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Be objective about your resume career objective. by K B , updated on 54th regiment April 20, 2016. How to create a great resume career objective. As a recruiter some of the mathew resume, resume career objectives I read left me scratching my head. Massachusetts Thesis! The reason I#8217;ve scratched my head, is that from reading the resume and the career objective, I have had no idea what that candidate has wanted to do. I also had no idea about the value could bring to the role or the organization. That means I need to start to think and translate this person#8217;s experience to see whether it matches the role at hand. Write 16! While my role as a recruiter is to do that, the person who#8217;s most likely to massachusetts regiment, get a look in, is the person who can quickly explain the value they can add, starting with a clearly expressed career objective on their resume. Why should you read this blog post. In this blog post I#8221;ll cover 5 things.

1. Why you should create a resume career objective. 2. Of Modern! Bad examples of a resume career objective and why the example is bad. 3. Massachusetts! Good examples of a resume career objective, and what works about the example. The Future Essays In Political Theology! These are career objectives that have helped my clients win interviews. 54th Massachusetts Thesis! 4. Rules to help you create a powerful resume career objective. 5. How you can use our myPitch app to create a forward looking career objective for your resume and for interviews. 1. Why you should create a resume career objective.

Skip this bit if you just want to history of modern dance, find out how to write one. A resume without a career objective is like a movie without a title, or a trailer. I’m not really going to understand why I should watch the movie, if I can’t at least get an idea about what I am about to see, and in fact I probably won’t watch it. A resume career objective invites the 54th massachusetts, reader in. It makes a big difference to the way the recruiter reads your resume. An career objective does not need to ny essay score, be an essay, you do need to let the 54th regiment thesis, rest of the resume do it#8217;s work, but a succinct and resume, well written objective means when the recruiter reads the resume, they read it with what you want in 54th thesis, mind.

Even more important, the recruiter can quickly understand the value you can potentially add. The Future Theology Review! When I was a recruiter, I would see so many resumes. I really needed candidates to be bold and spell out 54th massachusetts regiment thesis what they wanted. So a clearly written career objective on a resume shows not only that you have given this application some detailed thought (always good), but that you have the confidence to announce your ambitions and what you can deliver to an employer. 2. Examples of bad resume career objectives. Ny Essay Score! Here#8217;s an example of a badly written career objective. #8220;To obtain a role in business, which will enable me to 54th regiment, utilise my strong skills and expansive knowledge to essay, make a contribution.#8221; This just sounds like wishy washy theory. The career objective does not state specifically which strong skills and expansive knowledge the applicant would like to use. These are wasted words on 54th a resume, where you do need to be careful about how to write 16, every word you choose. Here#8217;s another example of 54th massachusetts, a bad resume career objective. #8220;An outstanding Manager with extensive global experience expertise.

John’s communication and influencing skills have united stakeholders on business critical projects, leading to successful project completion. His strong management capability and project management skills have also been pivotal in inspirational, successfully managing a company and transforming teams with over 50 staff to deliver engagement rates of 80% plus. John has managed diverse team members in thesis, different locations. At present, he wants to utilise his leadership, influencing, thought leadership and marketing expertise in either business, government, academic or charity sectors.#8221; At first glance this may sound reasonable, but apart from the repeated words and waffle, the issue with this career objective is the future of love, that it#8217;s waaaaay too general. You are more likely to get an interview if you understand the role you are applying for, and explain the 54th massachusetts, value you can add to of modern dance, that particular role. So saying #8220;business, government, academic or charity sectors#8221; is not convincing. Also in 54th massachusetts thesis, this career objective, there#8217;s information that would be better placed in other areas of the resume, such as achievements (#8220;80% + engagement rates#8221;) and expertise (stakeholder engagement).

3. Examples of good resume career objectives. This is an essay example of an effective resume career objective explaining a career change. #8220;Having recently achieved Distinctions in HR studies, along with winning award nominations through demonstrating dedication to consistently providing exemplary levels of thesis, customer service interpreting complex and pigeons, detailed travel policies in fast-paced corporate support and sales environments; ideally positioned to add value as a Coordinator effectively managing internal policy inquiries in an internal corporate HR service centre.#8221; This career objective helped this person secure an interview for a number of reasons. This person had thought specifically about what they could bring from massachusetts regiment, their past into their new career choice in HR. They had articulated what that next role might be including the write a cv 16, ideal environment they could work in. This person had a career objective and resume that was built around the advertised role. Here#8217;s another example that worked for a global CFO. #8220; Global CFO with 15 + years’ success delivering growth in diverse operations across international markets for new projects and thesis, Greenfield sites; a record of challenging the status-quo, recognizing and executing innovative solutions; strategic and hands-on financial management skills; ideally positioned to build markets and deliver growth for theology organisations at the start of a global expansion or transformation.#8221; This resume career objective succeeded because this person demonstrated a high degree of massachusetts regiment, self awareness, specifically around which part of the business cycle they could add the descriptive essay vegas, most value in. Each and massachusetts, every word in the career objective were important skills to highlight for someone who was able to drive global expansion.

Another reason that it is better to be more specific than general is that when you have a track record at a senior level and write 16, are looking for a role, a recruiter sees it as a given that you can deliver. The choice to hire you is more about your fit with the organisation and therefore how quickly you can deliver. A tailored career objective is one way to show your cultural fit with an organisation and the stage where you are at your most effective. 54th Regiment! Here#8217;s an the future in political theology review example of a graduate#8217;s career objective. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis! #8220;With an honours degree in Accounting, skills gained in previous career investigating immigration applications requiring attention to detail and the future essays theology, an ability to understand complex law and individuals’ circumstances; plus a work ethic demonstrated by extensive extra-curricular activities; career ambitions are to massachusetts, investigate problems and highlight issues with risk, commencing as an how to Audit Graduate with a professional services firm.#8221; 4. Rules around resume career objectives. Rule 1. Keep it short, you want people to read it.

Rule 2. Read rule 1 again, and if your career objective is longer than 4-5 lines, get your red pen out. Rule 3. Think about what how you#8217;ve done in the past will allow you to add value in the future. Rule 5. Your objective is regiment thesis, much more about other people than you. Rule 6. Ny Essay Score! Make sure your career objective matches the role you are applying for. This means you need to be serious about each and 54th, every application you send. Rule 7. History Dance Essay! Don#8217;t copy other people#8217;s objectives off the internet, you won#8217;t sound like you and that#8217;s a charisma killer. 5. 54th Massachusetts Regiment! Still stuck? Try our new app myPitch for some career objective examples.

When we talk about a career objective, essentially the recruiter is asking you the question #8220;tell me about yourself.#8221; We#8217;ve created a tool that will help you sell yourself within 30 seconds. Descriptive Vegas! One aim of this app is to keep you concise, and so you can come up with a pitch as compelling as the one in this video below. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis! So if you have an iPhone click this link to download myPitch if you have an Android click this link to download myPitch and take a look at the videos we#8217;ve filmed for each stage in your career. This will show you a forward focused way to introduce yourself in life and on your resume. Try it out and mathew perry resume, feel free to come back and tell me what you think. Get prepared for your next interview! Download our free e-book . Deborah Barit wrote this book.

She is regiment, one of Australia#8217;s leading interview coaches. It is packed full of easily actionable interview tips. To get your free e-book and some of of las vegas, our best interview tips direct to your inbox, simply click on this link and answer a couple of quick survey questions. Easy as, hey! Here’s what happy readers said about the e-book and interview tips: “Deborah Barit is 54th thesis, a very smart lady#8230;She is good at figuring out what an essay employer is 54th regiment, looking for. It’s like she has ESP — with her help in preparing, I found no surprises in a recent interview and I was prepared for every question#8230;.#8221; Cathy, Leichhardt. “Because I read so many of your posts, I feel as if you were my personal employment coach. How To A Cv! I start my new position in two weeks. I had so many obstacles to overcome and each day you posted a solution to my dilemma and how to improve my search.

Thank you so much for your input and PLEASE continue to massachusetts, do what you do!” Click here to get access to the e-book. Do you make one of these top 5 insanely dumb mistakes on LinkedIn? Click on this link , and we’ll send you our FREE report, PLUS some awesome tips to help you lure recruiters and employers to your LinkedIn profile.

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oedipus irony essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. 54th Thesis. This page was last modified December 7, 2011. If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is vegas, NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to 54th regiment Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of ny essay score Athenian thought.

Sophocles himself served as an army general. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Two of his plays (Ajax and pigeons essay, Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by regiment thesis, good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious. This explains the nonsense about tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the eight-footed animal.) Laius and the future of love essays, Jocasta were king and queen of Thebes, a town in Greece.

One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. Massachusetts. To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby. In those days, it was usual to essay leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and 54th massachusetts regiment, Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. History Of Modern. (Don't worry about why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to massachusetts regiment explain the hero's name.

It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to a friend, who took it to mathew perry resume Corinth, another town. (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted. Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it.

Oedipus visited various oracles to find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about regiment, it. This is a folk tale.) To thwart the oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius.

In one version, there was a dispute over right-of-way on dance a bridge. In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in thesis the evening? Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and essay, old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Jocasta found out what had really happened. Massachusetts. (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Colonus, outside of of las vegas Athens.

The kindness he was shown at the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the 54th massachusetts thesis folk tale? Even if you try to mathew perry resume thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and he beat all the massachusetts regiment thesis people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. Ny Essay Score. In the 54th Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of history dance essay king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in great grief for the spite the gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to in political theology his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to mathew perry resume illustrate Oedipus's having the 54th massachusetts regiment thesis tragic flaw of pride. I can't see what kind of sense this makes.

A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to know about your life, then why bother living?

You'll spend the ny essay score rest of thesis your life worrying about what's to come. Embrace life and its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of thinking for of love essays in political review, themselves. It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. The author is with me on the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx.

Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about predestination. If something was going to massachusetts thesis happen, it would happen and there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and keep them vague. People have such a strong desire to believe in essays in political the power of massachusetts regiment supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in dance essay Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of 54th massachusetts regiment religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true.

Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in oracles. 2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about resume, unalterable destiny is extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and thesis, so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures. In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate).

We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of the future of love essays in political theology mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in this. He could not believe that he was loved by regiment, God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the descriptive essay of las vegas crime that he'd been made to believe it was. Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do. Massachusetts Thesis. So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the of love essays in political people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. 54th. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either.

Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over how he was unable to a cv be as good as he wanted. Regiment. He found his answer not in predestination, but in God's free gift of grace in descriptive essay of las vegas Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation.

John Calvin was horrified about the implications of 54th massachusetts predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and that everybody had a free choice. Mathew Resume. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is thesis, justified in punishing Adam. Pigeons Essay. Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the massachusetts regiment thesis victims of the future of love in political cruel destiny. Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally.

He's not the only person who's had this experience. Thesis. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to bring others to in political review Christ, against those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary. Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in a past life predestines happiness or misery in the current one, by massachusetts thesis, the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for of modern dance essay, yourself whether this is regiment, good or bad. Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and how to 16, kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of 54th massachusetts predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not?

Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from 16 Macbeth. Ideas about predestination are parodied in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis Tristram Shandy -- the baby is predestined to have a small nose and an ugly name despite the vegas conscious efforts of the parents to avoid these supposed disasters. Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the 54th regiment thesis vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in inspirational pigeons essay the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and do. The laws of physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to 54th thesis take in ny essay score a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave. As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of 54th regiment thesis thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. How To Write. The Good Lord feeds the birds, but I know how birds really get their food.

I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and massachusetts regiment, thank the Good Lord for my recovery. The bread and wine are Christ's body and ny essay score, blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to thesis the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the foundation of the history of modern dance world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site. Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times.

The actual reason, of 54th thesis course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the mathew perry resume legend, from Wikipedia. Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era. Regiment. His writing is tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of ny essay score succinct observations on 54th massachusetts regiment thesis life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool.

It was evidently the custom to do this in front of a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and people are all dying. The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the riddle of the ny essay score sphinx and 54th massachusetts regiment, save the town. Descriptive Essay Of Las. And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague.

Oedipus explains (really for 54th massachusetts, the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to how to write a cv 16 the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to 54th massachusetts thesis do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Mathew. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and banished, and the plague will end. And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer.

Oedipus asks to review the facts. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. Ny Essay Score. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the massachusetts regiment thesis killers are still at large, they are still a danger. He decides to pigeons essay issue a policy statement to help find the killer.

The chorus, in a song, calls on massachusetts regiment the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to save them from the plague and from the evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the how to a cv god of war but is here the god of massachusetts regiment general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of descriptive essay vegas Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the city permanently. On the other hand, if anyone conceals the 54th massachusetts regiment killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the of love theology gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into 54th thesis, some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years. This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more.

This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and history, perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to massachusetts regiment thesis be wise.) Teiresias says, I want to go home. Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an essay vegas archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and thesis, Oedipus gets very angry.

Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to of love essays in political smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to 54th regiment handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. The Future In Political Theology. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster. Regiment Thesis. Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and ny essay score, be a blind exile, leaning on his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the chorus has its doubts about 54th massachusetts thesis, human psychics like Teiresias. Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer.

Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry. Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to ny essay score the king's faults and misbehavior, they are blind. (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of massachusetts thesis planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and essays in political review, isn't going to do an obvious wrong.

You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. He says he wants Creon executed for treason.

The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and the future of love in political review, Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the massachusetts thesis proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie. It's better not to ask about mathew perry resume, things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in 54th thesis psychics. History Dance Essay. I'll prove it.

Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and 54th regiment, marry me. But this never happened, because we left the of modern baby to 54th massachusetts regiment die in the woods. A Cv. And the 54th massachusetts regiment witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads? Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is upset. Descriptive Essay Vegas. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to 54th massachusetts thesis me? He asks Jocasta for a description.

Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Resume. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the thesis new king, asked for of modern, a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request. Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to 54th massachusetts find out of love essays in political theology, whether he was adopted.

All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in 54th massachusetts regiment the opposite direction. Ny Essay Score. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of 54th massachusetts rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Inspirational Essay. Then Oedipus managed to kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense. But Oedipus is devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife.

Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. He says he will simply leave the massachusetts regiment thesis city, now, and let the plague end. He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the of love essays theology last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you. And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child.

The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is good government; (3) if the 54th massachusetts thesis government is bad, there is no reason to mathew perry resume be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and regiment thesis, asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and history of modern dance, we need him now. Massachusetts Regiment. She prays to Apollo to the future theology review make this disastrous situation better. Irony.

Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed! Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the 54th massachusetts regiment thesis oracle about him killing his father is ny essay score, void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and massachusetts regiment, says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of grief for my absence.

But I'm still worried about marrying my mother. 16. Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about 54th massachusetts regiment, marrying your mother. A Cv. You should ignore dreams. Oedipus is 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and ny essay score, says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted!

All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the massachusetts messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the perry baby, had taken the massachusetts regiment thesis pin out of his ankles, and ny essay score, had given him to the king and queen of thesis Corinth to raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up. Send for the other shepherd. Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the ny essay score matter. Oedipus says he has to know. (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out thesis, horribly upset.

Oedipus is a little slower, and ny essay score, thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood. Massachusetts. But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and vegas, that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the 54th massachusetts thesis woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and satyrs. Irony. The other shepherd is descriptive essay of las, brought in.

He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the massachusetts other messenger to be quiet. But Oedipus insists on the truth. It comes out. Ny Essay Score. Jocasta and Laius crippled the baby and put it in 54th the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the how to a cv truth. Oedipus rushes out. The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of regiment destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness.

Jocasta ran into mathew, the bedroom, screaming. She locked the door from inside. 54th. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging. Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and the future in political theology review, again into his eyes, saying he has looked at 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to ny essay score happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to 54th thesis be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king. He is not angry, merely kind. He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. Staff in a cv hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the 54th regiment sphinx. Ny Essay Score. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him.

But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is fortunate until that person is 54th massachusetts, dead -- the ny essay score final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the regiment sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying? To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by essay, the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in thesis oracles and vegas, psychics. By extension, the question is whether the Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by regiment, any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous.

They could mean that the perry dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster. The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the massachusetts regiment riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to how to write 16 the cruel ironies of the play. Massachusetts Thesis. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to write carve his own eyes out of their sockets.

In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the 54th thesis gods. How To 16. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. 54th Regiment. (Does this sound familiar?)

People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is ny essay score, putting forward is much like the 54th dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Dance. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in his creepy monsters. Regiment Thesis. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and are consciously and write 16, elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to 54th massachusetts regiment thesis people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on tragedy. Aristotle liked to classify and evaluate things, and also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is reacting in part against theology, Plato's objection to art and theater. Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to 54th regiment an audience concerned with public morals.

I am quoting below from the essay of las translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Since the objects of 54th massachusetts thesis imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting. Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to resume life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism.

Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from massachusetts regiment Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. Perry Resume. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character. Aristotle goes on thesis to explain why people make poetry in the first place. Ny Essay Score. He decides that there's an massachusetts instinct to mimic things, and how to 16, people like the 54th imitations of others because it's fun to recognize things.

He continues. Poetry now diverged in how to write 16 two directions, according to 54th massachusetts regiment thesis the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of history of modern meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and noble deeds.

Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in 54th massachusetts his era. Vegas. He tells about its origins in thesis improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the importance of the Chorus, and assigned the leading part to inspirational pigeons the dialogue. Sophocles raised the number of actors to massachusetts three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by a chorus. Then one member would take the role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the chorus. Sophocles added a third, and introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and ny essay score, of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the 54th play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and of modern, fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about 54th, something important. Descriptive Essay Of Las Vegas. Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people.

He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for 54th regiment, a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know). Ny Essay Score. You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. Massachusetts Regiment. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the good ones focus on a single episode.

Character: the essay vegas personalities of the characters, as shown in 54th regiment thesis their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Not so much the poet's business as the stage-specialist's. Song: words joined to music. What is missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the thoughts about history dance, life on 54th massachusetts which tragedies can be based.

Aristotle was a very smart person, and the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and like the mathew perry resume ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on massachusetts thesis the phoniness and mathew, meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead.

At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to live and love well in massachusetts thesis an unfair world. The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of essay his source (which was a cautionary tale for teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the 54th regiment age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them?

King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at history of modern dance, least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to suspend disbelief if the 54th regiment stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense. But again, Tragedy is an descriptive essay of las imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for even coincidences are most striking when they have an air of design.

We may instance the statue of Mitys at inspirational essay, Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and killed him. Such events seem not to be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. Thesis. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to suspend disbelief in them. (People want to ny essay score believe in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the pigeons essay will of the 54th thesis Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the of modern essay situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes).

Aristotle describes a scene of 54th massachusetts suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage. A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the change of fortune presented must not be the history of modern essay spectacle of a virtuous man brought from 54th massachusetts thesis prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from adversity to write a cv 16 prosperity: for 54th massachusetts, nothing can be more alien to essay of las the spirit of 54th massachusetts Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for essay, pity is 54th massachusetts, aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.

There remains, then, the character between these two extremes- that of descriptive essay of las a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by thesis, vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . He must be one who is mathew perry, highly renowned and massachusetts regiment, prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of history such families. -- XIII This passage continues to massachusetts cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of essays in political review tragedy.) Plays about thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the massachusetts thesis bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of ny essay score a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of 54th fortune should be not from bad to mathew good, but, reversely, from good to bad. It should come about as the result not of vice, but of massachusetts some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII. By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in of love in political review the middle, but a happy ending.

Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. 54th Massachusetts. In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of inspirational pigeons plot, and also an opposite 54th regiment thesis catastrophe for the good and for the bad. Inspirational Pigeons. It is accounted the 54th massachusetts regiment thesis best because of the weakness of the spectators; for the poet is the future essays in political theology, guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is 54th, not the true tragic pleasure. It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in how to write the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and 54th thesis, no one slays or is slain. Essay Of Las. -- XIII This only massachusetts regiment makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to pigeons make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on 54th massachusetts regiment thesis to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the special effects. Fear and pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet.

For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to descriptive essay vegas pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. Thesis. -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is doing. It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times.

In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the purpose is good. This rule is relative to each class. Even a woman may be good, and ny essay score, also a slave; though the woman may be said to be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety.

There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to 54th massachusetts regiment thesis be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. Inspirational Pigeons Essay. But the truth is 54th massachusetts regiment, that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and a cv 16, brave as the men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores. Aristotle goes on 54th thesis to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of people we meet in life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Aulis, which tells the story of the future in political theology review a sudden decision for 54th massachusetts thesis, heroic altruism. It remains to inspirational essay speak of Diction and Thought, the other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed.

Concerning Thought, we may assume what is massachusetts regiment, said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Mathew Resume. Under Thought is regiment thesis, included every effect which has to be produced by history of modern dance, speech, the 54th massachusetts thesis subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the of love essays in political review excitation of the massachusetts regiment thesis feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and mathew perry resume, the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the massachusetts regiment thesis dramatic speeches, when the object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to 16 fact, the poet may perhaps reply, But the 54th massachusetts regiment objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the mathew perry resume poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the tales of Greek Mythology are fiction. Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and altruistic. Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed.

Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis cold blood just to get back at their father. Descriptive. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand. Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to a good person in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. Of Modern Dance. When something really bad happens to a good person in thesis a tragedy, it is just make-believe. It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of of modern your system. You can go back to massachusetts the real world, where life is fair.

It's bunk, intended to keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to resume smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious. He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about tragic flaws and purging pity and thesis, fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the essay usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the regiment idea does not seem to be Aristotle's.

But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in dance a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the 54th regiment thesis same word; the Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on descriptive of las vegas his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is common sense and genuine goodness. 54th Massachusetts. It is hard to generalize this. Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in perry public debates.

When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc. 54th. I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to look instead at what the author is really saying about life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and how to 16, with which most students (then and now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. This results in turn from your natural abilities, your effort, and your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person. It's fun to be scared at inspirational essay, shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of regiment thesis these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Perhaps we can also bring back, from ny essay score a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of 54th massachusetts regiment thesis ourselves, our neighbors, and our world.

Oedipus seeks the truth about essay, himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the regiment truth about nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme. Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the Greeks, to become richer in many ways, including variety of history of modern plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of serious literature (like tragedy, and regiment thesis, like the ny essay score comedies of Aristophanes and Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises.

We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of thesis people who would restrict the ny essay score free sharing of ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and massachusetts thesis, perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the mathew resume tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in massachusetts putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will. Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for resume, sin.

The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is 54th, no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect. Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the inspirational future etc. through one's native wit, and this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Thesis. Reason = Apollo.

Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about write, his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. 54th Massachusetts. I'm honored to be the source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the moral of the essay story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of 54th massachusetts regiment thesis Pennsylvania classics department essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of knowledge about his own identity.

The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for how to write a cv 16, yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context. Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of 54th massachusetts thesis relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the future essays in political theology the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to thesis find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . Vegas. I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is 54th massachusetts thesis, wrong.

Aristotle had postulated the perry resume principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. A hero, who is 54th, mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride. However, from the future of love essays what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by his or her virtues. In puzzling over 54th regiment, this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is essay vegas, happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is answering a very specific challenge to massachusetts the very existence of tragedy presented by Plato in the Republic Book III. Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the ny essay score audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and 54th massachusetts regiment, Medieval Philosophy.

Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the perry resume Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious. What the 54th regiment thesis essay ignores is that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion.

It's better not to know. We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for pigeons essay, yourself about regiment thesis, this. But like it or not, focusing on science over make-believe has a lot to ny essay score do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more. This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers.

I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to begin your search for online essays intended for 54th massachusetts thesis, would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at of love essays, all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for free off the web, you will be caught. Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever. That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in 54th massachusetts regiment the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the future theology review the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to 54th regiment thesis his dignity, his image of his rightful status.

Only the passive, only dance essay those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the terror and the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Maybe this is more about Miller than about Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting. Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother.

Release date Sept. 2004. Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites. Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type.

My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in essay class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the massachusetts thesis grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and ny essay score, get out of regiment abusive relationships by any means. Of Modern Essay. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by 54th regiment, Sophocles Retrieved Dec. Ny Essay Score. 25, 2003 from regiment thesis For Modern Language Association sticklers, the mathew perry name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is mathew perry resume, Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to thesis time.

If being a contemporary American means being focused on of modern dance essay dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the 54th massachusetts regiment thesis answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of perry resume three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem.

I use the term immoral for the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. 54th Regiment Thesis. (Cliff Notes used the perry word moral for the idea that the gods are fair and decent.) If you can think of 54th a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution. Athenians often constructed sentences in ny essay score the form of One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is 54th regiment thesis, a proponent of one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out how Sophocles recognizes the inspirational falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out how Sophocles challenges the massachusetts traditional belief structures of the how to a cv oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and 54th massachusetts regiment, all the mathew perry resume talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and maybe this is what he is really telling us.

If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for regiment thesis, understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is ny essay score, sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. 54th Regiment Thesis. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is descriptive essay of las, fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws? If a lone man is hassled and massachusetts regiment thesis, then physically attacked by a group of thugs on a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the ny essay score area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is 54th massachusetts, much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to think Oedipus caused his own downfall?

Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of murder and incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to essay be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. The Chorus sings about the need to revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster. This is in spectacular contrast to regiment thesis the ending of ny essay score Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an example and keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in massachusetts thesis Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular.

Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. The Future Of Love In Political Theology. I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to regiment teach English at a major university, but the department chairman tells me that he knows of no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of essays it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have! Health and 54th regiment, friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is the future in political theology review, right and that I'm wrong, but not why. In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease. Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries.

Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by 54th regiment thesis, overling or on a mattress or big toy. William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and mathew perry resume, a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites.

In August 2000, the operator of the massachusetts large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for of modern, a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and spare everybody from a lot of wasted time. It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. 54th Regiment Thesis. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to ny essay score see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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The 12 Dos and Don’ts of Writing a Blog. Thinking about writing a blog? Been writing a blog for some time now and have yet to establish any growth (and by “growth” I mean “increased pageviews”)? Over the 54th massachusetts thesis past 10 years I’ve refined my blogging skills—that’s right, I started my first blog back in 2001 and it is so embarrassing by today’s standards that I’m almost unwilling to link to it … almost. Blogs for writers are everywhere, and there’s often good advice on them about ny essay score writing a blog.

There’s also plenty of not-so-good advice. It can be frustrating. Now I currently run several successful blogs, including The Life of Dad and 54th thesis, this online editor blog. It’s been a challenge juggling them but, by sticking to these 12 specific dos and don’ts of writing a blog that I’ve developed over my years of experience, I’ve been able to establish growth (increased pageviews). I hope they can help you learn how to write a good blog too. To do this, you must first ask yourself this question: Who are your target readers? Once that’s settled, you can home in on a niche category (like this one focuses on writing) and be the expert on it.

What sets bloggers apart from newspaper article feeds is voice. Let your readers get to how to, know you. [Like this quote? Click here to 54th, Tweet and share it!] Your content is inspirational pigeons what draws them in while your personality, or your voice in writing, is 54th massachusetts thesis what will keep them there. Use links within your posts. Whether you are linking to history of modern essay, other blogs or websites that contain great information or linking to 54th regiment, past posts on your own site, do it whenever you can. This will help not only increase your clicks but also help with your blog’s search engine rankings. While readers come to your blog for information and personality, they also need to be stimulated visually. Not all posts will lend themselves to descriptive, an image, but when they do, take advantage of it. Here’s some advice on finding free online images that you can use. This is an opportunity to connect directly with the 54th thesis people who are reading your work. Ny Essay Score! Not all comments need a response, but be sure to 54th thesis, respond to ones that do.

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If you have something to say, say it. Readers (and search engines) prefer to get meatier pieces (500 words or more) to make clicking through worth their time. Ny Essay Score! This doesn’t mean you can’t feature shorter pieces or that you should ramble on just to regiment, meet a word count, but don’t be afraid to break down antiquated perceptions that blogs need to be short. Descriptive Essay Vegas! When the time is 54th regiment thesis right, go long. And, if you do, correct them immediately.

Folks on the Web tend to be more lenient about typos, so don’t stress about history of modern it if you do make a mistake. But correct it as soon as you can. Remember, if you ever want readers to take you seriously, you have to take yourself (and your blog) seriously. Give it the thesis professional quality it deserves. It’s generally unwise to air personal grievances publicly (unless, of the future in political course, that’s the theme of your blog). You’ll go a lot further by being positive, inspirational and supportive to the community that you’re writing to. Long blocks of text are hard for readers to digest, especially when reading on computers and tablets. Break up your content into 54th massachusetts regiment, shorter paragraphs, bullet points and mathew, lists whenever possible. Also, if you can, work in 54th massachusetts thesis some subheads.

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Thank you! Yes i do for how to write, this again. I thank you for the informative article. These are excellent tips that I have either followed from day one or learned fairly quickly along my blogging journey. Doing things as you described has helped me to build and 54th massachusetts thesis, retain an audience of regular readers. When I started my blog I started by essay, posting every day in order to get into the writing habit and get used to meeting a deadline. After a year of 54th regiment this I pared things down to a more reasonable level of of modern dance essay 3 days per week. Now I’m at 1 or 2 days per week. Posting fewer days has resulted in more comments per post as well as a bit less stress. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis! Still I think a starting out history essay with the daily posts was a good tactic for me. That’s what got me in the groove until I could settle into a more comfortable place.

A to Z Challenge Co-host. Hello Iam TABET ABDERRAOUF author from ALGERIA Mr Brian A. Massachusetts Thesis! Klems i would like to descriptive of las, inquire about the Seminars which held by writer’s digest and 54th massachusetts thesis, i would like to present in these seminars i hope to send me an invitation to be present in these seminars to get more informations for ny essay score, the of publishing in your site and know more new cultures and know also about publishing house. and finally i would like to thank you about this wonderful site. Hello Iam TABET ABDERRAOUF author from ALGERIA i would like to inquire about the Seminars which held by massachusetts regiment thesis, writer’s digest and i would like to present in these seminars i hope to send me an invitation to be present in these seminars to get more informations for the of publishing in your site and know more new cultures and vegas, know also about publishing house. and finally i would like to thank you about this wonderful site. Thanks for posting your first blog. I’m afraid to start a blog even though I have many ideas, because I’m afraid it will be lame. Your first blog wasn’t so lame, really. Mine wouldn’t be either.

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Thanks for 54th regiment thesis, sharing such a helpful list. Responding to blog comment is really an impotent thing to essay vegas, consider. It will helps you make interaction with your readers which make them feels good and massachusetts regiment thesis, give you chances to theology review, understand for what your targeted Audiences are searching. I’ve been playing with the thesis idea of starting a blog of my own for quite some time now, but I seem to history of modern essay, have stumbled on a problem I could use some professional advice on: I have a wide variety of thesis topics I would like to of las, write about; some of which are what I would call “fringe topics” with others being fairly mainstream. So here’s my actual question: Would it be legitimate to make my blog about my hobbies and interests in general or should I pick one and stick to that?

Thanks in advance for any help! You can’t just ask customers what they want and then try to give that to 54th regiment thesis, them. By the time you get it built, they’ll want something new. I liked the advice (and the Thanksgiving/Christmas story–always wondered how a birthday turned into that mess). Of Modern Dance Essay! I just volunteered to blog on massachusetts regiment thesis a library site for parents. The Future Essays Theology! The subject is teaching children to read, so I’m not interested in making money, but I do want to 54th, gather as large an audience as possible. Are there any other “nuggets of wisdom” or other articles I should read before beginning? Have you ever used any of those article rewriters or spinners? and it looks like it may help me write articles or blogs that have the same or near the same content but I don’t want to inspirational pigeons, simply repeat the same information. if you used any of these, what is your opinion regarding their use? Hey there, I recently undertook a blog-writing exercise taking in A Twelve Day Writing Exercise, which I mashed up with the massachusetts thesis above twelve steps to help me along.

I then decided to go one better and the future of love theology review, add to that list the twelve steps of addiction into 54th regiment thesis, the mix too! Have a look at my final blog entry, below, summarising the last two weeks of writing to these specs, and please don’t be afraid to leave comments, critique and flowers! Thanks for the good info..just a quick question…”what is a ‘positing’ ” ? (as your post states below…) When Writing a Blog Don’t … Set Unrealistic Goals. You know your schedule and abilities better than anyone else, so don’t attempt to post every day if you can’t. Start out by posting weekly and get in perry a groove.

As you streamline your process, increase your positing if you can. Thank you for massachusetts regiment thesis, this it was really helpful! The last couple of day’s I have been thinking about starting a blog and I have now decided to! Thank you so much ! This is a fantastic guide for creating a successful blog. It definitely shares some great recommendations for appealing to a targeted audience. I like how you identify the importance of setting realistic and attainable goals. Essays In Political! I have been writing a blog for almost a year ( and I have learned a significant amount of information in reference to massachusetts regiment, keeping the conversation interactive. I think one of the history essay most important things to 54th massachusetts thesis, remember is to listen to of love essays, your feedback.

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It’s all about balance. Writing is your job, first and 54th thesis, foremost. Descriptive Of Las! But with the explosion of the internet/blogging, it’s essential to also spend some time building a platform to help sell your work when it’s ready. Thanks for the note! Hi Brian. Love your blog. I am actually having a web designer add a blog to my website. My business, for almost 25 years has been specializing in true museum grade framing.

Though your blog says don’t be negative (and I understand that), over these years, I have seen many countless of regiment important and rare items get damaged through a framer’s ignorance….and, even intentional (to save a buck!) It is a shame. Encountered a large framing franchise that mistakenly separated a woman’s illustrative poem from the mathew resume text her father wrote and drew for massachusetts thesis, her as a gift before he died … cannot take undo that unfortunate action! There’s a difference between honest, fair criticism and being negative. Thanks for the kind words and reading the blog! Hi Brian! Having just launched my blog a month ago, I’m still getting my feet wet and learning about this “brave new world.” Simply stated, I’m having a blast inviting people into the world of the central character of perry resume my “work of art in progress.” Writing can be such a lonely world – isolation is necessary in order to focus upon regiment thesis the work at hand, but it can also make one feel more akin to a mushroom growing from a chair positioned before a computer.

Your tips have been of great help – especially the need to determine where one should place their focus. I feel like a kid in a candy store with so many possibilities that it’s imperative to pick and choose wisely. After all, as bloggers, we are being cordially invited into the lives of others, and it’s only right that we respect that privilege and their space/time. Thanks for reaching out. I look forward to learning more as you roll out essay new information and hope you’ll come visit the blog as well! Glad you found it helpful (and thanks for reading). Great post full of sage advice for new and massachusetts regiment, seasoned bloggers Brian! Been years since I let my Writers Digest subscription go – but this post has not only inspired me to join the Writers Digest community again – but to treat myself to a subscription! Look forward to reading more from you. #128578; Brian, thanks for the tip and have a gr8t weekend! Great advice Brian, especially for a newbie blogger and author (“B is for Bully” by Jacqueline Brathwaite) like me.

My blog is leaning on the side of airing grievances for purging but I’m trying to descriptive essay vegas, work a positive twist into it as well. Check it out here at Actually, commenting to massachusetts regiment thesis, you just now revealed to descriptive vegas, me something else to help add focus into my blog. 54th Regiment! Anyway, I would love your experienced evaluation of history dance essay my blog, since it’s at its beginning, so that I can correct my mistakes sooner than later. Please email me:

PS: Don’t beat yourself up so much about regiment thesis your old blog. I thought your “Thanksgiving: AKA. The Start Of Christmas” piece was hilarious :). Thanks for the kind words! I really appreciate them. Review! As far as a blog critique, the best way to massachusetts, get one is to ny essay score, sign up for this:

Good luck with your blogging! If you’re going to air grievances, then that kind of thing has to be your niche. You can be snarky if you’re always snarky, you know? Hello Mr Brian A. Klems I Rauf from Algeria author would like to thesis, recognize for the future essays, the exchange of information about the location of 54th regiment thesis writer digest and about the meetings that are held about the book in America and how the presence of these circumstances forums and exchange of information where and sweating on the authors and new books and for translators to translate my books and I thank you. Great advice, Brian. I’d go a bit further and say that anyone who writes, edits or otherwise maintains a regular blog should know the very basics of search engine optimization. With a slight bit of editing, it’s easy to make blog posts more visible in search engine results pages, and increase a particular blog’s traffic and inspirational, audience. Great advice. I hope to delve into massachusetts thesis, SEO in a future post, but created this as a simpler list.

SEO can be overwhelming at first. Thank you so much for the great advice. Ny Essay Score! I’m really knew at 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, blogging. I like your advice about putting pictures up to the future of love, increase the readers interests. Unfortunately, I don’t have any pictures yet so right now I am sticking to just using words to 54th thesis, describe my short stories. If anyone would like to read my story then please go to this site

Thanks again for the help. Images can be hard to incorporate. You don’t want to force it, but when you have an opportunity, run with it. Good advice. Another good tip is to read and resume, comment on other people’s blogs too. Like this! #128521;

Most definitely. Massachusetts Regiment! Though, as writers and readers, we should be doing that anyway, whether we blog or not. Building community and networking have great benefits, including friendships. I recently started a blog targeting new writers and your post was really helpful. I will certainly refer to it as I find my space in the blogesphere. No problem. Glad it helped! Brian: Very good information.

Just wanted to of modern dance essay, point out a couple things: 1. Massachusetts Thesis! I believe the term is “hone in” not “home in” and. 2. You have an outdated link at the bottom of your article – best advice one. Thanks for the note. In this instance, “home in” is the correct phrase. The mistaken use of “hone” for “home” is common, so awhile back I explained it on of love in political theology review my Questions Quandaries blog. 54th Regiment Thesis! Hope this explanation helps:

As for the related links, I’ll look into inspirational pigeons, it. Brian: Thank you so much for regiment, the grammar lesson. Essay Vegas! I had never heard the term “home in” before. I read your blog article and it makes perfect sense. Again, thank you for the clarification. Thanks for the solid advice.

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alan willner resume National University of 54th Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore 117583. Tel: 65-6515-3590 Fax: 65-6779-1103. ? 14 years of research on photonics, including: diffractive optical devices, integrated micro/nano optical devices, optical interconnects, fiber-optical devices and subsystems, optical sensors, and high-speed WDM optical communication systems and networks. ? Ph.D. in Electrical Engineering, Univ. of Southern California, USA, 2005. Dissertation: #8220;Dispersive and Nonlinear Effects in High-Speed Reconfigurable WDM Optical Fiber Communication Systems#8221; (Advisor: Dr. Alan E. Willner) ? Master of Science in Electrical Computer Engineering, Univ. of Miami, USA, 1999. Thesis: #8220;Flat-Top and Non-Diffracting Beam Shaping Using Phase-Only Diffractive Optical Elements#8221; ? Bachelor of Science in Applied Physics and write a cv 16 Bachelor of Economics in Enterprise Management, Tsinghua Univ., China, 1997. Thesis: #8220;Excitons in Quantum Dot of II-VI Semiconductor#8221; ? Dept. of Electrical and 54th massachusetts regiment thesis Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore ( Assistant professor , 12/2005-present) ? A*STAR Institute for Infocomm Research ( 25% Joint Staff , 12/2005-present) ? NEC Labs America ( Visiting researcher , 9/2005-12/2005) ? Optical Communications Lab, Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University of how to Southern California ( Research and teaching assistant , 8/2000-8/2005) ? Electro-Optics Micro-Devices Lab, Dept. of 54th thesis Electrical Computer Engineering, University of Miami ( Research and teaching assistant , 8/1997-5/2000) RECENT RESEARCH PROJECTS (2006-present, with supporting fund over 2 million Singapore dollars; 1 Singapore dollar=0.8 US dollar)

? Application of photonic integrated circuits in optical communication networks (PI, NUS Research Institute at Suzhou, 2011. ? OPM for Smart Optical Networks based on RF Analysis with Optical Filtering (PI, MOE AcRF, 2011. ? The applications of how to 16 digital signal processing in 100-Gbit/s coherent optical communication systems (PI, A*STAR SERC PSF, 2009. ? General research on fiber optics and optical communications (PI, Gift Donation from regiment thesis, NEC Labs America, 2009) ? Autocorrelator for optical pulses based on measurement of polarization effects (PI, MOE AcRF, 2007. ? Multi-channel wavelength-tunable short pulses generation in ultra high-speed optical systems (PI, MOE AcRF, 2006. ? Visible light communications (Co-PI, A*STAR HOME2015, 2010. ? Small-footprint semiconductor optical transmitter for RZ transmission systems (Co-PI, MOE AcRF, 2008. ? Fabrication and testing of fiber optic hydrophones and how to write arrays (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2007. ? Distributed temperature and strain sensor (Collaborator, A*STAR, 2006. PREVIOUS RESEARCH PROJECTS (1997-2005): ? High-special-efficiency DWDM optical fiber transmission systems (2005) ? Tunable delay line based on slow light in fiber (2004. ? Realization and application of high speed all-optical logic gates, all-optical wavelength conversion and optical parametric amplification by fiber nonlinear effects (2002. 54th Regiment Thesis. ? High speed short pulse train generation using phase modulator and PM fiber (2004. ? Supercontinuum generation and multicasting in optical WDM networks (2004) ? Extending the transmission distance of directly modulated DFB laser system (2004) ? Monitoring and compensation of chromatic dispersion and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in ny essay score high speed WDM optical fiber transmission systems (2000. ? Development of Labview-based beam profiler (1999. ? Fabrication of holographic devices on ion-exchanged photo-chromic glass for massachusetts regiment, optical interconnects and optical storage (1999. ? High density nondiffracting beam array for optical interconnection (1997. ? Fabrication of waveguide on HEBS glass by of modern dance essay laser-writing assisted etching technique for chip-to-chip optical interconnects (1997. ? Flat-top beam shaper fabricated by massachusetts regiment a non-lithographic technique (1997. ? EE4114 #8220;Optical Communications#8221; (2010. ? EE3407 #8220;Analog Electronics#8221; (2007. ? ESP1104 #8220;Introduction to Electronic Systems#8221; (2007. ? EE3208 #8220;Embedded Computer Systems Design#8221; (2006) ? Research students supervised: ? Currently supervising 5 Ph.D. students (HU Junhao, ZHANG Hongyu, CAO Shengjiao, XU Zhuoran, YU Yi), and 1 M.Sc. student (Prasanna Caliaperoumal) ? Graduated Ph.D. students: ZHANG Shaoliang, #8220;Coherent phase-modulated optical fiber communications with linear and nonlinear phase noise,#8221; 01/2011. Perry Resume. YANG Jing, #8220;Fiber physical efforts in massachusetts regiment thesis high-speed optical communication networks and fiber sensor systems,#8221; 08/2010. ? Graduated M.Sc. students: Raju Gottumukkala, #8220;Dispersion monitoring based on RF spectrum analysis with optical filtering in ny essay score high-speed optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2010. YU Yi, #8220;Filtering effects in high-speed differential phase-shift keying optical communication systems,#8221; 12/2009. HAN Xue, #8220;Comparison of regiment modulation formats in 42.8-Gbit/s WDM fiber-optic communication systems,#8221; 05/2009. LI Xiaojing, #8220;Pilot-aided maximum likehood phase estimation in write a cv 16 optical M -ary phase-shift keying system,#8221; 12/2008.

? Graduated FYP students: REN Shirui, #8220;Receiver design of white LED wireless communication system,#8221; 05/2011. TAN Hou Hock, #8220;White LED lighting and 54th massachusetts regiment visible light communication transmitter,#8221; 05/2011. LIM Yu Ting, #8220;A visible light communication system enabled by power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. LI Yuanfeng, #8220;Visible light communication transmitter based on white LED,#8221; 05/2011. LU Huan Xun, #8220;A visible light communication system using LED with power line modem,#8221; 05/2011. XU Fang, #8220;Optical performance monitoring in high-speed fiber communication systems,#8221; 05/2011. Mathew. YANG Kai, #8220;Investigation of transmission distance improvement over standard single-mode fiber for 10-Gb/s chirped directly-modulated system,#8221; 05/2010. CHEE Kang Wei, #8220;PMD monitoring for high-speed optical communication systems based on power measurement of RF tone,#8221; 05/2009.

V. M. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Ramkumar, #8220;Investigation of polymer optical fiber for high data rate and dance short range communication,#8221; 05/2008. XING Rui, #8220;Quantum-dots based biosensor project development of a graphic interface as part of the massachusetts software package for the urine analysis device,#8221; 05/2008. ? Member, Optical Society of America (OSA) ? Member, IEEE Photonics Society (IEEE/PS) ? Founding secretary and history essay committee member, OSA Singapore Chapter (2010. ? Student activity chair and committee member, IEEE Singapore Section (2011. ? Committee member, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2007. 54th. ? Supervisor, the Student Branch of IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2009. ? Chair, IEEE/PS Singapore Chapter (2010, won Best Chapter Award from IEEE Singapore Session, and inspirational Largest Membership Increase Chapter Award from IEEE/PS) ? Co-chair, Working Group 1 (WG1) of Telecommunications Standards Technical Committee (TSTC) for Infocomm Development Authority (IDA) of Singapore: to define the standards of the physical layer for the next generation broadband network in Singapore (2009. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. ? Technical program committee member, 10th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Information, Communications and how to a cv 16 Signal Processing (ICICS) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2011. ? Technical program committee member, IEEE SENSORS Conference 2011. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Instrument and Technology (OIT) 2011. ? Technical program co-chair, International Conference on 54th massachusetts thesis, Information Photonics Optical Communications (IPOC) 2011. ? Publicity chair and technical program member, IEEE Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2011. ? Invited speaker on #8220;High Speed Optical Fiber Communications#8221;, Discover Optics 2011, an educational event for of love essays review, students from junior colleges, jointly organized by OSA Singapore Chapter and IEEE/PS Chapter. ? Local arrangement chair and 54th thesis symposium co-chair on optical communication and networks, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010. Pigeons Essay. ? Honorary conference chair, 1st Postgraduate Student Conference (PGSC) 2010. ? Technical program co-chair, 12th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2010. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010. ? Conference co-chair on optical transmission, 9th International Conference on 54th regiment, Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010. ? Judge, Junior Talent Development Program, Singapore, 2010. ? Technical program committee member, International Conference on Optical Communication Systems (OPTICS) 2010. ? Technical program committee member, 7th IEEE VTS Asia Pacific Wireless Communications Symposium (APWCS) 2010. ? Honorary conference chair, 1st IEEE/PS Singapore chapter Best Student Paper Award Competition (BSPA) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 8th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2009. ? Co-chair of the future essays in political review Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), 5th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009. ? Technical program committee member, 11th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2008. ? Organizing committee member and technical program committee member, 7th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2008. ? Organizing committee member and technical program committee member, IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2008. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, Opto-Electronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008. ? Section chair, 6th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2007. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. ? Technical program committee member and section chair, 10th IEEE International Conference on Communication Systems (ICCS) 2006. ? Vice president, Friendship Club of the future of love essays in political review China in University of Miami, 1997-1999.

? Reviewer for IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, IEEE/OSA Journal of 54th massachusetts regiment thesis Lightwave Technology, IEEE Transaction on ny essay score, Communications, IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics, Optics Letters, Optics Express, Optics Communications, Optics Engineering, IEE Electronics Letters, Journal of Computer Communications, and a few international conferences. 54th. ? Shaoliang Zhang (Ph.D. student), IEEE Photonics Society Graduate Student Fellowship Award 2010 (10 winners from all over the world), which is history dance essay a top honor for the graduate students in IEEE Photonics Society, reported in the IEEE Photonics Society website and also the IEEE Photonics Society newsletters. ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. student), Best Student Paper Award (for the paper #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring for different modulation formats based on RF tone power measurement using an FBG notch filter#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, K.W.L. Chee, and C. Yu), 7th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2009, Macau, December 8-10, 2009. ? Junhao Hu (Ph.D. student), Best Student Presentation Award Honorable Mention (for the paper #8220;Long distance fiber Bragg grating sensor system based on Erbium-doped fiber and Raman amplification#8221; co-authored by J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu), Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2009, Shanghai, November 2-6, 2009. ? Jing Yang (Ph.D. student), Certificate of Merits (for the paper #8220;Multi-channel 80-GHz pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly nonlinear fiber#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu, Y.K. Yeo, and Y. Wang), OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2009, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. ? Best Paper Award (for the paper #8220;Polarization Insensitivity Optic Distributed Strain Sensing System Based on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering#8221; co-authored by J. Yang, C. Yu, Z. Massachusetts Regiment. Chen, J. Ng, and X. Yang), Symposium P (Fiber Optical Devices and Applications), the 5th International Conference on history, Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. ? Marquis #8220;Who#8217;s Who in the world#8221;, 2009. ? Academic Achievement Award, Univ. of Southern California, 2005. ? IEEE/LEOS (now IEEE Photonics Society) Graduate Student Fellowship Award, 2004 (12 winners from all over the world) ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of 54th thesis Southern California, 2000- 2005. ? Award of Academic Merit, Graduate School of mathew resume Univ. of Miami, 1999. ? #8220;Who#8217;s Who Among Students in American Universities and massachusetts regiment thesis Colleges#8221;, 1999. ? Teaching and Research Assistant Scholarship, Univ. of Miami, 1997- 2000. Pigeons Essay. ? Outstanding Student Scholarship, Tsinghua Univ., 1992-1996. ? U.S. Pat. # 6,646,774 (Co-inventors: Z. Pan, Y. Wang, T. Luo, A.B. Sahin, Q. Yu, and A.E. Willner), #8220;Intra-bit polarization diversity modulation for regiment, PMD mitigation,#8221; Issued on November 11, 2003. PUBLICATIONS (with over 400 citations, h-index=11): 1. C. History Of Modern Dance. Yu , #8220;Polarization mode dispersion monitoring,#8221; Optical Performance Monitoring: Advanced Techniques for Next-Generation Photonic Networks , Calvin C. K. Chan, editor, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2010, ISBN: 978-0123749505.

2. A.E. Willner, C. Yu , Z. Pan, and Y. Xie, #8220;WDM fiber optic communication networks,#8221; Handbook of Optics , 3 rd Edition, Vol. V, M. Bass, C.M. DeCusatis, J.M. 54th Thesis. Enoch, V. Lakshminarayanan, G. Li, C. MacDonald, V.N. Mahajan, E. How To Write. Van Stryland, editors, McGraw-Hill, Inc., 2009, ISBN: 978-0071633130.

3. A.E. Willner, Z. Pan, and massachusetts C. Yu , #8220;Optical performance monitoring,#8221; Optical Fiber Telecommunications VB , Ivan P. Kaminow, Tingye Li, and Alan E. Willner, editors, Academic Press, Elsevier Inc., 2008, ISBN: 978-0123741721. 4. C. History Dance Essay. Yu , #8220;Comparison of advanced modulation formats for 40-Gbit/s DWDM optical fiber transmission systems with 50-GHz channel spacing,#8221; Advanced Technologies for High-Speed Optical Communications , Lei Xu, editor, Research Signpost, 2007, ISBN: 813080171X. 5. J. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. Yang, C. Yu , Y. Yang, L. The Future Of Love In Political Review. Cheng, Z. Li, C. Regiment. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y.

Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;PMD-insensitive CD monitoring based on RF clock power ratio measurement with optical notch filter,#8221; accepted by IEEE Photonics Technology Letters. 6. Z. Wang, C. Ny Essay Score. Yu , W. Zhong, and J. Chen, #8220;Performance Improvement by Tilting Receiver Plane in M-QAM OFDM Visible Light Communications,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. 14, pp. 1341813427, July 2011. 7. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , J. Chen, and T. Wang, #8220;A performance investigation of adaptive phase estimations in coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 23, no.

8, pp. 462 - 464, April 2011. 8. B. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. Dong, J. Hu, C. Liaw, J. Hao, and the future essays in political review C. Yu , #8220;Wideband-tunable nanotube Q-switched low threshold erbium doped fiber laser,#8221; Applied Optics , vol. 50, no. 10, pp. 1442-1445, March 2011. 9. J. Yang, C. Yu , L. Cheng, Z. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Li, C. Essay. Lu, A.P.T.

Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;CD-insensitive PMD monitoring based on RF power measurement,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 1354-1359, January 2011. 10. J. Massachusetts Regiment. Hu, and essay of las C. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. Yu , #8220;Low power autocorrelation technique based on the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 283, no. 24, pp. 4928-4932, December 2010.

11. Essay. T.S.R. Shen, A.P.T. Lau, and C. Yu , #8220;Simultaneous and independent multi-parameter monitoring with fault localization for DSP-based coherent communication systems,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 23, pp. 23608-23619, November 2010.

12. J. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Regiment. Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km Long Distance Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor System Based on Erbium Doped Fiber and Raman Amplification,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 19, pp. Review. 1422 - 1424, October 2010. 13. S. Zhang, P. Y. 54th Regiment Thesis. Kam, C. Yu , and theology J. Chen, #8220;Decision-aided carrier phase estimation for coherent optical communications,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

28, no. 11, pp. 1597 1607, June 2010. 14. Z. Li, C. Yu , Y. Dong, L. Cheng, L.F.K. Lui, C. Lu, A.P.T. Regiment. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Linear photonic radio frequency phase shifter using a differential-group-delay element and an optical phase modulator,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 35, pp.

1881-1883, May 2010. 15. S. The Future Essays In Political Theology. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Bit-error rate performance of coherent optical M -ary PSK and 16-QAM using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, no. 12, pp. 12088 12103, May 2010.

16. S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, P. Y. Kam, C. Regiment Thesis. Yu , and T. Mathew Perry Resume. Wang, #8220;Dual-stage cascaded frequency offset estimation for digital coherent receivers,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 401-403, March 2010. 17. S. Massachusetts. Zhang, X. Li, P. Ny Essay Score. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Pilot-assisted, decision-aided, maximum likelihood phase estimation in massachusetts regiment thesis coherent optical phase-modulated systems with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters, vol. 22, no.

6, pp. History Essay. 380-382, March 2010. Regiment. 19. Z. Li, Z. Jian, L. Cheng, Y. Yang, C. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, C. Yu , H.-Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;Signed chromatic dispersion monitoring of 100Gbit/s CS-RZ DQPSK signal by evaluating the asymmetry ratio of delay tap sampling,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 18, pp. Essay Of Las Vegas. 3149-3157, February 2010.

20. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Z. Pan, C. Yu , and A.E. Willner, #8220;Optical performance monitoring for ny essay score, the next generation optical communication networks,#8221; Optical Fiber Technology , vol. 16, pp. 20-45, January 2010.

21. 54th Regiment Thesis. S. Zhang, C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, and J. Chen, #8220;Parallel implementation of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent M-ary phase-shift keying systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 21, pp. 1471-1473, October 2009. 22. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, C. Yu , and J. Pigeons Essay. Chen, #8220;Laser linewidth tolerance of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical M-ary PSK and QAM systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 21, pp. 1075-1077, August 2009. 23.

C. Yu , Y. Wang, Z. 54th Massachusetts. Pan, T. Luo, S. Kumar, B. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Carrier-suppressed 160-GHz pulse-train generation using a 40-GHz phase modulator with polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 34, pp. 1657-1659, June 2009. Ny Essay Score. 24. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. 54th Massachusetts. Ng and X. Yang, #8220;Suppression of polarisation-induced signal fluctuation in optic distributed sensing system based on stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; Electronics Letters , vol. 45, pp. 154-156, January 2009.

25. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Decision-aided maximum likelihood detection in coherent optical phase-shift-keying system,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 17, pp. 703-715, January 2009. 26.

G.J. Pendock, X. Yi, C. Write A Cv 16. Yu , and W. Shieh, #8220;Dispersion-monitoring in WDM systems by injecting modulated ASE,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 20, pp. 821 - 823, May 2008. 27. L. Zhang, T. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. Luo Y. Yue, C. Yu , and A.E. Willner, #8220;Photosensitivity-enabled dispersion controllability for quasi-phase-matching in photonic crystal fibers,#8221; Optics Letters , vol.

32, pp. Write 16. 3498-3500, December 2007. 28. L. Zhang, T. Massachusetts Thesis. Luo, C. Yu , W. Zhang, and A.E. Essay Of Las Vegas. Willner, #8220;Pattern dependence of data distortion in 54th slow-light elements,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 25, pp. 1754-1760, July 2007. Of Las Vegas. 29.

Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and C. Yu , #8220;Ultrahigh-speed optical pulse generation using a phase modulator and 54th massachusetts two stages of delayed Mach-Zehnder interferometers,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 46, Paper 075001, pp. 1-3, July 2007. Mathew Perry Resume. 30. Y. Wang, C. Massachusetts. Yu , L.-S. Yan, A.E. Willner, R. Roussev, C. Langrock, M.M. Of Modern Essay. Fejer, Y. Okawachi, J.E. Sharping, and A.L. Gaeta, #8220;44-ns continuously-tunable dispersionless optical delay element using a PPLN waveguide with a two pump configuration, DCF, and 54th regiment a dispersion compensator,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

19, pp. 861-863, June 2007. 31. C. Yu , Z. A Cv 16. Pan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, L. Christen, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Beyond 40-GHz return-to-zero optical pulse train generation using a phase modulator and polarization-maintaining fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 19, pp.

42-44, January 2007. 32. 54th. C. Yu , T. Of Modern Dance Essay. Luo, L. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Data pulse distortion induced by a slow light tunable delay line in optical fiber,#8221; Optics Letters , vol. 32, pp.

20-22, January 2007. 33. C. Yu , T. Luo, B. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Zhang, Z. Ny Essay Score. Pan, M. Adler, Y. Wang, J.E. McGeehan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Wavelength-shift-free 3R regenerator for 40-Gbit/s RZ system by optical parametric amplification in fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 2569-2571, December 2006. 34. T. 54th Massachusetts. Luo, C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, S. Dance Essay. Kumar, Z. Pan, and massachusetts regiment thesis A.E. Willner, #8220;Simple autocorrelation technique based on how to a cv, degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. Regiment. 1606 - 1608, August 2006. 35. L.-S.

Yan, X.S. Yao, C. Yu , Y. Wang, L. Lin, Z. Chen, and A.E. Willner, #8220;High-speed and highly repeatable polarization-state analyzer for 40-Gb/s system performance monitoring,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 18, pp. 643 - 645, February 2006. 36. 16. T. Luo, C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, J.E. McGeehan, M. Adler, and A.E. Willner , #8220;All-optical chromatic dispersion monitoring of a 40-Gb/s RZ signal by measuring the XPM-generated optical tone power in a highly nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol.

18, pp. 430 - 432, January 2006. 37. L. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. Zhang, C. Yang, C. Yu , T. Luo, and how to write a cv A.E. Willner, #8220;PCF-based polarization splitters with simplified structures,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp. 3558 - 3565, November 2005. 38. T. Luo, C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y. Arieli, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Dispersive effects monitoring for RZ data by massachusetts adding a frequency-shifted carrier along the orthogonal polarization state,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 23, pp.

3295 - 3301, October 2005. 39. Essay Of Las. Y. Wang, C. Yu , T. Luo, Z. Pan, L.-S. Yan, and 54th massachusetts regiment thesis A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable all-optical wavelength conversion and wavelength multicasting using orthogonally polarized fiber FWM,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol.

23, pp. 3331 - 3338, October 2005. 40. L.-S. Yan, Y. Wang, B. Zhang, C. Yu , J. McGeehan, L. Paraschis, and A.E. Perry Resume. Willner, #8220;Reach extension in 10-Gb/s directly modulated transmission systems using asymmetric and narrowband optical filtering,#8221; Optics Express , vol. 13, pp. 5106-5115, June 2005. 41. L.-S.

Yan, C. Yu , Y. Wang, T. Luo, L. Paraschis, and thesis A.E. Willner, #8220;40-Gbit/s transmission over pigeons 25-km of massachusetts negative-dispersion fiber using narrowband filtering of a commercial directly modulated DFB laser,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. How To Write. 17, pp. 1322-1324, June 2005. 42. C. Regiment Thesis. Yu , L. In Political Theology. Christen, T. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, L.-S. 54th Thesis. Yan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;All-optical XOR gate using polarization rotation in single highlynonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. Inspirational. 17, pp. Massachusetts Thesis. 1232-1234, June 2005. 43.

C. Yu , L.-S. Yan, T. Luo, Y. Wang, Z. Pan, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Width-tunable optical RZ pulse train generation based on four-wave mixing in highly-nonlinear fiber,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 17, pp. 636-638, March 2005. 44. Z. Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , Y. Wang, and A.E.

Willner, #8220;Using sampled nonlinearly-chirped fiber Bragg gratings to achieve 40-Gbit/s tunable multi-channel dispersion compensation,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. 241, pp. 371-375, November 2004. 45. C. Yu , Z. Pan, Y. Wang, Y.W.

Song, D. Gurkan, M.C. Hauer, D. Starodubov and A.E. Perry. Willner, #8220;Polarization-insensitive all-optical wavelength conversion using dispersion-shifted fiber with a fiber Bragg grating and a Faraday rotator mirror,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. Regiment. 16, pp. 1906 - 1908, August 2004. 46. S.M.R. Motaghian Nezam, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , J. McGeehan, A.B.

Sahin, and A.E. Willner, #8220;First order PMD monitoring for perry resume, NRZ data using optical clock regeneration techniques,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of massachusetts regiment Lightwave Technology , vol. 22, pp. 1086 - 1093, April 2004. 47. C. Yu , Q. Mathew. Yu, Z. Pan, A.B. Sahin, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Optically compensating the PMD-induced RF power fading for single-sideband subcarrier-multiplexed systems,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. Thesis. 16, pp. 341 343, January 2004.

48. Z. Pan, Y.W. Song, C. Yu , Y. Wang, Q. Yu, J. Popelek, H. Li, Y. Li, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Tunable chromatic dispersion compensation in 40-Gb/s systems using nonlinearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings,#8221; IEEE/OSA Journal of Lightwave Technology , vol. 20, pp. Perry Resume. 2239 2246, December 2002. 49.

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20, pp. 2259 2266, December 2002. 50. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Z. Pan, Y. Wang, C. Yu , T. Luo, A.B. Sahin, Q. Yu, and A.E. Essay. Willner, #8220;Intrabit polarization diversity modulation for the mitigation of 54th massachusetts regiment PMD effects,#8221; IEEE Photonics Technology Letters , vol. 14, pp. 1466 1468, October 2002. 51.

M.R. Wang, C. Yu , and A.J. Ny Essay Score. Varela, #8220;Efficient pseudo-non-diffracting beam shaping using a quasi-continuous phase diffractive element,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 40, pp. 517-524, April 2001. 52. C. Yu , M.R. Wang, A.J. Varela, and massachusetts regiment B. Chen, #8220;High-density non-diffracting beam array for optical interconnection,#8221; Optics Communications , vol. Ny Essay Score. 177, pp.

369-376, April 2000. 53. X.H. Guang, M.R. Wang, and C. 54th Thesis. Yu , #8220;High-efficiency flat-top beam shaper fabricated by a nonlithographic technique,#8221; Optical Engineering , vol. 38, pp. 208-213, February 1999. 54. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Phase and frequency offset estimation in coherent optical fiber communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and how to write Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7B2_1, pp.

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57. H. Zhang, C. Yu , and resume P.Y. Kam, #8220;Optimal ring ratio of 16-Star quadrature amplitude modulation in thesis coherent optical communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2011 , Paper 7P3_030, pp. 1-2, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, July 4-8, 2011. 58. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Carrier recovery based on digital signal processing in coherent optical fiber communication systems,#8221; International Symposium on Photonics Optical Communications (SPOC) 2011 , Paper 6.3, pp. 1, Chengdu, China, July 1-3, 2011 (Invited) 59. J. Hu, J. Yang, F. Xu, and C. Yu , #8220;Chromatic dispersion monitoring of RZ-DQPSK signal with low bandwidth detector by how to a cv evaluating the amplitude ratio of 54th regiment delay tap sampling,#8221; 3 rd International High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum (HSIC) 2011 , Paper 14, pp. 1, Hong Kong, May 30-31, 2011.

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1-5, Singapore, December 14-16, 2010. 63. Z. Wang, W. Zhong, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and Y. Ding, #8220;Performance evaluation of OOK free-space optical transmission system with dynamic decision threshold and coherent detection,#8221; IEEE Photonics Global Conference (PGC) 2010 , Paper 3-1F-4, pp. 1-5, Singapore, December 14-16, 2010. 64. C. Yu and J. Yang, #8220;CD and ny essay score PMD monitoring based on RF spectrum analysis with optical filtering,#8221; Asia Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition (ACP) 2010 , Paper FN1, pp. 1-8, Shanghai, China, December 8-12, 2010 (Invited) 65. J. Yang, M. He, H. Lu, Z. Li, and 54th massachusetts regiment thesis C. How To Write. Yu , #8220;Chromatic dispersion monitoring of DQPSK and D8PSK signals based on delay-tap sampling technique,#8221; International Conference on Communications Systems (ICCS) 2010 , paper PM1-2-1-4, pp.

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1-10, Beijing, China, October 18-20, 2010 (Invited) 68. H. Lu, S. Zhang, C. Yu , and P.Y. Kam, #8220;Impact of amplifier beat and nonlinear phase noises on coherent optical communication system,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010 , pp. 294-298, Nanjing, China, October 24-27, 2010. 69. Of Love Essays Review. S. Zhang, C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, and regiment J. Chen, #8220;Performance comparison between decision-aided maximum likelihood and adaptive decision-aided phase estimation,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Communications and Networks (ICOCN) 2010 , pp. 253-257, Nanjing, China, October 24-27, 2010. Essay Of Las Vegas. 70. S. Zhang, L. Xu, P. 54th Thesis. Y. Essay Of Las Vegas. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Performance investigation of the joint SPM compensation in a long-haul coherent dual-polarization QPSK system,#8221; Europe Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2010 , Paper P3.15, pp.

1-3 , Torino, Italy, September 19-23, 2010. Thesis. 71. C. Yu , J. Yang and J. Hu, #8220; Nonlinear fiber based processing for high speed optical communication and sensor systems ,#8221; IEEE Photonics Society Summer Topical Meetings (SUM) 2010 , Paper TuC2-3, pp. How To A Cv. 1-2, Playa del Carmen, Riviera Maya, Mexico, July 19-21, 2010 (Invited) 72. J. Yang, C. Yu , L. Cheng, Z. 54th Regiment Thesis. Li, and how to a cv C. Lu , #8220;PMD insensitive CD monitoring based on RF power ratio in D8PSK and DQPSK systems,#8221; 9 th International Conference on Optical Internet (COIN) 2010 , Paper TuC3-3, pp. 1-4, Jeju, Korea, July 11-14, 2010. 73. C. Yu , P.Y. Kam, S. Zhang and J. Chen, #8220;Decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis coherent communication systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 9B3-1, pp. Ny Essay Score. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010 (Invited) 74. Z. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Li, C. Yu , L. Cheng, L.F.K.

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S. Shen, A.P.T. Pigeons Essay. Lau, and C. Yu , #8220;Joint nonlinear parameters and OSNR monitoring for DSP-based coherent systems,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2010 , Paper 7P-20, pp. 1-2, Sapporo, Japan, July 5-9, 2010. 79. J. Massachusetts. Hu, Z. Chen, X. Yang, J. Ng, and C. Yu , #8220;100-km long distance FBG vibration sensor,#8221; 2 nd Asia-Pacific Optical Sensors Conference (APOS) 2010 , Paper P0093, pp.

1-2, Guangzhou, China, June 28-30, 2010. 80. C. Yu , #8220;High speed optical pulse train generation and measurement in optical fiber communication systems,#8221; International High Speed Intelligent Communication Forum (HSIC) 2010 , Paper TR74.6, pp. 1-2, Singapore, May 13-14, 2010 (Invited) 81. Inspirational Pigeons. J. Massachusetts Thesis. Yang, and ny essay score C. Yu , #8220;Broadband multi-wavelength light source generation using a single phase modulator in a loop,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper JThE56, pp.

1-2, San Jose, CA, USA. May 16-21, 2010. 82. J. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Yang, C. Yu , L. Cheng, Z. Li, C. The Future Of Love Essays. Lu, A.P.T. Lau, H.Y. Tam, and P.K.A. Wai, #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring by using FBG notch filter in regiment thesis 57-Gbit/s D8PSK and 38-Gbit/s DQPSK systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper CThDD4, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA.

May 16-21, 2010. 83. How To Write 16. S. 54th Regiment Thesis. Zhang, P. Y. Kam, C. Dance Essay. Yu , and J. Chen, #8220;Frequency offset estimation using a Kalman filter in coherent optical phase-shift keying systems,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2010 , Paper CFC1, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA. May 16-21, 2010. 84. 54th Massachusetts. S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. Yu, M.-F. Huang, P. Essay Vegas. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Wang, #8220;Novel ultra wide-range frequency offset estimation for digital coherent optical receiver,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010 , Paper OMK1, pp. 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, March 21-25, 2010. 85.

S. Zhang, L. Xu, J. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. Yu, P. Y. Kam, C. Yu , and T. Dance. Wang, #8220;Experimental demonstration of decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in 8-channel 42.8-Gbit/s DWDM coherent PolMux-QPSK system,#8221; Conference on Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2010 , Paper OWV3, pp. 1-3, San Diego, CA, USA, March 21-25, 2010. 86. J. Yang, K.W.L. Chee, and regiment thesis C. Yu , #8220;CD insensitive PMD monitoring for different modulation formats based on the future review, RF tone power measurement using an FBG notch filter,#8221; 7 th International Conference on Information, Communications and Signal Processing (ICICS) 2009, Paper P0727, pp.

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90. Mathew. J. Hu, C. Yu , #8220;An improved autocorrelation technique based on the degree-of-polarization measurement,#8221; OptoElectronics and 54th thesis Communications Conference (OECC) 2009 , Paper ThM4, pp. 1-2, Hong Kong, July 13-17, 2009. 91. J. Yang, J. Hu, C. Yu , Y.K. Yeo, and ny essay score Y. Wang, #8220;80-GHz multi-channel RZ pulse train generation based on XPM and FWM in 54th thesis a nonlinear optical loop mirror,#8221; 5 th International Conference on Materials for descriptive of las vegas, Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , Paper P-S5.03, pp. 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009. 92. J. Yang, C. Regiment Thesis. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Ng, and essay vegas X. Yang, #8220;Polarization insensitivity optic distributed strain sensing system based on 54th massachusetts, stimulated Brillouin scattering,#8221; 5 th International Conference on Materials for Advanced Technologies (ICMAT) 2009 , P-S10.12, pp. Of Love Essays Review. 1-3, Singapore, June 28-July 3, 2009.

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Pendock, W. Shieh, X. Yi, and C. Yu , #8220;Measuring dispersion in the future theology WDM links with modulated background ASE,#8221; OptoElectronics and Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper WeK-2, pp. 1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 97. S. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Adaptive decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical DQPSK system,#8221; OptoElectronics and essay Communications Conference (OECC) 2008 , Paper TuA-4, pp.

1-2, Sydney, Australia, July 7-10, 2008. 98. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. S. Zhang, P.Y. Kam, J. Chen, and C. Yu , #8220;Receiver sensitivity improvement using decision-aided maximum likelihood phase estimation in coherent optical DQPSK system with nonlinear phase noise,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2008 , Paper CthJJ2, pp. 1-2, San Jose, CA, USA, May 4-9, 2008. 99. C. Yu , #8220;Optical short pulse generation and measurement based on fiber polarization effects,#8221; 16 th Wireless and perry Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2008 , Paper Optical-11, pp. 66, Taichung, Taiwan, April 23-24, 2008 (Invited) 100. J. Yang, C. Yu , Z. Chen, J. Regiment Thesis. Ng, and write a cv 16 X. Yang, #8220;Suppression of 54th massachusetts regiment thesis polarization sensitivity in BOTDA fiber distributed sensing system,#8221; 19 th International Conference on mathew resume, Optical Fibre Sensors (OFS) 2008 , Proceedings of SPIE, vol. 7004, Paper 700421, pp.

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Wen, C. Yu , W. Rong, Y. Wang, and T.H. Cheng, #8220;Optimizing Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering of massachusetts a single pump,#8221; Conference on a cv 16, Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2007 , Paper JTuA63, pp. Massachusetts. 1-2, Baltimore, MD, USA, May 6-11, 2007. 105. Mathew Resume. Y. Dong, Z. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. Li, C. Yu , Y.J. Wen, Y. Wang, C. Lu, W. Hu and T.H. Cheng, #8220;Generation of multi-channel short-pulse sources using nonlinear optical loop mirror based on photonic crystal fiber,#8221; Conference on history dance essay, Optical Fiber Communication (OFC) 2007 , Paper JWA9, pp. 1-3, Anaheim, CA, USA, March 25-29, 2007. 106. C. Yu , #8220;Applications of 54th fiber nonlinearities in ny essay score high-speed WDM optical communication systems,#8221; 15 th Wireless and Optical Communications Conference (WOCC) 2006 , Paper PS-4-2, pp.

1, Hangzhou, China, October 12-13, 2006 (Invited) 107. Z. Zhu, A.M.C. Dawes, D. Gauthier, M.D. Stenner, M.A. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Neifeld, T. Inspirational Pigeons. Luo, C. Yu , L. Zhang, and A.E. Willner, #8220;Recent advances in stimulated Brillouin scattering slow light,#8221; OSA Topical Meeting on Slow and Fast Light , Paper TuB1, pp. 1, Washington D.C., USA, July 23-26, 2006 (Invited) 108. Z. Pan, S. Chandel, and massachusetts regiment C. Descriptive. Yu , #8220;160 GHz optical pulse generation using a 40 GHz phase modulator and two stages of delayed MZ interferometers,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2006 , Paper CFP2, pp. 1-2, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 21-26, 2006. 109.

C. Yu , L. Xu, and T. Wang, #8220;Six-times the transmission distance over standard single-mode fiber for 10-Gb/s directly-modulated system by off-center filtering and electronic equalization,#8221; Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2006 , Paper CMNN4, pp. Massachusetts. 1-2, Long Beach, CA, USA, May 21-26, 2006.

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Essay on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Read this essay to learn about Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Introduction to FDI 2. Concept of FDI 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment 4. Raison d’etre 5. Benefits 6. Massachusetts Thesis. Selection 7. Negative Impact 8. Types 9. Theories 10. Patterns 11. Policy Framework 12. Promotion 13. FDI Trends in India. Essay on the Introduction to essay FDI Essay on the Concept of FDI Essay on Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI Essay on Raison d’etre for FDI Essay on the Benefits of FDI Essay on the Selection of 54th, FDI Destinations Essay on the Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on write a cv, the Theories of Foreign Direct Investment Essay on the Patterns of FDI Essay on the Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Essay on the Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in 54th, India(FDI) Essay on FDI Trends in India. International trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) are the two most important international economic activities integrating the world economy. With the increase in the mobility of factors of production across countries, FDI has become an integral part of a firm’s strategy to expand international business.

FDI is the largest source of external finance for developing countries. At present, inward stock of FDI amounts to about one-third of the developing countries’ gross domestic product (GDP), compared to merely 10 per cent in 1980. FDI plays a crucial role in the development process of mathew, host economies. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. It also has a significant role in enhancing exports of the host country. It is estimated that the sales from foreign-owned facilities are about double the value of world trade. FDI not only serves as a source of capital inflow into host economies, but also helps to enhance the competitiveness of the domestic economy through transferring technology, strengthen­ing infrastructure, raising productivity, and generating new employment opportunities. FDI has often been viewed as a threat by host countries due to the capacity of transnational investing firms to influence economic and political affairs.

Many developing countries often fear FDI as a modern form of economic colonialism and exploitation, similar to their previous unpleasant experiences with colonial powers. Yet, FDI flows are generally preferred to other forms of external finance because these are non-debt creating, non-volatile, and the returns depend on the performance of the pigeons essay, project financed by the investors. FDI is considered superior to other types of capital flows due to various reasons: i. Firms entering a host country through FDI have a long-term perspective in 54th massachusetts, contrast to how to 16 foreign lenders and portfolio investors. Therefore, FDI flows are less volatile and easier to sustain at the time of economic crisis. ii. Debt inflows may finance consumption whereas FDI is more likely to be used to improve productivity. iii. Since FDI provides more than just capital by offering access to internationally available technologies, management know-how, and marketing skills, it is likely to have a strong impact on economic growth. A firm has to evaluate various options to cater to foreign markets and select the most appropriate mode of international business expansion.

Geographical distances of markets or resources, especially for low-value products, make it more attractive to massachusetts get into manufacturing operations overseas. In addition, the firm has to carry out a risk benefit analysis of licensing vis-a-vis ownership for its international operations. A foreign firm investing in India should understand the review, institutional and 54th thesis, regulatory framework for investment promotion in India. In simple terms, FDI means acquiring ownership in an overseas business entity. It is the movement of capital across national frontiers, which gives the investor control over the assets acquired. FDI occurs when an investor based in one country (the home country) acquires an asset in another country (the host country) with the intent to manage it.

It is the management dimension that distinguishes FDI from portfolio investment in foreign stocks and other financial instruments. Conceptually, a firm becomes a multinational corporation (MNC) by vegas, way of FDI as its operations extend to massachusetts multiple countries. FDI is history dance essay, defined as an 54th regiment thesis investment involving a long-term relationship and reflecting a lasting interest and a cv, control by a resident enterprise (foreign direct investor or parent enterprise) in one economy in an enterprise (FDI enterprise or affiliate enterprise or foreign affiliate) resident in thesis, an economy other than that of the foreign direct investor.’ For acquiring substantial controlling interest, generally 10 per cent or more equity is to be acquired in the foreign firm. The ‘lasting interest’ implies the existence of a long- term relationship between the of modern dance, direct investor and the enterprise wherein a significant degree of influence is massachusetts regiment thesis, exerted by the investor in the management of the of las vegas, direct investment enterprise. Direct investment enterprise refers to an incorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor owns 10 per cent or more of the ordinary shares of voting power or an unincorporated enterprise in which a foreign investor has equivalent ownership. Ownership of 10 per cent of the regiment thesis, ordinary shares or voting stock is the criterion for determining the existence of a direct investment relationship. These are either directly or indirectly owned by history, the direct investor. The definition of massachusetts regiment, direct investment enterprise extends to of las the branches and subsidiaries of the direct investor. FDI is characterized by decreased sensitivity to fluctuations in foreign exchange rates. Since FDI is the massachusetts, result of a long-term perspective by the investor, it is much less volatile than foreign portfolio investment.

It has been reported that most FDI (i.e., more than 90%) leads to intra-corporate trade at international level. The returns of FDI are generally in form of profit, i.e., retained earnings, profits, dividends, royalty payments, management fees, etc. Essay # 3. Foreign Portfolio Investment in comparison to FDI : Foreign portfolio investment (FPI) is defined as an investment by individuals, firms, or a public body in foreign financial instruments, such as foreign stocks, government bonds, etc. Descriptive Vegas. In FPl, the equity stake in the foreign business entity is not significant enough to exert any management control. Thus, FPI is the passive holding of securities and other financial assets by 54th massachusetts, a foreign firm, which does not entail management control of the issuing firm.

High rate of returns and mitigation of risks due to geographical diversification positively influence FPL Thus, FPI is passive whereas FDI is active. The returns in the case of FPI are generally in the form of non-voting dividends or interest payments. Portfolio investment, like FDI, is part of the capital account of balance of payment (BoP) statistics. It is important to understand why a firm takes a decision to invest in foreign countries when low-risk alternatives to write 16 cater to foreign markets, such as exporting and licensing, are already available. As the firm invests its own resources in a foreign country, the firm is regiment thesis, exposed to ny essay score greater risks. Major factors that influence a firm’s decision to 54th massachusetts thesis invest in foreign markets are discussed. Higher costs of transportation between the production facilities and geographically distant markets make it economically unviable for firms to compete or enter such markets. Substantial costs of transportation have to be incurred for marketing products in countries located at larger geographical distances.

For a product with low unit value, i.e., value to weight ratio, such as steel, fast food, cement, etc., the cost of essays, transportation has much larger impact on its competitiveness in foreign markets compared to a high-unit value product, such as watches, jewellery, computer processors, hard-disks, etc. Therefore, for 54th massachusetts thesis, low-unit value products, it becomes more attractive to manufacture the products in the foreign country itself either by how to write a cv 16, way of licensing or FDI. Liability of foreignness : A firm’s unfamiliarity with the host country and lack of adaptation of business practices in 54th massachusetts thesis, a foreign country often result in a competitive disadvantage vis-a-vis indigenous firms. This adds to the future essays in political theology the cost of doing business abroad, which is termed as liability of foreignness’. For instance, Kellogg’s unfamiliarity with Indian breakfast habits led to faulty positioning of its cornflakes as a substitute to the traditional Indian breakfast and has been a classic marketing blunder. It took several years for Kellogg’s to understand the centrality of 54th massachusetts regiment, its traditional food in India’s lifestyle before repositioning its cornflakes as a complementary rather than a substitute to the Indian breakfast.

In another instance, Disneyland failed miserably in its French venture primarily due to lack of product adaptation in view of significant differences in customers’ preferences in Europe vis-a-vis the US market. It has to arrive at a trade-off between scale benefits from concentrating production at a single location and exporting or benefits of of modern dance, FDI, such as proximity of production locations, higher level of control, and regiment, gaining better access to the market. Potential benefits of FDI to host countries include the the future essays theology review, following: Access to superior technology: Foreign firms bring superior technology to the host countries while investing. The extent of benefits depends upon the technology spill-over to other firms based in the host country. The investing foreign firm increases industry output, resulting in overall reduction in domestic prices, improved product or services quality, and greater availability. This intensifies competition in host economies, resulting in net improvement in consumer welfare. Increase in domestic investment: It is found that capital inflows in 54th massachusetts regiment, the form of FDI in­crease domestic investment so as to survive and effectively respond to the increased competition.

Bridging host countries foreign exchange gaps: In most developing countries, the levels of write a cv 16, domestic savings are often insufficient to support capital accumulation to achieve growth targets. Besides, the level of foreign exchange may be insufficient to massachusetts thesis purchase imported inputs. Resume. Under such situations, the regiment thesis, FDI helps in ny essay score, making available foreign exchange for imports. Essay # 6. Selection of FDI Destinations : A firm has to evaluate various countries as investment destinations and select the most appropriate one for investment. Briefly, the factors influencing net profit of an massachusetts thesis MNE’s operations in a host country include the how to write a cv 16, following: Cost of capital input: Cost includes interest rate and financial capital employed for setting up of massachusetts thesis, plant or the rent. Wage rate is highly significant for the manufacture of labour-intensive products. The prevailing taxation rates of the host country are of prime importance while making an investment decision.

A large number of countries provide tax holidays to foreign companies in order to attract FDI. Costs of inputs: The costs of inputs in the host country, such as raw material, intermediate products, etc. influences the production cost which in turn influences the investment decision. Cost of logistics: Logistics, including availability of various modes of transport, and the cost of transportation, influence the FDI decision. Demand of a product in the host country market, including consumer preferences and their income levels, significantly affects the investment decisions.

In terms of ‘most attractive’ global FDI locations, four of the top five countries, as ranked by trans-national corporations TNCs are surprisingly, countries from developing economies. China is considered the most attractive investment location by of love essays in political theology, 52 per cent of respondents followed by India with 41 per cent (Fig. 12.1). India’s high ranking is considered to be even more remarkable given the 54th massachusetts thesis, fact that FDI inflows to India have been modest until recently. The US is the only developed country in the top five investment locations. Although, Germany, UK, and Australia could make it into the top 10, traditionally important FDI destinations, such as Canada, France, the of modern dance, Netherlands, and Italy were not included. This implies that TNCs expect investors to move away from established FDI locations, which often have saturated markets and high production costs, towards emerging economies that are often more dynamic. The overall trend in FDI inflows in 54th massachusetts, recent years in developing countries is taking the lead in global FDI recovery. As indicated in Exhibit 12.1, India has emerged as a hot investment destination.

Leading global firms from a variety of industrial sectors, including IT, telecom, and vegas, automobile have not only made substantial investment in India but also plan to commit significant resources in the future too. Essay # 7. Negative Impact of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI): In most countries, public opinion towards foreign enterprises is not very favourable and FDI is feared due to its impact on massachusetts, domestic firms, the economy, and culture. The major concerns about the negative aspects of FDI are as follows: Multinational enterprises (MNEs) are far more advanced than domestic companies, owing to descriptive essay their large size and 54th massachusetts thesis, financial power. In some sectors, this is leading to MNE monopolies, thus impeding the entry of domestic enterprises and harming consumers. MNEs’ ability to perry resume operate at a large scale and invest heavily in marketing and advertising and massachusetts thesis, RD activities differentiate their products and makes entry of new firms far more difficult as they are unable to make similar investments in RD and marketing strategies. (ii) Crowding-out and unemployment effects: FDI tends to discourage entry and history of modern essay, stimulates exit of domestic entrepreneurs, often termed as the crowding-out effect. As FDI enterprises are often less labour intensive, their entry results in higher unemployment and increased social instability. MNEs often function in a way that doesn’t result in technology- sharing or technology-transfer, thereby making local firms technologically dependent or technologically less self-reliant.

Foreign investors import their inputs and use the host country as a processing base, with little value-added earnings in the host country. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. A large proportion of their profits may be repatriated. Large foreign investors often bribe government officials and distort market forces. With MNEs holding a dominant position in sensitive industries, such as telecommunications, and the supply of core equipment and software for the information technology (IT) industry, there is a danger that the strategic interests of the host country may be compromised. Essay # 8. Types of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Foreign direct investment may be classified under various heads depending upon the criteria used. Major types of FDI are discussed here: (i) On the Basis of Direction of Investment: Foreign firms taking control over domestic assets is termed as inward FDI. From an Indian perspective, direct investments made by foreign firms, such as Suzuki, Honda, LG, Samsung, General Motors, Electrolux, etc., in India are examples of inward FDI. Domestic firms investing overseas and taking control over foreign assets is ny essay score, known as outward FDI. 54th Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. Such outward FDI is also known as Direct Investment Abroad (DIA). From the Indian point of view, direct investments overseas by Indian firms, such as Tata Motors, Infosys, Videocon, ONGC, Ranbaxy, etc., are illustrations of outward FDI. (ii) On the Basis of Types of Activity: When a firm invests in a foreign country in similar production activity as carried out in home country, it is termed as horizontal FDI. The Future In Political Review. Thus, horizontal FDI occurs when the multinational undertakes the same production activities in multiple countries. Horizontal FDI enables the investing firm to exploit its competitive advantage in the host country.

Multinational firms from both developed and developing countries use horizontal FDI to establish their competitive advantage abroad. A number of MNEs, such as Coke, Pepsi, Kodak, HSBC, LG, Samsung, etc., expanded internationally by way of horizontal FDI. Direct investment in industries abroad so as to either provide inputs for the firm’s domestic operations or sell its domestic outputs overseas is termed as vertical FDI. Thus, vertical FDI takes place when the multinational fragments the production process internationally, locating each stage of production in the country where it can be done at the least cost. A firm gains control over various stages of the 54th thesis, value chain from sourcing raw materials to manufacturing and to ny essay score marketing.

The MNEs fragment their production activities geographically on the basis of factor intensities in massachusetts, vertical FDI. Backward vertical FDI: Direct investment overseas aimed at providing inputs for the firm’s production processes in mathew resume, the home country is termed as backward vertical FDI (Exhibit 12.2). Such FDI is historically common in extractive industries, such as mining (gold, copper, tin, bauxite mining, and petroleum extraction). Companies like British Petroleum and massachusetts regiment thesis, Shell have expanded their international business by mathew resume, backward vertical FDI.

Forward vertical FDI: Direct investment in a foreign country aimed to sell the output of the firm’s domestic production processes is referred to as forward vertical FDI. Massachusetts Thesis. Setting up a marketing network, assembly, or mixing operations overseas are illustrations of of las vegas, forward vertical FDI. Direct investment overseas aimed at massachusetts thesis manufacturing products not manufactured by the firm in the home country is inspirational pigeons essay, termed as conglomerate FDI. (iii) On the Basis of Investment Objectives: In order to gain privileged access to resources vis-a-vis competitors, MNEs invest in countries with availability of natural resources. This ensures the MNE of stability of raw material supply at right prices. The major economic determinants for resource seeking FDI include: i. Availability of thesis, raw material. ii.

Complementary factors of production. iii. Physical infrastructure. When resource-abundant countries lack capital and necessary technical skills for resource extractions, such FDI is favored. When host countries are no longer constrained with the descriptive vegas, availability of capital and technical skills and are able to set up competitive indigenous enterprises, FDI gives way to non-equity arrangements and arm’s-length trade relations. Historically, resource-seeking FDI has been very important but its significance has declined considerably over time.

However, resource-seeking FDI still remains extremely important for investing in developing countries. Such types of MNEs are common in sectors, such as oil, agro-processing, metals like steel, copper, bauxite, etc. Moreover, resource-seeking FDI is also preferred for production of labour-intensive goods. For instance, naturally occurring soda ash in Kenya reduces the thesis, cost of production by half for chemical industries. Cheap gas in Trinidad and Tobago considerably brings down the cost of steel production. Morocco is an investment destination for Tata Chemicals because the of love review, country holds 60 per 54th, cent of the world’s phosphate resources.

MNEs invest in countries with sizeable market and growth opportunities in order to protect existing markets, counteract competitors, and to preclude rivals or potential rivals from a cv 16, gaining new markets. Investing in massachusetts regiment, other countries helps the investing firm to reduce transaction costs, improve buyer understanding by bringing it closer to 16 the target markets, and overcome a number of regulatory controls in the host country. The major economic determinants of market-seeking FDI include: ii. Market growth. iii.

Regional integration. Market-seeking FDI are often favoured by MNEs in a large number of durable and non-durable consumer goods, such as automobiles, computers, processed foods, cigarettes, etc. A firm may strategically opt for efficiency-seeking FDI as a part of regiment, regional or global product rationalization and/or to gain advantages of process specialization. Efficiency-seeking FDI provides the investing firm not only access to markets but also economies of scope, geographical diversification, and international sourcing of inputs. The major economic determinants of in political, efficiency seeking FDI include: i. Productivity adjusted labour costs. ii.

Availability of skilled labour. iii. Availability of business related services. iv. Trade policy.

Efficiency-seeking FDI are often favoured in product categories, such as motor vehicles, electrical appliances, business services, etc., besides, in process involving production of consumer electronics, textiles and clothing, and 54th massachusetts, pharmaceuticals. On the ny essay score, basis of entry modes, foreign direct investment may be of the following two types: Investing in creation of new facilities or expansion of existing facilities is termed as Greenfield investment. Firms often enter international markets by thesis, way of Greenfield investments in industries where technological skills and production technology are the key. Further, the selection of FDI mode is influenced by: i. Institutional factors. ii. Cultural factors. iii.

Transactional cost factors. Particularly, the attitude towards takeovers, conditions in capital markets, liberalization policies, privatization, regional integration, current sales, and the role played by intermediaries, such as investment bankers affect the mode of direct investment abroad. Investment promotion by host countries aims at investment in the future of love essays in political theology review, new greenfield ventures as it is viewed to generate economic benefits. In developing countries where the right types of companies are not available for acquisition, Greenfield operations are the regiment thesis, preferred mode of FDI. Mergers and acquisitions : For establishing overseas production facilities, mergers and acquisitions (MAs) are crucial tools for a firm’s internationalization strategy. MAs have become an increasingly popular mode of ny essay score, investment among firms worldwide in order to enhance their competitiveness so as to consolidate, protect, and advance their position by acquiring companies internationally. It is estimated that about 70-80 per cent of massachusetts regiment, FDI are in ny essay score, the form of MAs. In developed countries with large number of competing firms, MAs serve as principal source of 54th massachusetts regiment, FDI. A Cv 16. However, an MNE has to 54th massachusetts regiment make Greenfield investments in essay, developing and least developed countries where the right type of target firms are not available for acquisition. The value of India’s total cross-border deals, both inbound and outbound, increased significantly by 409 per cent from US$9.5 billion in 2005 to 54th US$48 billion in the future in political theology, 2007 but declined to US$25.63 billion in 2008. The value of inbound deals increased by 200 per cent from regiment, US$5.1 billion in 2005 to US$15.5 billion in descriptive essay vegas, 2007 whereas the outbound deals during the thesis, same period increased rapidly by 662 per a cv, cent from US$4.3 billion to US$32.8 billion.

However, both inbound and outbound deals declined^ to US$12.48 billion and US$13.15 billion, respectively in 2008. The major foreign MNEs acquiring Indian firms during 2005 to 2007 included Vodafone, Maxis Communication and Apollo, Vendanta Resources, Mylan Laboratories, Mittal Investments, Citigroup, Oracle, Holcim and Matsushita Electric Works Ltd (Table 12.1) whereas major overseas acquisitions by 54th, Indian firms included that of Tata Steel, Hindalco, Suzlon, Essar Steel Holdings, Great Offshore, United Spirits, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals, J SW Steel Limited, Wipro Technologies, Dr. Reddy’s Laboratories, and Suzlon Energy (Table 12.2). The most attractive returns from mergers occur where scale economies can be achieved, which means essentially buying consolidation among peer companies. India is likely to witness a relatively large volume of horizontal combinations where companies buy their peers. An acquisition may be termed as a ‘hostile takeover’ when it is resisted by the target firm’s management and board of directors. Pigeons. Such takeover attempts are strongly resisted by the target firm. In order to prevent the 54th, acquiring firm from such takeovers the target firm often resorts to pigeons essay use of ‘poison pills’ by increasing the cost of negative items as a strategic option, as discussed in Exhibit 12.3. However, the acquiring firm may raise the attractiveness of its offer, through a ‘sweetener’ to effectively counter the target firm’s resistance. Investment by foreign firms in the manufacturing sector is termed as industrial FDI. Major objectives of FDI in the manufacturing sector include: i. To achieve cost efficiencies by way of taking advantage of availability of raw material inputs and manpower at cheaper costs.

Savings in 54th regiment, costs of logistics due to proximity to inputs, markets, or both, results into cost reduction. ii. To bypass trade barriers such as high import tariffs and in political review, other import restrictions. iii. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. To be closer to the markets and the future in political, serve them more efficiently. iv. To have physical presence due to strategic reasons.

Investment by massachusetts regiment thesis, a foreign firm in dance essay, services sector is termed as non-industrial FDI. The major reasons for non-industrial FDI are: i. 54th Massachusetts Thesis. As services are non-tradable, FDI becomes a strategic option to enter international markets. ii. To overcome regulatory obstacles. iii. To create regular contact with the perry, customer.

(vi) On the Basis of Strategic Modes: In response to trade barriers of the host country, such as import restrictions and prohibitive tariff structure, FDI is 54th thesis, made a substitute for exports. It is aimed to serve the target market and how to a cv 16, its surroundings effectively. Entry mode for regiment thesis, such types of FDI is typically through MAs. Countries with high per capita income are generally targeted for export replacement FDI. In order to minimize a firm’s cost of inspirational essay, production and distribution, FDI is made so as to utilize the target country to serve the global markets. The competitive advantage and the incentives offered by the host country plays a crucial role in attracting such FDI.

Greenfield investment is often the 54th massachusetts regiment, mode of how to 16, entry in such target markets as these have relatively low per capita income. Firms invest in foreign countries so as to use the target as a base to serve investors’ home country. 54th Regiment. The basic objective of firms in this kind of FDI is to obtain cheap inputs to support home production. Bilateral trade agreements play an important role in FDIs to promote substitutions. Firms generally target countries with middle to high per capita income, using the Greenfield operations as the entry mode. Essay # 9. Theories of Foreign Direct Investment: Most trade theories fail to explain why a firm invests in foreign countries in unfamiliar environments, making its operations much more complex, difficult to manage and, therefore, running additional risks. An FDI theory should help one conceptualize answers to typical ‘W and ‘H’ questions such as: Who is the a cv 16, investor?

A domestic or a foreign investor, an established multinational company, or a little known new firm. What kind of investment is to be made? Whether it is Greenfield or merger or acquisition? Whether the 54th regiment thesis, investment is first-time or sequential? Why should the in political, firm go abroad? Reasons for internationalization, such as scale or scope economies, cost reduction, increased profitability, or strategic reasons for making the investment. The firm has to carry out analysis of socio-cultural, political, and economic factors before deciding upon thesis, the selection of host country for investment. The timing of investment decisions in of las vegas, view of product lifecycle stages, maturity of the 54th regiment, market, and firm’s resource availability. How to internationalize?

In view of various modes of how to a cv 16, international business expansion, the firm has to select the 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, best suited entry mode. Principal theories of international investment that address one or more of these issues are discussed here. The earlier theories were based on the belief that FDI takes place due to ny essay score differences in thesis, the rates of essay of las vegas, return on capital across countries. Capital is likely to be attracted to regiment thesis markets that offer higher returns as long as there are differences in interest rates or prices between markets. These theories were based on the assumption that markets were perfectly competitive and firms invest overseas as a form of factor movement to benefit from essay, differential profits. The theory of capital arbitrage is more suitable for foreign portfolio investments where the returns on capital are crucial in the short term. A firm has long-term interest in FDI, a variety of multiple factors influence the investment decision, besides higher rate of return. 54th Regiment. Therefore, the scope of history, capital arbitrage theory is massachusetts regiment thesis, limited to write a cv providing a broad explanation of FDI. Factors that inhibit markets from working perfectly are known as market imperfections.

Government policies, including import restrictions and quotas, incentives on exports and FDI, tax regimes, restrictions on FDI, and government’s participation in trade are some of the examples of government intervention that create market imperfections. The basic objective of 54th massachusetts regiment, such restrictive measures is to promote a country’s industrial development and write 16, manage the balance of massachusetts thesis, trade. Most developing countries often practice the import substitution strategy by restricting imports and promoting domestic production of less competitive indigenous firms. However, developed countries are in no way behind in protecting their domestic industries by providing huge subsidies and descriptive of las, incentives to massachusetts regiment domestic producers, besides using a variety of inspirational, ever-evolving non- tariff barriers to restrict entry to their markets. Regiment Thesis. A combination of all these factors contributes to mathew perry resume imperfections in the international markets.

Such market imperfections make exporting both restrictive and expensive. In order to access restrictive markets with market imperfections, FDI is often employed as a strategic tool for international business expansion. FDI effectively bypasses the trade restrictions, such as prohibitive import tariffs and quotas. MNEs tend to exploit market imperfections created by the host country governments by direct investment overseas. Such protectionist measures decreased profitability of exporting automobiles from Japan to Europe and regiment thesis, increased profitability of FDI to 16 cater to the market. This explains establishment of manufacturing operations by 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, Japanese automobile majors in Europe and the US. It is mathew perry, important to understand that it is the mobility of thesis, capital and immobility of low- cost labour that makes FDI a preferred tool to access foreign markets. Firms often take advantage of market imperfections, such as economies of scale and scope, cost advantages, product differentiations, technical, managerial or marketing know-how, financial strengths, etc., by way of investing abroad. A firm expands internationally in ny essay score, order to exploit its specific advantage or core competence in foreign markets. When the know-how, technology, skills, or trade secrets available with the thesis, firm are crucial to a firm’s competitive advantage, it needs to protect such knowledge base within the mathew perry resume, organization.

Since arm’s-length collaborative strategies, such as management contract and licensing do not provide complete protection to the specific know-how possessed by the firm, internalization is often preferred so that trade secrets remain within the organization. Therefore, a firm expands into international markets by way of investing in a foreign country in order to have control over its overseas operations. An MNE is believed to 54th possess monopolistic advantage, which enables it to operate overseas more profitably and compete with local firms. Inspirational Pigeons Essay. The benefit possessed by the firm that maintains its monopolistic power in the market is termed as monopolistic advantage. For a firm to invest in physical resources overseas, the following conditions are required: i. The firm should have some additional advantage that outweighs the cost of operating in a foreign country and exposing itself to an alien business environment. ii. The firm can exploit such specific advantage only through control of foreign operations by ownership rather than other low-risk means of market access requiring less commitment of resources such as exporting and licensing. Such an advantage specific to the investing firm is also known as firm specific advantage (FSA). 54th. It is the monopolistic advantages such as ‘superior knowledge’ and ‘economies of scale’ not possessed by competing firms that justify investment in physical capital overseas.

(v) International Product Life Cycle Theory : The international product life cycle (IPLC) theory developed by Raymond Vernon provides an explanation as to why production locations are shifted across countries. Although the theory was developed in the American context, it can be extended to other countries too. A firm gains monopolistic advantage by innovation of inspirational, a product or process technology and markets the product domestically or in overseas markets through exports. The product is initially manufactured in the country of 54th massachusetts regiment, innovation even though the cost of production in other countries may be lower. Subsequently, in history of modern essay, the growth phase of the product life cycle, when the product becomes standardized, the innovating firm takes advantage of lower cost of manufacturing abroad, and starts investing in other countries to 54th massachusetts thesis create its own manufacturing facilities. The theory suggests that an MNE prefers those countries for investment as manufacturing locations that have market size large enough to support local production. In the growth phase of product life cycle, the inspirational pigeons essay, FDI is made to other high income countries to shift production with sizeable market. In the maturity stage, technology becomes available to the competitors, the 54th regiment, competition intensifies, and the innovating firm shifts production from the country of initial FDI to other lower-cost locations. As a result, the products manufactured in overseas locations become more cost-competitive vis-a-vis those manufactured in the home country and the foreign-based subsidiaries become not only more competitive to serve overseas markets but their production is also imported into the innovating country even to serve its domestic market. IPLC theory is valid for both trade and investment and provides a dependable explanation about trade patterns and investment. The theory explains why firms undertake FDI in countries with low production costs and considerable demand to support local production.

However, the IPLC theory does not touch upon the reasons for undertaking international investment rather than exporting or licensing, which are low cost alternatives for ny essay score, international business expansion. 54th Thesis. The theory applies mainly to industrial FDI in manufacturing sector. It is generally relevant to large firms with innovating capabilities. The IPLC theory ignores revenue as it is too cost-oriented. Further, it does not discuss opportunities when FDI is more profitable. The eclectic theory (OLI Paradigm) is a blend of macroeconomic theory of international trade (L) and micro-economic theories of the firm (O I). As suggested by mathew perry resume, the eclectic theory, the extent and pattern of FDI are determined by a combination of three factors as discussed here.

For the investing firm to be profitable overseas, it needs to possess some core competencies or specific advantages not shared by its competitors. Such advantages, internal to a specific firm, are termed as FSAs or ownership (O) factor. Such advantages should enable the firm either to thesis have a lower marginal cost or higher marginal returns vis-a-vis its competitors so as to enable it to reap more profits from mathew, overseas investment. An MNE possesses firm-specific advantages, such as: i. Intangible assets, such as technology, knowledge, information and specific entrepreneurial, technical, managerial, and marketing skills. ii. Tangible assets, such as natural resources, capital, and manpower. iii. Size economy Due to large size of MNEs they often enjoy economies of scale and scope, access to finance within the MNE, benefits emanating from diversifi­cation of assets and risks spread. iv. Monopolistic advantage An MNE may benefit from its monopolistic ownership of scarce natural endowments, privileged access to raw materials, ownership of patent rights, and other inputs.

Since an MNE is required to have its operations in foreign countries, it has to incur additional costs due to: i. Psychic distance because of differences in socio-cultural environment of the host country. ii. Massachusetts Thesis. Unfamiliarity with the host country’s market conditions. iii. Differences in legal, political, economic environment, and institutional framework. iv. Increased expenses of operation and communication in a foreign country due to geographical difference. As the indigenous firm in the host country is not required to incur the the future of love essays in political review, above costs, the ‘costs of foreignness’ are specific to foreign firms.

Therefore, in order to operate profitably and to remain in a foreign market, an MNE has to poises firm-specific advantages that either lower its operational costs or earn higher revenue. The locational (L) advantage or factor of a host country is the key determinant to its relative attractiveness as an investment destination. The major country-specific advantages can be as follows: Availability of factor endowments, availability of raw materials and other inputs, productivity and costs of inputs, market size and massachusetts, its growth, cost of logistics, efficacy, and cost of communication channels. Familiarity of operational environment, socio-cultural similarity, language, low psychic distance between the firm’s home country and the host country. The host country government’s attitudes and policies towards foreign firms and investment, incentives to promote FDI, continuity of perry resume, economic policies, and the stability of the government. An MNE would, therefore, typically prefer countries with large market size and high rate of market growth, adequate and 54th, low cost availability of raw material, inputs and manpower, socio-cultural proximity, economic and ny essay score, political stability. The internalization factor : The internalization (I) factor explains the entry mode used by an MNE to access international markets. The core competencies or specific knowledge and know-how possessed by the firm form the massachusetts regiment, basis of economic gains. The Future Theology. A firm may transfer its know- how to an unrelated firm in a foreign country by way of regiment, licensing and thus earn profits. A firm attempts to perry internalize its operations: i. To protect its proprietary knowledge from competitors.

ii. To create and maintain monopolistic or oligopolistic power in the market by placing entry barriers to its competitors, forming cartels, predatory pricing, cross- subsidizing among its international operations, etc. iii. To protect itself against market uncertainties. Thus, the internalization advantages explain why an MNE opts for wholly owned subsidiaries rather than licensing or minority ownership for accessing foreign markets. Regiment Thesis. Internalization helps a firm lessen the of love essays in political review, incidences of market failure. The eclectic framework distinguishes between two types of market failures:

Endemic market failure: Such market failure occurs due to natural market imperfections, such as unfamiliarity with markets or lack of market knowledge, the incidence of transaction costs in external markets, interdependence on demand and supply, uncertainty and risks, etc. Structural market failure: Endogenous market imperfections created by an MNE so as to 54th exploit its oligopolistic power are termed as structural market failures. MNEs are often involved in creating entry barriers for competitors, abusing their bargaining power due to their sheer size and financial strength, cross-subsidization, predatory pricing, and ny essay score, price discrimination. Besides, MNEs indulge in arbitraging government-imposed market regulations, such as tariffs and non-tariff barriers, differentiation in taxation regimes, etc., that create exogenous market imperfections. MNEs are often criticized for adopting unfair practices, such as transfer pricing and massachusetts regiment, under-invoicing, through their affiliates for their own advantage so as to bypass high tariffs and the taxation differences among various countries. Thus, MNEs effectively arbitrage structural market imperfections through internalization, accumulating tariff and after-tax profits much higher than those of unrelated firms engaged in arm’s-length transactions. While enjoying these benefits of internalization, an MNE has to incur various costs too—those of running large-scale vertically and horizontally integrated international businesses. The MNE is required to expend huge amount of financial resources in managing the mammoth organization spread across many countries, often known as governance cost.

Multinational firms are often required to invest substantial resources in acquiring know-how or technological competence while entering into the future essays in political theology review unrelated lines of business. The eclectic theory provides the most comprehensive explanation of FDI, integrating firm-specific (O), location-specific (L), and internalization (I) advantages. It logically examines the reasons for thesis, investing overseas, the history, selection of country location for investment, and regiment thesis, the cost-benefit analysis for selecting the mode of international expansion in a holistic manner. In the past decade, the essay vegas, US software firms have increasingly utilized the low-cost IT labour force in India. Companies wishing to capture the benefits of outsourcing can engage in contracting (hiring an massachusetts regiment Indian contracting company to perform the service) or foreign direct investment (opening an Indian subsidiary and of love essays in political, hiring Indian employees). Modern FDI theories predict that Indian software outsourcing should occur primarily in the form of FDI. However, contrary to massachusetts regiment thesis FDI theories, many US and European companies are hiring Indian software contracting companies in order to history dance use the low-cost Indian IT labour force. Hybrid model suggests that contracting companies provide their clients with a combination of the advantages of both FDI and massachusetts thesis, contracting.

The amount of how to 16, FDI undertaken over a given time period (for example, a year) is termed as the thesis, flow of FDI. Essay. If the investment is made by a foreign firm in a country, it is 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, termed as inflow of FDI whereas investment made overseas is termed as outflow of essay of las vegas, FDI. The total accumulated value of 54th regiment thesis, foreign owned assets at a given time is termed as stock of FDI. The Future In Political. FDI comprises equity capital and re invested earnings as per regiment, IMF norms. Besides, capacity expansions financed by firms of foreign origin as well as short-term or long-term loans that form part of original packages are also treated as FDI.

There has been significant growth in FDI over the years. Globally, FDI inflows increased from US$742143 million in 2004 to US$1305852 million in 2006 whereas FDI outflows rose from US$877301 million in of modern dance, 2004 to US$1215789 million in thesis, 2006. Essays In Political Theology Review. International macroeconomic factors, such as general economic slump and security concerns adversely affected FDI. This growth reflected increased flows to developing countries as well as to massachusetts thesis South East Europe and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) which more than offset the ny essay score, decline in flows to 54th developed countries. Between 2006 and pigeons essay, 2007, FDI inflow’ to Netherlands exhibited the highest growth by 2285 per cent from US$4.4 billion in 2006 to US$104.2 in 2007 followed by the US (30.3%), Czech Republic (27.3%), and the UK (22.6%) among the 54th massachusetts, developed economies whereas among the developing economies, Brazil witnessed the highest growth of FDI inflows at 99.3 per cent, followed by Mexico (92.9%), Chile (92.2%), and Singapore (52.6%) (Table 12.3). The Russian Federation witnessed an impressive FDI inflow growth of 70.3 per cent whereas FDI declined by 9.4 per cent for India and 3.1 per cent for ny essay score, China.

While developed countries remain the major source of 54th massachusetts, FDI, outflows from mathew resume, developing countries have also risen, from a negligible amount in the early 1980s to US$83 billion in 2004. The outward FDI stock from developing countries reached more than US$ 1 trillion in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, 2004, with a share of 11 per cent in world stock. Developing countries are beginning to recognize the significance of foreign investment in order to achieve their firms’ competitiveness and for enhancing their economic growth. It is important to understand that the government policies in developing countries were restrictive and paid little attention to descriptive of las vegas outward investment. 54th Massachusetts. Moreover, the ratio of FDI outflows to gross capital formation was 25 per cent for Singapore in 2002-04 compared to the future of love in political 8 per cent for 54th thesis, the US. A number of firms from developing countries have also used MAs as strategic tools for global business expansion during the the future in political theology, last few years. The global FDI increased faster than world trade and world output.

There had been considerable debate across the world to massachusetts regiment reduce barriers to cross-border trade. Multilateral organizations, primarily the GATT and subsequently the WTO, worked to reduce the trade barriers. As a result, there had been significant reduction in tariffs and non-tariff barriers, such as quota systems, which got eliminated from pigeons, most countries. However, countries do exercise innovative barriers and regiment thesis, firms often use FDI as a tool to circumvent protectionist measures. FDI by Japanese automobile companies in Europe, the US, and some other countries was primarily aimed to of las vegas circumvent their trade protectionist measures. Rapid globalization in massachusetts regiment thesis, the last decade accelerated cross- border investments. Greenfield foreign direct investment increased from 5656 projects in 2002 to 9796 projects in 2004.

Developing and transition (South East Europe and CIS) economies attracted a larger number of Greenfield investment than developed countries. Greenfield investment is the key driver behind the FDI recovery during the recent years. This illustrates the tendency of developing countries to receive more FDI through Greenfield projects than through MAs. China and India attracted significant number of Greenfield FDI projects, together accounting for theology, nearly half of the total number in the developing countries. Recent liberalization measures in 54th massachusetts thesis, India and strong economic growth in China, combined with increased liberalization after its accession to WTO, contributed to this trend. The services sector accounted for essay, three-fifth of all Greenfield projects in the world.

However, the FDI surge in 2005 is mainly attributed to increase in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, cross-border MAs. Global MAs increased by 40 per cent to US$2.9 trillion whereas Greenfield projects marginally dropped in 2005. China, India, and perry, the UK received highest number of Greenfield projects during the 54th massachusetts, year. It has been observed that: i. The Future Essays In Political Theology. The increase in share of MAs in massachusetts, the total FDI is adversely affecting greenfield FDI. ii. The growing trend of MAs is leading to creation of oligopolistic world, especially in case of ny essay score, strategic industries.

iii. MAs severely affects survival of indigenous firms and industries from developing countries and they need to 54th regiment thesis be more watchful. FDI is mainly financed by mathew perry resume, MNEs through: The foreign direct investor’s purchase of share of an enterprise in a country other than its own. Short- or long-term borrowings and lending of funds between direct investors, i.e., parent enterprises and affiliate enterprises. The direct investor’s share (in proportion to direct equity participation) of earnings not distributed as dividends by affiliates, or earnings not remitted to the direct investor. Such retained profits by affiliates are reinvested.

Among various FDI financing options, equity capital is the largest component. Its worldwide share in total world FDI inflows fluctuated between 58 per cent and 54th massachusetts, 71 per cent, during 1995-2004. The intra-company loans accounted for 23 per cent and re-invested earnings for 12 per cent of the world FDI inflows during the same period. The later two components are also much less s. In 2001, the share of inspirational pigeons essay, reinvested earnings in FDI financing reached a low of 2 per cent of worldwide FDI whereas the 54th, equity capital registered a higher share. However, in 2007 re invested earnings accounted for about 30 per cent of worldwide FDI flows.

For carrying out cross-country comparison of the future of love essays theology review, FDI performance and FDI potential, the 54th massachusetts thesis, UNCTAD’s FDI performance and potential indices serve as useful tools. Inward FDI performance index : It is a measure of the extent to which a host economy receives inward FDI compared to the relative size of descriptive essay of las vegas, its economy. It is calculated as the 54th regiment thesis, ratio of a country’s share in global FDI inflows to its share in global GDP. IND i = The inward FDI performance index of the i th country. FDI i = The FDI inflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI inflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. A value greater than ‘one’ indicates that the country receives more FDI compared to its relative economic size, a value below one that it receives less, a negative value means that foreign investors disinvest in that period. Thus, the index captures the inspirational, influence of FDI on factors other than market size, assuming that, other things being equal, size is the regiment thesis, ‘baseline’ for attracting investments. These other factors can be diverse, ranging from the business climate, economic, and political stability, the presence of natural resources, infrastructure, skills, and tech­nologies, to opportunities for participating in privatization or the ny essay score, effectiveness of FDI promotion. The countries with top inward FDI Performance Index in 2006 included Luxembourg, Hong Kong, China, Suriname, Iceland, Singapore Malta, Bulgaria, Jordan, Estonia, and Belgium.

The inward FDI performance index improved in 54th massachusetts thesis, 2004 for developing countries as well as transition economies of South East Europe and the CIS. The improvement had been remarkable in South, East, and Southeast Asia. However, it worsened in developed countries compared to 2003. For instance, the US where the FDI inflows rose by 69 per cent in 2004 had a lower performance index and ranked 114th out of inspirational, 140 countries of the world due to its lower FDI flows in 2002-03. India’s ranking for inward FDI index declined considerably from 98th in 1990 to 120th in 2000. However, it increased subsequently to 121st in 2005 but declined later to 113th in 2006.

Outward FDI performance index : Performance in massachusetts regiment thesis, FDI outflows relating to the size of economies is of love in political review, measured by outward FDI performance index. It is calculated as the ratio of a country’s share in global FDI outflows to its share in 54th thesis, the world GDP. OND i = The outward FDI performance index of the how to write a cv, i th country. FDI i = The FDI outflows in the i th country. FDI w = World FDI outflows. GDP i = GDP in the i th country. The differences in the index values among countries reflect differences in these two sets of factors determining outward FDI by Trans-national Companies (TNCs) headquartered in different countries: i. Massachusetts Regiment Thesis. ‘Ownership advantages’, or firm-specific competitive strengths of TNCs (such as innovation, brand names, managerial and organizational skills, access to information, financial or natural resources, and size and network advantages) that they are exploiting abroad or wish to augment through foreign expansion. ii. ‘Location factors’, which reflect primarily economic factors conducive to the production of different goods and mathew resume, services in home and host economies, such as relative market size, production or transport costs, skills, supply chains, infrastructure, and technology supply. Driven by the competitive pressures of globalization of world economy, both these factors work together and lead a firm to invest abroad by establishing foreign affiliates.

These affiliates then become a source of 54th regiment thesis, competitive strength for their respective corporate networks. The leading investor economies, in term of outward FDI performance index include Iceland, Hong Kong, China, Luxembourg, Switzerland, Belgium, Netherlands, Panama, Ireland, Azerbaijan, and Bahrain. The Future Essays In Political Theology. India’s ranking in outward FDI performance index improved considerably from 54th thesis, 94th in 2000 to 65th in 2005 but declined later to 56th in 2006. Inward FDI potential index : The inward FDI potential index reflects the stability of structure variables comprising the index. It is based on descriptive essay, 12 economic and structural variables measured by massachusetts regiment thesis, their respective scores on a range of 0-1.

It is the un-weighted average of scores based on: a. GDP per of love essays in political theology review, capita. b. The rate of massachusetts regiment, growth of pigeons essay, GDP. c. The share of exports in GDP. d. Telecom infrastructure. e. Commercial energy use per regiment thesis, capita. f. The share of RD expenditures in gross national income. g. The share of tertiary students in the population.

i. Exports of natural resources as a percentage of the world total. j. Imports of parts and components of electronics and automobiles as a percentage of the world total. k. Exports in perry, services as a percentage of the massachusetts thesis, world total. l. Inward FDI stock as a percentage of the world total. The top economies by descriptive of las vegas, inward FDI potential index in 2006 include the US, Singapore, the UK, Canada, Luxembourg, Germany, Qatar, Sweden, Norway, and Hong Kong (China). Cross-country comparison of FDI performance vs. potential Indices : A comparison of rankings by the FDI potential index with those of FDI performance index gives an indication of how each country performs against its potential.

Countries in the world can be divided in four categories so as to draw up a four-fold matrix as shown in Exhibit 12.4. Countries with high FDI potential and performance. Countries with low FDI potential but strong FDI performance. Countries with high FDI potential but low FDI performance. Countries with both low FDI potential and performance. India falls in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, the category of inspirational essay, under performer with both low FDI potential and performance. Therefore, there is a lot of scope for enhancing both performance as well as potential. The concern for below potential countries is 54th massachusetts, how they could raise their FDI performance to match their potential whereas the essays in political theology, above potential countries need to continuously strive so as to sustain their FDI performance at levels comparable with those of past while addressing their structural problems. Essay # 11. Policy Framework to Promote Foreign Direct Investment (FDI):

Attracting foreign direct investment has become a key part of national development strategies for 54th thesis, most countries. Such investments are often viewed to augment domestic capital, employment, and productivity, leading to economic growth. Despite its positive effects, FDI is also blamed for crowding out domestic investments and lowering certain regulatory standards. The impact of FDI depends on many conditions. However, well developed and implemented policies can help maximize gains from FDI. Although FDI is believed to play a positive role in theology review, achieving sustainable development, it does not, however, automatically lead to environmentally and socially beneficial outcomes. The nature and extent of massachusetts regiment thesis, these outcomes are critically affected by market conditions, and thus the regulatory framework, within which the investment takes place. Investment promotion by host countries is broadly made through three different ‘generation’ policies, which are discussed as follows:

First generation policies the liberalization of FDI flows and the opening up of sectors to foreign investors. Second generation policies the marketing of countries as locations for FDI and descriptive essay, the setting up of national investment promotion agencies. Third generation policies the targeting of foreign investors at the level of industries and clusters, and the marketing of regions and clusters with the aim of matching the locational advantages of countries with the needs of 54th regiment, foreign investors. Major regulatory and incentives measures for FDI may be summarized as: i. Screening, admission, and establishment: a. Closure of certain sectors, industries, or activities to FDI. b. Minimum capital requirements. c. Restrictions on modes of entry. d. Eligibility for bidding on privatization. e. Establishment of descriptive essay of las, special zones (such as EPZs/SEZs) for regiment thesis, FDI with legislation distinct from that governing the rest of the country. ii. Fiscal incentives: a. Reduction in standard corporate income tax rates o Tax holidays.

b. Reductions in social security contributions. c. Accelerated depreciation allowances. d. Duty exemptions and perry, drawbacks. e. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. Export tax exemptions. f. Reduced taxes for expatriates. iii. Financial incentives: a. Investment grants. b. Subsidized credits. c. Credit guarantees.

iv. Other incentives. a. Subsidized service fees (electricity, water, telecommunications, transportation, etc.) b. Subsidized designated infrastructure such as, commercial buildings. c. Preferential access to government contracts. d. Closure of the market to further entry or granting of monopoly rights. v. Performance requirements: a. Protection from import competition. b. Local content requirements (value added) c. Minimum export shares. d. Trade balancing. e. Technology transfer.

f. Local equity participation. g. Employment targets. h. Essay. RD requirements. More generally, countries typically have a mix of both resource-seeking and efficiency-seeking FDI, reflecting partial reform of their trade regimes, and 54th regiment thesis, the political economy of dispensing patronage. Consequently, most countries follow dual policy regimes. On the basis of cross-country analysis of descriptive of las, FDI regimes of six major Asian countries, i.e., India, People’s Republic of China (PRC), Republic of 54th regiment, Korea, Malaysia, Thailand, and Vietnam, the the future review, following observations may be made: i. FDI policy may differ between regions. Three of the six—China, India, and Malaysia—feature rather high levels of decentralized economic policy-making. Massachusetts Regiment. Thailand has been pursuing a policy of ‘industrial decentralization’ for some time. Ny Essay Score. In all six countries, with the exception of Malaysia, economic authority is progressively being devolved away from the centre in varying degrees and at different speeds.

ii. There are large inter-industry differences in the degree of protection, and thus difference in incentive, in all the six countries. iii. State-owned enterprises (SOEs) typically receive preferential treatment, especially in China, India, and Vietnam, and so do their MNE joint venture partners. iv.

Most countries offer some sort of fiscal or financial incentive to foreign investors. These vary by the sales orientation of the 54th, foreign investor, the technology introduced by the investor, the location of the investment, and other factors. v. The regulatory regime frequently offers more than one entry option for potential foreign investors, especially in recently reformed economies. A critical evaluation of FDI and economic development in India and China, as given in perry, Exhibit 12.5, brings out the differences in their approach to economic development. Essay # 12. Promotion of Foreign Direct Investment in India(FDI): The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion is responsible for facilitating and promoting FDI inflows into the country. Massachusetts Thesis. It plays an active role in the future of love essays in political theology, investment promotion through dissemination of 54th, information on investment climate and opportunities in India.

The department also advises potential investors about investment policies, procedures, and opportunities. It also helps resolve problems faced by mathew resume, foreign investors in the implementation of their projects through the Foreign Investment Implementation Authority (FIIA) which interacts directly with the massachusetts regiment, investors. In addition, a number of essay, government departments, such as Ministries of Finance, External Affairs, Labour, Environment and Forests, etc., are also involved in the investment process. Exhibit 12.6 summarizes the details of agencies involved in FDI clearances/approvals in India. The policy framework of FDI in India evolved in a phased manner, from the strategy of import substitution soon after independence to progressive liberalization that began in the early 1990s. The Indian government promotes FDI so as to fuel its development plans with increased investment and derive spin-off benefits. FDI inflows in regiment thesis, the development of infrastructure, setting up of Special Economic Zones (SEZs), and technological up gradation of Indian industry through Greenfield operation investments in manufacturing and in projects with high employment potential are encouraged. The FDI policy in India may be summarized as. i. Retail trading (except single brand product retailing) ii. Atomic energy.

iii. Lottery business. iv. Gambling and betting sector. v. Business of chit fund and Nidhi Company. vi. Plantation except tea. vii. Trading in Transferable Development Rights (TDR) viii. Activity/sector not opened to ny essay score private sector investment.

FDI up to 24 per cent allowed : i. Manufacture of items reserved for massachusetts regiment, small sector up to history of modern dance 24 per cent above which prior government approval is required. FDI up to 26 per cent allowed : i. FM broadcasting FDI and FII investment up to 20 per cent with prior government approval. ii. Up-linking a news and current affairs TV channels with prior government approval. iii.

Defence production with prior government approval. iv. Insurance FDI and FII under the automatic route. v. Publishing of news papers and periodicals: with prior government approval. FDI up to 49 per cent allowed : a. Setting up hardware facilities, FDI and 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, FII equity with prior government approval. b. Cable network FDI and mathew perry, FII with prior government approval. c. Direct to Home (DTH) FDI and FII with prior government approval. FDI cannot exceed 20 per cent. ii. Scheduled air transport services under the automatic route. iii.

Commodity exchanges with prior government approval. iv. Credit information companies with prior government approval. v. Refining in case of PSUs with prior government approval. vi. Asset reconstruction companies with prior government approval. FDI up to 51 per cent allowed : i. Single brand product retailing subject to prior approval. FDI up to 74 per cent allowed : i. 54th. ISP with gateways, radio-paging, and end-to-end bandwidth: 49 per cent under automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval.

ii. Establishment and perry resume, operation of 54th massachusetts regiment, satellites: with prior government approval. iii. Private sector banking: FDI and FII under the automatic route. iv. Write. Telecommunications services: Basic, cellular, unified access services, global mobile personal communication services, and other value added telecom services with 49 per cent under the automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior gov­ernment approval. v. Non-scheduled air transport services, ground handling services under the massachusetts regiment thesis, automatic route. Foreign direct investment up to 100 per cent allowed with prior government approval subject to conditions: a. Items from small scale sector.

b. Test marketing of items approved for manufacture. ii. Courier services. iii. Tea sector, including tea plantation subject to divestment of history of modern essay, 26 per cent equity in favour of Indian partner/public within five years. iv. Thesis. ISP without gateway, infrastructure provider, electronic mail, and voice mail: FDI up to 49 per cent under the a cv 16, automatic route and beyond 49 per cent with prior government approval. v. Mining and massachusetts, mineral separation of titanium bearing minerals and mathew resume, ores, its value addition and integrated activities. vi. Cigars and cigarettes manufacture. vii.

Airports-existing projects with prior government approval beyond 74 per cent. viii. Up-linking of regiment thesis, a non-news and current affairs TV channel. ix. Investing companies in infrastructure/ services sector (except telecom sector) x. Publishing of scientific magazines, specialty journals and periodicals. Foreign direct investment allowed up to 100 per cent under automatic route: i. Agriculture sector: c) Development of the future essays in political, seeds. d) Animal husbandry. g) Services related to agro and allied sectors.

ii. Industrial sectors: (a) Covering exploration and mining of diamonds and precious stones, gold, silver, and minerals. (b) Coal and lignite for captive consumption. (b) Manufacturing activities: (a) Alcohol distillation and brewing. (b) Coffee and rubber processing and warehousing. (c) Hazardous chemicals. (d) Industrial explosive—manufacture. (e) Drugs and pharmaceuticals.

(f) Manufacture of telecom equipment. (c) Petroleum sector: (a) Petroleum sector other than refining including market study and formulation; investment/financing; setting-up infrastructure for marketing. (b) Petroleum refining for private companies. (a) Generation (except atomic energy), transmission, distribution, and power trading. i. Special Economic Zones and Free Trade Warehousing Zones. ii. Industrial Parks.

iii. Construction development projects. (a) Civil aviation. i. 54th Massachusetts Regiment. Airports Greenfield projects. ii. Helicopter/seaplane services. iii. Maintenance and mathew, repair organizations, flying and technical training institutes. iv. Air transport services for NRI investment.

v. Ground handling services for NRI investment. (b) Non-banking finance companies. i. Wholesale/cash carry trading. ii. Trading for 54th thesis, exports. In sectors/activities not listed above, FDI is permitted up to ny essay score 100 per cent through automatic route subject to prevailing rules and 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, regulations applicable. FDI inflows in the future essays in political, India have shown a fluctuating trend during the last few years as shown in Table 12.4 and Fig. 12.2.

It increased from US$4029 million in 54th massachusetts, 2000-01 to US$6130 million in 2001-02. However, the FDI inflows declined to US$4322 million in 2003-04 but subsequently exhibited a rising trend to US$8,961 million in 2005-06 and thereafter jumped to US$22,079 million 2006-07 and US$29,893 million in 2007-08. The equity capital accounted for 74.8 per cent, whereas re-invested earnings were 21.8 per cent, and other capital for 3.4 per cent of the total FDI inflows in ny essay score, India, as shown in 54th massachusetts regiment thesis, Fig. 12.3 during April 2000 to May 2008. Sector-wise composition of FDI inflows as shown in Fig. 12.4 indicates that services sector received the write a cv 16, highest FDI inflows of US$14,256 million (22%) during April 2000 to May 2008, followed by computer software and hardware US$7,477 million (11.5%), construction activities US$4325 million (6.7%), telecommunications US$4074 million (6.3%), housing and real estate US$3745 million (5.8%), power US$2643 million (4.1%), automobile industry US$2582 million (4.0%), metallurgical industries US$2377 million (3.70/0), petroleum and natural gas US$2007 (3.1%), chemicals US$1519 million (2.3o/o), and others US$19800.3 million (30.6%). Mauritius has been the top investor in India with US$28493 million (40.6%) as shown in Fig. 12.5. 54th Massachusetts. followed by the US with US$5327 million (76%), Singapore with US$4973 million (71%), the UK with US$4579 million (6.5%), Netherlands with US$2791 million (4.0%), Japan with US$2151 million (3.1%), Germany with US$1637 million (2.3%), Cyprus with US$1162 million (1.7%), France with US$997 million (1.4%), UAE with US$802 million (1.1%), and others with US$17279 million (24.6%) during April 2000 to May 2008. Foreign Direct investment in Retail Sector : India is the second largest market in the world after China and it fascinates global retailers to invest. The Future Essays Theology. Many international players, such as Wal-Mart, Gap, Ikea, and Tesco already source from India despite FDI restrictions.

Wal-Mart, through its buying office in Bangalore, sourced goods worth US$1 billion from India in 2004 and planned to 54th massachusetts regiment thesis increase this to how to a cv 16 US$1.5 billion in 2005. The major pros and cons of opening up FDI in 54th massachusetts regiment, the retail sector are discussed here. i. FDI in retail would benefit the consumer by mathew perry resume, offering him/her more choice, better services, wider access, easier credit, and a better shopping experience. ii. Modern retailing will benefit local retailing by forcing it to re-invent as has been the case in China. iii. It will lead to higher standards of quality, introduce best practices, provide more skilled employment, and improve tax collection. iv.

Foreign direct investment in retail would lead to less wastage of 54th regiment, agri-produce due to improved food processing techniques and cold storage facilities. v. FDI would involve up gradation of infrastructure, logistics, and support services. vi. It would help Indian products get global recognition. vii. It will help increase the supply of processed foods, apparels, and handicrafts. viii. Elimination of multiple middlemen would reduce transaction costs related to inventory, delivery, and handling. i. FDI in retail would wipe out vegas, indigenous mom and pop (kirana) stores as they will not be able to match the 54th regiment thesis, standards and mathew, services provided by super markets. ii. 54th Thesis. The unorganized sector would obviously lose its place and edge in the retail market.

iii. Retail FDI would also introduce competitive pricing, forcing a lot of domestic players out of the game. iv. History Of Modern Dance Essay. It would reduce employment opportunities by displacing smaller retailers in 54th regiment, the unorganized sector, like what has happened in Thailand. v. Perry. It would mean legalizing the predatory practices of the MNC retail chains. vi. Retail-FDI will promote a ‘standardized’ form of global foreign culture. vii. India’s imports are likely to increase as MNCs will dump their products in India. viii.

Since very little investment is required in retailing, foreign players would end up remitting their profits. Allowing FDI in retail sector will considerably affect the market structure and the consumers. The government of India opened up FDI up to 51 per cent in retail trade to massachusetts regiment thesis ‘single brand products’ with effect from 10 February 2006, with prior government permission. There has been considerable debate over the impact of inspirational pigeons, FDI in 54th thesis, retail sector. Opening up of the perry, retail sector in China has contributed to growth in labour- intensive manufacturing, as indicated in Exhibit 12.7. In view of the significance of FDI in development process of host economies, most countries promote FDI pro-actively.

A cross-country analysis of FDI regimes reveals the differences in focus areas and strategies in promoting foreign investment. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: