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Bachelor Thesis Format and Outline - Preparing a Bachelor Thesis. Bachelor Thesis Format and Outline - Preparing a Bachelor Thesis. You have now arrived at an important step in your pursuit of an undergraduate education and in preparing for your future: writing your bachelor thesis. Your thesis must describe clearly and fully the goals of the research, the motivation, theories or hypotheses tested, methods used, target population, findings and the advice derived from cornell university research papers, your findings along with the conclusions drawn. Accordingly, you have to also acknowledge all sources of information you have used (both written and oral) in writing your bachelor thesis. Your thesis stands for your contribution to art and design the knowledge of your field.

Therefore, the final product must be written in a style and layout, which are acceptable, consistent and understood which is cornell university papers, why this handbook has been prepared. This guide should answer your questions about the final written thesis. We recommend that you read it in its entirety before you begin writing your thesis. If you have specific questions that still are not answered, please contact Dr. Noha El-Baz ( n.elbaz@epi.umcg.nl).

II. Student Responsibility. Although your thesis supervisor will provide guidance, ultimate responsibility for completing the gibbs essay, research and preparing a quality thesis rests on you. University Research? You are responsible for gaining the information necessary to prepare a thesis properly, meeting deadlines associated with its preparation and ensuring that the final copy of your thesis is design essays, signed and delivered to the appropriate offices. Because your thesis makes a professional contribution, you are responsible for taking a professional approach. University Papers? Do the best job that you are capable of doing. 5 Page Essay? Accomplishing this requires good planning, an early start and familiarizing yourself with the broader protocols of your discipline and the world of research in general. In completing your thesis, you are responsible for meeting regularly with your advisor and following his/her recommendations, establishing a realistic timeline, doing your best to follow the objectives of the research goals, maintaining a thesis log, providing your advisor with rough drafts, and preparing a high quality final product. III. Procedural Information.

The sequence you might follow in completing your senior thesis is as follows: The students can choose their subject of the bachelor thesis and a possible supervisor. 1. The student can choose from a available list or propose an independent subject. 2. The student have to choose a top 3 from a list of potential supervisors. - a list of possible subjects is available from Nestor. - a list of potential supervisors is available. After you have chosen your supervisor, and topic, you should discuss your research proposal, timeline, feasibility and your advisor’s expectations. Fill out Thesis Proposal and Timetable Form, Establish frequency of meetings and attach a more complete description of your plan. Supervision groups are formed with 5-10 students. Contact between students and supervisors.

Read literature, Refine your approach, and Write your project plan then Submit your project plan for approval. University Research Papers? Project plan evaluation committee. Possible revision of non-approved project plan. During your elective period which is the first 10 weeks (first semester) in year 3. The elective period should be used to broaden or deepen the knowledge and insights of the student of an area or subject that is relevant for 5 page essay on the the personal development of the student into university, a medical professional. The work performed during the essays, elective period should contribute to the quality of the bachelor thesis. Writing your thesis. - Meet with your thesis advisor to discuss progress.

Submit your rough draft and thesis log for his/her review. Summarize your advisor’s recommendations. - Continue the analysis and investigation. Statistical analysis (if warranted). Write final draft of the thesis. Submission first concept bachelor thesis. Bachelor thesis evaluation committee.

Submission bachelor thesis and Final oral presentation (25-40 minutes). Possible revision of non -approved bachelor thesis. Final decisions on thesis format are left to the supervisor and the student, but general principles follow: 1. Papers? Rough draft. The rough draft is meant solely to on labour demand and wage inform your supervisor (or committee) about your progress and allow him/her to provide feedback. Your supervisor will determine the format and the number and university papers content of rough drafts. 2. Final draft.

The final draft must be typed and double-spaced. Food? As a general rule, most theses are 25-40 pages in university research papers, length. Depression Topics? In the bachelor thesis a current problem within the international (global) field of medicine has to be addressed. Whether your thesis is based on formulating and testing a hypothesis or collecting and analyzing information, the thesis should results in a well-balanced advice about the cornell university research papers, problem or subject. 1. A sequence you may follow for a thesis that formulates and tests a hypothesis is: A. Abstract (200-250 words). This is a synopsis of your work, a condensed version of the 5 page essay war, entire thesis. It should provide enough information for a lay reader to understand the rationale and significance of the work. Cornell Research? It includes: • Aim/ Rationale for the study /Target audience. • Advice based on findings derived from gibbs essay, literature. • Approach / proposed methodology. B. Background/Literature Review (4-5 pages). This section reviews pertinent literature in sufficient depth that the cornell, reader will come to appreciate why you are asking your questions or stating a specific hypothesis.

It needs to be balanced (i.e., considers all relevant opinions). Essays And Wage? Typically, the introduction leads to cornell a statement: “As a result, the objectives of this thesis were to . . . Gibbs Reflection Essay? . . . . . .” C. Methods (4-5 pages). How did you go about conducting your analysis? This should be described in enough detail for the study to be repeated by the reader. D. Results (4-6 pages). This should include all pertinent results. All data must be presented, not only the data which supports your thesis. Cornell Research? Figures and tables may be included in writing, the text or at cornell university research papers the end of the thesis to support the results section.

E. Analysis/Conclusions (4-5 pages). This is the most important part of the thesis because this is your opportunity to interpret your results and make decisions on on the war their significance. You should try to cornell papers extend your results into uncharted territory! What are the implications of your work? You might consider ending this section with specific recommendations for further studies in this area. F. Design? Bibliography (3-4 pages) Cite all sources of cornell research papers information using a standard and consistent method of citation appropriate to your discipline. Help For Essay? An example of format is included in this manual; however, other formats are acceptable. Remember to cite not only papers published sources but oral and internet sources as well. 2. A thesis that collects and analyzes information, and summarizes new insights and perspectives will follow a similar pattern: A. Abstract/Synopsis (200-250 words). This should summarize the goals of your thesis, approaches you used, highlights of information you compiled and a summary of the new insights that you have derived from your work.

It includes: background (1-2 sentences) rationale for the study. 5 Page Essay Vietnam? analysis and conclusions. B. Background/Literature Survey (6-8 pages). This section sets the context for your work. Literature and information that is pertinent to an understanding of the broad theme of your work plus the conclusions and insights of other writers regarding your problem area should be highlighted. C. Methods (3-4 pages). How did you go about cornell research papers conducting your analysis? This should be described in enough detail for the study to be repeated by the reader. D. Findings (6-8 pages). Here, you should outline the information you gathered in an organized fashion. This information could include narratives of others’ work, tabular data, figures or photographs.

Again, the depression topics essays, nature of your thesis will determine the format needed for this section. E. Analysis and Conclusions (6-10 pages). This section could be integrated into the section above or it may stand alone. Here, you should integrate the information you gathered with existing knowledge and summarize the analysis which you applied to the information you gathered and presented. Your conclusions and final comments should also be clearly highlighted. F. Cornell University Research? Bibliography (literature cited). Cite all sources of demand formation information using a standard and consistent method of citation appropriate to your discipline. Remember to cite not only published sources but oral sources as well. 3. Sequence of your thesis. The IBMG is not interested in rigidly enforcing formats for cornell university papers theses. More important to us is that you are creative, make a significant contribution and 5 page essay war have some fun in cornell papers, preparing the thesis.

You and your advisor may decide to follow a different format from that outlined here. In some cases, it may not be possible to follow this format. However, we provide this sample format to 5 page essay you as a point from which to start thinking about cornell university research your format. Page 1 Thesis cover. This should include the thesis title, your name, departmental affiliation and gibbs reflection essay date of preparation (see example in this package). Papers? Page 2 Abstract (250 words; see example in 5 page essay vietnam war, this package).

Page 3 Signature Page (see example in this package) Page 4 Acknowledgment Page. Page 5 Table of Contents. Page 6 List of Figures and Tables. Page 7 List of cornell papers Appendices. Page 8- Main Body of essays Thesis. See examples above. 1. Paper. Under most circumstances, you should use standard A4 paper. 2. Margins. One inch margins on left and right, top and cornell university bottom are recommended. 3. Page numbers.

Number sequentially from the first page of the thesis. 4. Spacing. Double space the thesis for ease of reading. Essays? 5. Fonts. Use a readable font. Font size should be at least 12 point and be a standard readable format. 6. Cornell? Paragraphs. Indent paragraphs five (5) spaces from the left-hand margin. 7. Essays On Labour? Footnotes.

A footnote presents material that elaborates the text but would unnecessarily interrupt text flow. Footnotes are indicated in the text by consecutive superscript Arabic numerals. The footnote itself is place at the bottom of the page on which it is cited but should not invade the bottom margin. Research? Footnote entries should be single-spaced. In some styles, footnotes are instead collected at the end of the thesis and designated as endnotes.

Discipline-specific formats are acceptable. 8. Citations. Referencing will be done using the Vancouver style. 9. Terminology, abbreviation and symbols. Difficult terminology should be defined. Abbreviations must follow the first unabbreviated version of the phrase and vietnam placed in cornell university research papers, parentheses.

You are encouraged to minimize use of symbols in the text. 10. Figure and tables. Figures and tables highlight key points in online for essay, the text. These may be included in the text or collected at university papers the end of the thesis in 5 page essay war, a designated section.

Where information might be displayed as a figure or a table, choose a figure as most readers relate more readily to visual material. Figures and tables should be numbered sequentially. Cornell University Papers? Separate sequences are used for figures and tables. Each figure and table should have a clear legend. Sources of figures and tables must be acknowledged appropriately in the bibliography. 11.

Consistency. Whatever format you choose to use, make sure you maintain this throughout your final product. It will enhance the professional image of your thesis.

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odyssey essay Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. New York: Random House, April 28, 1966. I been down so long, seem like up to me, Gal of mine got a heart like a rock in the sea. --Furry Lewis, Turn Your Money Green (adapted by Eric von Schmidt as Stick With Me, Baby on the album Dick Faria Eric von Schmidt) THIS NOVEL WAS DECODED WITH. PURSUIT OF THE Real, and escape from Reality. An interpretation by. licensed Faria nut.

i.) Background: The Cornell School Published April 28, 1966, two days before Faria died in a motorcycle accident, Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me became a cult favorite among fans of his music and cornell university, eventually attracted the attention of essays on labour demand and wage, a more literary readership through Faria's association with Thomas Pynchon, who wrote a blurb for the novel. Faria had mentioned Pynchon in the notes for cornell his song V. on Celebrations for a Grey Day and also in his 1963 essay, Monterey Fair, published in Mademoiselle (March 1964). But Faria was known for his name-dropping, and cover blurbs are often commercially motivated. It wasn't until the gibbs essay publication of Pynchon's gargantuan novel, Gravity's Rainbow, (1973) that people began to university research papers, consider a significant literary connection between the two writers.

That formidable brick of a book, which many regard as the most important novel of the latter half of the 20th century, was Dedicated to Richard Faria, and that tribute alone makes Been Down So Long worthy of literary study. It was Leslie Feidler, the ornery and iconoclastic literary critic, who first applied the architectural term postmodern to literature. Essays! He once explained the cornell university research papers term thus: I'll try to say for the last time why I invented this term to begin with. I thought it was a strategy that could be used in the field of literature, just as it had been used earlier in the field of architecture, where people had made it clear that the golden arches of McDonald's were to be taken quite as seriously as any high-flown, high-blown attempt at building a new building. 5 Page Essay Vietnam War! (3) Like Nabokov and cornell, Pynchon, Faria gathers the trappings of contemporary American life in all its tawdry plastic commercialism, forging from the materials of pop culture a common language between himself and his contemporary audience to tell a tale of high seriousness through low humor. Online Help For Essay! And like so many of the cornell university research novels of online for essay writing, Nabokov and Pynchon, Faria's novel is a quest. ii.) The Quest for the Real.

Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is the tale of a world-weary traveler who has been on a voyage and seen many horrors and cornell research, has returned a changed man, like the blue-eyed son in Dylan's A Hard Rain's A-Gonna Fall. But while the blue-eyed son returns galvanized, ready to proselytize, determined to confront the injustices he has seen, Faria's character, Gnossos Pappadopoulis, is essays and wage formation reluctant to talk about what he has seen. University Research! Like the taciturn heroes of Hemingway's fiction, he is morally paralyzed by writing his experiences and now seeks only alleviation and escape. Faria's model for Gnossos is Odysseus, weary veteran of the Trojan War, the prototypal anti-hero, the original draft-dodger, who cares not for glory but just wants to go home. Gnossos' first mission in the novel is to find a home, an apartment. The lyrical overture of the novel is awash in cornell research papers allusions to The Odyssey.

The entire novel, especially the geographical names of this fictional college town (based on Ithaca in Upstate New York, home of reflection essay, Cornell Univesity and of course namesake of Odysseus's island), is university research littered with absurd classical allusions: we hear of Harpy Creek, Dryad Road, the Plato Pit (a restaurant), Circe Hall (a women's dorm) , Hector Ramrod Hall, Minotaur Hall, Labyrinth Hall, etc. Even Gnossos's ridiculous name is oddly allusive. Does it refer to Knossos, the Mediterranean island, home to 5 page war, the city of Crete, where the minotaur roamed the labyrinth? (At one point we are told that Gnossos bellowed like a Cretan bull. (165)) (4) The name may also allude to cornell research papers, the Greek word for knowledge. The root is gno, cognate with the English know, and it yields the verb gignsko, (to know) and the nouns, gnsis (knowledge), gnstes (one who knows), and angnosis (recognition), often used as a literary term to refer to recognition scenes in drama. Gnossos is topics one who has gained a painful knowledge from his travels but has not yet learned to use it: his knowledge has not been transubstantiated into wisdom. Cornell University Research Papers! As with the design essays absurdly named college halls and roads, some essence from the past has been lost, cheapened, commodified, scrambled into the kaleidoscopic alphabet soup of pop culture. Another of the academic halls is cornell university research papers called Anagram Hall (52) which appropriately symbolizes the loss of meaning in the jumble of design essays, modern life.

Later in the novel we will meet G. Alonso Oeuf, the mastermind behind Gnossos' downfall, who splutters phrases in cornell university research a half-dozen languages. But behind his pseudo-sophistication lies nothing but clichs; he too represents the fallen state of the modern world. Like Kurtz sprawled on his stretcher in Conrad's Heart of Darkness (all Europe contributed to the making of Mr. Online Help! Kurtz), Oeuf seems a conglomeration of research papers, enervated cultures, the weary terminal of history, an ailing, infirm, meaningless scrapheap of allusions rotting in postmodern squalor. Gnossos' quest is to 5 page essay vietnam, find the meaning behind the easy allusions. In the late fifties there arose among among youth a yearning for meaning, substance, roots, authenticity. Authenticity above all was idealized by young discontents.

It was, in cornell research varying degrees, a catalyst of the Beat movement, the Blues Revival, and the back-to-land communes and pastoral pilgrimages of the Hippie movement. But it was a particular fetish of the urban folk revival. In Positively 4th Street, David Hajdu explains the appeal of folk music among college students in the late fifties by noting that it coincided with the invention of plastic: folk music put a premium on naturalness and essay, authenticity during a boom in man-made materials, especially plastics. It was a music that glorified in cornell university research papers the unique and the weird, challenged conformity and celebrated regionalism during the rise of mass media, national brands, and interstate travel. (5) Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me is set mainly in 1958, when the folk music revival was just warming up (the Kingston Trio scored a hit that year with the online writing badman ballad Tom Dooley). But aside from the guitars, dulcimers and autoharps at university house of online help for essay, Grun, a friend of cornell university research, Gnossos, most of the musical references are to the jazz of the Beatniks. Essays On Labour Demand Formation! In one scene, however, Gnossos plays Mose Allison's 1957 album, Back Country Suite, a country-blues and jazz fusion. As Mose Allison blends the university research two genres, Gnossos falls somewhere between the two movements. His outward rhythm is the syncopated beat of jazz, but his inner song is the lonesome highway of essays formation, folk.

He shares with both the cornell university research beats and the folkies a contempt for the bourgeois, the superficial, the mass-marketed. Amid all this posing Gnossos also attempts to assert his own ethnic identity. Art And Design! His Greek heritage provides him a link to the archetypal, the mythic, something enduring to research, prop up amid the littered postmodern world. Yet this self-assertion of identity often takes mundane forms. His rucksack, that Jungian baggage of art and, his identity, holds sundry tokens of research papers, his Greek heritage: dolma leaves, Greek wine, and mouldy goat cheese. The silver dollars are also assertions of the Real, the Authentic, the true coin of the realm rather than paper representations thereof. Gibbs Reflection! Explaining his use of silver dollars to Dean Magnolia, he warns of parasitic corruption that gets spread through the handling of dollar bills. (54) When a cashier questions the silver dollars, Gnossos claims that he is Montezuma and threatens to tear out her heart and university research, eat it raw. Gibbs Reflection! More posing, more delusions of heroic grandeur, the assertion of an ancient archetype to university research papers, muscle out the present, the about food ephemeral, the corrupt, the artificial. All this is represented by cornell university papers the cashier smelling of purchased secrets from Woolworth's, lips puckered, passion plucked or pissed away some twenty years before. The resigned are my foes. (22) Gnossos has a similarly arrogant attitude to a platinum-haired girl working in a drugstore.

Deaf to her doom, he imagines, and art and design, ascribes another pathetic narrative to her life: See her in a year, straddling some pump-jockey in the front seat of cornell university research, a '46 Ford, knocked up. Design! Watching Gunsmoke in their underwear, cans of Black Label, cross-eyed kid screaming in a smelly crib. Ech. Immunity not granted to all. As in the Montezuma scene, Gnossos requires heroic posing to research papers, assert his superiority over her: explaining his use of bath oil, he says, Ancient custom is all, balm for warrior, makes you good to feel, right? (171) Like his alternating identities, the Greek food and depression, the silver dollars are tumbled together in the rucksack with tokens of childhood fantasy, such as rabbits' feet (Placate all the gods and demons, finger in every mystical pie (114)) and the Captain Midnight Code-O-Graph, which loses a spring at a significant moment in the story. Cornell University! When Gnossos learns that he has been partly responsible for the death of Simon, a fellow student who killed himself upon learning that his girlfriend was in essay love with Gnossos (who had seduced her in an earlier chapter), he experiences what may be the cornell research papers silliest epiphany in all literature: . Topics Essays! while roaming the streets in a hopeless attempt to cornell research papers, pace away an oily guilt, to purge the accusing picture of Simon sucking an essays on labour and wage formation exhaust pipe, he looked into his rucksack for a vial of paregoric to soothe his agitated nerves. But instead he found the Code-O-Graph, neatly sprung in two where it had been sitting, with all innocence of inanimate purpose, in a bed of rabbit's feet.

While he was turning it over in cornell research papers his hands it discharged its secret little Captain Midnight spring with a boing, shuddered, and lay lifeless forever. (110) The passage has a number of art and, remarkable parallels that nag at Gnossos' conscience. Gnossos' craving for an opium-laced cigarette to smoke corresponds to the image of Simon sucking on an exhaust pipe; one is an unconscious mimickry of the other. The reference to research papers, oily guilt recalls an earlier scene where Monsignor Putti comes to deliver Extreme Unction but instead anoints Gnossos' feet in a lovely sacrament, explaining that one's feet carry one to sin. Formation! (50) Yet now Gnossos seeks to pace away his guilt by cornell research papers roaming the online help for essay writing streets, and he finds the epiphany of his lost innocence in a bed of rabbit's feet. Cornell Research! (110) The themes of escape and guilt, futile cautionary superstitions and reckless behavior are so inextricable linked that they seem to hound each other in essay about fast food unhealthy an eternal, hellish circle. iii.) The Deathwish. Will claim the steps I sow, The whispers in the ocean deep. shall pick my weary bones. Was Faria haunted by the whispers of the dead? Like Tennyson's Ulysses, who lost so many of cornell research papers, his companions at essay on the war sea, and in old age found that the deep moans round with many voices, perhaps Faria was tormented by the memory of the men killed on cornell research the boat.

Perhaps this deathwish attracted Faria to Michelangelo's poem, Sleep. 5 Page Vietnam War! Faria quotes this poem both in Been Down So Long and in the short story The Good Fortune of Stone. In the short story he quotes the poem in the original Italian: Caro m' il sonno e pi l'esser di sasso. Mentre che'l danno e la vergogna dura, Non veder, non sentir, m' gran ventura;

Per non me destar, deh! parla basso.(9) In Been Down So Long, Gnossos translates part of the cornell university research papers poem into English at a frat party: Dear to depression topics essays, me is sleep. While evil and cornell papers, shame endure, not to art and essays, see, not to feel is my good fortune. (30) Here is a translation of the entire passage: Dear to me is sleep, and dearer to be made of stone. While evil and shame endure, Not to see, not to cornell research papers, feel, is to me a good fortune, Therefore do not wake me. Shh! Speak softly.

The story The Good Fortune of Stone is another version of the wolf story told in the novel. Online Help! Pynchon states in university his 1983 introduction to the novel that Faria told this story many times. The near-death experience recounted in essay about fast food unhealthy both versions of the wolf story must have touched him profoundly, and this, combined with his feeling of guilt (vergogna), may have given him the conflicting impulses of a deathwish and a feeling of exemption, two impulses which, it seems to me, are never entirely resolved or sorted out from each other in the novel. Not that everything needs be resolved; art is not there for us to simply decode or figure out. University Research Papers! The broken Code-O-Graph puts an end to the easy answers of childhood, and Gnossos too ridicules such patness. When Pamela says, Must you be so cryptic? Gnossos thinks to himself, Always present a moving target, and answers sarcastically, Define a thing and you can dispense with it, right? (39) But sanity for Gnossos would lie somewhere between the untroubled, patly-defined life of Gunsmoke junkies and the nervous energy of the perpetually moving target. Gnossos' deathwish is gibbs reflection a yearning for quiescence, for the quelling of papers, his conscience.

The impossibility of help writing, this yearning gives him a contempt for those who have some modicum of peace in life, those who are deaf to their own doom. In the song, Sell-Out Agitation Waltz, Faria scorns such people who ain't aware that every morning they wake up dead. And yet death is his own secret wish; he hovers between cherished life and longed-for death: Sweet mortality, I love to tease your scythe. (169) Herein lies the protagonist's central conflict. Cornell Papers! He went in topics essays quest of university research, something Real, but he has found and seen things of such terrifying reality that he needs to numb himself. He anesthetizes himself through drugs, through his posture of coolness, through masquerading as superheroes and other heroic figures of myth and history, and most significantly through his declaration of Exemption. The delusion of exemption derives from some harrowing experiences in demand formation Gnossos' travels. He almost died in the frozen snow of the Adirondacks while pursuing a wolf; he witnessed an atom bomb explosion in Las Vegas; and watched someone being tortured by pachucos in New Mexico. His escape from the dangers he experienced has given him, at a conscious level, a belief that he is exempt: I've been on a voyage, old sport, a kind of quest, I've seen fire and pestilence, symptoms of a great disease.

I'm exempt. (15) His friend Calvin Blacknesse had warned him of the paradoxical snares of cornell, exemption. (56) It is a rationalization or perhaps an inversion of a deeper, unresolved fear. Like victims of post-traumatic stress disorder who imagine that they are Jesus Christ, Gnossos embraces his delusion of exemption as a way of protecting himself from further harm. Like Faria, Gnossos is haunted by a pandemonium of phobias. He fears demons, monkeys, all manner of bad omens which he seeks to avert by superstitious rituals, such as the Mediterranean apotropaic ritual of essay fast unhealthy, clutching the testes. When he sees the monkey in the loft, he clutches his groin to hex away the dangers of the underworld. (131) These are not the actions of one who truly believes he is cornell university papers immune from death. Exemption is a defense, a mantra I am not ionized and I possess not valence (12)), an apotropaic trinket, a superpower to save the day. It is gibbs reflection with relief that we watch Gnossos finally relinquish the cornell university research papers rucksack, in his usual ritualistic way, at help the grave of Heffalump in Cuba.

The rite of passage into manhood seems long overdue, after his pre-novel travels, the death of Simon, his brush with the clap, and the death of Heffalump. There are perhaps too many mini-resolutions in the novel, too many epiphanies, too many karmic adjustments rather than one big, cathartic, aesthetically satisfying climax, and along the way we have to papers, put up with too much of Gnossos' posing and pointless partying. As a result, many critics have overlooked the complexity and essays on labour demand, significance of the novel altogether, dismissing it as an university research outdated effort now useful only as a document of its time. A Village Voice review of Hajdu's Positively 4th Street claimed that the novel's sole surviving virtue is as an early case study in hip male chauvinism.(10) There are many other themes in this complex novel that I have not even addressed here, and many aspects that I still do not understand, many allusions to pop culture, literature, science, and math that I just don't get. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that despite the years that Faria devoted to writing and design essays, revising the novel, it never became a fully-realized expression. Mimi observed in an interview with Patrick Morrow that the university papers composition of the novel spanned two continents and essay about food unhealthy, two marriages. University Research Papers! (12) I will add to art and design essays, this that it was begun in the author's obscurity, when he craved recognition (in the same interview Mimi said, It's hard to feel great when you're not being acknowledged at the time.), and it was finished when Faria had achieved the extraordinary success of two critically-acclaimed albums. Most first novels are uneven, revealing imperfectly blended layers of experience, but Faria's was more uneven than most, begun, according to his own legend, a few minutes after quitting his role as a blind harmonica player huckstering on the streets of France, and completed by a respected musician acclaimed by university Pete Seeger and Jean Ritchie. And Wage! By his own admission, Faria was still in the process of resolving the conflict between Inside and Outside, which he describes as Gnossos' role as well, in an article written a few days before he died. (13) A further complication in the novel's genesis is that one of cornell research papers, its major innovations, the use of illustrations to portray episodes that would only reflection be alluded to in the text itself, was rejected by the publisher. The editor at Liveright Publishing who rejected William Faulkner's third novel, Flags in the Dust, told the young author, The trouble is that you had about 6 books in here. Your were trying to write them all at once. (14) This, I believe, is one of the problems with Faria's confusing novel, the research papers outcome of two marriages, two continents, two careers, and God knows how many conceptions of what the depression novel would be.

But when reading the first few novels of Faulkner we have the more successfully executed genius of later novels to cast a clearer light on the tentative, gestating ideas of the earlier work. With Faria we do not have that advantage. Guessing at his literary potential from his novel is a bit like predicting FOOTNOTES: 1.) Bluestein, Gene. Tangled Vines. (a review of Thomas Pynchon's Vineland.) The Progressive. Cornell Papers! June 1990, Vol. 54, issue 6, p. 42-3. 2.) Coover, Robert, et al. Nothing But Darkness and Talk?

Writers' Symposium on Traditional Values and Iconoclastic Fiction. Critique. 5 Page! Summer, 1990, vol. 31, issue 4, p. 233ff. 4.) Faria, Richard. Cornell University Papers! Been Down So Long It Looks Like Up To Me. Online! New York: Random House, 1983. The Randon house and Penguin paperbacks are both reprints of the original Random House edition, but the Dell paperback was an entirely different typeset. Therefore, the page numbers in this essay will apply to all but the Dell paperbacks. 5.) Hajdu, David.

Positively 4th Street: The Lives and research, Times of essay unhealthy, Joan Baez, Bob Dylan, Mimi Baez Faria, and Richard Faria. New York: Farrar, Straus and research, Giroux, 2001. Online For Essay! Pages 10-11. 6.) When Faria was writing the book in the early sixties, comic books were just beginning to gain an older audience, as Stan Lee, editor and university research papers, head writer of Marvel Comics, created a new generation of more realistic superheroes who had real-life problems, neuroses, and foibles. In The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test, published two years after Faria's novel, Tom Wolfe also observes the frequent identification with comic book heroes, and their leotarded images began appearing on album covers around this time. However, Faria's novel takes place in essay about 1958, and Stan Lee's first experiments with the new comic book hero, The Fantastic Four, did not arrive until 1961. 7.) Quoted in Faria, Richard. Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone.

New York: Random House. p. 40 (p. 36 of the Dell paperback). Mr. Papers! Fantastic, the Stan Lee creation who had the same stretchy power, debuted in 1961, before the novel takes place. 8.) Unterberger, Richie. Urban Spacemen and Wayfaring Strangers: Overlooked Innovators and Eccentric Visionaries of '60s Rock.

San Francisco: Miller Freeman Books, 2000. 9.) Faria, Richard. The Good Fortune of war, Stone. Reprinted in university papers Long Time Coming and a Long Time Gone, p. 161 (p. About Food Unhealthy! 151 of the Dell paperback).

10.) Robert Christgau, Folking Around, Village Voice, June 26, 2001, p. 79. 11.) Been Down shares many themes with The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test: the preoccupation with drugs, sex, superheroes, the countercultural distrust of the Establishment. Cornell Papers! Gnossos' urge to depart from society, conflicting with his awareness that one always has to return to that society, finds its parallel in the dilemma of the Merry Tricksters: no matter what heights of discovery one reached through acid, one always had to return to earth, one always had to essay about fast unhealthy, come down. Kesey never fulfilled his determination to go beyond acid because society's pruderies got to cornell research papers, him first and put him in jail. Likewise, Gnossos' petty pranks earlier in essay about unhealthy the novel eventually get him busted, and he is sent into the army.

In both books the Establishment prevails over counterculture enlightenment. The theme of exemption also arises in Electric Kool-Aid; see page 35 of the Bantam edition. 13.) The Writer as Cameraman. Long Time Coming and cornell, a Long Time Gone, p. 41-42. 14.) Blotner, Joseph. Faulkner: A Biography. Essays Formation! Revised one-volume edition.

New York: Vintage, 1991. p. 223.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. Cornell Research Papers. When you haven’t updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. 5 Page Essay On The Vietnam War. What experiences and research accomplishments should you include for about fast food the jobs you’ve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: We’ve compiled all the university research papers resume advice you need into reflection essay, one place. Read on university, for tips and tricks that’ll make sure you craft a winning resume—and help you land a job.

Your resume should not have every work experience you’ve ever had listed on it. Depression Topics Essays. Think of papers, your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for essay about food unhealthy the job. For each resume you send out, you’ll want to cornell research, highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you don’t include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about vietnam war, what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Since you’ll want to be swapping different information in university research papers, and out on the vietnam, depending on the job you’re applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information you’ve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when you’re crafting each resume, it’s just a matter of cornell university research papers, cutting and pasting relevant information together. Gibbs Reflection Essay. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the cornell papers Best Stuff “Above the Fold” In marketing speak, “above the fold” refers to what you see on the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on formation, a website), but basically it’s your first impression of a document.

In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is university research papers what the hiring manager is going to see first—and what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. 5 Page. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences first—and then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Zhang , the university only occasion when an essay food unhealthy, objective section makes sense is when you’re making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesn’t match up with the position you’re applying to. In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you —or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on papers, making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of and wage formation, different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless it’s absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resume—hiring managers might wonder what you’re hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is this—you want the information here to be concise, and university research papers making yourself keep it to one page is topics essays a good way to force yourself to research papers, do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for it.

But if you can tell the about fast food unhealthy same story in less space? Do. If you’re struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. University Research. Can’t figure out on labour demand and wage, how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to cornell research papers, be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on that document, and and wage then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Research. We’ll talk about essays, getting creative in order to stand out in cornell university research, a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Topics. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers’ eyes by cornell university using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on 5 page on the vietnam, the page.

You can use a different font or typeface for cornell university research papers your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which you’ve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to… Really want your resume stand out from the sea of 5 page on the vietnam, Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumes—like infographics, videos, or presentations—or resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. If you’re applying through an cornell research, ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. If you’re applying to a more traditional company, don’t get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. Topics Essays. No matter what, don’t do it unless you’re willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to cornell research, make it awesome.

10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You don’t need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and art and essays Twitter handle. (Implicit in cornell university, this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) You’ve heard before that hiring managers don’t spend a lot of time on essays, each individual resume. Cornell University Papers. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills aren’t your strong suit but want your resume to look stunning? There’s no shame in unhealthy, getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the papers most important document of your job search, so it’s worth getting it exactly right! 13.

Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only depression show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and only include the cornell research experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. Essays On Labour Demand Formation. And remember to allocate real estate on university research, your resume according to importance. If there’s a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about gibbs reflection essay, your current role, always choose the cornell university research papers latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one you’re applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Don’t panic if you don’t have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why you’re ideal for the job. No matter how long you’ve been in a job, or how much you’ve accomplished there, you shouldn’t have more than five or six bullets in a given section.

No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Check out essays, these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what you’re talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to research, the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an art and essays, assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the cornell university research hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you don’t actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to essays on labour demand and wage formation, your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didn’t just do stuff, but that you got stuff done!

As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and cornell papers add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If you’re not sure how to art and design essays, explain your impact, check out these tips for cornell research turning your duties into topics essays, accomplishments . Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to university papers, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a “strong leader” or an essays, “effective communicator” are important characteristics you want to university papers, get across. Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them.

Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet point—try it yourself until you get the result you’re going for! 20. Don’t Neglect Non-Traditional Work. There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with “Responsible for,” readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of art and design, better verbs to cornell university papers, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure you’ve included them in your bullet points. Not only is art and design essays this a self-check that you’re targeting your resume to the job, it’ll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems.

Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords. What words shouldn’t you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and cornell hard worker—among other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet there’s a better way to describe how awesome you are. 24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless you’re a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Gibbs Reflection Essay. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to cornell research papers, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.

Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to essays demand and wage formation, the job, list that first to university research papers, grab the 5 page war reviewer’s attention. Don’t list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about university papers, whether or not you have the essays and wage degree than when you earned it. Cornell Papers. If you graduated from online help for essay college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you don’t need to list your GPA, don’t be afraid to papers, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Don’t be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light.

Kelli Orrela explains , “Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and essays demand your participation in cornell university research papers, them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career.” Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your “Skills” section, add another section titled “Language Skills” or “Software Skills,” and detail your experience there. Again—we’re going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an “Interests” section on your resume, but only for essay add those that are relevant to the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on university research papers, a music company? Definitely include it.

But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company? Don’t even think about it. 32. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Essay About Food. Or perhaps you have a penchant for cornell canvassing during political campaigns. Online Help Writing. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethic—but they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. University Papers. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Art And Design. Do include awards and accolades you’ve received, even if they’re company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., “Earned Gold Award for having the research company’s top sales record four quarters in a row.” What about personal achievements—like running a marathon—that aren’t totally relevant but show you’re a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the gibbs proper ways to include them.

Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at a (non-temporary) job for papers only a matter of depression essays, months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to The New York Times ’ career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldn’t hurt, as long as you’re honest about university, your experience if asked in an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, don’t list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the art and design number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If you’ve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for cornell research papers leaving next to for essay, each position, with a succinct explanation like “company closed,” “layoff due to downsizing,” or “relocated to new city.” By addressing the gaps, you’ll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and cornell university research papers make it less of an on labour and wage, issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus?

This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to cornell university research, include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Don’t try to creatively fill in essays on labour and wage formation, gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, don’t list your parenting experience on your resume, a la “adeptly managed the growing pile of laundry” (we’ve seen it).

While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out research papers, there, most corporate decision makers aren’t going to take this section of essay, your resume seriously. Cornell University Research Papers. 39. Help For Essay. Ditch “References Available Upon Request” If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for references—and will assume that you have them. There’s no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And don’t rely on spell check and grammar check alone—ask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting won’t accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. To make sure it won’t look wonky when you send it off, Google’s head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, “Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and open it as a preview.” Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as “Jane Smith Resume” instead of “Resume.” It’s one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and make some updates.

Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. University Research Papers. When your resume is art and updated on a regular basis, you’re ready to papers, pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if you’re not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Online Help. Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muse’s beloved daily publication and led the company’s branded content team.

If you’re an cornell university research, individual or company looking for help making your content better—or you just want to go out to essays on labour demand and wage formation, tea—get in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out cornell university papers, all the depression essays amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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Essay: Health promotion and chronic kidney disease. What is health? According to the World Health Organization (WHO), health is ‘a resource for cornell research everyday life, not the topics objective of living. Health is a positive concept emphasizing social and personal resources as well as physical capacities’ (WHO). Papers? Decades ago governmental officials of the depression topics world, agreed to come together, despite of whatever conflicts, or political disagreements, to attain health for all the cornell papers people of the world by the year 2000. They wanted citizens of the world to all have access to basic, essential health care. The Alma-Ata of 1978 was the first international declaration professing the gibbs significance of public healthcare. The Alma-Ata commences by stating that health, ‘which is university, a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity is a fundamental human right and that the essay on the vietnam war attainment of the highest possible level of health is a most important world-wide social goal” (WHO) The countries of the world, worked towards their goal but unfortunately did not achieve it by their targeted date.

On November 21st, 1986 thke first international conference on Health Promotion was held. Health promotion is defined as the process in which a person or people are encouraged to live healthier lifestyles. This promotion is expected to be holistic-physically, mentally and papers, socially, so that everyone’s basic needs can be satisfied. A person cannot function in this world if he doesn’t know where his next meal is coming from. How can he focus on his health, if he has no home? An unemployed man’s last thought is to get his annual physical done. Food, shelter, income and more were listed as prerequisites to health under the Ottawa Charter for Health promotion.

Without basic needs being met a person cannot be complete physically, mentally and socially, which is part of the goal. According to the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) there are seven principles of health promotion, which are as follows: i. Help For Essay? Evidence informed practice. ii. University Research Papers? Determinants of health. v. Action across the continuum. vi. Cultural change. vii. Supportive environments.

viii. Community participation (DHHS, 2012). Evidence informed practice seeks to ensure that the fast unhealthy provision of healthcare is guided by the best researched and information currently available (DHHS, 2012). Purveyors of healthcare should understand the presenting problems and based on evidence, know what has been used to successfully treat the problem, Finally, the university provider must know how to online for essay writing, adopt the solutions to research papers, the current situation(DHHS, 2012) In health promotion, the essay about food evidence used, must be of excellent quality and be derived from a reliable source. It should take into account that cultural, moral, ethical and spiritual values have a direct influence on what we do to improve health both as clients and as practitioners (DHHS, 2012). Finally, during each step health promotion there should be solid evaluation because this will ensure that valid information is added to the evidence base (DHHS). Determinants of health are about the factors that affect health.

Typically, it involves looking at how and where people live and play as well as examining their work environment, and evaluating how these factors affect their health and behavior (DHHS, 2012). Equity means that healthcare is evenly and fairly distributed to all persons across society. Research? This is reflection, a mean of ensuring that the vulnerable and ‘at risk’ groups ‘ minorities – in society will also have access to modalities that can be life -saving (DHHS, 2012). Partnership in healthcare means working with different people or organization to improve the university research health and depression topics, well- being in individuals as well as communities (DHHS, 2006). University Papers? One such partnership is the nurse-client relationship in healthcare. Action across the continuum adopts a myriad of strategies to create change in how healthcare is offered. 5 Page Essay On The War? Changes can start with the cornell university research individual, then progress to the community and depression essays, eventually changes in public policies.

According to the DHHS, ‘action across the continuum is about looking for opportunities to develop a comprehensive approach to promoting health and well- being in our communities’ (DHHS, 2006). Cultural changes involve incorporating health promotions, in our health practice and services across the community. Simply put, nurses and other practitioners ought to provide health promotion as part of the service that we provide in cornell university research, the community (DHHS, 2012). Supportive environments seek to ensure that patients and indeed the essays society in cornell research, general are provided with healthy choices, for example fresh fruits and vegetables, so the consumer has options with regards to things that can increase his well-being (DHHS, 2012). Community participation require healthcare workers to have a good understanding of the essay on the vietnam war communities, groups and individuals with whom they work so that they can foster acceptance and participation of the university papers health promotion principles( DHHS, 2012). PENDER’S HEALTH PROMOTION THEORY. Nola J. Art And? Pendler designed the Health Promotion Model to compliment the models of health protection.

Health promotion is directed at increasing a patient’s level of well-being. The health promotion model describes the multi-dimensional nature of persons as they interact within their environment to pursue health. Her model focuses on individual characteristics and university research papers, experiences, behavior-specific cognitions and affect, and behavioral outcomes. Pendler identifies that each person has unique personal characteristics and experiences that affect subsequent actions. Health promoting behavior is the optimal outcome, which makes it the end point in the Health Promotion Model. These positive behaviors should result in improved health, which strengthens functional potential and improves quality of life in all stages of gibbs reflection development. The Health promotion Model makes four assumptions: 1. Individuals seek to actively regulate their own behavior. 2. Individuals progressively interact with and transform the environment as well as being transformed over university research time. 3. Health professionals, such as nurses, make up part of the essays on labour formation interpersonal environment, which influences people through their life span.

4. Self-initiated reconfiguration of the person-environment interactive pattern is essential to changing behavior. Health-promoting behavior is the action outcome desired to attain a positive health, and most favorable well-being, which enhances productive living. Picture the whole country of Cameroon that has a population size of 19,958,000. Based on the Center of Disease Control, that and more people in the United States have Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD). CDC stated that more than 20 million people in the United Sates may have CKD. University Research? That is about ten percent of the U.S. population. So, what is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic Kidney Disease is a condition in which your kidneys can not perform its normal function to war, the best of its ability. The kidneys have many functions but one of its main roles is to filter the waste or toxins from the blood that passes through it.

Filtration occurs in the nephrons, which are located in the cortex of the kidneys. There are millions of university papers nephrons in each kidney to facilitate the process. Essay About Fast Food? The waste that is filtered out of the system is then excreted from the body in the form of urine. Without the filtration process wastes from the bloodstream stays and accumulates in the body and can be very hazardous to the individual’s health. As more and more toxins starts collecting in the body an individual may begin to experience symptoms. Chronic Kidney Disease is diagnosed by the results of blood and urine samples. The blood tests checks the GFR (glomerular filtration rate) and the urine test checks for albumin or protein. The GFR tells how well your kidneys are filtering.

Your GFR should be 60mL ?? min’1 per 1.73 m2 or higher for normal function. If the research GFR is below 60mL ?? min’1 per design, 1.73 m2 it means that the person has kidney disease. A GFR of 15mL ?? min’1 per 1.73 m2 or less means kidney failure. Protein is not normally found in urine because of its size, so therefore if found in the urine it indicates damage to the kidney. It is of great importance to have urine and blood test done annually. A person may have CKD and may not know it because the symptoms may not present itself until a great amount of damage is down. CKD can progress to Kidney Failure if left untreated.

Kidney Failure is when the kidneys stop working. At this point the individual either has to have a kidney transplant or have dialysis. There are numerous risk factors of CKD and some of cornell university papers them are genetics, high blood pressure, obesity, high cholesterol, kidney stone, kidney infection and many more. Art And Design Essays? The two main risk factors for cornell papers CKD are hypertension and diabetes and will be discussed in this paper. African Americans, Hispanics and art and, American Indians are the research papers populations at highest risk for CKD and those two risk factors are prevalent amongst these cultural groups. It is said that CKD occurs in essay on the vietnam, African Americans four times as much as in Caucasians. People with hypertension and diabetes should follow a healthy diet and keep a close eye on their blood pressure and glucose. Uncontrolled diabetes and hypertension causes damage to organs in cornell university, the body including the kidneys.

It is said that 1 in 3 people with diabetes develop CKD and 1 in 5 with hypertension develops it (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheets/kidney.htm). Their foods should be low in sodium and sugar. They should have lots of fruits and vegetables. Factors that increase the vietnam war cultural group/population risk are non-compliance with medication regimen, smoking, BMI greater than 25, unhealthy diet, over cornell use of NSAIDs and high consumption of essay alcohol. Factors that decrease the risk for CKD are exercise, smoking cessation, constant monitoring of blood pressure and glucose, a diet low in cornell university research papers, sodium and sugary foods and following medication regimen. High blood pressure and diabetes may be inherited diseases but we can prevent it from occurring if we eat healthy and follow a regular exercise program. The African American population has always been one of the groups with the reflection highest incidence rates but as of lately, this group’s rate has begun to cornell, drop. This could be because of the increase awareness and health promotion efforts of the government. CKD is demand and wage formation, un-bias to age, it occurs in the elderlies above age 60 but it also occurs in the younger population, mainly due to uncontrolled diabetes and hypertension.

The incidence rate of cornell papers CKD in adults 65years and older has doubled between 2000 and 2008. 5 Page Vietnam? In the adults between ages 20 and 64, the incidence rate is less than 0.5 percent. The prevalence of university research papers CKD in adults 60 years and older went from 18.8 to gibbs reflection essay, 24.5 between 1988-1994 surveys and 2003-2006 surveys. During the same time frame, the prevalence of CKD between the ages 20-39 was 0.5 (http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/). As stated above, CKD leads to kidney failure and according to CDC’s fact-sheet, in 2011 forty-four percent of cornell university research new cases had a primary diagnosis of diabetes.

Twenty-eight percent of the depression essays new cases had a primary diagnosis of hypertension (http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/factsheets/kidney.htm). One of the objectives, listed on research Healthy People 2020 for CKD is to reduce the proportion of the topics essays U.S. population with chronic kidney disease. The baseline they have is 15.1 of the population for the years 1999-2004. Research Papers? They are aiming to have this number reduced by 10%, which will be 13.6 of the population. Pathophysiology of Risk Factors for CKD. Chronic Kidney Disease has multiple risk factors, but we will be focusing on Diabetes and Hypertension. Hypertension is a major cause of morbidity and vietnam, mortality because of its association with coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease and renal disease. The blood pressure level which treatment is indicated is now 140/90 mm Hg. University Research? Increased systemic resistance, increased vascular stiffness, and increased vascular responsiveness to stimuli are central to the pathophysiology of hypertension. Morbidity and mortality attributable to hypertension result from target organ involvement. National surveys continue to reveal that hypertension is often not detected and when diagnosed, it is often inadequately treated.

Blood pressure is the combination of cardiac output and systemic vascular resistance. Cardiac output is depression topics essays, usually elevated in younger people and decreases with age. This is research, due to increased systemic vascular resistance and increased stiffness of the essays demand vasculature. Cornell University Papers? Stiffening of the aorta and reflection essay, elastic arteries increases the pulse pressure, this result in an increase in left ventricular afterload, and contributes to cornell, left ventricular hypertrophy. Gibbs Reflection? The widening of the pulse pressure with aging is a strong indicator of coronary heart disease. (Frey Wexler, 2013). The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in blood pressure control. (Leach, 2013) Increased release and cornell papers, enhanced peripheral sensitivity to norepinephrine can be found in hypertensive patients, and also increased responsiveness to stressful stimuli. The renin-angiotensin system is also involved in some forms of hypertension. Elderly or black patients usually have low ‘renin hypertension. The renin-angiotensin ‘aldosterone system helps to regulate blood pressure.

When blood pressure falls, the kidneys release the enzyme renin into depression topics essays the blood stream. Renin then splits angiotensinogen; a large protein that circulates in the bloodstream, into pieces, one piece is angiotensin 1. Angiotensin 1, which is inactive, is split into pieces by research angiotensin- converting enzyme(ACE).One piece is angiotensin 11, a hormone , which is very active. Angiotensin 11 causes the muscular walls of small arteries to constrict, increasing blood pressure. Angiotensin 11 also triggers the release of the hormone aldosterone from the adrenal glands and antidiuretic hormone from the pituitary gland. Aldosterone and antidiuretic hormone cause the kidneys to retain salt. Aldosterone also causes the kidneys to excrete potassium. The increased sodium causes water to be retained, which increases blood pressure and blood volume. Whenever a person experiences a change such as increased activity or a strong emotion, a transient increase in blood pressure occurs. One of the body’s compensatory mechanisms is triggered to counteract the change and keep the depression blood pressure at normal levels. An increase in the amount of blood pumped out by the heart increases blood pressure, which causes dilation of research blood vessels and online help for essay, an increase in the kidney’s excretion of salt and water which decreases blood pressure. University? Renal disease may progress slowly and becomes evident in later year.

Diabetes mellitus is essay fast food unhealthy, a disorder in which the blood sugar is elevated because the body cannot produce enough insulin to meet its needs. Diabetes damages blood vessels, which increases the risk of strokes, heart attack and university papers, kidney failure. Impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance contribute to depression topics essays, the development of pathophysiological conditions. Impaired insulin secretion is a decrease in glucose responsiveness, which occurs before the cornell clinical onset of the disease. Impaired insulin secretion is usually progressive, and involves glucose toxicity and lipo-toxicity. The progression of the art and design impairment of pancreatic B cell production affects the long term control of blood glucose.

Patients in the early stage after onset of the cornell university papers disease show an increase in postprandial blood glucose as a result of increased insulin resistance and decreased early phase secretion. This in turn causes permanent elevation of blood glucose (Kaku, 2010). Some of the environmental risks for Diabetes are aging, obesity, alcohol drinking, smoking, lack of essays on labour formation exercise. Decreased activity is accompanied by a decrease in muscle mass, induces insulin resistance, and is associated with the rapid increase in the number of middle age and elderly patients. The changes in diet such as increased fat intake, and consumption of simple sugars, and decrease of university research dietary fiber promotes obesity, and cause deterioration of glucose tolerance. Diabetes may cause many long term complications as a result of the effect it has on blood vessels, which cause narrowing of the blood vessels, which in turn reduces the flow of blood to art and design essays, many parts of the body. This problem occurs when complex sugar- based substances build up in the vessel walls and cause thickening and leakage.

Fatty substances in the blood also rise as a result of poor glucose control, and research papers, the vessels accumulate plaque, leading to Atherosclerosis, which is high risk factor for strokes and and wage, heart attacks. Over time, uncontrolled blood glucose and inadequate circulation can affect the brain, legs, eyes kidneys, and nerves. (Kaku, 2010). High blood pressure effects on cornell university research the kidneys as mentioned can be very severe. It can cause the kidneys to malfunction, leading to kidney failure that can require dialysis or kidney transplant. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has several risk factors including, but not limited to diabetes, high blood pressure (HTN), age 65 and older and obesity (Ernst, 2010).

Diabetes and HTN accounts for almost 70% of CDK incidence (Ernst, 2010). Had these patients managed their disease properly, it would not have progressed further. An important element in disease management is knowledge and this is where the essay nurse’s role as a teacher becomes important in research papers, the prevention and management of CKD (Ernst, 2010). There is an for essay old saying that, ‘Prevention is cornell research, better than cure’ and this is absolutely true with regards to CKD. To successfully prevent the occurrence of CKD, patients need to know the cause of the online for essay disease, the modes of cornell research papers transmission and the identified risk factors (Levey et al, 2008). Nurses as primary care givers have the enviable task of gibbs reflection teaching primary, secondary and tertiary methods of prevention (Ernst, 2010). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines health as a process of enabling people to increase control and improvement in university papers, their health (WHO, 1996). This definition apply aptly describes the nurse’s interventions in 5 page war, the primary prevention of cornell research CKD. Diabetes and HTN are the primary risk factors associated with CKD, and art and design essays, as such nurses has a key role in providing information to clients affected by these chronic illnesses, as well as to the public in general(Levey et al, 2008). Primary prevention seeks to prevent the disease – CKD – from occurring in these patients the first place.

Nurses should teach all their patients ‘ with HTN and diabetes ‘ about the impact of mismanagement of cornell research papers these diseases. 5 Page War? They must be encouraging them to take their medication in research papers, a timely manner as well as adopt a healthy lifestyle ‘ diet and exercise. These measures, if employed by these patients would reduce the risk of them developing CKD (Levey et al, 2008). A further strategy that can be employed is essay about unhealthy, screening. Screening can be two fold; firstly persons with known risk factors can be screened for CDK and secondly the so call healthy people can be screened for the know risk factors ‘ especially amongst Blacks/African American, Native Indians and Hispanics (Levey et al, 2008). Nurses should promote regular CDK screening for all their clients, since early detection can stop or significantly reduce the progression of the disease Corazon, 2010). Another intervention in primary prevention could include health fairs in university research, targeted communities ‘ blacks/African American, Native Indians and Hispanics – where the disease is most devastating. Teaching should include information about the risk factors, as well as the effects of CKD on the human body.

Participants should also be screened for help the known/modifiable risk factors ‘ diabetes and university research, HTN – because early detection means early intervention and prevention of CKD (Levey et al, 2008). Nurses can also use the internet to essays, self-educate themselves about risk factors and ways to reduce them; so that they can answer particular queries by clients and point them to reputable website for information (Levey et al, 2008). As the focus of healthcare moves away from curing diseases to prevention, nurse must take greater role in health promotion as a deterrent to disease manifestation (Levey et al, 2008). Secondary prevention seeks to identify factors that exacerbate or hasten the destruction of the kidneys. This population involves patients that have CKD and are being actively treated. Secondary prevention seeks to slow the disease progress or stop it altogether. There are two types of risk factors, those that are modifiable and those that are non-modifiable. Research Papers? Modifiable risk factors include increasing proteinuria, elevated or uncontrolled blood pressure, and essays, poor glycemic control in diabetes, smoking, NSAIDS and dehydration (Levey et al, 2008). Critical nursing intervention in cornell, this phase again, involves patient teaching.

Nurses should inform their patients that the disease can be control at this juncture, but they have to be vigilant in controlling the risk factors and watching for sign of escalation (Levey et al, 2008). One of the most significant intervention, is regular screening for proteinuria- protein in the urine ‘ as this is a tell tale sign of disease progression (Levey et al, 2008). If excess proteinuria is found, that would require immediate intervention by the primary care provider (PCP) (Levey et al, 2008). Clients, family and caregivers are also taught about essays on labour and wage formation maintaining blood pressure at normal levels. Hence, daily monitoring is cornell, required and patients should take their medication consistently. Increasing blood pressure levels will hasten the deterioration of the kidneys (Levey et al, 2008). Essay War? Additionally, patient with diabetes are encourage to maintain good glycemic control. Medication must be taken regularly and PCP instructions followed.

Patient with early CKD must stop smoking, eliminate taking NSAID and stay well hydrated (Levey et al, 2008). Also important in cornell university papers, patient teaching is diet and exercise. Diet must include ‘limiting protein intake as it is contraindicated in patients with CKD’ (Levey et al, 2008). Essays On Labour And Wage? Thus, patient now empowered with knowledge, will be able to take control of their disease and improve their own health as recommended by the health promotion model (Levey et al, 2008). Cornell Papers? They will know the warning signs of essay escalation and know the corrective actions to take, whether it be calling the cornell research PCP or doing a simple blood test (Levey et al, 2008).

As Chronic Kidney Disease progresses, deterioration in the kidney function become self evident. The patient develops anemia, so they become tired more easily and their arms, legs and faces may become swollen from excess fluid ‘ kidney unable to expel excess fluid (Corazon, 2010). Tertiary prevention therefore is aimed at maintaining homeostasis, preventing possible complication, ensuring comfort, supporting independent self care and providing information about the disease and treatment needs of patients (Corazon, 2010). A person suffering from kidney failure is help for essay writing, most likely to retain excess body fluid which is manifested in swollen arms, legs and face. Nursing intervention for such a client is focus on maintaining homeostasis in research, the body and hence specific intervention may include monitoring the client’s vitals, heats sounds, lungs sound, pulse, blood pressure, pain, temperature, mentation and ability to respond (Corazon, 2010).

It is important that these vitals be monitored to detect any sudden changes in the client’s internal environment or signs of depression topics complications (Corazon, 2010). It is indeed extremely serious if any changes occur, particularly with regards to fluid shifts, because this could signal the worsening of the person’s condition which can lead to heart failure (Corazon, 2010). People who suffer from kidney failure are generally very weak and get tired easily because they do not have enough have enough oxygen flowing throughout the body (Corazon, 2010). This is because; the diseased kidneys now have a compromised erythropoietin production, resulting in decreased red blood cells (Corazon, 2010). Nursing intervention is geared towards ensuring the comfort of the patient; therefore the nurse should note reports of university research client weakness and fatigue as well as observe and also note signs of anemia and essays on labour demand and wage formation, difficulty in breathing (Corazon, 2010).

The nurse should correspondingly monitor the client’s level of consciousness and university research papers, ability to essays, perform tasks and provide assistance when necessary (Corazon, 2010). The nurse should nevertheless, let the client perform as much self-care as is research papers, possible and when general weakness has been established, she should limit venipuncture and online writing, the sites monitored for bleeding (Corazon, 2010). Anxiety often accompanies a CKD diagnosis and university papers, most patients view symptom escalation as alarming. To alleviate much of this fear, appropriate nursing intervention is to provide the reflection essay necessary information about the papers disease process, dietary procedure, medical details, nutritional concerns and signs to monitor (Corazon, 2010). Patient teaching again is the nurse’s tool in helping the client to realize their full potential. Nurses have various opportunities to transfer knowledge, a typical example being after dialysis. She will remind the patient of the risk involves in managing the disease at this stage. The patients are encouraged to follow the diet recommended by the PCP, particularly protein reduction (Levey et al, 2008).

Water maybe restricted and most importantly HTN and diabetes most be controlled. Nurses could also introduce the patient to the nutritionist, who could help with nutritious meal that is CKD compliant. She encourages the patent to join the American CKD Association, where they could get support and encouragement from online for essay writing, people with similar condition (Levey et al, 2008). Dialysis nurses and research, nurses in general can have forums in the communities, which aims to provide information about ways to unhealthy, control the disease and cornell, necessary steps to take in improving quality of on labour and wage formation life (Levey et al, 2008). These health teaching should be designed to help patient, in university research papers, taking greater interest in their healthcare and wellbeing, as well as providing the necessary information to help them to have a good quality of life when faced with this challenging disease (Corazon, 2010). Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Health essay, dissertation or piece of online help coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to university research papers, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to essay, your essay question.

Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Health work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours. This Health essay was submitted to us by a student in university papers, order to online help for essay, help you with your studies. This page has approximately words. If you use part of this page in papers, your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Health promotion and chronic kidney disease . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/health/essay-health-promotion-and-chronic-kidney-disease/ [03-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to essay, have it published on cornell research our website then please click on the link below to request removal:

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