While there is a council of city governments called the Association of Bay Area Governments that was started in 1961, it’s not sufficiently powerful. That means NIMBY-ists in is a paper every city try and shove the housing issue onto what of a good leader toefl someone else. That means it’s a race-to-the-bottom on business taxes. That means we have a fragmented transportation system between BART, MUNI, AC Transit, VTA Light Rail, SamTrans and so on. BART would have run around the is a concept entire Bay Area, but San Mateo County dropped out in 1961 and then Marin did too. Not only is transportation down the peninsula fragmented between all of these different systems, the suburbs have also blocked many denser housing developments along the Caltrain stations that would have supported workforces for companies like Google and Facebook. 20) This seems overwhelming.

Why doesn’t Google just move to Detroit? Actually, this is happening. Just not in Detroit. Yet. During the last tech boom, it was hard to think of more than a handful of cities that boasted a startup ecosystem. Today, there are many.

The high cost of living in contract jobs the Bay Area is the rest of the world’s gain. A Startup Genome Map measuring the what is a depth of various tech entrepreneurial ecosystems around the world. Look all over the world. In the Mitte and Kreuzberg neighborhoods of Berlin. In Zhongguancun, Beijing where Tsinghua University is sprouting companies.

In Greenpoint, Brooklyn where Kickstarter is headquartered. In Israel, where the country is having a run of consumer exits with the Waze and Onavo acquisitions. In Noida and on jealousy, Gurgaon. The world’s leading virtual reality startup, just acquired for $2 billion by Facebook, is run out of Orange County. The world’s leading mobile gaming companies are run out of London and Helsinki. The world’s most interesting emerging handset maker, Xiaomi, is run out of Beijing. Just four years after launch, they expect to ship $11 billion worth of phones and accessories.

Snapchat, started by a handful of Stanford graduates who would have probably stayed here a decade ago, is paper run out of a beach house in Venice. Soylent — OK, make fun of them — just decamped for Los Angeles because warehouse space was too expensive here. Silicon Valley is still the densest and strongest tech ecosystem in the world. But it is only ahead because — in startup parlance — it was a first mover. Consider when Silicon Valley’s building blocks were laid in essay and career the 1940s through the 1970s through foundational companies like Hewlett-Packard, Fairchild and Shockley Semiconductor and Xerox PARC.

At that time, the rest of the world’s major economies were being rebuilt. Is A Paper In Research! Europe was undergoing World War II reconstruction and India and China were just establishing a sense of national unity and systems of governance. Both India and China have made major economic reforms and today, the choice between Bangalore, Beijing and Silicon Valley is more of essays on jealousy, a coin toss for entrepreneurial talent than a no-brainer. While Silicon Valley certainly isn’t in peril, its continued resilience depends on whether it can keep attracting the best talent and new ideas from what concept paper in research everywhere. No, we’re not fucked. If you’ve actually read this far, you know why we’re here. We’re paying crazy rents and mortgages or rolling around on gMuni bouncy balls in the streets because the Bay Area has done a lot of contract jobs, things right. But do you know what else is what is a concept paper in research true? They found that children in contract San Jose and San Francisco had the highest chances of moving from the bottom income quintile to the top quintile out of all major metropolitan areas in the United States. Then there are the more realistic ones, like that of my mother, who moved to the Bay Area in the late 1970s as a Vietnamese refugee.

Because my grandparents were too old to work and they couldn’t speak English, my mother and her five sisters pooled together their earnings to paper in research, collectively buy a home in San Jose all while in their mid-twenties. They then parlayed the equity from that home into thesis of international relations, buying homes of their own when they were ready to start families. We have to remember that cities are unequal because the opportunities they provide attract both the very rich and the very poor. San Francisco’s extreme juxtapositions of wealth and poverty exist because the city is both an extremely desirable place to live and it maintains protections for what is a concept residents through programs like rent control and essay, $165 million a year in spending on homelessness. The gleaming, onyx NEMA towers exist side-by-side with homelessness because San Francisco created the what concept Mid-Market program to lure companies like Twitter and the single-room-occupancy hotels and about goals, non-profits that house and feed the city’s poorest residents have been politically protected in the Tenderloin for decades. Both the what is a paper tech industry and superman hero, San Francisco have delicate ecologies that have taken decades to cultivate. As they become more intertwined, the concept political winds of the city are shifting. They could go in an increasingly antagonistic direction or a new consensus could emerge. What will it be? Tech workers: It’s not as easy as just building up.

This battle has been raging on what since the sand dunes of the Sunset district were flattened for single-family homes in the 1950s. Try to is a concept, understand where others are coming from. There are people out there like Mary Elizabeth Phillips, who could really use your help right now, whether that means signing a petition for Ellis Act reform, calling or e-mailing Urban Green, or boycotting Ellis Act eviction properties. How can your actions where you live benefit others who are losing out narrative essays on jealousy, during this economic boom? How will you participate in your community? Will it be through charity?

Through volunteership? Through taxes? Are you willing to fight the is a concept paper political battles and form the alliances necessary to create housing for tech workers and teachers alike? You need to resume contract, vote, to show the city government that there is political will for development or else the old, anti-growth regime will keep dictating preservationist policies that turn housing into a zero-sum game. Companies like Gap, Wells Fargo, Levi Strauss Co. and Salesforce also have long histories of participating in San Francisco’s civic life.

What legacy will companies like Dropbox, Square, Airbnb and Twitter leave? Homeowners in the neighborhood associations and in the peninsula: The tech industry is helping your home values skyrocket, but your property taxes have not kept up with the cost of providing services or schools. Stop sitting in concept the background while the essay city’s workers, the poor, the elderly and its young duke out in this ugly charade. While there are some tech workers who do strike it rich, most just have salaries and would love to raise families in is a concept the Bay Area just as you did when you came here years ago. The Bay Area risks becoming a victim of its own success if it can’t make more room. At this point, blocking individual housing developments to protect your views is tantamount to generational theft. Activists: Invoking CEQA clauses to stall the what of a leader toefl city’s tech shuttle program through an environmental impact review so that 1,400 of 4,000 tech bus riders may or may not decide to move slightly south is not a game-changing way to address housing affordability in is a paper in research San Francisco.

The industry’s leadership like Conway are asking tech companies to back Ellis Act reform. But without serious additions to the entire region’s housing supply, these crisis measures just make San Francisco’s existing middle- and working-class a highly-protected, but endangered population in the long-run. With such limited rental stock available on the market at any time, what kind of person can afford to resume jobs, move here today when the city’s median rent is what concept $3,350? For the more extreme groups, you cannot logically fight both development and displacement. The real estate speculation running through the city right now is cal poly just as much a bet on political paralysis in the face of a long-term housing shortage as it is on San Francisco’s desirability as a place to live. Furthermore, the antagonism only ensures that deals will happen behind closed doors. The unfortunate path of least resistance for most tech companies will be to just pay their workers more, instead of engaging in regional politics. That is a loss for everyone. For the more pragmatic groups, the tech community could easily be persuaded to support inclusionary housing, provided the numbers still work out profitably for developers and that lots more overall housing units gets built. The same goes for Trinity-like projects.

In conclusion: The crisis we’re seeing is the result of decades of choices, and while the tech industry is a sexy, attention-grabbing target, it cannot shoulder blame for this alone. Unless a new direction emerges, this will keep getting worse until the next economic crash, and then it will re-surface again eight years later. Or it will keep spilling over into Oakland, which is a whole other Pandora’s box of what is a concept paper in research, gentrification issues. The high housing costs aren’t healthy for the city, nor are they healthy for the industry. Both thrive on a constant flow of ideas and people. So while Google may not be opening a giant office in resume contract jobs Detroit anytime soon, the people of Detroit and the Midwest are coming here. I meet them every day. There are people like Brian Clark, who actually did move from Detroit, and was living off various hackathon winnings while teaching coding in MissionBit’s after-school programs for San Francisco’s public school students. Is A Paper In Research! Earlier this spring, he was literally sleeping on friends’ couches, eating one meal a day.

But he won the Launch Hackathon and now has initial funding for a new startup called Vue, a mobile feedback and user engagement tool he built. Or like Rey Faustino, who I wrote about last month. Resume Jobs! He grew up in a working-class family in Southern California that relied on what concept paper social services to make ends meet. Now he’s working on fixing the problems he remembered as a child through One Degree, which is cal poly a Yelp-like platform that helps Bay Area families find the right non-profits and what concept, social services for them. It’s supported by Y Combinator and has thousands of essay college goals, users. Many of the concept people who come here will stay, and make vital contributions for decades through their work, their taxes and their charitable contributions. Some will come for awhile and then go back and invigorate entrepreneurial ecosystems back home. This circulation of creative talent is crucial not only for the Bay Area, but for the rest of the contract jobs United States.

I would not want to is a concept in research, deny anyone — rich or poor — the chance to about and career goals, transform or be transformed by what concept in research this place. Top image: A hearse rolls up to a Yahoo bus at the BART MacArthur Station in of international relations Oakland. A protester who had climbed on top of the is a paper bus later vomited on the vehicle. (From Andrew Kenower)

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10 English Phrases to what is a, Express Your Opinion in an Essay. This is a guest post by narrative essays on jealousy Sam Pealing. Make sure to paper, visit his website EnglishForStudy.com for more academic English help! I admire international students. Seriously. Goals! If you’re a non-native English speaker doing a degree or doctorate in English, then I take my hat off to you. I get a lot of paper in research, questions about writing essays, and I’ve taught hundreds of students how to write effective essays (which get good grades). One of the most common mistakes that I see is a lack of opinion. Most of the time, students describe a situation, but they don’t give their opinion or stance. Contract Jobs! This can really damage your grade because lecturers are always looking for ‘critical thinking’. If you don’t give your opinion in your essays, your lecturers can’t see your critical thinking.

To put it simply: If you don’t put your opinion or stance in an essay, then you’ll probably lose marks. In this article, you’ll learn 10 effective phrases that you can use to give your opinion in is a concept, your essay. I’ve also created a free lesson pack which will help you to practice the phrases in what are the characteristics of a good leader toefl, this article. CLICK HERE to download it. If you’re looking for a quick fix for your essay, these phrases should help you to start putting your own opinions in what concept in research, your essays.

But, before you rush over to your essays to start putting these phrases in, there’s something you need to know. Resume! If you’re writing an academic essay, you will need to what, support your opinions with strong evidence . This is narrative especially true if you are using some of the what concept paper in research, stronger phrases. This evidence can be a journal article, a lecture, a textbook, or something else which is a trustworthy source of information. In a more informal essay, like one in essay, an IELTS or TOEFL language test, you don’t need to is a concept paper in research, support your answers with strong evidence. Your experiences or opinions will be enough.

Quick note : I know! You’re ready to see the superman, phrases. This won’t take long and it’s really important. 1. Is A Paper In Research! For these phrases to be really effective, you’ll need to review your grammar. Shayna has some great videos on her Espresso English Youtube channel . I recommend these: 2. If you want to know the structure of a good essay paragraph, check my post here . These phrases are suitable for language tests such as TOEFL or IELTS. In an hero essay, academic essay, these phrases will probably be too informal because they are too personal. In my opinion , a good education is what is a paper more important than a good car.

I believe that schools should encourage students to walk or cycle to school rather than drive. Superman! “ In my mind , no-one should have to pay for paper, medical care.” More Formal Academic Phrases With ‘That’ These phrases are more suitable for academic essays. If you are unsure whether you should use an informal phrase or an academic phrase, use an academic one. Cal Poly Application! If you think your writing might be informal, read this post to learn more. The patterns here are quite straightforward. What Is A Concept In Research! Just add your sentence after ‘that’. “It would seem that + [your sentence]” Use this when you support your opinion with evidence. Resume Jobs! “ It would seem that children learn best when they are feeling comfortable.” “It could be argued that + [your sentence]” Use this when you want to challenge an existing opinion. What! “ It could be argued that the benefits outweigh the essay application, drawbacks in this situation.” “This suggests that + [your sentence]” Use this when you don’t want to is a concept in research, fully commit to an opinion. Essay! You’re giving yourself some distance. “ The evidence suggests that people who speak more than one language have more job opportunities.” Use this when you are confident with your opinion. This phrase is quite strong* “ This proves that the best way to lose weight is what is a paper through a controlled diet and a good exercise program.” “This supports the idea that + [your sentence]” Use this one when you are supporting an opinion that you have already made.

“ This new research supports the idea that successful English learners look for superman hero essay, opportunities to use English.” “Although [idea you disagree with], [idea you agree with]” Use this when you want make your opinion seem balanced. “ Although reports suggest that cigarettes could help people to lose weight, there are too many serious health problems associated with smoking.” Note: The ‘ although’ pattern is what is a paper in research very effective because it shows two sides of the about college, argument. In the example, I support the what is a concept paper in research, idea that smoking is bad for your health –BUT- I recognise that it could have some benefits. What Characteristics Good! Structure your ‘ although’ sentence like this: Although, [weaker argument you disagree with], [stronger argument you agree with]. Using Adverbs, Adjectives and Nouns. You can use adjectives to in research, show your opinion. The adjective and nouns in the example are negative . You can get some good ideas from this video on superman hero essay, Extreme Adjectives . Note: try not to use any emotional adjectives . Of course, these phrases aren’t the only ones that you can use!

You can find more or you can create your own by combining different patterns. Here’s an what, example of #7, #9 and #10 used together. Cal Poly Application! “Although it is difficult for what is a concept paper, older adults to learn a second language, an important study by about college and career goals Smith (2014) proved that the elderly can successfully learn new languages.” So now you should have a better idea of how to what concept paper in research, include more opinions in your essays. But that’s not all; there are probably some new words here that you don’t know. So here’s what you should do: Choose three of the opinion expressions and phrases that you want to try. Practice writing sentences using them (if you don’t have a topic, try this: should students do homework? You can see examples of this in the lesson pack ) Get the Lesson Pack for this lesson (which contains the vocabulary and the phrases from resume contract jobs, this lesson) CLICK HERE to download it . Sam Pealing is an English language coach who specialises in two important areas: 1. helping you to get great grades at what is a paper in research, university, and 2. helping you to become an cal poly application, effective and confident English user.

If you’re feeling frustrated or confused with English, Sam has created the perfect email course for what concept paper in research, you! You can join his course here –or- you can read more by him on English For Study .

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essay on the tango A farewell dinner in a Montevideo restaurant on a summer night, with tables spilling out onto the pavement under the plane trees. A famous Uruguayan poet in his early forties consoles the guest of honour on the eve of his return home to Europe. Spontaneously, the Uruguayan breaks out into an appropriate tango that speaks of friendship and the bittersweet sorrow of parting. A woman at the table listens, then interrupts with another tango. The poet begins a third. Soon they stand together, the one starting, the other joining in. The spirit is not that of a contest but of concept paper in research a quiet feast of cal poly essay nostalgia.

Tango follows tango. Two hours later they still stand there, gently egging each other on. It is three o'clock in what concept paper, the morning. 'When you come back,' promises the poet, 'we'll get drunk for are the good leader toefl three days and is a paper in research, three nights and I'll sing you three hundred tangos. That's how many I know. Three or four hundred.'

The Spirit of the Tango in Buenos Aires. An Argentine novelist comes back to his family, his home, his city, his country, his world - Buenos Aires - after seven years, seven months, and seven days of political exile in Mexico. I meet him ten days after his return. He is bursting with happiness, drunk with happiness, and is absolutely full of about and career goals himself. I ask what he's doing. 'I'm making love to Buenos Aires,' he says.

Vast , sprawling, flat Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the Argentine Republic, divided from the Province of what concept Buenos Aires and the rest of the thesis of international, country by concept paper in research, the ring road known as the cal poly application, General Paz. The writer and I talk of foreign cities - Mexico, New York, Rome, Paris, London. I chide him for paper in research not knowing Europe. For a moment he looks worried, inadequate, then the radiance engulfs him again, and he is able to narrative essays, announce emphatically, 'No, it will be twenty years before I cross the what paper in research, General Paz again.' Jorge Luis Borges on the Tango. 'Dictionaries of music give a definition of the tango that is both elementary and straightforward, but a French or a Spanish composer who correctly pieces together a #147;tango#148; finds to are the characteristics of a good leader toefl, his astonishment that he has constructed something that Argentine ears do not recognize, that our memories do not cherish, and what paper in research, that our bodies reject. Without Buenos Aires evenings and nights, no tango can be made.' In origin and development - even in its dates - the tango parallels exactly American ragtime and jazz. Like jazz, the tango's beginnings were lowly and illegitimate.

Born on the waterfronts and in the outer slums of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, it was taken up in a variety of dance halls, dives, and whorehouses. 'That reptile of the brothels', one distinguished Argentine writer dubbed the tango, in 1917. In the same way that American blacks speak of their most intimate music as soul music, to the contemporary Argentine - and especially the man of cal poly essay Buenos Aires, the porteno - the tango is the expression of his soul. As a dance, choreographically, the tango marks a departure from previous dances, folk or formal, in that it was performed by couples closely entwined. The movements involved an what concept paper in research intimate parting and coming together again in a manner blatantly romantic and sexual. Hence the lubriciousness generally attributed to the tango; hence, given the social conditions under which it was born and flourished, its popular appeal. The tango emerged, probably not before 1880, in the River Plate port cities of leader Montevideo, Buenos Aires, Rosario, and La Plata. The earliest tangos were without lyrics and were danced, but its steps and figures evolved before anyone knew he was dancing the is a paper, tango. Musicologists trace the tango back to the habanera, Cuban music of the late nineteenth century with similar rhythms, whose own origins stem from about goals France. But the what concept, line of what are the characteristics essay descent is not direct. Along the way, a variety of what concept paper influences gave shape to essay application, what we now know as the tango.

Among these were the Spanish zarzuela, the Andalusian tango, and - via South American freed slaves - African rhythms, especially the candombe. Some historians claim that the tango, as a dance, was a parody by what concept in research, the blacks of the politer dances of the day, such as waltzes, mazurkas, polkas, etc. The word 'tango' itself seems to be of essay about college goals African origin. A reflection of the concept paper, tango's complex roots is resume jobs, found in the fact that when at the turn of the is a concept, century the college and career, first tangos were published, they were termed not only tango criollo, or Argentine tango (to distinguish it from the Andalusian), but tango-habaneras, tango-milongas, etc. The milonga was a native forerunner. What In Research. Its origins were country, just as the tango's were urban, and narrative essays on jealousy, it stemmed from the is a concept in research, tradition of payadores , who improvised ballads to a guitar accompaniment. In the earliest stage, tangos were anonymous and, as they were never written down, most of them have been lost.

When at some point words were added to resume contract jobs, the music they followed the payador tradition - that is, they were improvised. They were also quite frequently salacious. Borges remembers these lines from a milonga of the period: You may escape from my balls, but from my prick - never! One can hear quite clearly in a number of the earliest recorded tangos traces of Spanish zarzuela and occasionally bits of what is a paper waltz and even ragtime. It would still be some years before the true tango was defined. Not until the first tangos were published as sheet music around 1900 do we know anything about the composers. The city of Buenos Aires counted a population of 165,000 in 1865; by 1914, the narrative essays, figure had swollen to one and a half million. Proportionally, the what is a concept in research, same was true for superman essay smaller Montevideo. At the same time, all along the River Plate people from the country, displaced by new forms of concept in research rural exploitation, were flocking to the cities. Factories burgeoned; so did conventillos , or slum tenements.

In 1919, close to half the what of a leader, dwellings of Buenos Aires were conventillos . The wealthy, elegant Barrio Norte began to grow after the what paper, yellow fever epidemic of the 1870s. The first tramcars appeared, the first bicycle, the first telephone, gaslight, electricity, sanitation. The exclusive Jockey Club was created in the 1880s, and the city began to be modernized in the European style. Beef, hides, and grain were exported; economic links with England were very close. Essays On Jealousy. The counterpart to this financial boom was the working-class neighbourhoods and forty thousand new factories and what is a concept, whole hard-bitten suburbs where the teamsters and slaughterhouse workers lived in resume jobs, smouldering poverty. What Concept In Research. Populist parties grew as well as socialism and anarchism. Out of this breeding ground came the tango, with its mix of Spanish and Caribbean rhythms.

In twenty years, such was its genuine popularity that it swept away all the music and dance before it - the milongas and waltzes and polkas. Narrative. In the same way that Buenos Aires and Montevideo were making Argentines and Uruguayans of Spaniards and Italians and making city dwellers of rural people, so too the tango became more and more native, more and more River Plate. With his elbows on the filthy table. his eyes lost in a dream, the wop Domingo Pulenta thinks. about the tragedy of his having emigrated. So run the lyrics of one early tango. A historian writes that 'Foreigners and native Argentines invented the tango in sad and poverty-stricken conditions on the tumble-down edges of Buenos Aires; they had no formal preparation and little technical skill.' The classical tango, dating from about 1900 to paper in research, 1920, is quite unlike the relations, sentimental tango that is widely known outside Argentina and that is a late development and is a paper in research, a degeneration. This latter-day tango is a lament for misfortunes suffered and it is rife with self-pity.

The early tango, however, is joyous, bold, gay, and - as Borges put it - 'at one and the same time stoic and orgiastic.' The career of Angel Villoldo spans perfectly this classic era of the essay, tango, and what is a paper in research, his life and personality typify the spirit of the age. He was born between 1864 and 1869, worked as a typesetter on the newspaper La Nacion and wrote plays on the side. He had a considerable reputation as a payador , but he was to win enduring fame as a composer and what are the of a toefl, singer. He also directed choruses during Carnival festivities, wrote libretti for choral societies, was a livestock dealer at the slaughterhouses, and a circus clown. During the Centenery celebrations, in 1910, Villoldo sang in concept, several restaurants, bars, and cafes, in cal poly essay application, various parts of Buenos Aires.

Here are some examples of his bold lyrics sketching city life: Wanting to win the grand lottery, Juanita bought a ticket. ending in the number eight, but what came up was seven. Reverend Jaifio was found.

In Lavalle Square. The night before last. With a black girl in his carriage. Day before yesterday five girls. came to me for what concept paper in research confession, and after having confessed. they kissed my . girdle. In the original, the last example contains rhymes that suggest to the listener that the word coming after the ellipses will be 'balls'.

Villoldo often met with tram drivers at one of their terminals, and in the early years of this century he wrote a famous tango about the tramcars. Narrative Essays On Jealousy. His music was never melancholy; he wrote amusing anecdotes about the realities of his day. He was an inveterate womanizer and left this self-portrait in one of his best-known tangos: I am a son of Buenos Aires, nicknamed El Portenito; I'm one of the concept, cleverest Argentines.

ever to be born in what characteristics of a good leader, this country. When some friend of mine. plays a tango on his guitar, there's no one in the world. who dances it better than me. There's no one my equal, either, when it comes to what is a in research, loving women. Villoldo wrote a tango in 1906 satirizing a police ordinance that forbade men from paying double-entendre verbal compliments to women in public.

The penalty was a rather stiff fine of fifty pesos. Police headquarters have decreed. an ordinance on hero essay morals, saying that a man must abstain. from speaking sweet words to what is a in research, a woman. In 1908, Villoldo sang in a cafe concert on essay and career goals the famous street corner of what in research Suarez and Necochea, in the Boca, where the early tango flourished. He accompanied himself on the guitar and often, at the same time, played both guitar and harmonica. He travelled to Paris, in 1905, to thesis of international relations, sing and record his tangos on phonograph records. He recorded for Victor, Odeon, Columbia, and so forth. He died of cancer, in Buenos Aires, in 1919.

His era died with him. Where Tangos Were Played. So lascivious were the what concept paper, steps and thesis relations, figures of the tango that one pope banned it and no decent home would tolerate it. Concept In Research. The particularly offending movements, called corte y quebrada (this is the dramatic hesitation followed by a lateral swing or rock of the hips), were a playful mimicry of sexual intercourse. Hence, certain public dance halls posted signs that specifically forbade the offending steps. In the tango, the melody acts as a stimulus to the inventiveness of the dancers; the figures are not set. Hence, the richness of the choreography depends on college the imagination and physical skill of the dancers.

In some verses of the era, quoted by Borges in his book on Evaristo Carriego, the poet of the slums of Buenos Aires in the early part of the twentieth century, we read: The bride's uncle, who has taken it upon himself. to see that the dancing stays proper, says, a bit shocked, that suggestive dance steps. are not allowed - even in fun. 'For modesty apart, not that any of these louts. would know what I'm talking about, this house. may be poor - there's no denying that - poor as anything, but respectable.' Lascivious dance steps and the sexual connotation of is a concept many of the tangos' titles ('The Corn Cob', 'The Big Rod', etc.) have been noted by all historians. Old photographs show two men dancing the tango together on the street.

What they were actually doing was trying out various intricate steps to perfect what they would do with whores that same night in cal poly essay application, brothels. They would not practice at what concept paper home so as not to superman essay, offend their wives and daughters. No decent girl - not before the tango was made acceptable by Paris - danced a tango. The tango was played and danced in a great variety of locales. These were: Salones. Halls, which belonged to mutual aid societies or social or sporting clubs. These functioned on weekends or on concept paper in research patriotic holidays. Some were the province of a particlar immigrant group. A certain famous salon , the Rodriguez Pena, gave its name to one of the early great tangos.

There, on Mondays, dance contests were held in elegant dress. Some of the best dancers were professionals famed for their work in whorehouses of a previous era. Application. The best musicians and some of the what is a paper, first small orchestras played in these halls. The atmosphere was colourful. One salon was run by Charlie the Englishman, whose wife was Maria La Vasca, who had her own highly-reputed brothel. Casitas. Private homes. The word is thesis of international, a euphemism. Individuals, either owners or tenants, operated these, a group of friends renting a place for a single night, where they danced and caroused. They were clandestine brothels, really, and whoever ran them hired the is a concept paper in research, necessary number of girls for resume contract the evening. Maria La Vasca's, at Carlos Calvo 2721, was one of the is a in research, most famous of these, functioning from the 1890s on.

What may be the first tango still in the repertory, 'El entrerriano', was born at Maria La Vasca's. 'Don Juan', another of the brilliant early tangos, originated in the casita know as Mamita (Little Mama's). College And Career. In Montevideo, these casitas were known as pensiones . Hotels and what concept paper in research, tearooms. The tango 'Gran Hotel Victoria' was written for the opening of the what characteristics good, hotel of the same name, in in research, Cordoba, in January 1906. Sometimes in these places the music would not be presented as a tango but - safely - as 'an Argentine dance'. Cabarets. Armenonville, Moulin Rouge, L'Abbaye, Montmartre, Maxim, Royal Pigall, etc. One, the Palais de Glace, was built as an ice-skating rink. Restaurants. El Americano. The famous tango 'El Choclo', by Villoldo, was first played here, in a street called Cortada de Carabales, near Cangallo, in 1905.

Summer restaurants . Open-air places. Narrative On Jealousy. For reasons of sound amplification, the orchestras were enlarged, numbering fifteen or twenty or more. One, the Pasatiempo, stood on an island, which could only be reached by boat. Another, the Rose Pavilion, functioned during the afternoon for what concept in research ladies and gentlemen and cal poly application, young girls and at night under circumstances less suited to the family. Hansens's was the most famous of these and the most famous tango locale in history.

It originated in 1875 or thereabouts. It was a family restaurant and beer hall by day and a dance hall by night. Cafes and bars . Here the tango was listened to, not danced. These were a lateish development - after May 1910, the date of the centenery of Argentine independence. Some of concept these places had waitresses, who would dance with the clientele. Resume Contract Jobs. Very numerous in Buenos Aires and Montevideo. Academias. The term 'academy' meant in the nineteenth century a dance hall with a reputation for what concept paper sinfulness or wickedness, where tangos were danced by about college and career, women with loose morals. Later, the term referred to the places where tangos were taught but where people often came just to dance. Usually the is a, women professionals were paid by the dance. Brothels.

Supposedly, the thesis of international, tango did not exist in concept paper, Buenos Aires brothels because dancing, alcoholic beverages, etc., were prohibited in them by local ordinance. Nonetheless, in application, periods of what is a paper relaxed vigilance, tangos were danced in certain dives where whores gathered and also in officially registered brothels. Outside the limits of the federal capital, however, the brothel was the principal social centre, and there freedom was nearly absolute. One of the what of a toefl, most famous was called The Red Lantern. What Is A Concept. It was in the factory suburb of Avellaneda, just outside the Buenos Aires city limits. It showed pornographic films, and it was reached by boat across the Riachuelo. It belonged to a national chain of whorehouses run by an organization of Jewish pimps, who also owned their own cemetery.

Borges's story 'Streetcorner Man' may have taken a number of elements from the real Red Lantern. Perigundines. Waterfront bars, or dives, of low character, whose prostitutes solicited. Such places were supposedly eliminated from essay college and career goals Buenos Aires before 1900 but they continued to exist throughout the Argentine well into the Thirties. Ollas. These were places where you paid ten cents a dance and danced with professional women dancers. Formativos. Private houses where participants each contributed a small amount of money for musicians and other expenses.

Street corners . It was not uncommon for various dances to be held on street corners. In the case of the tango, it was danced by two men either loosely or tightly entwined, who would alternate taking the woman's part. This picturesque activity, accompanied by the barrel organ or hurdy-gurdy, had as its purpose the trying out and practice of new steps or else simple enjoyment of the dance. By two routes, the what is a concept paper in research, tango reached Paris around 1910, where it quickly became the new craze and replaced all the other dances of the hero essay, day. This happened not on the popular level but among the aristocracy and in the most sophisticated and refined salons, in the most expensive restaurants, and the most exclusive private parties. First the tango arrived via the crews of what is a paper ships carrying frozen River Plate beef to the port of jobs Marseilles, whose dance halls and bordellos resembled those of Buenos Aires and Montevideo. And also the tango arrived via those artists of the old guard who, beginning in 1905, went to Paris to record - Gobbi, Villoldo, Saborido, Greco, and others. The importance of is a concept this phenomenon was that Paris legitimized the tango, and after its acceptance in the highest circles there - from whence came all fashion - it could be taken up by the middle class of Buenos Aires. What Are The Characteristics Toefl Essay. In 1913, the tango was even presented to and defended before the Academie Francaise by one of its members. Free of the taint of concept brothels, the tango was now referred to what good leader toefl essay, as 'tango de salon' . Around 1917 came a new development - the tango-cancion , or tango-as-song.

Now the lyrics became important. At the same time, they left behind the is a concept, tough, swaggering stance of the old guard and began to turn sentimental and self-pitying. 'Mi noche triste' (My Sad Night), with words by hero, Pascual Contursi, is the first tango-cancion , and it sets the pattern. My girl walked out on me. in the prime of my life, leaving my soul wounded. and thorns in my heart. For me there's no consolation, and that's why I'm getting drunk - to try to forget her love. Here begins a tendency that certain historians and critics - Borges among them - deplore. 'My Sad Night' was first sung by Carlos Gardel near the what is a paper in research, outset of his illustrious career.

At once, Gardel became known as one of the creators of the good, tango-cancion . Today when someone begins to tell you a sad tale of what paper in research personal misfortune, you cut him short saying, 'Please, no tangos.' It was in the Twenties that musicianship was enormously improved. The players were now thoroughgoing professionals. The orchestras were larger, and the dance was simplified. At this time, the superman hero, tango was played by sextets made up of two violins, piano, two concertinas, and a bass.

Carlos Gardel was born in Toulouse, in 1890, and came to Buenos Aires as a small boy to live with his unmarried mother in a slum tenement in in research, the heart of the city. Gardel began singing early on and immediately rose to fame. Between 1919 and 1935, he made fifteen to narrative essays, eighteen films (a number of is a concept them in resume contract, New York) and countless recordings. He died in an aeroplane fire on a runway in Ecuador, in 1935, at the height of is a paper his career. He went rapidly from essays on jealousy cult figure to myth. Gardel had an extraordinary voice ('He sings better all the time,' it is is a paper in research, commonly said of him even decades after his death), a big smile, and a warm heart. In him were combined the best and worst characteristics of the River Plate man - he was both debonair and roguish. He is cal poly essay application, greatly admired for his success (this is very Argentine), having been the first Argentine to sing and act his way into is a concept paper in research, the world. One Argentine writer says that to them he was a sort of college and career goals Humphrey Bogart had Bogart also been a singer. Gardel stands as a symbol of the city - its ports, its slums, its unsavoury nightlife; at the same time, he stands for the city's other side, its refined taste - evening dress, the what is a concept paper in research, Colon Opera House, Parisian travel, champagne, and beautiful women. A writer friend tells me that Gardel represents the ideal of the college and career goals, Buenos Aires man.

Gardel had a house near the Abasto, Buenos Aires's wholesale marketplace. It still stands, today owned and exploited by a consortium whose head is a Japanese concertina player and impresario who takes tango groups to what in research, play in the night clubs of Tokyo. There is a two-block-long street by the Abasto named for Gardel. Every possible detail of his life - his money, his cars, his houses, his possessions - has been documented and speculated upon. Did Gardel wear glasses?

Did he play he guitar? What brand of hair pomade did he use? Did he have grey hair? False teeth? Play the horses? Apparently, there exists a passport in his name stating that he was born, in 1887, in Uruguay.

Uruguayans claim him as their son; others say it was a false document to exempt him from conscription in France. Gardel had quite a following of women, but he never married. His mother lived with him. She died, in essay and career goals, Buenos Aires, in what is a paper in research, 1943. This is the last valuable decade in the tango's history. The outstanding figure of the period was Anibal Troilo, an orchestra leader and concertina player, who was to the music of the essays, tango what Gardel was to singing. Troilo has been called the Duke Ellington of the tango. In part, the tango's decline is due to the impact made by concept paper in research, phonograph records from abroad, which introduced new music into Argentine life and challenged the tango's popularity. The tango is thesis of international relations, seldom danced any more except by concept paper in research, the older generations, who nostalgically relive their youth. Essay. In the citys' centre, places to is a paper in research, dance the tango are no more. Superman Hero Essay. Night spots where the tango is still played, such as the Viejo Almacen, could not exist if it were not for tourists.

One lone figure, Astor Piazzola, goes on composing. An old man, he is the last link with the tango tradition. His compositions have been likened to chamber music. Natural attrition is is a concept paper, also responsible for the tango's decline. The tango reached its height in the Twenties and Thirties and simply could not be bettered. The sentimentality slipped into vulgarity. The tango was widely appreciated in the first decades of the twentieth century. On Jealousy. The dance-song reached its culmination in Buenos Aires.

France was the first European country to accept this music, with its strong urban atmosphere, and send it forth into the world. It was no mere accident that the tango should take root in a country of concept in research immigrants and in a mixture of diverse cultures. Relations. The unequal struggle for life was the immigrant's preoccupation, and the tango - with words - reflects his passions, disillusionments, and his everyday concerns. This dance-song, in tango tempo, expressed the sentiments of a people. Its poetic possibilities were very rich and so spontaneous that the tango became the culture of a single place.

Around it grew up an urban folklore.

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How mirrors, lenses, and prisms shape light systems. How mirrors, lenses, and prisms shape light systems. The principles of geometrical optics explain how the basic building blocks of optical systems transform light to form images. Laurie Ann Peach, Assistant Editor, Technology. Snell`s law of refraction, the law of reflection, and the law of dispersion--basic optical principles we may have studied in high-school physics but long since forgotten--play critical roles in the manipulation of light. Even the most complicated optical designs must bow to these laws and incorporate either individually or collectively the fundamental elements of optics--mirrors, lenses, and prisms. These laws were discovered empirically--from observing the refraction of the rays of the sun as it rose and set in the sky, or from watching the formation of what is a in research shadows or the phases of an eclipse.

From their observations, the resume early Chinese, Greek, and Arabian philosophers developed the science of geometrical optics--a method of studying light as rays instead of waves or particles. The rays are called paraxial because they are incident along or near the axis of an optical system; paraxial formulas have been devised to explain the behavior of the what light rays. The formulas with their theoretical explanations can found in most optics textbooks and in catalogs from optics manufacturers. This article takes a brief look at these formulas and describes their interaction with the most basic of the building blocks of optical systems--mirrors, lenses, and hero essay, prisms.* Mirrors: historical reflections.

The mirror is perhaps the oldest optical element. Looking glasses were discovered in Egyptian pyramids built in concept paper, 1900 BC. Plane, or flat, mirrors are found in practically every home today. Spherical, or parabolic, mirrors are often used in optical systems instead of lenses. When a ray of application light is incident upon a surface, components of the light are either absorbed or reflected. We see only the portion of the is a paper in research visible spectrum that is reflected.

An apple appears to be red because all the colors (wavelengths) of the spectrum are absorbed at its surface except for red. A plant would die if exposed only to hero, green light because it requires the absorption of all other wavelengths to generate chlorophyll. This property inherent in mirrors, as well as lenses and prisms, is reflectance--the ratio of the light reflected from what a surface to the total light reaching it. In more scientific terms, it is the ratio of the reflecting power or flux to the incident power (Ir/Ii). Reflectivity can vary over a wide range--from nearly 100% for hero essay metals that reflect visible and is a concept, infrared wavelengths to nearly zero for highly absorbing materials.

The angle of reflectance of a ray of are the light is equal to its angle of incidence. This is the first law of reflection, originally determined by Euclid in 300 BC. The second law of reflection, credited to Alhazen, an Arabian optician, says that the incident ray, the reflected ray, and the normal must all lie in the same plane. Both of these laws of reflection are critical when determining where an image will appear (see Fig. 1). Images formed by mirrors are either real or virtual and of a predictable size and location. A real image is formed when the intersection of the incident and reflected rays is in front of the what is a concept mirror. A flat mirror produces a virtual image because the focal point, where all the incident parallel rays converge, is behind the reflective surface--each point of an object a given perpendicular distance from the mirror is imaged that same distance behind the mirror. Superman Hero Essay! The change is a 180#176 rotation about the optical axis, known as reversion. In addition to what concept in research, flat, the most common shapes for thesis relations mirrors are convex and concave.

These terms refer to the shape of the what surface when looking along the direction of the incident light. Superman! A convex mirror, regardless of the what concept position of an object, will always form a virtual, upright, and reduced image (see Fig. 2). An image produced by a concave spherical mirror is dependent on the location of the object in hero essay, relation to what is a, its focal point. A concave spherical mirror has an resume jobs axis of symmetry--the optic axis--through its center. A point on this axis equidistant from concept paper in research every point on what are the characteristics essay, the mirror`s surface is the center of curvature. An object beyond the what is a concept paper center of curvature forms a real image between the focal point and center of curvature. If an object is placed at the center of curvature, the mirror forms a real image that is the same size as the object but inverted. As the resume contract jobs object is what paper moved closer to the mirror, the image, though still real and inverted, moves away from the mirror and hero, is larger than the original. When the object reaches a point halfway between the mirror and its center of curvature--the focal point of the what is a concept paper in research mirror--the reflected rays from each point become parallel and no image is formed.

If the object is moved closer to mirror, past the focal point, the reflected rays diverge and form an upright, virtual image larger than the object. In the past, mirrors were made by coating glass with silver, which is highly reflective at UV and IR wavelengths. Vacuum-evaporated coatings of aluminum on highly polished substrates are now the accepted standard for quality mirrors. Lenses: light bending. Lenses have had a relatively long evolution. Roger Bacon used a reading glass in the 13th century, and spectacles were introduced in Europe in 1287. Narrative! But it wasn`t until some 400 years later that the microscope was invented, followed by the telescope a decade or so after that. The governing law for the operation of lenses is the law of refraction, or Snell`s Law. This calculation determines how much light is bent, or refracted, as it passes from one medium to another, such as sunlight passing from air into water or from what is a concept paper air into a lens. Light is cal poly application refracted when there is a change in its speed.

The greater the optical density of the medium that the wavelength enters, the lower the speed of what in research light through the medium. The wavelength also becomes shorter when it enters the medium, although the frequency is the same. Snell discovered two important points for determining how much the superman hero ray will be bent--that the incident and refracted rays lie in the same plane and that the refracted angle can be calculated by. where n1 = index of refraction of the first medium, Q1 = angle of what is a in research incidence in the first medium, n2 = index of refraction of the second medium, and Q2 = resulting angle in cal poly essay application, the second medium. In its most simple form, a lens is a single curved surface that collects light from a source and what is a concept in research, refracts that light to cal poly application, form a usable image of that source. Our eyes do this. Usually, a lens consists of what is a paper in research two or more transparent refracting interfaces, at least one of which is curved. Depending on its curvature, a lens will cause light either to essays on jealousy, converge or diverge. A convex lens, also known as a converging or positive lens, will focus light rays to a point, as does a magnifying glass. It will always be thicker in the center than at the edges. A concave, diverging, or negative lens disperses light and is thinner in what, the middle than at the edges.

A lens, like a mirror, will form either a real image that can be projected onto a screen or card or a virtual one that cannot be projected. Of International! Also, as with a mirror, an image from a lens can appear either upside down or right side up. A convex lens inverts the image; a concave lens does not. Is A In Research! Most astronomical telescopes use convex lenses. This inverted way of viewing the sky frustrated Galileo so much that he inserted a concave lens into his telescope so he could view the stars right side up. The cornea of the cal poly application human eye is a convex lens that refracts light coming through it, focusing it into inverted images on the retina. Is A! The inverted images are conveniently turned right side u#165by the brain. Relations! Larry White, director of the Needham Science Center (Needham, MA), described an experiment in which a grou#165of people were asked to wear prism glasses for a period of time. The prism in the glasses turned the image coming to the cornea upside down, and the cornea sent it right side u#165to the retina. The brain naturally reversed it, again turning it u#165side down. Interestingly enough, the brain soon adjusted to this new way of paper receiving information and stopped reversing the image.

When the people stopped wearing the thesis of international relations prism glasses, they again saw the world upside down until the brain readjusted. The behavior of what is a concept paper in research a convex lens is similar to that of a concave mirror in that the place where the image is formed is dependent on superman essay, where the object is in concept paper, relation to the focal point. The equation used to calculate the focal length of a convex lens is the same as that used for mirrors (see Fig. 3). A concave, negative lens by hero, itself cannot form a real image as a positive lens can.

Light passing through a negative lens parallel to the optic axis is bent away from the concept paper in research axis. The focal point of the negative lens is located by are the characteristics of a good essay, extending these diverging rays backward until they cross the axis. The image formed by a diverging lens is always virtual, upright, smaller and what paper, closer to the lens than the object. Negative lenses are used to reduce images and to construct compound lenses. When an optical engineer asks, Which lens should I use? he or she begins by essays, defining the problem--noting critical quantities such as magnification, focal length, clear aperture (diameter), and object and image position by applying the paraxial formulas with the known parameters and solving for remaining values such as the f-number, numerical aperture, and element diameter of the system. These are purely geometrical values, determined by paraxial equations, that tell nothing about the quality of the image produced, but they do provide an what concept paper idea of how feasible the task is. Next, the optical engineer will choose components based on these values, then evaluate their real-world performance, particularly the effects of aberrations. The imaging capability of a real optical system is resume contract diffraction-limited, never perfect.

This inability of a lens to form a perfect image is called lens aberration. Mirrors are also susceptible to this phenomenon. Common lens aberrations are spherical, coma, field curvature, astigmatism, distortion, and chromatic. A spherical aberration occurs, for example, when you have a converging lens or mirror that cannot bring parallel rays into focus. This is what is a in research usually because the focal length for rays focused by the central part of the lens differs from that for essay and career rays focused by the outer parts, and a fuzzy image is formed. Compound lenses are often used to minimize aberrations. Prisms: color components. In the early 1600s, missionary reports from Asia indicated that prisms were well known and is a in research, highly valued in China because of their ability to generate color.

But it was left to of international, Sir Isaac Newton to explain that, despite popular belief, the prism did not create the colors but only made visible the components of white light through the process of dispersion. Each color of the spectrum has a different frequency and its own index of refraction. As incident white light enters a solid, each of its component wavelengths is bent according to the index of refraction of the solid. Concept Paper In Research! But this refractive index is also wavelength-dependent, causing the narrative on jealousy shorter wavelengths (those with a higher refractive index, such as blue) to bend more than those with a lower refractive index (such as red). The colors emerging from the prism thus travel independent paths and appear in the order of increasing wavelength. Prisms are also used to redirect light by refraction or internal reflection. The amount a ray is bent depends on the apex angle of the prism, the angle of incidence of the light, and what is a, the refractive index of the prism material. When a ray strikes the entrance face of the prism, it is refracted toward the normal. As the ray continues through the prism and strikes the outside wall and emerges into air, it is further refracted, following Snell`s law. The ray is bent away from the normal because air has a lower refractive index, allowing the wavelength to resume its normal speed.

The angular difference between the jobs ray`s original path and its new direction is called the angular deviation. The greater the refractive index, the greater the deviation. The deviation is least when the what concept in research ray passes symmetrically through the prism. Total internal reflection is an important property of some prisms. A beam is hero essay introduced in such a way that at least one internal reflection takes place for the specific purpose of either changing the direction of propagation or the orientation of the image or both. Rays internally incident upon an air/glass boundary, at what angles greater than the critical angle are reflected with 100% efficiency regardless of their initial polarization state. This reflection efficiency is better than that achieved by many mirrors. Total internal reflection occurs only thesis relations, when light originates in a medium of greater optical density, such as light passing from what concept paper water to air. In a reflecting prism, dispersion is not desirable.

By themselves, prisms are incapable of forming real images (see Fig. 4, on p. 107). If an imaging optic is not present in superman hero, the system, the emerging image will be virtual. Is A Paper In Research! It will have the same orientation as the real image, but it can be seen only by looking back through the prism. Examples of more-specialized prisms include corner-cube reflectors, penta prisms, roof prisms, and porro prisms. Thesis! Corner cubes reflect any beam entering the face, regardless of orientation, making them useful for applications in which precision alignment is difficult. Penta prisms are useful in rangefinders and movie cameras; they reflect light through 90#176 by two reflections without inversion or reversion of the image. Roof prisms erect an image and concept in research, bend the line of sight through 90#176. In refracting astronomical telescopes they erect images. Porro prisms are pairs of narrow right-angle prisms that are used in binoculars and telescopes; they erect and revert an image as well as shorten the length of an instrument. Cal Poly Essay Application! o.

Next month: Optical filters. FIGURE 1. The image-forming behavior of reflections from a concave spherical mirror is dictated by what is a paper in research, location of the superman object in relation to the mirror`s focal point. FIGURE 2. For an incident ray from point O to point P, the angle of incidence, q, the angle between the incident ray and the normal (drawn from center of curvature, C), equals the paper angle between the normal and the reflected ray, the angle of reflection. Thesis Of International! The focal point, F, can be calculated by what concept, the mirror equation, 1/f = 1/s + 1/s`, where f is the focal length, s is the distance to object, and s` is the narrative essays distance to image formed. FIGURE 3. Light rays parallel to the optic axis are bent by the lens and converge at concept paper the focal point, F`. The thicker the lens, the closer the focal point because the refraction angle is greater. A second focal point, on the opposite side of the lens, forms from narrative essays light coming from the opposite direction, F. Focal length, f, is based on the relationshi#165between object distance, s, and image distance, s`, from the lens. The equation is the same as that used for mirrors. orientation is critical when designing prism-based optical systems. Right-angle prism produces virtual image when no other optical element is used (top).

Prism with reflective coating on the hypotenuse face at right angle to incident light produces a real image. Both images have the paper same orientation even though they appear in different locations. * Optical Engineering is a new year-long series that will provide how-to information on optical components and subsystems needed to design practical systems. The first few articles describe the basic principles of simple components--mirrors, lenses, prisms, filters, and gratings; later articles will examine subsystems for applications such as spectroscopy, radiometry, and what characteristics of a good toefl essay, imaging.--Ed. Sponsored Content is made possible by our sponsor; it does not necessarily reflect the paper in research views of characteristics of a toefl our editorial staff. Get All the Laser Focus World News Delivered to what concept paper, Your Inbox. Subscribe to Laser Focus World Magazine or email newsletter today at superman no cost and receive the latest news and information.

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